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The Titans Piled Mountains Upon Mountains that They Might get
into the Heavens and Battle with the Gods. Jupiter
Mounted on His Eagle Came Down and Over-
threw Them with His Thunderbolts.
CowrIaht, 1101, br J. II. YBWD~. & 80 eo..
Jl.u.W.&.UKDt WIL
CONTENTS.

SECRET VIRTUES TO BE FOUND IN THE ENMITY BETWEEN ANIMALS, 16iS


OCCULT VIRTUES INHERENT IN ANIMALS IN LIFE AND DEATH, 1675
CHAPTER XXIII.

THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE OCCULT.


THE MORAL CONSTITUTION OF MAN, 1677
ELEMENTS OF THE DIVINE PARACLETE AND THE FOUR CHARACTERS OF THE
ABSOLUTE, I6i7
ATRIBUTES OF GOD AND THE MEANING OF SATAN, I6j8
STAIRWAY OF THE SCIENCE OF BEING, I6i8
FAITH HEALING AND FORMULAS FOR TREATMENT OF THE SICK, I6i9
HEALING ADMONITIONS ApPLICABLE TO ALL DISEASES, 1680
How A MAN ltlAY THINK HIMSELF TO DEATH OR INTO STRENGTH, 1681

CHAPTER XXIV.

GRAPHOLOGY.
CHARACTER IN HANDWRITING, 1682
DICTIONARY OF FACULTIES READABLE IN NATURAL PENMANSHIP,. 1682
STUDY OF SIGNATURES F~OM FAMOUS POETS, NOVELISTS, ADMIRALS. ~lusl-
ClANS. SURGEONS, ECCLESIASTICS, PREACHERS, ORATORS, ACTORS. STATES-
MEN, POLITICIANS, SCIENTISTS, PHILANTHROPISTS, RELIGIOUS AND ~IIL-
ITARY COMKANDERS, 16g1

CHAPTER XXV.

DICTIONARY OF BEAUTY AND CHARACTER.


DEFINITIONS OF BEAUTY, ._ 16gB
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DIFFERENT FEATURES OF BEAUTY IN THE
FACE, 16gB
SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDE~ GIVING COMPLETE IN-
SIGHT INTO THE MYSTERIES OF CHARACTER READING, 1701

CHAPTER XXVI.

DICTIONARY OF ~IYTHOLOGY.
THE FABULOUS AND ROMANTIC MYTHS, HEROES AND DEITIES THAT CON-
STITUTED THE RELIGIOUS PANTHEON OF THE ANCIENT GREEKS AND
ROMANS, 1710

CHAPTER XXVII.
HYPNOTISM, CLAIRVOYANCE AND TELEPATHY.
METHODS A~D EXPEBIKE~T8. STAGES OF Hyp~O'I'IC Co:\"DITIO~, DEHYP~OTIZA
TIO:S, WHO CA1Ii BE HYPNOTIZED, EXTENSIO~ OF SE:\8E PEBcEPT10~S,
CRYSTAL GAZIXG. HYP~OTIC TBANSFERE~CEOF SE:\8ATIO~ ASD TUOl.TGHT,
TIlE h,\\rILLI:\G GAME" AS AN EXPLA~ATIO~ OF TELEPATHY, K~DS 01"
THOl:GHT TBAN'8nRE.~CE. DIBECTIONS FOB PRACTICE BY WHICH TO BE
COllE SKILLED I~ Cr~IRVOYANCE AND TELEPATHY, THE VAST POSSIBILI-
TIES OF ME~TAL Sc!E::'fCE, 1721

(For Complete Alphabetical Index See End of Volume III.)


Witchcraft and Magic, Good and Evil
Spirits, Etc.

CHAPTER XIX.

ANTLER - Stap' horns are Mount Pilate, and whoever sees


considered in Spain to be an omen him will die before the year is out.
of the evil eye, and to be a safe- When ghosts walk, the Russian
guard against its malignant influ- peasant is murmuring a prayer and
ence. Should the evil glance be the Bedouin shepherd is muttering
cast, it is believed that the hom re- a curse.
ceives it and instantly snaps asun-
der. They wear a tip of hom In Wales, ghostly harpers appear
mounted in silver or gold, as a on the surface of lakes, play bode-
charm. ful tunes which foretell calamity to
the neighbors, and then disappear.
APPARITIONS, V I S ION S, If you have steel in your hand, a
GHOSTS, ETC.-Shouting Ram, 4
C
ghost cannot harm you.
Ram," drives away ghosts and all Phosphorescent lights on land or
evil things. (Bengalese.) sea denote the presence of an evil
Negroes think that sprinkling spirit.
the floor with quicksilver is worry- It is unlucky to see the vision of
some to ghosts. an absent person, particularly if
The apparition of the head of a you do not see the face plainly. It
man announces death to the family is an omen of his death.
of Donatis in Venice. The old Celts believed in
It is said that Napoleon was vis- wraiths or doubles; anyone seeing
ited by a spirit in red, that warned a double of himself would die soon
him of coming events. after.
If you see ghosts frequently and
In France, the "Iittle red man of ask them what they want, they will
the Tuileries" appears on the eve seldom reply, but will leave you
of some great national disaster.
and not appear again.
The \\l1ite Lady of Avenel A ghost appearing to a bride in
showed by the changing width of the fonn of a white horse, was con-
her golden girdle the changing for- sidered to be the very best omen.
tunes of the family. (Walter Scott,
"The ~Ionastery:') If a person is haunted by an ap-
parition whose face he cannot see,
If you wish to have the power to turning his coat will obtain for him
see ghosts. go to the graveyard at the full sight of the ghost or its dis-
midnight and stand on the grave appearance.
of a relative, alone. Strange lights around a lonely
Pontius Pilate is believed to ap- dwelling mark a visit from the devil
pear once a >ear on the top of to that habitation.
ENCYCWPAEDIA. OF SUPERSTITIONS.

The royal family of Germany has The "Ghost of the Hill" is an-
a "white lady," whose appearance other Scotch death-warning.
always heralds a death. In Fouque's beautiful story of
If a seat in which a person is the Undine, the water-spirit, she
sitting suddenly appears empty, al- warns the recreant knight of his
though the person has not moved, approaching d\Ath, and he dies on
it is a certain sign that that person the night of his second nuptials.
will shortly die. Tradition says that the appear-
In England and Germanyt a ance of two spectral owls of im-
"white woman" is always an au- mense size on the battlements of
gury of death. Wardour Castle, still warns the
Whoever sees his shadow with- family of Arundel of the approach
out a head on the eve of St. Syl- of an enemy.
vester, will die within a year. To see the spirit of an absent per-
A nameless and voiceless specter son coming toward you, is a good
stalks about the royal palace at sign. If it appears going away
Stockholm, and was once seen by from you, the person will die.
two princes, on the occasion of the German legend tells of a "Lady
death of the king, who expired on of Waldeck," a water nymph~
the battlefield of Luetzen. whose appearance would foretell
The Stanley family are warned the death of the person who sees
by a spirit with a shriek of calam- her.
ity, when death is near. (Scott's If a phantom flame springs up in
Peveri1 of the Peak.) the floor before you, one in the
In Cambridgeshire, there is an house who is sick may die.
apparition known as the "Shuck," It is very unlucky to meet the
and in the Isle of Man it is the "love-talker." Irish.)
"Manthe Dog." It is a wild and To a certain noble family living
savage dog, that appears to chase in the East of England, appears a
about in the air. spectral black dog as an omen of
The ghost of the last person death.
buried keeps watch over the In a certain noble English fam-
churchyard until another is buried, ily, the form of a spectral head ap-
to whom he delivers his charge. pears as a sign of death to any of
It is notorious that in a certain the members, and notably so when
noble English family, the form of the chief dies.
a spectral head appears as a sign In a certain noble Scotch family~
of death to any member. The ap- a female figure, dressed in brown
pearance of a spectral black dog is clothes, appears as a warning of
also a portent of death. death.
To see a spectral huge black dog, The "hag of the mist," as she is
with fiery eyes, is, among the ne- called, is a warner, who, by her
groes, a token of death; but the shrieks, foretells death to those
warning fails if the dog can be shot who see or hear her.
with a silver bullet on seeing him In monaste.es, the seats of
the next time. monks and nuns are occupied by
A dark gray man foretells death figures without heads when they
to a whole clan in Scotland. are about to die.
1306 BNCYCWPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS.

If you can step on the head of Wax lights are believed to at-
your own shadow, it is noon. tract specters, and this is the reason
Tradition says that the appear- why churches are supposed to be
ance of two spectral owls of im- haunted.
mense size on the battlements of If a person wished to know
Wardour Castle, Wiltshire, still whose ghost he was seeing, he
warns the Arundel family of the would tum up his cuff or collar and
approach of the last enemy. thus it would expose its face and
If there are paths newly-made in remain as long as he kept the cuff
the morning through the grass, turned up.
which do not show any footprints, In the Castle of Orlamunde, if
it is a sign that a ghost has walked the servants hear a little bird chirp-
there in the night. (N egro.) ing at night, they know that the
The apparition of a headless dog white lady who haunts the halls or
is a sign of death. ruins of at least a hundred castles
around, is coming to warn the
The appearance of Samuel to household of some evil that ,vill
Saul was a dire omen, the Bible happen.
haVing accounts of many such ap-
pearances. In West Surrey, there is a belief
that when an infant dies it goes, ap-
He who brushes a ghost una- parently in the body, to the nearest
wares," will be shot by the fairies in relative and announces its own
the loins. death.
The Australians consider the In New Zealand, when a person
ghosts of the unburied dead to be is about to die, his ghost is believed
demons. always to appear to the nearest and
A reappearance of the dead is dearest, no matter how far away.
supposed to happen usually nine If the "fetch-lights" are seen,
days after death. they are considered the forerunners
If you see a ghost, it will be visi- of death, in Wales.
ble to your companions if you When a member of the Graham
touch them. family was to die, a lady in green
Among the Sioux Indians, the was always seen seated under a
fear of the vengeance of their vic- particular tree in the grounds of
tim's ghost deters from murder. Kincardine Castle, weeping that
The Maoris believe in ghosts, the shadow of death hung over the
"kehuas," and to step on one lying family.
across the path is an omen of death. In Scotland, the family of Roth-
murchas have "the ghost of the
Ghosts were believed to be of hill" to warn them of death.
such delicate texture that they suf-
fered pain if exposed to the light, A spirit in gray always appears
and that is why they were seen only to a Campbell about to die.
in dark places and in the night- The house of Forbes is warned
time. by a lady in green sleeves.
Ghosts can be banished betwixt In Denmark, it is believed that
door and doorpost, and if you slam specters may be driven away by
the door, they will be so tormented smoking the room ,vith the smoke
that they will leave. of a tallow candle.
FOLKLORE. AND THB OCCULT SCIBNCBS. I'MYJ

In 165'7, the way to conjure a Byron often received visits from


ghost was to sit cross-legged, spita specter, but said he believed it
to be a creature of his imagination.
three times to east, south and west,
and say: "In the name of God, Newstead Abbey, the family home
what art thou, whence dost thou of I....ord Byron, like most feudal
come?" homes and castles, had its ghost.
The writing on the wall, "Mene, If a person at night suddenly
Alene, Tekel Upbarsin," was a sign sees a shadowy image of himself- '
of the destruction of Babylon and "seeing his wraith," the Scotch call
the death of Belshazzar. it- he is then soon to die.
In Wales, a large luminous body One day when Servius slept in
which rests close to the ground, his chamber, Tanaquil saw playing
frequently covering a large space, about his head a flame of fire. This
is called the "tamoed," and is was a sign that the boy would rise
thought to be the token of the d~ to greatness. Servius became a
mise of anyone over whose land It famous grammarian, and died
hovers. about 300 B. C.
To prevent a visit from the spirit The family of Rothmurchan, in
of the deceased a Hidatsa Indian Scotland, always had death or dis-
scorches with red coals a pair of aster foretold them by the appear-
moccasins, which are left at the ance of a specter called Bodac au
door of the lodge. The smell of the
Dun.
burning leather keeps out the The family of 1tliddleton, in
ghost. Yorkshire, are warned of death by
In New Zealand, it is considered
the appearance of a Benedictine
very ominous to see the figure of nun.
an absent friend; if the face is not
To see a dead person go about
visible, he will die soon; while if it
in white, meant that another of the
is plain to be seen, he is dead al-
family was to die. (Western Nor-
ready. wa)P.)
If your house is haunted, bum Goethe states that he one day
rosemary bush, cow-dung, and saw the exact counterpart of him-
hom, and the duppy will leave. self, coming towards him.
Uarnaica.)
The .l\ustralian natives are much
To see a ghost or "duppy," you afraid of ghosts at night. They stand
must look over your left shoulder. in greatest dread of the ghost of a
Uamaica.) man who was feared in life, and
To make a duppy laugh, show,it this feeling is greater after a lapse
a fire stick. Oamaica.) of several years from the time of
In the Turks Islands, if one his death.
wishes to have the power to see To shout, whistle, or carry mut-
"jumbies," "duppies," or ghosts, ton at night, will cause the ghosts
all that is necessary is to put in to follow the person doing so.
one's e}e the water from the eye (Madagascar.)
of a piebald horse.
Count Emanuel Swedenborg
Mark a circle on your door with continually talked with spirits. and
chalk. and DO duppy will enter. wrote great works about his visits
Oamaica.) to heaven and heD.
1108 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

Pope saw an arm apparently he was induced by the reading of


come right through the wall, and some pious books, intended to di-
made inquiries after its owner. vert the tedium of his illness, to
J umbies are, in folklore of Brit- devote hiinself to a religious life,
ish Guiana, ghosts pure and simple, a resolution in which he was much
in which the simple, but not always strengthened by his vision on the
pure, believe. battlefield.
If three persons hang up a mos- When J ochebad, the wife of Am-
quito-net together, they will see a ram, the Hebrew, in the land of
specter. Uapan.) Egypt, brought forth a son, Moses,
the whole house was filled with
Bohemian tradition tells of a tall
woman in white with long dishevel- great light, as of the light of the
sun and moon at the time of their
ed hair, who goes about on certain
shining. ("Book of Jasher.'')
nights, seeking disobedient chil-
dren. H you want to see duppies, take
If you see a person whom you the matter from a dog's eye and
know to be sick walking on the rub your eye with it; and if you
street, that person will surely die. are troubled by duppies, sprinkle
sand before your door at night.
A soldier of 1878, a Highlander,
Uamaica.)
told a correspondent that his moth-
er's wraith came and stood by bin, To take off a Uduppy," let the
at the hour she died in Scotland, person on whom it is set, sit on a
while he was on guard in India, in Bible and jump three times over a
the Indian mutiny. fire. A goat or some other ani-
If a person sees his or her shad- mal's blood must be shed on the
ow in the water in the month of fire, and the flesh partaken of by all
May, he or she will die before the present. Oamaica.)
year is out. The "white lady" of Talks-hill,
About the middle of the seventh Gloucestershire, is said to scream
Chinese month, which falls during if any danger threatens a miner in
our autumn, paper clothes, i chi, passing that way; and so firm is the
are burned by many in their laun- belief in that part, that none hear-
dries and shops, a rite said to be ing that sound will go to work that
performed for the spirit world at day, or proceed in the direction
large, both Chinese and foreign they intended going.
ghosts being propitiated or honor- Grongers are ghosts of people
ed. who have been buried at sea. They
Whoso takes home with him come to the most distant parts of
some of the grains of corn which is the world to warn their friends of
the food of a specter hen and her their death, and appear at twilight
chicks, will find them transformed in wet clothes.
into grains of gold (German.) In some parts of Northern
Ignatius Loyola, the founder of Europe, when Odin, the spectral
the order of the Jesuits, was until hunter, rides by with his furious
his thirtieth year a worldly knight, host, the windows in every sick-
who, lying wounded on the field of room are opened in order that the
Pampeluna, had an apparition of soul, if it wishes to depart, shall not
the Virgin. Being sent by his chiv- be hindered from joining the head-
alrous captors to his father's castle, long chase.
1210 ENCYCLOPAE.DIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

walked about in his shroud from his hurting one for a year by rising at
room to the chapel, carrying his midnight and standing barefooted
head under his ann. and snapping the fingers. A~other
plan is to put black beans In the
The estate of Trevi1le was given mouth, walk out into the air, throw
to an old family who came with them one by one behind you, never
William the Conqueror to England. look back. repeating these words:
For many generations the family "With these beans I ransom my-
has been declining, and has now self."
become extinct. Through all time. To clear a house of ghosts, the
a peculiar token has ~arked the owner must clash cymbals of brass.
coming death of a VIngoe, the In some houses, utensils of that
owners of Treville. Above the metal were struck nine times by the
deep caverns in the Treville cliff master, repeating: "Avaunt, ye ,an-
rises a cairn. On this chains of fire cestral manes I"
were seen ascending and descend-
ing, and often accompan~ed b! loud Wm. Sharpe, M. D., in referring
and frightful noises. It IS said that to his book, "Dream Visions,"
these tokens have not failed to fore- says: "The meagre outline which
tell the death of the head of the fam- I gave of the visions can give the
ily, but since the last male member reader no adequate idea of their
died by a violent end, they have not vividness and the splendor of pres-
been seen. entation; I believe they far sur-
pass those recorded by Anna
If the Welsh mountaineers see a Kingsford. They are only a few
tall man, thin and pale, in the dusk out of many far more striking, for
of the evening when they go out, instance:
and he has a black dog whose steps Six months before the tragic end
are towards the marsh which is at of the Emperor of Russia, I saw, in
the foot of Mount St. Michael, they vision, in the northeastern heavens,
will run home, lock the doors, and a great beast, like a Siberian mam-
fallon their knees to pray, for they moth, suspended by ropes, which
believe that a tempest is coming. were suddenly cut, and the beast
Soon after the winds howl, the fell to the ground, \vith a force that
thunder bursts forth in terrible tore up and scattered the e~rth in
peals, and the mountains shake to all directions. Other particulars
the base; and it is whispered that followed which pointed to Russia. t,
Merlin, the enchanter, is evoking The beast, also the sun, is the an-
the souls of the dead. cient symbol for a ruler.
The old "familiar," who had his In watching in the churchyard to
abode in the castle near Biggar, see the procession of ghosts of
Scotland was called Carmoolis," those who are to die the coming
and ~ supposed to visit the year, an old woman at Scarborough
houses of the dying in the village after many faces had passed that
after dark; and children would she knew, saw a figure turn and
never dare to repeat, after the sun gaze at her. It was herself. She
went down, the old rhyme: screamed, fell senseless to the
"Carmoolis, Carmoolis, come if ye ~~re, ground, and did not survive the
Lift up the latch and draw the barl shock.
. Ghosts of one's ancestors in The old sexton at a town in
Scotland, can be prevented from Yorkshire, always watched to see
FOLKLORE. AND THB OCCULT SCIBNCBS. 1211

bow many were coming to him the neighborhood of Bangor, Camar-


following year. vonshire. It used to be very trou-
blesome, often appearing to way-
A fiery streak passing through farers in the night in the shape of
the air, as large as the pole a large bird screeching amongst
that is placed across a cart- the branches of the trees, and utter-
load of hay, is called in Ger- ing in a shrill voice:
many, "the fiery dragon." If a
person on seeing it, does not get Gwae I gwae I imi erioed
under 'shelter, he or she will be Ro'i bwyall mewn troed
I dori coed y Faenoll
fouled by it, and will not be able to
get rid of the stench for long after. 'Woel woe's me that I ever put
A handle to my axe
If you see the ghost that walks at To fell the trees of Faenol!
High Fell at midnight on mid.su~ Tradition will have it to be the
mer night, and it passes you In SI- ghost of a person who was execut-
lence no harm save fright ensues. ed for felling trees in this neighbor-
If sh~ speaks to you, you will die hood.
within a year. (Mrs. Ward, "Rob-
ert Elsmere.'') Many years ago two old maiden
sisters who were known as Shukan
Anyo~e who meets his own dou- and Bettan, lived together at the
ble (as Shelley said he did, a few Oak, a small tenement distant
days before his end) is doomed to about half a mile from ~fochdre
death. The writer, M. Barth, guar- church, in Wales. In course of
antees the perfect accuracy of time Shukan, who was the older of
the following incident, which oc- the two, died, and was buried in
curred fifty-seven years ago. We the churchyard. It appears that
translate it from the French: she had not been treated kindly,
A bookbinder of Strasburg of especially during her last illness, by
the name of K--, a robust young Bettan; and before her departure
man who, as far as I know, was not she declared that she would "trou-
particularly superstitious, returned ble" her unkind sister. One night
from a fire where he had been over- soon afterwards, true to her prom-
heated. Seeking to quench his ise, Shukan appeared at the bed-
thirst he went down into the cellar room window, clad in a shroud.
to g~t a glass of wine, wh~n on She rapped incessantly, shrieking
opening the door he saw himself ever and anon, "Bettan, thee art
bending down be~ore the ~arrel worse than Judas," "Bettan, thee
and drawing the Wtne. At hiS ap- are worse than Judas." Poor Bet-
proach the specter turned his head, tan was terrified; and imploringly
looked at him with an unconcerned asked what she should do to get rid
air, and disappeared.. The appari- of the "trouble." "Come with me
tion did not last an Instant. He to the churchyard," was the reply.
mounted the stairs again pale and To this she assented; and hurriedly
tottering. The same evening he prepared to accompany her unwel-
was taken with a shivering fit, he come visitor. They proceeded on
took to his bed, and he died a few their way. In passing Bron-y-llan
days later, carried off by a high farmhouse, a cock crew; and the
fever. ghost of Shukan immediately van-
The Faenol ghost was much ished. Bettan thereupon returned
talked of in the olden time in the home, to be "troubled" no more.
1212 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

There is a legend of a bull that maidens not to marry a jealous


had no skin, but kept up a contin- fellow.
ual roaring. This animal frequent- At Aberwerth, on the Rhine, is
ed a bridge at Bagbury, to the a troop of unmarried damsels who
grievous detriment of the people are doomed to dance forever, until
living there. It was declared to be they find lovers who are willing to
possessed of a devil, and to such a marry them. While living, they
pass had things come that seven would not wait to let lovers woo
parsons out of the district were them on their fathers' hearths, and
gathered together in the church to ran after the young men instead;
"pray the devil doWD," or try and so they are punished for their for-
exorcise the evil one. In the midst wardness.
of these proceedings Old Nick him-
self appeared in propria person&, Negroes in Virginia say that if a
and made his entry with such a spook is present, there is a feeling
rush that the church walls were of heat as it approaches you. If at
rent asunder, and all the lights were the same time you notice a peculiar
put out except one candle, which a kind of smell, it will warn you that
ready-witted parson hid in his vest- you too will be a ghost within a
ments. Thus the meeting broke up year. If you dare to answer a
in confusion; but the disturbed ghost when it speaks to you, you
clerics were not long in arranging might as well make your will.
a second gathering, and at this they A "boggart" is a gate ghost~
were more successful, and their la- which sits on top of a gate or fence.
bors resulted in the unruly spirit Most English families were haunt-
being "laid." The le~nd contin- ed by one; some were the fore-
'.jues that they buried It under the runners of death when they ap-
, -' southern abutment of the bridge peared; some were the wandering
over the Camlad in Churchstoke souls of murdered folks; and others
village, where it is supposed to be were mischievous goblins.
safely ensconced at present.
The wraith of a living person, ac-
Once in a while there appears cording to Dr. Jameson, 'does not,.
on the Rhine, St. Ursula with her as some have supposed, indicate
11,000 virgins, visible only to peo- that he shall die soon; although in
ple with sharp eyes or an enlighten- all cases viewed as a premonition
ed spirit. Legend tells that they of the disembodied state. The sea-
had been massacred by the invad- son in the natural day in which the
ing Huns, because they objected to specter makes its appearance is
their style of wooing. "This is a understood as a certain presage of
warning to deal gently with the the time of the person's departure;
savage wooer." if seen early in the morning, it
German legends tell of the ghost forebodes that he shall live long~
of Genevieve of Brabant, who and even arrive at old age; if in
roams about the villages of the the evening, it means that his death
Rhine with no covering but her is close at hand."
long golden hair, and with no other A correspondent writes: "My
purpose than to relieve herself of sister ~Iarion had a son named
the ghost of a suspicious husband, John. He enlisted in the British
who still follows her. By her ap- army under an assumed name, and
pearance, she gives warning to silly no trace could be found of him~
FOJ..KL()RE, AND THB OCCULT SCIBNCBS. 1213

and nothing was known of him for fright, and your life may be at
years. One day my sister was sit- stake. It is a very old superstition
ting in her house near the Clyde, and seldom encountered nowadays,
when she saw her son John enter except where people live in a COD-
by one door, look at her as she tinual strife and contest about life
exclaimed, and when she asked, and rights.
"Where have you been so long?" There is a belief in Spain that if
he disappeared. Then she said to one goes out at nighttime, there is
me, "I knew it was his wraith I" A great danger of meeting the
few months later, a soldier from In- hSquadra d'Arrossa," an invisible
dia called to tell her her son was procession of people long since
killed by falling off his horse at dead, who sweep the streets about
~funniar. When the doctor told midnight. Whoever meets them and
him he had not long to live, he crosses their path will not live the
gave his right name and where his year out. It is therefore considered
parents lived, gave his watch and very dangerous to go out after
other trinkets to his comrade to dark.
take to his mother. He died at the
time his mother saw his ghost." A midnight wanderer often met
with in folklore, is a specter
Before the death of one of the in white carrying a lantern.
lords of Lusignan, the fonn of He appears at first"as a mere child,
Melusina appeared in the air, ut- but as you look at him he waxes
tering long lamentable cries. She in stature every moment, until he
was dressed in mourning. On the becomes of gigantic size, and then,
extinction of the family, Melusina having done his worst, he vanishes.
appeared on the old tower of Lu- This spirit never shows itself to
signan, and whenever a king of anyone carrying a lantern.
France was to depart this life.
Wherever the "Welfin Lady
At Heisterbach on the Rhine, the Guelph" is seen, it is a very bad
last abbot of the community still omen. She was seen in the castle
wanders about the ruins of the old of Brunswick the night before the
abbey, looking in vain for the battle of J ena, and it is said that her
gra,e which is denied to his bones former apparition had all but de-
until every vestige of the abbey termined the representative of her
disappears. It is a bad omen for a house to resign the command of the
person to carry away a piece of Prussian army.
the abbey as a relic; something
On the Rhine, the Abbess Hilde-
grievous always happens to him. garde, one of the wives of Karlo-
The spirit of an ancestor slain in man, is said to be the inventress of
battle heard galloping along a healing ointments, pills and plas-
stony bank, and riding thrice ters, and is considered the patron-
around the family residence, ring- ess of patent medicines. If she ap-
ing his fairy bridle, is the sign of pears to sick persons, she will
death in the Highland family of cause them soon to recover.
Mc~ m ~hbur~ Lord Castlereagh, the same who
If )ou see a raw heart or liver of afterwards cut his own throat, was
beef brought before you when you once visiting Lord Lytton's father
are in a captivated state of gloom, at their family seat, Knebworth.
it is a sign of murder or of great Without any warning to the visitor,
1114 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS.

he was given the bedchamber seen in the window at Roland'.


called the "Yellow Boy's Room." Eck, on the Rhine, that same win-
Next morning Castlereagh told dow from which the great warrior
Mr. Bulwer he had been very seri- Roland saw the body of his lo\"e
ously alarmed in the night. "I borne from the convent below to
woke suddenly," he said, hand saw her grave. This sad spectacle, be-
the figure of a boy sitting in front ing too much for the heart of the
of the fire, with his back to me, and man who had scattered legions
long yellow hair streaming down it. with his single arm, had been the
As I woke, it turned, rose, came to cause of his death.
my bedside, and drawing back the At Rheydt, in Rhenish Prussia,
curtain with one hand, with the there are what is called the "rest-
other passed his finger across its less riders." If you go to their
throat." ~Ir. Bulwer did not tell meeting place at the proper time,
Lord Castlereagh that the boy al- you can see a host of them in the
ways appeared to anyone about to tournament field, there engaged in
die a violent death and foretold the a passage at arms, charging
manner of it. (Frith's Autobiogra- fiercely at one another and
phy.) galloping about like mad, but
The lost child is a specter which so silently and lightly that
troubles many superstitious people. nothing can be heard, except, of
A little girl is said to be wandering course, by those who get there at
during storms and rain, and if she the right time.
stops at your house wailing and It is believed that a ghost has
moaning, do not open to her, or not the power to speak until it is
. you will rue it. first spoken to. The mode of ad-
The so-called ghost-dance is one dressing a ghost is to ask it in the
of the most dangerous of the In- name of the three persons of the
dian superstitions. They believe Trinity, to tell you who it is and
that after this dance has been duly what is its business? This it may
given, the spirits of the dead chiefs be necessary to repeat three times,
and braves will return to the earth after which it will, in a low and
and help exterminate the whites. hollow voice, declare its satisfac-
Near the coast in Lyme, there tion at being spoken to, and desire
appears, from time to time, a lady the party addressing it not to be
dressed in silk, and when she disap- afraid, as it will do him no harm;
pears, coins and gems are sure to and it will then proceed to say what
be found. Another Lyme super- it wishes of you.
stition is that a certain Lady San- St. Andrew's cross appeared in
ford is doomed to wander at a cer- the sky to Achains, king of Scots,
tain place a "cock stride a year," and Hungus, king of the Picts, the
saying: night before the battle with Athel-
"I rue the time stan, as a presage of victory.
I sold water for wine A cross appeared to Don Alonzo
And combed my hair of a Sunday."
before the battle of Ourique, in
In Transylvania, if a person's 1139, in the eastern sky, with the
shadow is measured with a piece of promise of victory.
string and the string buried, he will The conversion of Constantine
die in forty days. the Great was due to the apparition
A ghostly knight is often to be of a flaming cross, with the motto,
FOLKLORE, AND THB OCCULT SCIEN'BS. 1215

'In hoc signo vinces" ("Under this it is buried the deceased is sup-
cross thou shalt conquer"). He posed to retain his usual place in
adopted it as his standard and won the household circle. (Dorsey,
the battle against Maxentius, A. D. Teton Folklore.)
312. There is a ghost at Beaupr6,
The Teton Indians say that when Glamorganshire, Wales, and a cen-
a quiet and well behaved person tury ago much more of this house
dies, his ghost is apt to be restless was habitable than at present. It
and cause trouble; but the ghost of was, and still is, the creed of the
a bad person who dies a natural neighborhood that one or more of
death, is never feared. The ghost the old dames Bassett haunted in
of a murdered person is always spirit the scene of their abode while
dangerous. If a ghost calls to a in the flesh. Spirits of this kind
loved one and he answers, he will were not often visible, but their
die soon after. If someone is heard presence became known by the
weeping outside of a lodge, it is a rustling of the stiff silk dresses with
sign that someone dwelling in that which, as when in the body, they
lodge is doomed to die. If a sister delighted to deck themselves. An
dies, she has a strong desire to old woman who had been in service
come back and carry away a be- at Beaupre when a girl, related that
loved brother. So in the event of a one night she and her fellow-serv-
death in the family, a gun is fired ants were going to bed, and bolted
or medicine is thrown on the fire to their door as usual. The staircase
make a smoke to drive awav the to their bedroom was a narrow
ghost. If one who is alone, en- stone one, and they distinctly heard
counters a ghost, it will pull his someone in a rustling silk dress
mouth and eyes until they are ascending it. They put out their
crooked. This danger is encoun- candles instantly and dashed into
tered only by one who has dreamed bed, but the silk-dressed lady came
of a ghost. He who has harmed a into the room and moved about
ghost always faints, and it is bard there for some time; but, although
to revive him. they looked, they could not see
her.
Among the tribes of the Siouan
family, the word wa-na-ghi The Ainu people of Japan are
("ghost") means more than "appa- very much afraid of the ghosts of
rition." The living man is sup- the dead returning to their homes;
posed to have one, two, or more and tell how, in ancient times, they
wanaghi, one of which, after death, used to bum down the huts in
remains at the grave and another which the oldest woman of the
goes to the place of the departed. family had died. She was thought
The writer has been told that for to possess great power of evil, and
many years no Dakota would con- if she returned, she would blight
sent to have his picture taken lest the prospects of her relatives.
one of his wa-na-ghi should remain The Duke of Somerset, the great
in the picture instead of going after sacrilegious nobleman of the time
death to the spirit land. The Te- of Henry VIII., who worked such
tons call the lock of hair cut from mischief and perpetrated such rob-
the forehead of the deceased and beries of God's poor, is said to have
kept for some time by the parents been more than once warned of
the .6ghost" or "shadow"; and till his coming death on the scaffold
1216 ENCYCWPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

by the appearance of a bloody hand part of the figure is ever shown,


stretched out from the panelled the lower part fading utterly away.
wall of the corridor of his mansion; So the Japanese always declare "a
it is also said that the hand was vis- ghost has no feet." (Lafcadio
ible to his duchess as well 'as him- Hearn, "Glimpses of Unfamiliar
self. Japan.'')
God himself once gave a warn- At Falkenberg, there is said to
ing to men in a writing on the wall. be a ghostl)" knight. When he was
At Belshazzar's feast, a hand of alive, he spent his nights with a
light appeared upon the wall and phantom lady and pledged his love
wrote the Aramaic words "Mene to her. After a time, however, he
mene tekel upharsin," which trans- married a living lady, pretty and
lated into English, mean, "Thou substantial, as brides of upper earth
hast been weighed in the balance should be. The result may serve
and found wanting." as a warning to all, "It is best to be
The specter with the bloody off with the old love before you are
hand appears to the Kincardines on with the new!" The newly-
and challenges them to fight with married couple speedily died of
him. He who accepts the chal- fright, for every night the cold
lenge dies. form of "the other" lay between
Another family in Wales has a them, as a mutely annoying re-
death warner in the shape of a girl proach upon the infidelity of the
with a hairy hand. bridegroom. This knight's spirit is
Before the death of a McLean ever roaming about, seeking his
of Lochburg, the phantom of an two brides, but he is deprived of
ancestor was seen galloping along both. Any single person who sees
the sea beach and uttering doleful him will make an unhappy mar-
lamentations. riage, so say the natives of the
Rhine, who seem to have ghosts
The dead monks of Kreuzberg for the particular purpose of point-
who lie there in the vault, uncoffin- ing a moral as well as adorning a
ed, garmented as they lived, are tale.
given to jollity and illicit sports
about midnight. The old dead gar- The Manxmen believe that their
dener with his withered wreath Isle of ~Ian was originally inhabit-
about his skull, the last of the ed by one gigantic man named
brotherhood, sits upright on his Manannan. He protected the isl-
stone seat, and trolls such catches, and by a mist. If, however, his
and tells such stories, that the rest enemies succeeded in approaching
of them regularly die of laughing, in spite of this, he threw chips into
and don't wake up until the fol- the water, which became warships,
lowing night's dews. If a traveler and his stronghold being Peel Cas-
stops to listen to their weird laugh- tle, he could make one man on its
ter, and hears any of the chat, it battlements look like a thousand.
will be a great misfortune to him He became jealous of Cuchulainn,
and his family. with whom his wife, Fand, had
fallen in love, and shook a cloak of
Japanese ghosts have hair loose invisibility between the two which
and long, falling weirdly over the produced forgetfulness, so that he
face. They are diaphanous and carried his wife off to fairy land.
preternaturally tall, only the upper His strength and ferocity became

FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 12 17

the terror of the whole island. He person. The owl is called the
used to transport himself with great "jumbi-bird," and held sacred. No
ease across the gorge between African would injure one of them
Peel Castle and Contrary Head. on any account. The silk-cotton
On one occasion, in a fit of rage, he tree is also sacred; it is the jumbi
lifted a large block of granite from tree, haunted by the spirits of the
the castle rock and, although it dead. A correspondent who lived
weighed several tons, hurled it, for many ~Y'ears in the West Indies,
with the greatest ease, against the chiefly in St. Vincent and St.
slope of the opposite hill, about Lucia, says that he had a magnifi-
three miles distant, where it is seen cent silk-cotton tree on one of his
to this day, with the print of his estates, and it was with the greatest
hand upon it. He went about on difficulty that he could ever get a
three legs at a great pace, and from negro to free it from the orchid
that is derived the coat of arms of growths that infested the boughs;
the island. His grave is said to be they were afraid to disturb the
the green mound thirty yards long "jumbi-tree," afraid of the wrath of
outside the walls of Peel Castle. the ghosts.
(~loore, "Folk-Lore of the Isle of
Many of the negroes of Ber-
Man.'') muda keep a fetish in their houses,
A headless man is the habitue of which is held sacred. It is a piece
one of the stages in Newfoundland, of wood or something else that a
and said to be the ghost of a jumbi has touched. It protects
Frenchman. Many people assert them from accidents and from evil.
having seen this apparition, and Even when converted to Christian-
consider it an evil omen. In the ity, they will persist in keeping
neighborhood of this ghost's haunt these fetishes in their houses, so as
is a locality which was formerly in- to be on the safe side in all events.
habited by Frenchmen. There is a
Allanbank, one of the residences
good beach for landing, but no boat
of the noble Scotch family, the
will remain tied to it. Fasten the
Stuarts, has been haunted for years
painter as you will, ghostly hands
by a ghost called "Pearlin Jean."
untie the knots again and again.
She may be "laid" now, but she was
An old fisherman living there
once the most celebrated ghost in
claims to have had some strange
experiences. He saw a mer- Scotland. She was a French wom-
an whom one of the Stuarts kept as
maid sitting 0.1 a rock as plain-
his mistress. He deserted her, and
ly as ever he saw anything, and
was just getting into his carriage
was within a couple of boats' to leave when his lady unexpected-
lengths of her when she dived to
ly made her appearance, and step-
her crystal depths below.
ping on the fore wheel of the coach
The "jumbi," according to the to speak to her lover, he bade the
superstition of the negroes of Ber- postillion to drive on. She fell, and
muda, are the spirits of their an- one of the wheels passing over her
caton. The word "jumbi" is ap- forehead, crushed her and killed
parently equivalent to ghost. These her instantly. When Mr. Stuart
jumbi they fully believe to be about got home to Allanbank and was
them all the time. They often say driving under the gateway, he per-
they have seen the jumbi of their ceived Pearlin Jean sitting on top
father or mother or of some other of the arch, her head and shoulders
DIS ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

streaming with blood. After that year of his age. Lord Oarendon.
she haunted the house at all times, in his history of the rebellion in
and rustled around in her high- England, gives the following ac-
heeled shoes and rich silks. At count of an apparition, which pre-
one time they had seven ministers ceded Buckingham's death:
come to see if they could not "lay" To one of the officers of the
the ghost, but she became worse wardrobe at Windsor, who had
than ever. She was called "Pear- been studying in a college at Paris,
lin" from the quantity of that lace appeared one night a man of vener-
which always appeared on her c0s- able aspect. After the apparition
tume. had asked him twice whether he
Sir Alexander Jardine of Apple- knew him or not, the officer recog-
garth owned Spedlin's Tower, and nized him as George Villiers, the
for some offense confined in the father of the Duke of Bucking-
dungeon a man named Porteous. ham.
He went on a journey, taking his After this, the apparition begged
keys with him, and after a few days him to do him the favor and go to
suddenly remembered the poor his son the duke, in his name, and
man, who, confined and starving, tell him "that he must exert him-
might be dead. He sent the keys self to make himself popular, or at
back by a messenger, but it was least to soothe the embittered
too late; Porteous had died of hun- minds of the people, otherwise he
ger. At once his ghost began to would not be permitted to live
haunt Spedlin's Tower from roof to long." After this the apparition
cellar, and so annoyed the family vanished, and the officer slept
that they had a score of ministers quietly till morning, when at his
come to lay the ghost. They only awakening he recollected all the
succeeded, however, in driving him particulars of his m)Psterious dream.
back to the scene of his death, But not taking any great notice of
where he would be heard crying said dream, he did not do as the
and moaning, "Let me out, let me apparition had ordered him.
out; I' deeing 0' hunger." He A few nights after, the apparition
would flutter against the door of came again, and begged him more
the vault, and if a twig was thrown severely, but it was not till the
through the keyhole, he would be third time that the apparition made
sure to remove the bark. The spell its appearance to him, that he went
that kept the ghost in this place and gave the duke the particulars
was a large black-lettered Bible. of this vision.
Once, when it was taken from the But the duke did not take any
house; he at once escaped, and notice of the dream at all, acted as
played such terrible pranks that it he had done before, and the result
was quickly returned. This story is known.
is told by Grose, the antiquarian, In order that the ghost may
in 1788, and other writers and peo- travel the ghost-road in safety, it is
ple corroborate it. necessary for each Lakota during
The Duke of Buckingham, his life to be tattooed, either in the
prime minister of Charles I.,king of middle of the forehead or on the
England, was much hated by the ,vrists. In that event, his spirit will
people, and at last stabbed by Lieu- go directly to the "~Iany Lodges."
tenant Felton, in the thirty-sixth The other spirit road is said to be


~OLKWRE, AND THE OCC;ULT SCIBNC;BS. 1219

short, and the foolish one who trav- and after gazing at him awhile, de-
els it never reaches the "Many parted.
Lodges." An old woman sits in Sir Joshua Reynolds, the great
the road, and she examines each English portrait painter, born 1723,
ghost that passes. If she cannot leaving his house, thought the
find the tattoo marks on the fore- lamps were trees, and the men and
head, wrists, or chin, the unhappy women bushes agitated by the
ghost is pushed from a cloud or breeze.
cliff and falls to this world. Such Oliver Cromwell, lying sleepless
is the lot of the ghosts that wander on his couch, saw the curtains open
o'er the earth. They can never and a gigantic woman appear, who
travel the spirit road again, so they told him he would become the
go about whistling, with no fixed greatest man in England.
abode. Ben Jonson, the celebrated Eng-
A young Lakota died just be- lish dramatist of the Elizabethan
fore marrying a young girl whom age, spent the watches of the night
he loved. The girl mourned his an interested spectator of a crowd
death, so she cut her hair here and of Tartars, Turks, and Roman
there with a dull knife, and gashed Catholics, who rose up and fought
her limbs, just as if she had been around his armchair until sunrise.
an old woman. The gllost return- Bostock, the physiologist, saw
ed and took her for his wife. figures and faces, and there was
Whenever the tribe camped for the one human face before him for
night, the ghost's wife pitched her twenty-four hours. The features
tent at some distance from the and head were as distinct as those
others, and when the people re- of a living person. These visions
moved their camp, the woman and and apparitions were supposed to
her husband kept some distance portend some great change in the
behind the main body. The ghost lives of those who experienced
always told the woman what to do; them.
and he brought game to her reg- It is a widespread belief that one
ularly, which the wife gave to the can injure a person by stepping on
people in exchange for other arti- his shadow, stabbing it, or assault-
cles. The people could neither see ing it in any way, thus inflicting the
nor bear the ghost, but they heard same injury upon the person him-
his wife address him. He always self. In the East, it is also believed
&ent word to the tribe when there that a man's shadow can be en-
was to be a high wind or heavy tirely separated from him, and that
rain. He could read the thoughts death would be the result.
of his wife, so that she need not
speak a word to him, and when she In the Island of Wetar, in the
Eastern Archipelago near Celebes,
felt a desire for anything he soon
the magicians profess to make a
obtained it for her. (Dorsey, Te-
man ill by stabbing his shadow
ton Folk-Lore.)
with a spear or hacking it with a
Nicholas I., Prince of Afontene- sword.
gro, born 184:1, was alarmed by the San kara, to prove his super-
appearance of a dead body which natural powers to the Grand Lama,
vanished and came again at inter- soared into the air; but as he
vals. This was followed by human mounted up, the Grand Lama per-
faces which came into the room, ceiving his shadow swaying and
]220 BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

wavering on the ground, stuck his sleep. But about two of the clock
knife into it, upon which down fell she was awakened again, and saw
Sankara and broke his neck. the apparition of a little woman
It was thought in Arabia, that if between her curtains and her pil-
a hyena trod on a man's shadow, it low, who told her she was her
deprived him of the power of mother, that she was happy, and
speech; also if a dog were standing that by twelve of the clock that day
on a roof and a hyena should tread she should be with her. \Vhere-
on its shadow, the dog would fall upon she knocked again for her
as if dragged down by a rope. maid, called for her clothes, and
Again, it was believed that if a dog when she was dressed, went into
trod on the shadow of a hyena, it her closet and came not out again
would render the hyena dumb. till nine, and then brought out with
her a letter sealed to her father,
Whoever entered the sanctuary carried it to her aunt, Lady Ever-
of Zeus on Mount Lycaeus, was ard, told her what had happened,
believed to lose his shadow and to and desired that as soon as she was
die within a year. In the west dead it might be sent to him. The
country of England, is an old be- lady thought she was suddenly fall-
lief that many have sold their souls en mad, and therefore sent present-
to the devil, and that those who do ly away to Chelmsford for a physi-
so lose their shadow; from this it cian and surgeon, who both came
would seem to be thought that the immediately, but the physician
shadow contains the soul-the could discern no indication of what
"Ka" of ancient Egypt. the lady imagined, or of any indis-
"Sir Charles Lee, by his first position of her body; notwithstand-
lady, had only one daughter, of ing the lady would needs have her
which she died in child-birth, and let blood, which was done accord-
when she was dead, her sister, the ingly; and when the young woman
Lady Everard, desired to have the had patiently let them do what they
education of the child, and she was would with her, she desired that
very well educated till she was the chaplain might be called to
marriageable, and a match was read prayers; and when prayers
concluded for her with Sir W. Par- were ended, she took her guitar
kins, but was then prevented in an and psalm-book and sat down upon
extraordinary manner. Upon a a chair without arms, and played
Thursday night she, thinking she and sung so melodiously and ad-
saw a light in her chamber after she mirably that her music-master,
was in bed, knocked for her maid, who was then there, admired at it;
who presently came to her, and she and near the stroke of twelve she
asked, 'Why she left a candle rose and sat herself down in a great
burning in her room?' The maid chair with arms, and presently,
answered that she had 'left none, fetching a strong breathing or two,
and that there was none but what she immediately expired, and was
she had brought with her at that so suddenly cold as was much won-
time i' then she said it must be the dered at by the physician and sur-
fire; but that, her maid told her, geon. She died at Waltham, in
was quite out, adding, she believed Essex, three miles from Chelms-
it was only a dream, whereupon ford, and the letter was sent to Sir
Miss Lee answered it might be so, Charles, at his house in Warwick-
and composed herself again to shire; but he was so afflicted at the
FOLKWRE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1211

death of his daughter that he came speed. Their strength was eight
not till she was buried; but when hundred men; all hardy, seasoned,
he came, he caused her to be taken and courageous men, careless of
up and to be buried with her moth- danger, despising consequences,
er at Edmonton, as she desired in and little occupied \vith the
her letter." thoughts of ghosts and phantas-
"Belshazzar, the king, made a magoria. On the night of the oc-
great feast to a thousand of his currence in question, the battalion
lords, and drank wine before the was forced to occupy a narrow and
thousand. Belshazzar, while he low building, barely calculated to
tasted the wine, commanded to accommodate three hundred per-
bring the golden and silver vessels sons.. ~ evertheless, they slept, but
which his father, Nebuchadnezar, at mIdnIght one and all were rous-
had taken out of the temple which ed by frightful screams issuing
was in Jerusalem, that the king and from all quarters of the house, and
his princes, his wives and his con- to the eyes of the astonished af-
cubines, might drink therein. Then ~righted soldiers appeared the' vis-
they brought the golden vessels Ion of a huge dog, which bounded
that were taken out of the temple in through the window and rushed
of the house of God which was at with extraordinary heaviness and
Jerusalem, and the king and his speed over the breasts of the spec-
princes, his wives and his concu- tators. The soldiers quitted the
bines, drank in them. They drank building in terror. Next night by
wine and praised the gods of gold the solicitations of the surgeon
and of silver, of brass, of iron, of and chef de bataillon, who accom-
wood and of stone. panied them, they again resumed
"In the same house came forth their previous quarters. "We
fingers of a man's hand, and wrote saw," said the surgeon, "that they
over against the candlestick, upon slept. Wide awake, we watched
the plaster of the wall of the king's the arrival of the hour of the pre-
palace; and the king saw the part ceding panic, and midnight had
of the hand that wrote. Then the scarcely struck when the veteran
king's countenance was changed soldiers, for the second time, start-
and his thoughts troubled him, so ed to their feet; again they had
that the joints of his loins were heard the supernatural voice~
loosed and his knees smote to- again the visionary hound had be~
gether one against the other. And strode them to suffocation. The
this is the writing that was written: chef de bataillon and myself neither
'YENE MEXE TEKEL UPHARSIN.' heard nor saw anything."
\Vhich, translated, means: 'Thou South Carolina negroes believe
hast been weighed in the balance tha~ every house has its own spirit,
and been found wanting' ; or whIch prompts each one in it to do
tThou art weighed in the balance good or evil. Or as one old miser
and found wanting.'" (Book of in the face of death, said: '
Daniel, Chapter V.) "That count ob de leading ob de
A battalion of French soldiers, spirit
, ,
ob dat house; sence freedom
'
during the toils and dangers of a I m bout three barrels ob gritts
~pai~, were marching on a cer- and six side ob bacon in debt to
tain point, on a hot and overcom- my stom-jacket."
ing da)-, and at double the usual If the family is quarrelsome, they
1- ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

say: "De speret ob de house am a to the mind; and a stranger must


quarrely one, an' causes short talk- transplant it for the owner, who
in' 'mong dem folks." If the fam- will not touch it till it is picked~
ily is sickly, its "becase de speret for if he or she does there will be a
ob de house am a berry sickly one." death in the family before the year
These household spirits rule the is ouL
negro to a great extent, but not so If a woman steps over the melon-
completely as do witches or hags, vine, they will either drop their
who live bodily with them in the ftowers or the fruit be poor and
house. The Plateyes, living in the tasteless. If she climbs a fruit tree.
woods and swamps, are spirits of it will have seven years barrenness;
witches who died during slavery. unless it is an apple tree, which
If an old woman, who knows the bears better then-forgiveness of
power of herbs and roots, walks Eve. Failure to thank God for
around a broom that may be lying each new fruit in its season invites
on the ftoor instead of stepping a drought on next year's crop.
over it, she gets a first-class name Parting with the first calf or colt
for a witch. The negro often puts breaks the luck between the owner
the broom over the bed, to charm and the animal.
away witches. These hags live on They watch the dying to foretell
the breath of babies. One mother their eternal condition; if too weak
charmed away the witch from her to speak, or the head turned to the
child by "drawin' seben lines on de right, or hands uplifted, it augurs
ftoo' wid a piece of chalk, den I well; but if head turned to the left.
take de broom an' lay him cross- or hands inactive, or murmurs of
ways ober de lines, an' scatter some seeing ugly shapes or shadows, is a
mustard seed all 'bout de ftoo'; an' sure sign the poor soul is lost for-
bress God 'fo'e fust fowl crow, we ever. Friends must not touch the
all wake up wid sich a noise dat dead body; strangers must wash it
we pure thought de shingle came and shroud it and bury it. When
off de roof." the mother dies, the children are
These hags take midnight ram- lifted over her coffin, to prevent her
bles without their skins, which they calling them, and the youngest is
slip off and hide until their return. carefully marked with soot from
If the skin can be found and salt the chimney of the main living
and pepper put on it, the witch can- room; then the coffin is closed. If
not put it on again, notwithstand- the dead die happy-and nearly all
ing she repeats the charmed words, d<>-the funeral is one of rejoicing.
"Kin, Kin, ain't you know me?" not mourning.
Then the hag can be caught. If When burying a stranger, the
the sleeping babe smiles, the moth- leader steps forward at the grave-
er wakes it at once, '''cause dem yard and says: "Sperets ob dis
white-robed speret-folks do talk to graveyard, we ax your permission
it an' try fer coax it fer go wid dem to bury sister or brother so-and-so
to lib." From the house, where among )ou."
every act of furniture or dress has This is repeated three times.
a saying attached to it, the hag
follows to the crop-field. The Mr. S. Amott, of Carsethom, in
band that drops' the seed must be a a paper on "Kirkbean Folklore,"
growing or lucky one. The sow- read before the Dumfries and Gal-
ing of parsley is committed alone loway Antiquaries, gave th'e start-
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIOJ.VS.

over whom she presides. At owners, Schwamberg and Slawata.


Neuhaus, the legend is firmly The tale goes that a monk was vis-
believed by the people. Bal- ited by her, to whom she said that
bin says, in his chronicles, that he she could never be in peace until
heard her callout the name of the she \vas reconciled with her hus-
unhappy wife of Perchta of Rosen- band, and both she and her hus-
berg, who died 1476. An old tra- band appeared before him, and in
dition narrates of her that she often his presence as witness, formall}~
appeared among the laborers, di- made a reconciliation and gave
recting their work, and causing the each other forgiveness. When it
master to give them sweetened was ended, the white lady said:
pap for dinner. The "white lady" "You will be repaid in heaven for
of the Rosenberg is said to have your godly work, and soon you will
appeared to members of that family be with us." He died on the next
even while they were traveling far anniversary of the day.
away from their home. The pic-
ture of this renowned ghost as she The following appeared in the
was when living, can be seen in the Akron Beacon Journal of August
picture galleries of several of the 10,1899:
Rosenbergs, who are now known Three bright South Akron lads~
as the princes of Schwartzenberg. who have never been known t<>
She is represented as a slight wom- prevaricate, and who are altogether
an, dressed in white velvet with too young to have been guilty of
gold embroidered wide sleeves, and seeing double, or triple, claim to
a sort of hood, also of white velvet, have had a most startling experi-
that falls on one side, showing the ence one day this week.
thick curly hair. The face is pale, If their story is true, the boys
but lit up by dark melancholy eyes. sa\v what many older and less for-
Her life on earth was very sad. She tunate people have long tried to
married a man who treated her discern through the mists of super-
cruelly, so that she left him and stition or faith, for they claim to
went to live with her brother. She have seen the devil, horns, hoofs~
died unforgiving, and soon after tail and all, the real live satanic
her death, was seen in the castle majesty himself.
of Neuhaus, but not as she was The oldest of the three boys is
usually dressed, in black, but in a 14, and it is his story to which the
long white dress and a veil that hid younger members of the trio ad-
her face; but when the veil slipped here. They started out to pick
to one side, one saw the face was berries, going across country in an
pale as a corpse. She always came open \\yagon, toward Thomastown.
on important occasions, and when They drove a gentle old horse that
a child was born she was always stood quietly by the roadside while
present, and seemed pleased. Be- the boys searched for the wild small
fore a death in the family, she al- fruit.
ways appeared, and had on a pair Finally one of the lads became
of black gloves. When her rela- weary and staid on the cushioned
tion, Peter Woks, died, she ap- seat, while the others entered a
peared to tell the news to all his wooded pastureland. They had
relations, in every city and castle gone some distance, \vhen they
where they lived. As he died child- heard shrieking in the direction of
less, she also appeared to the new their rig. Running to the spot.
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

haunted at "Tuckahoo," and by no one under th~ old churchyard wall.


less historical ghosts than those of H I go round the other way, Mrs.
Cornwallis and Washington, who Stewart is appearing at the Hill-
were guests in the same chamber side gate, and the devil himself is
immediately after each other, and in Hospital Lane t" I never knew
just before the surrender and free- which spirit he braved, "by the
dom of America. One night of cross of Jesus," but feel quite sure
thunder and lightning, of wind and it was not the one in Hospital
tempest, the family, then living, Lane.
were gathered in the great hall, In the western parts of Ireland is
when they saw Cornwallis, in his a whimsical grace, a curious ex-
military clothes, bloodstained and travagance. The people who re-
smoke-begrimed, hastily descend count them, live in the most wild
the stairs, while in a moment and beautiful scenery, under a sky
Washington followed, the look of ever loaded with fantastic flying
radiant victory on his splendid clouds. They are fanners and labor-
countenance. The next day the ers who do a little fishing now and
post brought the news of "Corn- then. They do not fear the spirits,
wallis is fallen, America is free I" and feel an artistic and humorous
Recently a lady in gray appeared pleasure in their doings. In the sur-
on the great staircase; a frightened rounding villages, the creatures use
servant called the mistress of the the most strange disguises. A dead
house, who came out to see the ap- old gentleman robs the cabbages
parition, when a crash behind her of his own garden in the shape of a
showed that the heavy ceiling had large rabbit. A wicked sea-eap-
fallen directly over the chair which tain stayed for years inside the
she had just occupied. Many are plaster of a cottage wall, in the
the tales of the strange occurrences shape of a snipe, making the most
at this famous residence, and even horrible noises. He was only dis-
the United States may proudly lodged when the wall was broken
point to her Colonial homes, which down, then out of the solid plaster
like the castles of Europe, have a the snipe rushed away whistling.
weird and mysterious history. The house ghost is usually a
The ancient map-makers wrote harmless and well-meaning crea-
across unexplored regions: "Here ture. It is put up with as long as
are lions." Across the villages of possible. It brings good luck to
fishermen and turners of the earth, those who live with it. I remem-
so different are these from us, we ber two children who slept in their
can write but one line that is cer- mother's room, and in the room
tain: "Here are ghosts I" also was a ghost. They sold her-
To approach a village at night, a rings in the Dublin streets, and did
timid man requires great strategy. not mind the ghost much, because ~
A man was once heard complain- they knew they would always sell ....--Ill
ing to himself: "By the cross of their fish easily while they slept i~
Jesus, how shall I go? If I pass by the "ha'nted" room. (Yeats, "The::e ~
the hill of Dumboy, old Captain Celtic Twilight.")
Burney may look out on me. If I go
round by the water and up by the AUGURY-If the Hindu wishe ~
steps, there is the headless one, and to find out if luck is with him, h~ ~
another on the quays, and a new places some milk by the nest of ;;;:.
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

hand is the sign of good fortune, in it and say, "Laugh I Laugh!


and everything to the right is bad. fountain of Barenton," it will break
Amber, when emplpyed in divi- into bubbles and seem to laugh,
nation, was burned. If it was con- thus indicating that you are to
sumed, the omen was favorable; have good fortune. But if it keeps
but if it refused to bum, the omen sullenly quiet, you cannot expect
was unlucky. iL
When roasting com, place seven When looking for something,
ears'in a basket and let each person you should spit on your hand and
choose one. If the rows of kernels say:
are straight and smooth, it means "Spit spat spo, where did that gol"
good luck; but if they are mixed and whichever way the spit goes,
up and crooked, ill. there you will find it.
In the leading paper of Cam- Tacitus calls by the name of Sar-
bridge, Massachusetts, published tos the manner which the Gennans
within a stone's throw of the Uni- use to form conjectures about fu-
versity, a professed divinator has turity. They cut the branch of a
kept for years a large, business- tree into small parts or slips, and
like and soberly-worded advertise- distinguishing these slips by cer-
ment of his services. tain marks, scattered them at ran-
At the time of the Druids, a dom on a white cloth.
nobleman would take the entrails Anciently, futurity was foretold
of an animal and walk through the by inspecting fire or flame. If it
embers of a dying fire; if he was burned toward the right, the omen
injured, it foretold in luck to him- was good; if toward the left, evil.
self and to the country. When pitch was cast on a fire, it
A Tartar mode of divining is by was a good augury if it caught and
the lines and cracks in a shoulder- blazed at once.
bone, called "reading the speal- Divination is common in Brit-
bone." The bad or good luck de- tany. It is accomplished by means
pends upon which way the cracks of needles. Five and twenty new
run. If lengthwise, the augury is needles are put into a plate, water
good; if crossed, both good and is poured over them and as many
bad. needles as cross each other so I

The Chinese decide their fate by many are the diviners' enemies.
throwing up sticks which are num- Cicero tells of an ancient method
bered. The priest then compares of foretelling future events. A kind
the number with his book of ora- of dice made of wood or gold, with
cles, and tells the inquirer what it certain letters or marks inscribed
reads. Three times and out, tells upon them, were thrown into an
the story. urn sometimes filled with water and
In Bayreuth, girls go silently and drawn out by the hand of a boy or
without being seen on Easter mid- the person who consulted the
night to a fountain, and there throw oracle.
willow twigs in the water. Whose Place three bones in a field and
sink first win be the first to die. name each after a living person.
There is a well called the foun- The one which the dog buries win
tain of Barenton; if you drop a pin die in a year. The one which he
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

When Augustus arrived in the ed that the world had gotten a


Island of Capri, some decayed master, because, when they poured
branches of an old ilex tree \vhich wine upon the altar, there burst out
hung drooping to the ground, re- so prodigious a flame that it as-
covered and became green, at cended above the roof of the temple
which good omen he was so de- and reached the very heavens, a
lighted that he made an exchange circumstance which had not hap-
with the Republic of Naples of the pened to anyone but Alexander the
Island of Ischia for the Island of Great, upon his sacrificing at the
Capri. same altar.
Mountains with three points are In ancient times, people used to
thought to be cut by the devil have what they called "cup divina-
Rocks are pebbles dropped by a tion." The Egyptians took small
giantess from her apron. pieces of gold and silver along with
certain gems engraved with sym-
Blinding your eyes, walk into the bolic characters. The infernal
garden and pluck the first stalk you powers being then invoked, the an-
touch. If it is straight, it will be swer came either by voice or signs
the forerunner of a fine husband. on the surface of the water in the
If earth clings to the roots, you go cup, or the representation of the
OD an extensive journey. person inquired about.
When a Chinaman contemplates The Arabians draw omens con-
and hardly knows whether or not cerning a course of action from ar-
to proceed with anything, he leaves rows. They take three of these
his meal unfinished, and taking his and write upon one, "God forbids
chop-sticks in his sleeves, goes out it me"; on another, "God orders it
of doors and listens to the passers- me"; and on the third they do not
by, taking particular note of the write. These are put into a quiver,
first sentence he hears. From this, out of which one is drawn at ran-
he draws conclusions of the general dom, and if it contained the first in-
tenor in regard to the subject of scription, the matter was let alone;
his doubts, whether to do or not to if the next, the thing \vas done; and
do. if they drew on~ without any in-
Before the death of Augustus, scription, they dre\v over again.
the first letter of his name on a If you wish to know whether an
statue so inscribed, was struck by absent person is alive or dead, lay
lightning, which was interpreted as a piece of coal and a loaf of bread
a presage that he would live only on the table, and suspend a darning
one hundred days longer, the letter needle exactly between both by a
C designating that number; and thread. If it moves toward the
that he would be placed among the bread, the person is \\'ell; but if to-
gods, as "aesar," the remaining \vards the coal, the absent one is
part of Caesar, signifies in the Tus- sick or dead. (German.)
can language, a god. If you take a pack of cards and
After the birth of Augustus, cut them, look at the card, make a
when his father, Octavius, while \vish, shuffle and cut in three piles.
marching with his army through If the card you looked at in the first
the deserts of Thrace, consulted the place is in the first pile, you will get
oracle in the grove of Bacchus con- vour \vish. If it is in the second,
cerning his son, the priests declar- )ou \\ill get it after some time. If
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

you require, whether relating to thanksgiving; but that honey and


love or business; but if broken and milk signified pestilence and fam-
odd, then the success will be bad, ine, because honey was given to
if not altogether unfortunate. the sick, and the food of animals
served for the food of men in fam-
A Feathennan, in his "History ine.
of the Melanesians," has collected
the following superstitions: They When all the members of the ex-
draw auguri(:s like the Greeks from pedition had landed ou the coast
the flight of birds, and also from of Sussex, William the Conqueror
the even or uneven cut of a banana. came last, and stumbling, measured
Also in measuring the left arm up his majestic length on the beach.
to the shoulder, with the stretched Forthwith all raised a cry of dis-
out thumb and middle finger, and tress. "An evil sign is herel" ex-
then taking the downward measure claimed the superstitious Normans.
with the stretched thumb and the But William, who had grasped
index finger, they consider it a pro- some sand in his hands, rose, and
pitious sign if the two measures with a loud and cheerful voice said.
agree. Some of the tribes never "See Seigneurs I by the splendor
bathe in certain rivers, nor do they of Godl I seize England with my
cut any wood on the banks. It two hands. Without challenge no
would be dangerous and unlucky prize can be made, and that which
to do so. On projecting some im- I have grasped I will, by your good
portant enterprise, they strew help, maintain I" On this, one of his
strips of some white stuff over the followers, snatching a handful of
ground, and place a quantity of thatch from a roof, brought it to
food near them, and then with up- William, exclaiming merrily: "Sire,
lifted hands they express the wish come forward and receive seizin!
that their undertaking may succeed I give you seizin in token that this
or that their health may be pre- realm is yours I" "I accept it,"
served. This will of course insure said William, "and God be with
the good luck of whatever they un- us I" (Strickland.)
dertake.
The Bible contains many ac-
When the Gauls were approach- counts of various methods of divi-
ing Rome,all signs and omens were nation, their use and results, and
observed with anxiety. A brazen the persons who practiced them.
statue of victory in the forum was As regards Belomancy, in Ezekiel
found standing by the side of its xxi, 21, we read: "For the king of
pedestal, and from the altar of the Babylon stood at the parting of the
Capitoline temple'there welled forth ways, at the head of the two ways,
on three successive days, first blood, to use divination. He made his
then honey, then milk. An auruspex arrows bright, he consulted with
calmed the .affrighted city by ex- images, he looked in the liver."
plaining that the goddess of victory Also, in Proverbs xvi, 33: "The
standing upright on firmer ground, lot is cast into the lap but the whole
with her face toward the country disposing thereof is the Lord's."
whence the enemy was expected, In the Acts of the Apostles, the
was a favorable sign; that the blood story of the vagabond Jews, Exor-
that welled forth meant victory, be- cists, shows how popular supersti-
cause sacrifices would then be of- tious customs must have been, for
fered on the Capitoline altar in so many to have lived by them,.
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

The condition of elephants shall green ribbon upon the third, and
be determined by (weighing) their on the next morning observe how
tusks; that of cows and horses by it has fared with her venture, if it
their hair; that of princes by gold; is to be sorrow, gladness, love, ac-
that of Brahmins and others by cording to the growth of the corn-
wax; that of countries, years, stalks during the night.
months and days, shall also be de-
The invention of divination is
termined by the wax, and that of
ascribed by some ancient writers to
other articles by the articles them-
selves. Prometheus, by others to the
Phrygians or Etrurians; by Zoroas-
Waters to be weighed shall also ter, to Ahriman, the principle or
be put into the northern scale; if
angel of darkness and evil; and
well-water should be found to likewise by the holy fathers of the
weigh more when weighed the Christian church to the devil.
next day, there will be no rain in
winter; if rain-water should weigh The following is a list of some of
more, there will be moderate rain; the principal ancient methods of
if tank or lake-water should weigh divination:
more, there will be abundant rain. Aeromancy, by air.
(From the ancient Hindu astrolog- Alectryomancy, by cocks and
ical work, "Brihat Samhita.") hens.
Alphitomancy, by barley meal.
The Finnish lads and maids have Anthropomancy, by the entrails
some very pretty and poetical of a human being.
charms of divination. Here is one Arithmancy, by numbers.
of them which the Finnish poet Astrology, or divining future
Runeberg has immortalized in events by the situation and ap-
song:
pearance of the stars.
'tAIl Saint Johns' eve sits the maiden Belomancy, by marked arrows.
spinning,
Round the soft stems of the verdant Biblionlancy, by the Bible (open-
corn-blades ing the book at random).
Silken ribbons all of different colors." Botanomancy, by fig- or other
On the next morning the maid plants and leaves.
goes out to inquire into her future Capnomancy, by the movement
fate. If the black stalk has grown, and density of smoke.
it is "the stalk of sorrow." Then Cartomancy, by cards.
"Talketh she and grieveth with the Chiromancy, by the hands.
others. Cleromancy, by lots.
Has the red stalk grown, the stalk of Dactylomancy, by finger-rings.
gladness, Demonomancy, by evil spirits.
Talks she and rejoiceth with the others.
Has the green stalk grown,-the stalk Gastromancy, by sounds or signs
of love,-then appearing to be uttered from the
Keeps she si1~nt,-iD her heart rejoic- belly.
ing." Geomancy, by earth.
It is almost a pity, and perhaps Gyromancy, by rounds and cir-
almost needless, to explain this cles.
poetical version of the custom; but Hydromancy, by water.
let any maid in any land go out on Ichth)"omancy, by fishes.
St. John's eve and bind around the Idolomancy, by consulting idols.
com blades a black ribbon upon Libanomancy, by pouring out
one, a red ribbon on another, and a liquids.
FOLKLORE, .4ND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1235

Lithomancy, by stones. figures. A crown, signifies honor;


Necromancy, by communication a cross, riews of death; a ring, mar-
with the dead. riage-if a letter can be discovered
Oneiromancy, by dreams. near it, that will be the initial of
Qnomancy, by names. the name of the future spouse. If
Omithomancy, by birds. the ring is in the clear part of the
Orphiomancy, by serpents. cup, it foretells a happy union; if
Palmistry, by the lines of the clouds are about it, the contrary;
palm of the hand. but if it should chance to be quite
at the bottom, then the marriage
Pedomancy, by the feeL will never take place. A leaf of
Psychomancy, by souls, minds,
clover, or trefoil, is a good sign,
and wills. denoting, if at the top of the cup,
Pyromancy, by fire. speedy good fortune, which will be
Rhabdomancy, by a staff. more or less distant in case it ap-
Sciomancy, by shadows. pears at, or near the bottom. The
Stareomancy, by the elements. anchor, if at the bottom of the cup,
Theomancy, by Scripture. denotes success in business; at the
Theriomancy, by the lower ani- top, and in the clear part, love and
mals. fidelity; but in thick, or cloudy
Fortune telling by the grounds parts, inconstancy. The serpent is
iD a tea- or coffee-cup: always the sign of an enemy, and if
Pour the grounds of tea or cof- in the cloudy part, gives warning
fee into a white cup; shake them that great prudence will be neces-
wen about, so as to spread them sary to ward off misfortune. The
over the surface; reverse the cup coffin, portends news of a death, or
to drain away the superfluous con- long illness. The dog, at the top
tents, and then exercise your fertile of the cup. denotes true and faith-
fancy in discovering what the ful friends; in the middle, that they
figures thus formed represent. are not to be trusted; but at the
Long, wavy lines denote vexations bottom, that they are secret ene-
and losses-their importance de- mies. The lily, at the top of the
pending on the number of lines. cup, foretells a happy marriage; at
Straight ones, on the contrary, the bottom, anger. A letter, signi-
foretell peace, tranquillity, and fies news; if in the clear, very wel-
long life. Human figures are usu- come ones; surrounded by dots,
ally good omens, announcing love a remittance of money; but if
affairs, and marriage. If circular hemmed in by clouds, bad tidings
figures predominate, the person for and losses. A heart near it, de-
whom the experiment is made, notes a love letter. A single tree.
may expect to receive money. If portends restoration to health; a
these circles are connecte4 by group of trees in the clear, misfor-
straight unbroken lines, there will tunes, which may be avoided; sev-
be delay, but ultimately all will eral trees, wide apart, promise that
be satisfactory. Squares, foretell your wishes will be accomplished;
peace and happiness; oblong fig- if encompassed by dashes, it is a
ures, family discord; whilst curved, token that your fortune is in its
twisted, or angular ones, are cer- blossom, and only requires care to
tain signs of vexations and annoy- bring to maturity; if surrounded by
ances, their probable duration be- dots, riches. Mountains signify
ing ddennined by the number of either friends or enemies, accord-
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

ing to their situation. The sun, the vulture, the crow, the raven,
moon and stars denote happiness, the owl, the hen, and by voice.
success. The clouds, happiness If birds flew to the right, it was
or misfortune, according as they unlucky; if to the left, lucky.
are bright or dark. Birds are good Alectryomancy is the divination
omens, but quadrupeds-with the by a cock. A circle was drawn and
exception of the dog-foretell the letters of the alphabet were
trouble and difficulties. Fish imply written in succession around it, and
good news from across the water. on each letter laid a grain of corn.
A triangle portends an unexpected The succession of the letters in
legacy; a single straight line, a which the cock would eat the com,
journey. The figure of a man indi- after having been placed in the
cates a visitor; if the ann is out- center, would give the answer to
stretched, a present; if the figure isthe question.
very distinct, it shows that the ex-
pected person will be of dark com- Axinomancy was the divination
plexion; if indistinct, light. A by an axe suspended or poised
crown near a cross indicates an in- upon a stake, which was supposed
heritance. Flowers are omens of to turn and indicate the guilty per-
happiness, joy, and peace. A heart son when the names of the suspect-
signifies joy; if surrounded by dots, ed persons were pronounced j or an
money; if a ring is near it, a speedy agate was placed on a red hot axe.
marriage. Belomancy was divination by ar-
rows. Arrows with a written label
To foretell coming events, break attached were shot off, and an indi-
a new-laid egg, ,separate carefully cation of futurity was sought from
the white from the yolk, drop the the inscription on the first arrow
white into a large tumbler half full found. It is still practiced by
of water, place this uncovered in a Arabs and some Eastern nations.
dry place, and let it remain un-
touched for twenty-four hQurs. BibliQD1ancy was opening the
Then look again, and the figures Bible, noting the first passage on
which will have fonned indicate the which the eye fell, and taking that
occupation of your future husband, as a sign. Many people note the
or may be interpreted in the same first words of the Bible after en-
manner as those formed by the cof- tering chu,rch.
fee grounds, and described in the If, on opening the Bible, in the
foregoing paragraph. The more Middle Ages, the eye first fell on
whites are dropped into the glass, a blank page, it was a sign of dis-
the more figures there will be. aster.
This fortune-telling experiment is A Swedish mode of divination is
believed to be particularly effica- the following: A person goes out
cious if undertaken between mid- into the moonlight, taking a psalm-
night and 1 a. m. on May day, or book along, and lets it open itself.
Midsummer day morning, on Hal- If it opens on the maniage cere-
lowe'en, Christmas eve, or New mony, he or she will marry; if at
Year's eve. the funeral service, he or she will
The augurs of Rome divined by die; and whatever it reads on the
the entrails of their victims, by the first page, will indicate the per-
pecking of the sacred hens, by the son's fortune.
flight of birds, such as the eagle, To divine by key and book, tie
1238 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

ing, and wear it against your breast If you bury a murdered person
or hung on your wrist, and it will across the world, the murderer will
impart to you the courage of the linger around until he is caught.
lion." Detectives believe that the guilty
Cameron of Lochie1 received person will always return to the
from the infernal spirits a small scene of the murder within forty-
silver shoe, which was to be put eight hours.
on the left foot of every newborn If one passes a murdered body,
son of the family, who would re- even without knowing it or seeing
ceive from it courage and fortitude it, one will be stricken with fear.
in the presence of his enemies.
This custom was kept up until In Ireland, they bury the mur-
1746, when the house of the Cam- dered man's boots, so that he will
erons was burned, and the fairy haunt the locality.
shoe with it. The Welsh believe if a criminal
is hanged, his spirit, let loose, will
CRIME-If you look hard at a trouble them.
murderer, he will turn his eyes When a hanged man is cut
away and get pale. down, his spirit will come back, un-
If a person has been murdered, less you give him a box on the ear.
the funeral torches will blow to-
ward the murderer. If a criminal is hung, it is con-
sidered unlucky, for his soul is let
If the murderer buries the imple- loose to annoy the living.
ments with which he did the deed,
he will not be caught. To laugh in a prison, brings ill
luck.
Nothing will grow on the place
where a murder was committed. A person released from prison
before his term expires, is said to
To witness a murder is to see un- be pretty sure to come back to it
expectedly an old friend. sooner or later.
If a murderer takes off the shoes It is good luck to be accused of
of his victim, it is a sign that the any crime or error of which you
murderer will soon be captured. are wholly innocent.
If a man has been murdered, It is considered an unlucky omen
bury him face down, and the mur- in China to take a corpse out of a
derer cannot leave the place. prison through the door, and it is
The shoes of a man who has therefore taken out through an
been hanged are very lucky. aperture made in the wall at the
Insects creeping from a murder- back of the building.
ed man's funeral indicate the direc- Tremot, a hero of German
tion in which will the murderer be myths, protected all robbers and
found. wicked men. He wore a mask, but
If the rope breaks when a person was also invisible.
is being hanged, it is a sign that The "water of jealousy" was a
the person is innocent. beverage which the Jews used to
The superstitious say that dogs assert no adulteress could drink
and some kinds of cats can detect without bursting.
a murderer years after the crime It is unlucky to report a theft or
was committed, by the odor of the give any information concerning
blood-stains on their hands. it. (Scotch.)
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

can stand the torture, and will not To recover stolen property, you
be forced to confess. have only to go to one of the Obi-
A fish with a ring in it will allow men or -women (a kind of negro
itself to be caught, as it has sym- sorcerers), and for a consideration
they will, at 12 o'clock midnight,
pathy for the hu~an bein~ aa:u~ed
of stealing the nng, and IS willmg strip themselves naked, dance
thus to prove his innocence. backwards on cross-roads, and then
reveal the name of the thief.
When the Ethiopians wanted to In Nevis, the murderer is safe
pronounce a death sentence upon a from being haunted by the ghost
persl)D, they carried him to a tableou
of his victim if he will go to his
which was painted an owl, and then grave, dig down to his body, and
expected him to commit suicide.
drive a stake through it, thus add-
If a man will walk seven times ing insult to injury.
around the grave of the man he has . If someone steals from you in
murdered, all his sins will be for- rainy weather, or comes in the mud
given him. But it is a very dan- so that you can get his footprint,
gerous thing to do, and h~ sel~om cut out his footprint in the clay and
gets around more than SIX tImes hang it in the chimney comer, and
before he drops dead. the thief will waste away with the
In Mexico, it is believed that the footprint.
murderer who has slain his victim Whenever a wilful murder has
with sword or dagger, will escape, been committed, a cross is imme-
if the body falls on its side or back; diately planted on the very spot,
but if the body falls face down- to keep off the devil, who delights
ward, then the murderer surely will in dwelling near such places.
be captured.
Some African natives use the fol-
King James, in his "Demonol- lowing charm to detect a thief: The
ogy," says: "In a secret murde~, if suspected person is made to fast
the dead carcass be at any tIme twelve hours, then to swallow a
thereafter handled by the mur- gallon of an infusion made of sassa-
derer, it will gush out of blood as if fras bark. If it produces nausea,
the blood were crying to heaven and he ejects any food that was in
for revenge on the assassin." the stomach, he is innocent; but if.
At Hertford (England) assizes, instead, it acts as a purgative, he is
the deposition was taken as to a guilty.
certain suspected murderess being Some of the old monks taught
required to touch the corpse, when that the punishment in the future
the murdered woman thrust out world for the murder of a king was
her ring-finger three times and to be crowned with a red hot iron
dropped blood on the grass, thus crown, that "should burn mightily
fastening the proof of guilt upon forever." This teaching may have
the suspected woman. suggested the actual doing, for the
Touch a brandice-iron baking- Earl of Athol, who was executed
pan with the third finger, saying: for the murder of James I. of Scot-
"In the name of the Father, the land, was, before his death, crown-
Son, and the Holy Ghost-speak!" ed with hot iron.
A cock will crow when the guilty If a man commits murder in
person touches it. Tunguragua, none of the natives
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

and his tongue lolling out, repre- Murderers and thieves tlsed for-
senting a man being hanged. Prof. merly a very old enchantmenL
Webster was shortly afterwards They ransacked a grave and se-
convicted of the murder of Dr. cured the hand of an unborn child.
Parkman, and hanged on the 30th This was hung on the door of the
of August, 1850. house which they desired to rob,
In Madagascar exist several cu- and instantly all the inmates would
rious ordeals fOf' the detection of be thrown into a profound slumber
crime. The chief of these is the from which nothing could wake
celebrated tangena poison. ordeal, them. The thieves could therefore
in which they have an implicit be- pursue their wicked business undis-
lief as a test of guilt or innocence, turbed. On leaving the place, they
and by which thousands of inno- would take the hand away, when
cent persons have perished. the enchantment would be broken.
Quite recently, it is said, a young Ibycus, a Greek lyric poet, who
lady was traveling in an omnibus. lived about 540 B. e., was mur-
In her purse she had all her port- dered by robbers on his way to the
able wealth, threepence in coppers. Corinthian games. In his dying
Near her sat an ill-looking man, moments, he observed cranes fly-
dirty, wearing a large, shiny ring, ing over his head, whom he im-
which she supposed to be paste. plored to be his avengers. Soon
When she alighted from the om- afterwards, when the people
nibus her purse was gone, her of Corinth were assembled in
pocket was picked; and she, with the theater. some cranes flew
confusion of face, had to go on past in the air, when one of the
credit for her journey. Arrived at murderers, who happened to be
home, she searched her pocket present, exclaimed involuntarily:
afresh, and therein was the seedy "Behold the witnesses of the death
man's shiny ring. of Ibycusl" They were overheard,
It proved to be an excellent arrested, tried, convicted and ex-
large diamond, but advertisement ecuted.
did not discover the owner. He The "hand of glory" is a foreign
had stolen threepence and a purse, piece of superstition common in
and had lost a small fortune, prob- France, Germany, and Spain, and
ably dishonestly acquired, in the is used by burglars and assassins.
process. It is the hand of a hanged man,
If a Swede is robbed, he goes to holding a candle made of the fat of
a so-called "trollman" or "cunning a hanged man, virgin wax, and
man," who engages to strike out sesame of Lapland. It stupifies
the eye of the thief. The trollman those to whom it is presented, and
cuts a human figure on a young renders them motionless, so that
tree, and then drives some sharp they cannot stir any more than as
instrument into the eye of the fig- if they were dead.
ure. It was also a practice to shoot The fol1owing is found in an old
at the suspected person's picture or volume called "Wits, Fits, and
at that of an enemy, with an arrow Fancies." A gentlewoman from
or bullet, by which pain or sores jealousy murdered her lover most
are, it is believed, inflicted on the secretly, and was attending a
corresponding member of the per- masque most carefully disguised.
son represented. when her lover met her (or
BNCYCLOP~DIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

water. H in three days no mark Turner. If a man wished that a


was visible, he was acquitted. sea pike might run into the body
Another favorite method was to of the person who attempted to
have the accused and the accuser steal, say, his bread-fruits, he would
fight it ot. God was supposed to plait some cocoanut leaflets in the
aid the righL The modem duel is form of a sea pike and suspend it
a relic of this form of trial. from one or more of the trees that
The poets tells us that when he wished to protecL The white
Hercules descended into hell, Cha- shark taboo was another object of
ron, the ferryman who rowed the terror to a thief. This was dOlle
dead across the river Styx, was ter- by painting a cocoanut leaf in the
rified at his appearance, and im- form of a shark, adding the &us.
mediately took him into his boat, etc., and this they suspended from
for which Pluto bound him in a tree. It was tantamount to aD
chains for a whole year. expressed imprecation that the
thief might be devoured by the
Burglars of hamo Oapan) have white shark the next time he went
a simple method of obtaining their to fish. The death taboo was made
desires. He hunts about for a ta- by pouring a little oil into a small
rai, a sort of tub, and performing calabash and burying it under a
a nameless operation in the corner tree. The spot was marked by a
of the garden, he covers the spot hill of sand. Others of like signifi-
with the tub. This throws all the cance were currenL
inmates of the house into profound
slumber, so that he may do as he Spilling the blood of a lamb on
pleases, and carry away what he the back steps will keep all bur-
likes. glars awa)r.
In Abyssinia, when a theft has On the Pacific coast, charms are
been committed, the report is made hung up to keep thieves out of
to the "thief-catcher," who sends plantations. Such a charm are a few
to his servant, who is kept for the cocoanut leaves plaited into the
purpose, a certain dose of black form of a shark; if a thief should
meal compounded with milk. After disregard it, he will be eaten by a
this he has to smoke a certain real shark.
amount of tobacco. The servant is If a heliotrope is wrapped in a
by this thrown into a state of bay leaf with a wolf's tooth, and
frenzy, in which, crawling on his placed under a man's pillow, it will
hands and knees, followed by his show him where stolen goods are
master, he goes from house to hidden.
house, smelling out the thief. At If butter is stolen and you live in
last, he enters a house and goes to a thatched house, cut away some of
sleep on the master's bed. This the thatch from over the door,
shows that the owner is the thief. cast it into the fire, and the butter
He is arrested and has to pay for will be restored.
the property stolen. When )ou have been robbed,
The American Indians have drive an accidentally found horse-
what they call taboos, prohibitory shoe nail into the place where the
or punishing charms and practices. fire always is, and you will have
These are also to be found in Aus- your own again.
tralia, and the fQllowing remarka- In Transylvania, if a man who
ble ones are described by George has been robbed will select a black
Allegorical D,sign of 1M Ge"ius of Superstition.
ENCYCLOPAEDIA. OF SUPERSTITIONS.

with a piece of nobon, and then unearthly cry of this bird, but
ties the ribbon on the arm of a when he attempts to shoot a speci-
"black sainL" men, the natives refuse to accom-
pany him on these occasions, and
DEVIL-A black dog keeps the he will always be unsuccessful
devil away. (Russia.)
The devil is betokened to be
In Crete, basil is placed on win- standing behind a person who
dowsills to charm away the devil. makes faces in the looking-glass.
N ever look in the looking-glass To raise the devil, the Scotch
at night, unless you wish to see people made a circle with chalk,
the devil. (Russia.) put a hat on it and said the Lords
The devil often takes the form of Prayer backwards.
a black dog. If, in conjuring the devil, you
The Scotch believed that the have a light, your words will have
devil. had two crows sitting on his power.
shoulders, who told him everything The devil's grandmother is, as
that goes on in the world. the Mag)~ars say, 777 years old.
As long as the people of Europe To say the word "devil" and not
represented the devil in human cross yourself, will bring him near.
form, they made him black; but the
Australians and Africans make him If you wish the devil and his an-
as white as possible. Perhaps that gels to flee from your dwelling, al-
suggested the saying that the devil ways bless your candle before you
is not so black as he is painted. light it.
The ] ews believed that by In conjuring the devil, it is nec-
sounding a consecrated hom, the essary to have a light; words spok-
devil was made to take to his heels. en in the dark having no power.
In Yorkshire, if you walk three The Welsh have a custom of
times around a room at midnight whitening all their houses, as they
in perfect darkness, and then look think the devil cannot come
in the glass, you will see the devil's through white doors.
face. An English superstition is to the
There is a superstition that the effect that you can call the devil to
devil always appears with a cloven sight by saying the Lord's Prayer
foot, horns, and a tail. He dis- backwards.
guises himself in many ways, but In Russia, the devil prefers
sooner or later one or the other of places with a great deal of water
these will be sure to be seen. near them, therefore it is unlucky
The satan of superstition used to live near a pond or river.
to be thought to be the builder of At Cape Coast Town, the natives
all castles, bridges, monuments and ann themselves with sticks and
works of art beyond man's other weapons, and prepare with
strength, and he was also the much ceremony to drive out the
moulder of the mountains and val. devil. This takes place once a year
leys. toward the close of August.
The Australian abori~nes be. There was a very tall, leafless,
lieve that the devil is a Dlght-bir~ and black tree that stood many
which they call Kvingan. The ex. years ago at t}.e end of the village
plorer frequently hears the strange, of Biggar, in Scotland, which was
BNCCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

The dew hates dried peas in The following three proverbs,


Japan, and flees from them; they now applied metaphorically, are
are therefore thrown about the based on ancient superstition about
houses to drive the devils out. the devil:
Devils are also very much afraid "Talk of the devil and he is sure
of a holly leaf and the head of a to appear."
sardine-like fish, called the iwashi. "Talk of the devil and he wiD
If you nail these to the entrance of show his horns."
your house, no devil will dare to "Think of the devil and he is
enter in. 'ure to be back of you."
The Chinese believe that those ] ason Pratensis wrote that "the
who eat of the plant called Shui- devil being a slender, incompre-
mong will die immediately after hensible spirit, can easily insinuate
and become shui-mong devils; and wind himself into human bod-
such devils are incapable of being ies and, cunningly couched in our
bom again, unless they can find bowels, vitiate our healths, terrify
someone else who has eaten the our souls with fearful dreams, and
same plant, and is willing to take shake our minds with furies. These
their place. evil spirits go in and out of our
When the devil appeared to bodies as bees do in a hive, and so
Cuvier, the great man looked at provoke and tempt us as they see
him nonchalantly and asked curtly: we are inclined by our humors to
"What do you wish of me?" "I've it, or are most apt to be deluded."
come to eat you I" said the devil. But, "Whether by obsession or
But the great anatomist's shrewd possession these things are done,
eye had already examined him. I cannot determine."
"Horns and hoofs I" he retorted, Vasari, the Italian painter and
"granivorous. You can't do itl" biographer (d. 15'14), tells the fol-
Whereupon, outfaced by science, lowing strange tale of Spinello
Satan departed. of Arezzo. When this artist had
In North Wales, it used to be painted, in his famous fresco of the
the custom to spit at the name of fall of the rebellious angels, the
the devil and strike the breast three devil as a hideous demon and with
times at the name of Judas, to ward seven heads about his body, the
off evil influences. This was espe- fiend came to him in the very bod-
cially done in church. ily form he had conceived him, and
If a man in Denmark wishes to asked the artist where he had seen
have any communication with the him so, and why he had portrayed
devil, he must walk around the him in such a manner and put such
church three times, and on the a shame upon him? When Spinel-
third, stop and either whistle or lo came out of the vision, he was
cry, "Come outl" through the key- in a state of terror, and falling into
hole. a melancholy, sOon died.
Persons who enter into a com- A mythical personage who orig-
pact with Satan can raise wind and inated in German folklore, was
storms by calling him up, and these Friar Rusk. He was a fiendish
disturbances cannot be stilled save looking creature who was really a
by the death of a black cock, a devil, and kept monks and friars
black dog, or an unchristened from leading a religious life. He
child. was probably at one time a good~
1250 ENCYCLOPAEDIA. OF SUPERSTITIONS.

on the floor, put one hand on the clay; why then should not Adam
top of your head and the other worship him, and not he Adam?
under the soles of your feet and The Mohammedans say that at the
say, 'All that is between my two birth of their prophet, the throne
hands belongs to the devil.'" So of Eblis was precipitated to the
the girl sat on the floor, did as she bottom of hell, and the idols of the
was bid, and said: "All that is be- Gentiles were overturned.
tween my two hands belongs to In the Basque legends collected
God I" At this unexpected termi- by Rev. W. Webster, we find the
nation, the old man gave a hideous following: A wealthy man once
howl and vanished. promised to give a poor gentleman
There are two places on the and his wife a large sum of money
Rhine where the father of lies still if they would tell him the devil's
retains occupation. He has a age. When the time came, the
devil's house, in which he may be gentleman, at his wife's suggestion,
seen at night, drinking hot spiced plunged first into a barrel of honey
wine with a long since deceased and then into a barrel of feathers.
prince. This proper pair often He then walked on all fours. Pres-
issues forth at night after their or- ently up came his satanic majesty
gies, and, disguised as monks, play and exclaimed: "X and x years
tricks on the ferrymen and their have I lived," naming the exact
boats on the river, so that when number, "yet I never saw an ani-
morning comes, there is no man ~ like this!" The gentleman had
at his right station, and every boat heard enough, and was able to an-
is drifting off to sea. swer the question without diffi-
Following is a description of culty.
the chief of the evil spirits in Ara- Ariel had his birth before Shake-
bian legend, by Beckford, in his speare made him an airy and trick-
"Vathek." Eblis seemed in per- sy spirit in the "Tempest," for in
son that of a young man whose the demonology of the Calaba he
noble and regular features seemed was a water-spirit, and in the fables
to have been tarnished by malig- of the Middle Ages a spirit of the
nant vapors. In his large eyes ap- air. Shakespeare represents him
peared both pride and despair; his as having been a servant to Sycora,
flowing hair retained some sem- who, for some acts of disobedience,
blance to that of an angel of light. imprisoned him in the cleft of a
In his hand, which thunder had pine tree, where he remained for
blasted, he swayed the iron scepter twelve years, until released by
that caused monsters, afrits, and all Prospero. In gratitude for his de-
the powers of the abyss to trem- liverance, he became the willing
ble. messenger of Prospero, assuming
In Arabia, the prince of the apos- any shape, or rendering himself
tate angels is called Eblis, which invisible, in order to execute the
means "despair," and he was exiled commands of his master.
to the infernal regions because he Authors distinguished for sense
would not worship Adam at the and talent record with great seri-
command of the Almighty. He ousness that the devil once deliv-
gave as his excuse that he was ered a course of lectures on magic
fonned out of ethereal fire, while at Salamanca, habited in a profes-
Adam was formed out of common sor's gown and wig; and that an-
1252 ENCYCLOPAEDIA. OF SUPERSTITIONS.

excel men in dignity as we do apes, land, Vesuvius, and it is known by


and were as far excelled again by the many shrieks and fearful cries
those who were above them. Our that are continually heard there-
governors an~ keepers they are, abouts, and familiar apparitions of
moreover (whIch Plato in Critias dead men, ghosts and goblins."
delivered of old), and they rule
themselves as well as us and the At a festival, calIed the Sitsubun
. . of the meaner sort ' had usu-
splnts the Japanese have a curious cere:
ally such offices as we give to our mony of casting out devils. The
servants. They knew all things, caster out of devils wanders at
an~ we can no more apprehend ~ight. through the streets, crying:
their nature and functions than a Devils out, good fortune in I" and
horse can apprehend ours. The for a trifling fee, he performs his
best kings among us and the most little exorcism in any house to
generous natures were not com- which he is called. After that,
parable ~o the meanest among dried peas are scattered about the
them. Sometimes they did instruct house in four directions, and as
men and communicate their skill devils hate dried peas, they fly
reward and cherish, and som~ away. Devils are also afraid of
times punish and terrify them to fishes' heads and holly leaves.
keep them in awe." People carrying these cannot be
possessed by them. (Lafcadio
Burton speaks, in his "Anatomy Hearn, "Glimpses of Unfamiliar
of Melancholy," of subterranean Japan.")
devils being as common as the rest
and doing as much harm. Mun- Saint Epiphanius, a dogmatical
ster says: "They are commonly bishop who lived in the fourth cen-
seen about mines and metals and tury, and who wrote a treatise
there are six kinds of them. 'The against heresies, gives the follow-
!Detal men, in many places, account ing as an illustration of the clever-
It good luck to see them, as it is a ness of the devil, attributing the
sign of good ore and treasure. miracle to his power: "Among the
Georgius Agricola, in his book, Gnostics, an ancient Christian sect
reckons two more kinds, which he in the celebration of their eucha~
calls Getuli and Cobali, both are rist, the communion, three large
clothed after the manner of metal vases of the finest and clearest
men and will many times imitate crystal were brought among the
their works. Their office as Pic- congregation and filled with white
. and Paracelsus think,
tonus ' is to wine. \\Thile the ceremony was
g~ing o~ in full view of everybody,
keep treasure in the earth, that it
be not all at once revealed and be- thiS wine was instantaneously
sides, Cicogana avers that'they are changed to blood-red, then to pur-
ple, and then to azure-blue. When
the frequent cause of those horrible that was done, the priest handed
earthquakes, which often swallow one of the vases to a woman in the
up not only houses, but whole isl- congregation and requested her to
ands and cities. The last are con- bless it. She did so, and the priest
versant about the center of the offered up the following prayer, at
earth to torture souls of damned the same time pouring it into a
men to the day of judgment; the very much larger vase than the one
egress and regress are through that contained it: '~fay the grace
Aetna, Lipari, Mons Hecla in Ice- of God, which is above all incon-
BNCYCLOPAEDIA. OF SUPERSTITIONS.

In Scotland, where religion as- floor, the devil said, '1 knew not
sumed the garb of gloom and these scriptures till my father
fanaticism, a belief in the personal taught me them.' Then the minis-
appearance of devils was universal ter conjured him to tell whence he
in the seventeenth century, and was. The foul fiend replied, 'That
continued among the vulgar till he was an evil spirit come from the
within the last fifty years. The bottomless pit of hell to vex this
narrations of Satan's mean pranks, house, and that Satan was his fath-
in assaulting ministers, waylaying er.' And presently there appeared a
travelers, and disturbing families naked hand, and an arm from theel-
while at worship, would fill a large bow down, beating upon the floor
volume. In the Rev. Mr. Robert till the house did shake again, and
Law's "Memorials of Memorable also he uttered a most fearful and
Things, from 1638 to 1684," we loud cry, saying, 'Come up, my
find the following entry: father-come up. I will send my
"October, 16'10.-There was a father among you; see, there he is
devil that troubled a house in Kep- behind your backsl' Then the min-
poch, within a mile of Glasgow, for ister said, 'I saw, indeed, a hand
the matter of eight days tyme (but and an arm, when the stroke .was
disappeared again), in casting pots, given and heard.' The devil said
and droping stones from the roof, to him, 'Saw you that? It was Dot
yet not hurting any, like that which my hand, it was my father's; my
appeared in the west, in a weaver's hand is more black in the 100
house, a good man, about fourteen (palm). Would you see me,' says
years agee, which did the lyke, and the foul thief, 'put out the candl~
spoke to them audibly." The tricks and I shall come butt the house
of the devil here referred to, as (into the outer room) among you
having taken place in a weaver's like fire-balls,'" etc. The visit of
bouse in the west, about the year the minister was unavailing.
1656, and which were implicitly "About this time the devil began
believed by the most learned cler- with new assaults; and taking the
gy of the time, are related at great ready meat which was in the hoU5e p
length by Mr. George Sinclair, did sometimes hide it in holes by
professor of philosophy in the Col- the door-posts, and at other times
lege of Glasgow, in his work, hid it under the beds, and some-
"Satan's Invisible World Discov- times among the bed-clothes and
ered." The alleged events oc- under the linens, and at last did
curred at Glenluce, in Wigtonshire, carry it quite away, till nothing was
and would be too contemptible for left there save bread and water.
quotation if it were not desirable The good wife, one morning mak-
to show what paltry tricks were ing porridge for the children's
played off, and believed to be su- breakfast, had the wooden plate.
pernatural in those days. The fam- wherein the meal lay, snatched
ily of the weaver, being vexed with from her quickly. 'WellI' says
Doises and appearances, send for she, 'let me have my plate again.'
the neighboring clergyman to allay Whereupon it came flying at her.
the devil, between whom and the without any skaith done." Any
worthy man a dialogue takes place, further extract from this ridicu-
from which we extract a few pas- lous, though at one time universal-
sages: "The minister returned ly believed, narrative, would be un-
back a little, and standing upon the necessary. A modem police officer
BNCYCLOPABDIA. OF SUPERSTITIONS.

recently trodden upon, and hang ed where wanted, and they must be
it up in the chimney, to cause their abandoned without a backward
-enemy to wither away. glance.
The Tamils (a race of Southern It is a true charm from the old
India and Ceylon) believe that they country, that if you are tired of
can kill an enemy at a distance by anyone, you can get rid of that per-
a ceremony with the skull of a son by taking a bushel of dry peas
child. saying a wish for every one you
take out, as from day to day you
If you make a cut on the wall of take out some, and as they go, he
the house of an enemy, the mem- will waste and go to his grave_
bers of his household will quarrel.
(India.) To cause the death of an enemy,
Take six new pins and seven mould a heart of wax and stick
needles, stick point to point in a pins in it till it breaks. Another
piece of new cloth, and place it un- charm is to hold the waxen heart
der the doorstep of your enemy; before a slow fire. As it melts, the
when he or she walks over it, they life of the enemy will depart.
will lose the use of their legs. To harm an enemy, take salt and
pepper and put them into his cloth-
The following is a Finnish super- ing or his house, and say:
stition: The image of an absent
person is placed in a vessel of water "I put this pepper on 7oa,
Aod this salt thereto,
and a shot aimed at it, thereby That peace and happiness
wounding or slaying a hated per- You may never know."
son at many miles' distance. He will soon be miserable.
If you can get a few strands of A sheaf of com is sometimes
your enemy's hair, bore a hole in buried with a certain dedication to
a tree, put them in, and plug up the Satan, in the belief that as the com
hole j you can thus give him a rots in the ground, so will the per-
headache which cannot be relieved son wither away who is under your
until his hair is taken out of the curse when you bury the com.
tree. Another form of malediction is
To make trouble for an enemy, to bury a lighted candle by night
take some hair from the back of a in a churchyard, with certain weird
snarling, yelping cur, some from a ceremonies.
black cat, put them into a bottle The following recipe for aveng-
with a tablespoonful of gunpowder, ing oneself on one's enemies is
fill the bottle with water from a given by Kunn, in Westphalia:
running brook, and sprinkle it in "When the new moon falls on a
the form of three crosses on his Tuesday, go out before daybreak
doorstep, one at each end, and one to a stake selected beforehand, tum
in the middle. to the east and say: 'Stick, I
The negroes think that in order grasp thee in the name of the Trin-
to make an evil charm effectual, ityl' Take thy knife and say:
they must sacrifice something. In 'Stick, I cut thee in the name of
accordance with this idea, cake, the Trinity, that thou mayest obey
candy, or small coins are scattered me and chastise anyone whose
by those who place the charm. The name I mention.' Then peel the
articles thrown away must be plac- stick in two places to enable thee
BNCYCLOPdEDIA. OF SUPERSTITIONS.

shalt know that thy tabernacles It may be suspended about the


shall be in peace, and thou shalt neck, or worn on any part of the
visit thy habitation and shalt not body, so that it be kept from the
err."
A bunch of red cypress and pal-
metto tied up together and hung
from the chimney board, will pre-
vent your enemies from conjwing
you.
In India, amulets are worn by
the royalists and nobility. They
believe that they keep off evil spir-
its. If they did not wear them
their enemy would overpower
them.
sight of all but the wearer. Its ef-
In Bulgaria, every maiden and fects are to give victory over ene-
child must wear at least one blue mies, protection against their
bead as a safeguard; the same machinations, and to inspire the
holds good for horses and animals. wearers thereof with the most re-
The Chinese believe that placing markable confidence.
their classics under their pillows An incantation when somebody
will keep away all evil. is causing something to eat them:
To make one die for sleep, dis- (It is believed that an enemy or a
solve lard and put it in their drink. witch can cause something inside
Should a German assert that he of you to turn into a thing that will
has suffered from indigestion, or eat you.) "Listen, Hal I am a
from any other particular ailing, great adawehi! I never fail at any-
he will solemnly rap thrice on the thing. I surpass all others. It is
under side of the table, repeating a mere screechowl that has fright-
the word "unberufen" (meaning, ened him. Hal now I have put it
may it remain unchanged). away in the laurel thickets. There
I compel it to remain.
At a time when in danger of at- "Hal etc. It is a hooting owl
tack by furious beasts, you will be that has frightened him. At once
protected if you say reverently and I have put it away in the spruce
with sincere faith, the following thickets. There I compel it to re-
words: "At destruction and fam- main. It is only a rabbit that has
ine thou shalt laugh, neither shalt frightened him. I have put it away
thou be afraid of the beasts of the on the mountain ridges.
earth. For thou shalt be in league "It is a mountain sprite that has
with the stones of the field and the frightened him. I have put it away
beasts of the field shall be at peace on the bluff." (Now this is to treat
with thee." infants if they are affected by cry-
A talisman against enemies: ing or nervous fright. Then it is
This talisman is to be cast of the said something is eating them.
purest grain tin, and during the in- Blow water on them for four
crease of the moon. The charac- nights. Doctor them just before
ters are to be engraved on it also dark and do not carry them outside
dwing the increase of the mOOD. of the house.-"Adawehi" signifies
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

If you shoot the picture of an to their person, wilt have power


enemy with a silver bullet, you will over them for evil
cause the death of your enemy. When the bread is taken from
At some Bengal feasts, people the oven, a few red hot coals or
get brick thrown into their houses cinders are thrown into the oven
to avert ill luck. by the Magyars, in the belief that
Twice a man may pass through it is as good as throwing them
some great danger, but the third down one's enemy's throaL Thus,
time he will be injured or lose his if one's enemy would partake of
life. that bread, he would come to grief.
To be silent when in danger, is There are people who firmly be-
liev~ that persons can be cursed,
lucky. Yau are much more apt to
come out of it safely. and there are still impostors who
take advantage of the credulity of
In Germany, old women cut out silly servant girls, and pretend that
a turf a foot long on which an en- they are able to curse those whom.
emy had trod, and hung it up in for a consideration, they are re-
the chimney, in the belief that the quested to curse.
enemy would shrivel up just as the
turf did, and in the end die a lin- Throw a pebble upon which your
gering death. enemy's name is inscribed, togeth-
er with a pin, into the well of St.
When a man of one of the In- Elian, in Wales, as an offering to
dian tribes cannot get what he the well, and a curse will come
wants, or if he thinks he has been upon the one who bears the name,
unjustly treated, he will cut or and in all probability he will pine
wound himself, or perhaps take the away and die.
life of some member of his family,
If in peril by fire or water, re-
in order that the blood of the vic-
peat reverently and with sincere
tim may rest upon the head of the faith the following words, and you
oppressor. will be protected in the hour of
If you wish to bring ill luck to a danger: "When thou passest
neighbor, take nine pins, nine nails, through the waters I will be with
and nine needles, boil them in a thee, and through the rivers they
quart of water, put it in a bottle, shall not overflow thee. When
and hide it under or in their fire- thou walkest through the fire thou
place, and the family will always shalt not be burnt, neither sball
have sickness. (Negro supersti- the flame kindle upon thee."
tion.) The simplest means of averting
The negroes "conjure" by ob- evil is to spit three times over the
taining an article belonging to an- left shoulder, at the same time pro-
other, boiling it, no matter what it nouncing the Holy Name. This is
may be, in lye with a rabbit's foot, the invariable custom when waking
and a bunch of hair cut from the from an evil dream.
left ear of a female opossum. They M. Fauvel first discovered writ-
say terrible headaches and the like ten charms intended to cast a spell
can be inflicted in this way. over a persoo, in Athens in 1811.
The American Indians believe These are on leaden tablets, and
that anyone who possesses a lock proiess to bind persons by name,
of their hair or other thing related precisely in the same manner as
1262 ENCYCLOPAEDIA. OF SUPERSTITIONS.

litany" is about to begin. Such are than light, because their deeds are
the effects of superstition and im- evil" I

agination that the notice alone is In British Guiana, it is to this


frequently sufficient with these day firmly believed by the negroes
weak people to make them waste and others. that injuries inflicted
away with fear, or else go mad and even upon the ordure of persons
commit suicide. will be felt by the individual by
In Mirzapoor, a Brahmin took whom they were left. In Somer-
his only child, an infant about fif- set, England, it is also believed that
teen months old, from the arms of it is very injurious to an infant to
its mother and dashed its brains out bum its excrement. It is thought
against the ground, that it might to produce constipation and colic.
become an evil spirit and torment In Australia, the sorcerett has dif-
a certain person by whom he im- ferent means of attacking an ene-
agined himself injured. my. He can creep near him when
Another child was stabbed to he is asleep and bewitch him to
the heart, and her bleeding body death by merely pointing a legbone
thrown at the door of the house of of a kangaroo at him; or he can
the enemy upon whom the mur- steal away his kidney-fat, where, as
derer would be avenged. the natives believe, a man's power
The Finnish superstition of pro- dwells; or he can call in the aid oi
ducing an absent person in the a malignant demon to strike the
form of an image in a vessel of poor wretch with his club behind
water and then shooting it, and the neck, or he can get a lock of
thereby wounding or slaying the hair and roast it with fat over the
absent enemy, is believed to be fire until its former owner pines
efficacious at a hundred miles dis- away and dies.
tance. In Calcutta, a servant having
It was at the instigation of Elea- quarreled with his master, hung
nor, Duchess of Gloucester (for himseH in the night in front of the
which she was imprisoned), that a street door, that he might become
figure made of wax was used to a devil and haunt the premises.
represent King Henry VI., the in- The house was immediately for-
tention being for his person to be saken by its occupants, and, al-
destroyed as the figure was con- though a large and beautiful edi-
sumed. fice, was suffered to go to ruins.
Light, as well as fire, is a safe- In another instance, an Indian
guard against malefic influences. persuaded his wife to let him bum
The ign~rant Irish peasant arrived her alive, so that she could become
in this instance, through supersti- an evil spirit and be able to tor-
tion, at the same truth as the highly ment a neighbor who had offended
cultured Emerson, who said: him.
"Light is the best policeman!" In The western tribes of Victoria.
the government of cities, it has Australia, believe that if an enemy
been found that nothing breaks up can get hold of so much as a bone
a highly disreputable neighborhood from the meat one has eaten, that
quicker than the placing therein of he can bring illness upon you.
a number of powerful electric Should anything belonging to an
lights. "They love darkness better unfriendly tribe be found, it is giv-
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCBS.

en to the chief, who preserves it as placed, in great secrecy, in the


a means of injuring the enemy. It stream of some shadowy bum.
is loaned to anyone of the tribe The belief is that as the body of
who \'fishes to vent his spite against clay wastes away from the action
any of the unfriendly tribe. When of the wa"ter, the victim sought to
used as a charm, it is rubbed over be cursed will as surely waste away
with emu-fat mixed with clay, and to death.
tied to the point of a spear. This It is thought, in Bermuda, that
is stuck upright in the ground be- the reason why it has been raining
fore the camp fire. The company sit for several consecutive years dur-
watching it, but at such a distance ing the annual agricultural show,
that their shadows cannot fall on iL is because an old colored woman
They keep chanting imprecations
on the enemy till the spear thrower had laid a curse upon it, having, as
she imagined, ground for com-
turns around and falls in his direc- plaint against the promoters there-
tion. Any of these people believe of for some real or fancied injury.
that by getting a bone or other
refuse of an enemy, he has the Among the negroes of the South,
power of life and death over him, as well as among the natives of the
be it man, woman, or child. He can West Indies, there still exists the
kill his enemy by sticking the bone widespread belief of the voodoo
firmly by the fire. No matter how (q. v.), which is a charm cast upon
distant, the person will waste away. a person or animal, and which is
This same belief is found among always inimical. The person who
the American Indians. is able to cast the charm is a voo-
It is a common belief among the doo doctor. Some voodoo charms
American Indians that certain are cast by incantations, some by
medicine men possess the power of the evil eye, some by merely wish-
taking life by shooting needles, ing harm to the object intended to
straws, spiders' webs, bullets and be injured. No voodoo or voodoo
other objects, however distant the doctor is ever credited with power
person may be at whom they are to do good. The voodoo man can do
directed. Thus, in "Cloud Shield's harm to an enemy, but no benefit
"-inter Count for 1824-1825," Cat- to his employer, save such indirect
Owner was killed with a spider-web benefit as may accrue from the en-
thrown at him by a Dakota. It emy's hurt. The favorite voodoo
reached the heart of the victim charm which is sold by aged
from the hand of the man who witches at prices ranging from fifty
threw it, and caused him to bleed cents to five dollars, according to
to death from the nose. (Mallery, the wealth of the purchaser, is
Picture Writing of the American composed of a red flannel bag,
IndWls.j some two inches long and one inch
wide, \vhich is sewed tightly all
In the North of Scotland, a pe- around, having been filled with fish
culiar piece of witchcraft is still prac- bones, scrapings from the nails of
ticed, where a cowardly, )et dead- a dead person or dead baby's hair,
ly, hatred is cherished against a and one or two valueless herbs.
penon. A "body of clay," called in This is worn around the neck bv a
Gaelic "Carp Creaah," is made as string, and is supposed to confer
nearly as possible to resemble the upon the wearer power to harm
one sought to be injured. This is someone with a thought. It is also
J264 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

believed to protect the wearer buys from a charm-dealer the


against evil spirits, and the evil eye. charm called manara-mody. The
(Other superstitions about the voo- trader, having finished his business
doo, see under "Voodoo.'') on the coast, starts homeward, all
unconscious that his enemy ~
One of the charms formerly
sent the fatal charm after him to
most dreaded by the natives of
dog his steps through forest and
Madagascar, was called berika. It
swamp, over hill and valley. At
is said to be most deadly in its ef-
length he reaches his home, thank-
fects, bringing about the death of
the victim by bursting his heart, ful to be once more with his fam-
ily. But alasl the rejoicing is soon
and causing him to vomit immense
turned to mourning, for the re-
quantities of blood. Even the pos-
morseless charm does its work, and
sessor of this charm stood in terror
smites the victim with sore disease,
of it, and none but the most reck-
or slays him outright at once.
less of charm-dea1ers and sorcerers
would have .anything to do with it. Dr. \\"yatt, of the Aborigines
It was popularly supposed to have Protection Society, describes the
an inherent liking for blood, and Australian practice of "painting
that it would at times demand from the bone," a mode by which the
its owner to be allowed to go forth natives destroy their victims, as it
to destroy some living thing; at was told him by a member of the
one time it would demand a bul- Adelaide tribe. His informant first
lock, at another a sheep or pig, at spread his blanket on the ground
another a fowl, and occasionally its and bade Dr. Wyatt suppose that a
ferocity would only be satisfied man was under it, asleep. He then
with a human victim. The owner retired a few paces, laid himself
was obliged to comply with its de- down at full length, crept along
mands and perform the appropriate upon his elbows with the least p0s-
incantations so as to set it at liber- sible noise. and beckoned to him
ty to proceed on its fatal errand, to reach him a little stick he had
lest it should tum on him and prepared to represent the weapon.
strike him dead. In fact, the charm When he had arrived close to the
was of so uncertain a temper, so to blanket, he very carefully lifted up
speak, that its owner was never the corner of it and said: "Here
sure of his own life, as it might at are the head and neck." The stick
any moment tum upon him and was slowly thrust into the earth (as
destroy him, out of sheer ferocity. if into the neck, above the collar-
Another powerful charm is called bone) in a slanting direction; and,
manara-mody. It is supposed to when it had been made to pene-
follow the person to be injured, and trate about six or eight inches, was
on his arrival home, to bring upon in the same manner withdrawn, the
him a serious illness or cause his finger and thumb of the left hand
immediate death. For instance, a being ready to close the imaginary
person goes down from the interior wound. This was immediately
to the coast for the purpose of done, and, after the orifice had
trade. In some business transac- been kept closed by the pressure
tion, he unfortunately excites the for a short time, a little earth was
anger of a man with whom he is taken up and sprinkled upon the
dealing, and who determines to part, and the native said: "There
seek revenge. For this purpose, he is no blood, no wound to be SeeD,
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

East with cone-shells, not for The Jews consider it unlucky to


beauty, but to keep off the evil eye. say to a person enjoying himself,
In East India, it is believed that "How merry you are I" or to one
the glance of fascination will be whilst eating, "How fat you are.-
averted by gold; hence letters To do this, indicates that you have
from a raja, for instance, are spot- the evil eye.
ted with gold leaf. Orientals feared the influence of
the evil eye so much that not an
The ugly figure of a European
action or a time or a place was left
is drawn in caricature on the walls
unguarded by some kind of an am-
of a house in East India, to avert ulet.
the evil eye.
A pair of horns guard us &om
A remedy for the evll eye is the evil eye. (Sicilian proverb.)
"Alyssum," hung up anywhere in
the house. A charm to avert the evll eye is
to sprinkle the patient with "gold
To counteract the spell of an and silver water."
evil eye, Russian girls tie red rib-
bons around birch trees; Germans To make a sign of the cross by
wear a radish. crossing the first and second finger
will ward off the evil eye.
The bad influences from one who
has the evil eye may be averted by A charm to protect against the
sticking an awl in his footprints. evil eye is to carry a hare's foot.
says the English peasant.
In Tuscany, the lavender coun- The Romans believed that the
teracts the evil eye. look. of some people could set the
The Irish think that not only seeds of death in an instant.
their cattle, but also their children, It is the custom in France to
are "eye-bitten" if they happen to break eggshells to avoid fascina-
fall sick. tion.
Ferdinand said, on hearing of the A story is related of an unhappy
insurrection at Naples: "I knew Slav who, with the most loving
some evil would befall me, for I heart, was afflicted with the evil
passed a jettatore (a person with eye, and at last blinded himseU,
an evil eye) to-day while I was that he might not be the means of
hunting." injury to his children. (Elworthy,
It is unlucky to have a person "The Evil Eye.")
gaze steadfastly at you. Do not let Shells, bones, and blue beads in
anyone look at you from head to strings, are worn by Turks on their
foot, as if "sizing you up"-it will heads, as well as hung on the ani-
bring evil to you. mals, to ward off the evil eye.
In some parts, it is believed that The dipping of the feet in the
the owner of an "evil eye" can de- morning in human urine, is a pre-
stroy trees by looking at them in- ventive against charms.
tently in the morning. In Proverbs, we read: "Eat not
The Old Testament cautions us thou the bread of him that hath the
not to eat bread with one who has evil eye," a maxim that is just as
the evil eye. (Proverbs, 23rd chap- much believed in and observed to-
ter.) day as in the days of Solomon.
1268 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

Jugs are put on the houses, on evidences of the existing belief in


the roofs, to keep off the evil eye. the evil eye. One of his diggers,
(Albanian.) Theocharis, for instance, invariably
It was firmly believed by all an- made the &ign of the cross before
cients that some malignant influ- entering a cave, to avert the malig-
ence darted from the eyes of en- nant influences of the evil eye.
vious or angry persons, and so af- The Arabs believe that a glance
fected the parts as to penetrate and from a hyena will cause the hunter
corrupt the bodies of both living to lose his intellect and to have it
creatures and inanimate objects. enter the brain of the animal..
"\Vhen anyone looks at what is ex- Hence the Arabic saying: "Ah,
cellent with an envious eye, he fills you have seen a hyenal" which is
the surrounding atmosphere with as much as to say : "You have lost
a pernicious quality, and transmits your brains!"
his own envenomed exhalations
into whatever is nearest to him." An Arabic variation of the evil
(Elworthy, "The Evil Eye.") eye is the charm known as "FJ
Khams," the five; which is prac-
If a woman, especially a beauty, ticed among many tribes of Arabs.
goes visiting and after her return It consists of extending the four
is taken sick, she is supposed to fingers and thumb of the right
have been affected by the evil eye. hand, palm downward, toward the
To cure her, some relative goes se- object of resentment, a harsh gut-
cretly to the house where she visit- tural sound being made at the same
ed and cuts a piece of cloth from time, low down in the throat. This
some dress in that house, brings charm is considered so dangerous
it home, and bums it, so that the and deadly that the victim of such
afflicted one can smell the smoke. a demonstration is considered quite
This will cure her of her illness. justified in using any weapon he
(Turkey.) may possess to kill or maim the
Not very long ago, there lived a operator of the charm. The only
very well known old woman in thing one can do to ward off this
Scotland, who made an honest live- charm is to extend the right hand,
lihood by the sale of "Skaith saw," palm outward, toward the operator,
as a charm against the evil eye. and say the famous Arab formula
of exorcism: "Praise God I"
The Cretans and the people of
Cyprus had, in ancient times, the The belief in the disastrous effect
reputation of being especially en- of the evil eye is common in Chile,
dowed with the faculty of injuring and when any illness not under-
others with the evil eye, and the stood afflicts one, it is frequently
same belief continues to this day, attributed to this cause, and strange
as recounted by General Cesnola. remedies are resorted to in order
(Elworthy, "The Evil Eye.") to counteract iL A nimals ridden
Count Cesnola, the Italian ar- by certain persons are also believed
chaeologist, who, while American to become ill and feeble by the con-
eonsul at Lamaka, Cyprus, 1865 to tacL This is to a certain extent
181'1, conducted extensive and correct, but is rather to be account-
highly successful excavations on ed for by the irritation from unnec-
that island, writes, in his work on essary use of the whip and spur.,
Cyprus, that he met frequently which some riders habitually use
BNCYCLOPAEDIA. OF SUPERSTITIONS.

some brown wax, from the candles der his waistcoat, but still for sev-
eral days refused to part with it.
used during the Holy Week serv-
ice, to the heads of the children or At last the almighty dollar (or, be-
animals. Some again hung a sort ing translated, English gold) pre-
of a seashell called bahbuha round vailed, but he had no sooner parted
the necks of the little ones, or cat- with it than he exclaimed: "Eper-
tle, to make them impervious to its duta la mia fortunal" (I have lost
effects. A pair of horns is also my fortune I)
used by some as a charm to avert Among the Neapolitans is a very
the evil eye. curious amulet called the "sprig of
w. W. Story, the American poet rue." There is but one ancient ex-
and author, writes: "In Rome are ample of this amulet to be found.
many noted jettatori, one of them and that is in the Museum at ~
is a pleasant and most handsome logna, but we may safely give it an
man attached to the church, and Etruscan or Phoenician origin. No
yet, by odd coincidence, wherever plant had more virtues ascribed to
he goes, he carries ill luck. If he it in ancient times than the rue.
goes to a party, the ices do Pliny says that it is the most active
not arrive, the music is late, of all medicinal plants, good for
the lamps go out, a storm stings of serpents, so much so that
comes OD, the waiter smashes his when weasels are about to attack
tray of refreshments, or something them they first eat iL It is also
else is sure to happen. Someone good for bites of scorpions, spiders,
said yesterday: 'I was looking out bees, wasps, hornets, mad dogs,
of my window when I saw - - - and the noxious effects of canthar-
coming along. "Phew I" said I, ides and salamanders. He quotes
making the sign of the cross and Pythagoras, Harpocrates, and Di-
pointing two fingers, "what ill luck ocles, while Gerard calls it the
will happen now to some poor devil "herb of grace," and Culpepper
who does not see him?" I watched says, "It is an herb of the sun and
him all down the street, however, under Leo." The editor of Pliny's
and nothing occurred; but this works tried it, and found nothing
morning I hear that, after turning in it; but at any rate, images of it
the comer, he spoke to a poor little are now worn as amulets by about
boy, who was up in a tree gather- all the babies in Naples and other
ing some fruit, and no sooner was parts of Italy, and the children use
he out of sight than down fell the representations of a sprig of rue for
boy and broke his arm.' " protection against the terrible jet-
Frederick Thomas Elworthy, the tatura.
author of "The Evil Eye," writes: Horns, in one form or another,
"Recently I have in Naples obtain- are of all objects the most common
ed a large mother-o'-pearl gobbo defense against the evil eye, so
from a man who was wearing it much so that it is fully believed by
under his waistcoat. I wanted to Neapolitans that, in default of a
buy it from him, as he was a dealer, hom in some shape, the mere ut-
and sold me several small ones last terance of the word como or COrDa,
year, but then he would not sell it. is an effectual protection.
Later I met him again, and enquir- The people of Senegal, Peru,
ed if he still had the gobbo, which Palestine, Holland, Greece. the
he immediately produced from un- Druses of Lebanon, the Jewesses
FOLKLORE. AND THE OCCULT SCIENCBS.

of Tunis, the women of South Af- pieces, and a certain Titinnia, in


rica, the North American Indians, Rome, who, by her evil eye, caused
the Belgians of old, the Saxons, all the orator Curio to remain speech-
wore horns on their heads in some less when he was about to make a
manner, on head-dresses, or hel- peroration against the senate.
mets, to ward off that awful, uni- An amulet in the shape of an
versal, unescapable mystic glance open hand has been worn as a pro-
that did and does continually harass tection since the remotest antiqui-
man in all quarters of the globe I ty, in fact, as long as charms and
Whoever wrote Isaiah and the amulets were used to ward off the
Epistle to the Ephesians must have evil eye. Over the great gate of
been perfectly familiar with the at- the Alhambra, where the king or
tachment of horns to the helmet the kadi dispensed justice in ori-
for protection, for the horns made ental fashion, is a large upright
it the "helmet of salvation or safe- hand on the keystone of the outer
ty." The altar of the Tabernacle, Moorish arch, in defiance of the
as described in Exodus, was horn- strict objection of the Moslem to
ed. "At the four comers were four images. The orientals have always
projections called horns, made like had a profound dread of the terri-
the altar itself, of shittim wood ble influence of the evil eye. At
overlaid with brass. To them the Morisco, the women wore small
victim was bound when sacrificed. hands of gold around their necks
The blood was sprinkled on the like the Neapolitans, a substitute
homs." (Smith's Bible Diction- for the classical phallus.
ary.)
The arms of Ulster have a large
Mascagni. the famous Italian uplifted hand. Perhaps the most
composer, like so many other Ital- apt and well known illustration of
ian artists, is said to carry in his the holding up of the hand as a
pockets an extraordinary collection powerful gesture is the account in
of amulets against the superstition Exodus xvii, 2: "And it came to
of the evil glance, the list including pass when Moses held up his hand
horns of mother of pearl, ivory, and that Israel prevailed; and when he
ebony, and corals, some of them let down his hand Amalek prevail-
bearing the effigy of his patron, ed." Then, because he could not
Saint George, besides a goodly hold it up continually, it was held
Dumber of lucky chestnuts. up by Aaron and Hur.
"-alletta, the author of a work on On the great marble columns in
the evil eye, records that a servant the church-mosque of 51. Sophia at
of the Duke of Briganzio caused a Constantinople, is a very remark-
falcon to drop down dead. In the able freak of nature. There is a
Acts of the Academy of Paris," it white mark in the dark purple
is recorded that a dirty old hag, in marble exactly like a spread-out
1739, went near and paused before hand; in fact, it is so good a repre-
a highly polished nlirror, which, sentation that one naturallv fancies
from her glance absorbed so much at first that it is artificial; but on
greasy matter that, collected to- close inspection, it is found to be
~ether. it \\as proved to be a very the natural olarking of the marble.
powerful poison. \:'alletta also It is about the size of a hand, and
mentions a person who, by looking is really a conspicuous object when
on a block of marble, dashed it to the visitor is conducted to the front
1272 BNCYCLOPABDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

of it, as he is sure to be by the part in any religious ceremonies,


guides. It is held in the very high- no matter how devout. Certain
est reverence by the people as be- ailments are still set down to their
ing the hand of the prophet. It is influence, and they are believed to
believed to protect all who go to have the power of the "loup garou"
pray near it from the evil eye. If orwere-wolf,that of changing them-
this fine column had, as some de- selves into hyenas and other raven-
clare, a previous existence in an ous beasts, the counterparts of the
ancient temple, who shall say to wolves of the North.
how many generations of men this The old world superstition of the
strange piece of nature's art has "evil eye" exists in the Australian
been an object of veneration. tribe which calls itself "Dun-ga-
There was nothing in Italy so rah." Its people avoid looking
evil as the eye of the late Pope Pio into each other's faces, but if one of
Nono. His blessing was fatal. The them sees anyone gazing intently
most devout Catholics, when ask- upon him, he very sharply at once
ing his blessing, used to point two reminds the other of the fact, as
fingers at him. Ask a Roman their idea is that for anyone to gaze
about the pope's evil eye, and he long upon another will cause sick-
will answer: "They said so, and it ness to follow. If the person dies,
seems really to be true. Every- the person who gazed is held re-
thing on which he gave his blessing sponsible for it and is killed, even
proved a fiascol When he went to vengeance being taken on the
St. Agnese to hold a great festival, tribe. Any mysterious death is be-
down went the floor, and the peo- lieved to have been caused by some
ple were all smashed together. one gazing upon the individual,
Then he visited the column to the thus choking him, and killing him.
Madonna in the Piazza di Spagna, An old woman of the Dun-ga-
and down fell a workman and killed rahs (New South Wales) carries
himself. Lord C. came in from about in her bag a dried human
Albano feeling a little unwell; the hand, which she has stained a red
pope sent him his blessing, when color. All the blacks are afraid of
he died on the spot. In fact, end- her, and consider her a sorceress.
less things confirm the opinion." The impression of the human hand
The pope blessed a rosary owned is frequently seen on the rocks
by Rachel, the great actress, who about here, the trees, walls, and so
put it on her arm. She had been forth. They spread the hand on
visiting a sister who was ill but im- the rock and scrape all about it, so
proving; hardly had she left her, as to leave the shape slightly rais-
very happy in her recovery, when ed. They then stain this figure of
a message came that she was dying. the hand with fungus, which makes
The actress caught the bracelet it a dark orange-red color, and
from her arm, exclaiming: "0 puts a gloss on the stone which
fatal gift I 'Tis thou that hast en- prevents its crumbling away. This
tailed this curse upon me I" Her makes the figure of the hand pro-
sister died that day. ject out of the rock, and all blacks
In Abyssinia, potters and iron- visiting the vicinity will put more
workers were supposed to be espe- fungus on it, giving it a deeper
cially endowed with the evil eye, stain and gloss. This red hand is
and were not permitted to take a protection from the evil eye, and
1274 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

Lord Sude1y, who became finan- forehead. They were little leather
cially ruined; Mr. Reuben Sassoon, boxes containing strips of parch-
who was also har<fhit by financial ment, on which were written what
reverses; the Earl of Sefton, who was called the Tetragrammaton.
has had great family troubles; the namely, Exodus xiii., 2-10; DeuL
Duke of Fife, who is afHicted with vL, 4-9; Exodus xiii., 11-16; Deut.
spinal disease; and a long list of his xi., 13-21. They were certainly
especial cronies and companions, worn by all Jews over thirteen
every one of whom have had years of age, at the time of our
bad luck or worse, so that the Lord, not only as an article of wor-
friendship of the prince is come to ship, but also as a protection
be recognized as certain bad luck, against the evil eye.
if not ruin. To quote the article, Among the ancient Egyptians,
"The only other royal personage in not only were protecting amulets
history who is accredited with hav- worn by the living, but in that land
ing possessed the evil eye, is where the idea of a future life
Charles II. of England, whose seemed to absorb so much of the
character and record present so care and interest of the present.
many analogies with England's they placed them in profusion on
heir-apparent, both of them being their dead, in order that they might
distinguished for a strange mixture be protected from evil spirits and
of levity and common sense, gener- the blighting eye, during the dark
osity and selfishness." passage from this world to the
A great mass of historical testi- next. Maspero says that these
mony assures us that the brazen amulets (speaking of scarabs, a
serpent and all such objects as we kind of beetle held sacred by the
." . now call amulets, like the grillo at Egyptians) were placed upon the
Athens, the crocodiles of Seville breast of the dead with a written
and Venice, were not originally prayer that the heart of the person
worshipped "idolatrously, but were whose form the beetle was made to
looked upon as magically endowed represent, would never bear wit-
with the power of countervailing ness against the dead in the day of
the effect of the malignant eye, the judgment. These scarabs and
fertile source, it was thought, of mystic eyes were worn equally by
every evil to mankind. the living and the dead as amulets
against evil magic, moreover, the
It is very probable that the "ter- mystic eye appears everywhere
aphim" which Rachel stole from painted on walls. One such of
Laban were really amulets, not the especial size and prominence, is to
kind to be worn, but used as pro- be found over the door of one of
tecting objects. We have no rea- the upper chambers in the temple
son to believe that Rachel carried of Denderah, and it is seen con-
them off with the object of wor- stantly as cne of the hieroglyphs.
shipping them, but rather to pro- Arab amulets at the present day
tect her household from the evil bear the figute of the thing against
eye. which they exert their virtue, and
"The frontlets between thine all oriental practices in this line
eyes," mentioned in Exodus, were come down from immemorial anti-
true amulets. One kind of phylac- quity.
tery was bound upon the bend of Plutarch, in a remarkable pas-
the left arm and the other on the sage, declares that the objects that
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

off the pixies, who might other- searching in a graveyard till he


wise mislead them. would find a coffin which bas a
The frog, which was highly re- knot-hole in it. That hole through
vered by the ancient Egyptians as which the deceased was on the
expressing various supernatural lookout, may be used as an eye-
properties, is also one of the ani- glass, and whoever is stared at
mals believed to have the power of through it, will sicken or come to
the evil eye, and at the same time misfortune.
being a powerful protection against The following are remedies
fascination. Hence amulets with against the evil eye:
the figure of a frog were Dot only The skin of a hyena's forehead.
in use in ancient times, but are to The kernel of the frait of the
this day worn by Italians, Greeks, palm tree..
and Turks. Spitting in the right shoe before
The Arabs believe that the camel it is put aD.
is of all animals the most suscepti- Necklace of jacinth, sapphire or
ble to the evil effects of a malig- carbuncle.
nant glance, and therefore never Sweeping a child's face with the
let a camel journey without its am- branch of a pine tree.
ulet. The commonest protection Giving in a drink the ashes of a
is a string of coarse blue glass rope with which a man has been
beads hung on its neck, and a little hanged.
bag containing words from the Hanging the key of the house
Koran. These are also used by the over a child's cradle.
Arabs for their horses. Laying turf dug from a boy's
grave under a boy's pillow, or turf
When people are eating, espe- from a girl's grave under a girl's
cially of dainties, they may swallow pillow.
unawares poison which "longing Laying coral steeped in a font
looks" have conveyed into the where a child was baptized, in its
food. Hence the custom in many cradle.
lands for kings and the wealthier Hanging around its neck fennel~
classes to eat alone. seeds or bread and cheese.
The Zinca1is say that it is not ad- Christians in Palestine to-day use....-:
visable to eat in the presence of a palm branches against the evil ey~
woman, for the evil eye cast by a Mohammedans in Palestine us~
woman is far more dangerous than at the present day tamarack w ~
when cast by a man. as a charm against the evil eye. -
The unlearned among the Sar- Blue beads are hung on ~
dinians dread being looked at by a necks of animals and children.
man of letters. In order to protect the ttees a2fiF A
The Romans attributed the pos- plants against the evil eye, ~
session of the evil eye to the late Syrian farmer will fasten to then......-
Pope Pius IX., and would at the glass ring of blue color and an e_~
same time, when praying for his One possessing the evil eye ~
blessing, fork out two fingers, to lure you to your downfall.
break the power of his glance.
Many Egyptians would ra~~'"
One who has not the power of eat poison than any of the fat DE :M:2
the evil eye may acquire it by that hangs up in the shops, 4
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

and Teutons, but among such peo- Neapolitan jettatore is traditional-


ple as the Turks, Italians, Span- ly a morose and sallow man, eager
iards, as well as the Chinese, Japa- to cast his blighting influence over
nese, Negroes, and Red Indians. men and women, but most com-
Thus, in Camiola and Corsica, a . monly children, and usually he is
mother does not care to hear her a mean-looking personage, totally
baby praised, or a farmer his crops; unlike the portentous figure ideal-
while even in England, here and ized in the Corrieolo of Dumas.
there sick people still feel uneasy Many of the medieval philosophers
at being told they are looking much have seriously discussed the ra-
better. tionale of the evil eye, with its re-
Nowhere, at the present day, has lations to the poisonous rays emit-
the belief in the evil eye a more real ted by toads and basilisks, and the
power than among the Neapolitans. fascination of terror exerted by the
The jettatura is one of the common serpent upon the bird, through
dangers incident to life, and every keeping its eyes fixed steadfastly
one wears his amulet against it. upon it. Grimm notes, as one of the
These are usually of silver, in the best means of recognizing a witch,
form of an antelope horn, a hand that when you look into her eyes,
with the first and little finger dou- you see your image reflected upside
bled down, a key with a heart in its down, and suggests, that the pe-
handle, a crescent moon with a culiar conformation may have had
face in it, or a sprig of rue. Other something to do with her evil eye.
very common forms are the cima- At any rate, this baneful property
rota, an emblem combined of all is characteristic of witches every-
the foregoing, none of which are where, of none more than in those
directly Christian symbols, and the of Teutonic mythology.
cavallo marino ("sea-horse") and EVIL TOUCH-Some people
sirena, the last two being very are supposed to be possessed of
common in Pompeiian paintings. what is called "the evil stroke."
The horror of this fatal gift of fas- This, however, is not half so dan-
cination, with its blighting influ- gerous as the evil eye, because you
ence, is deepened by the fact that can avoid letting them touch you.
it is exerted upon any object upon
which the eye may first light, often, FEAR-All those who bear the
if not indeed usually, in opposition name of Jesus about them, shall not
to, the will of the person who is be afraid, nor have the ague.
cursed with it. Men now possess it How to dispel fear of the dark-
more commonly than women-nay, ness at night, is taught by the Ger-
the jettatore is often a priest or a man conjurer, Little: Take water
monk, and it was long a matter of which is distilled, mix it with man's
common belief that it was an un- blood, spread it over the face, and
happy attribute of Pio Nono him- thou wilt fear nothing. Thou may-
self. In ancient times, on the con- est go wherever thou wishest.
trary, it was more common in wom- FEATHER - Turkey feathers
en than men, and was possessed are considered a barrier to ill luck.
most often by little old women with Everyone should own a turkey
squint or deep-set eyes, especially wing.
those who were lean and melan- It is said that if a feather is plac-
choly, and had double pupils. The ed in the bride's bouquet, withou~
FOLKLORB, ~D THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1279

the knowledge of the groom, they an economy would come to a stand-


will both be rich. still. No witches could be exorcised
It is good luck if a bird sheds a nor sickness cured, nor much of
feather while flying over your head, anything be accomplished. A pea-
and still better luck if it falls upon cock feather is harder to keepin the
you. vicinity of Indians than the finest
horse, these brilliant plumes are
Tubes of the feathers plucked on too tempting. Any white or bright-
twelfth night should be preserved, hued plume is a good omen, "good
as a remedy against moths and medicine," as the Indians would
bugs. (German.) put it.
If the feather from the wing of a A feather of a live robin is a
bird falls to your feet, and if you good charm.
pick it up and keep it, it will keep To find a single feather of the
all evil from you. fire-bird, means success in all your
The Indians' token of friend- undertakings.
ahip is a tuft of white feathers. Dark feathers, especially those
If a feather lights on your hair, of the owl, woodpecker, buzzard,
it means an angry day before you. and raven, are unspeakably accurs-
ed. Indians will not touch them
In Tahiti, it was believed that if unless they have the "evil road,"
you could get your enemy to accept that is, are witches; and any Indian
a bunch of red feathers, he would found with them in his possession
then be unable to resist you, and will be looked upon at once as in
you would always be successful league with the evil one.
over him.
FECUN DITY-Seeds of docks
It is lucky to carry pigeon's
are worn tied to the left arm of the
feathers in your pocket. It will women in Ireland, to make them
prevent people from exercising bear children.
their wills over your own. (Ger-
man.) FINDING-To find a knife or a
'\'ben a patient lies on pigeon- razor, will bring a disappointment.
feathers in Ireland, the people (Norman.)
band a horseshoe over the bed or If you lose a stocking, you will
place the sick person's shoes face receive a present.
downward, to counteract the evil It is lucky to find a fairy shoe;
inftuence. ' but if it is shown to anyone, the
If you want to keep mist and fog luck is reversed. (Irish.)
out of your garden, hang up eagles' If you find an arrow, you will be
feathers in the four comers or in very lucky afterwards.
the middle. (English.) Find a nail, and someone will at-
Eagle-feathers are of sovereign tack your character.
Wile among Indian tribes, and in Never, under any circumstances,
IJJOat of the pueblos in New Mex- pick up human hair lying in the
ko, great, dark, captive eagles are road, especially a woman's hair. It
kept, to furnish the coveted article will "hoodoo" you.
lor rnOlt important occasions. If To find a cannon ball or a piece
the bird of freedom were suddenly of a shell, is a very good omen.
ederaliDated now, the whole Indi- (German.)
I~ ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

To find a piece of coral where If you find a musical instrument.


coral does not abound, is a very it is a sign that you will have sweet
good omen. (Swedish.) consolation in trouble.
If you find a grain of com in an To find an Indian arrowhead, is
unexpected place and pick it up, good luck.
something very unusual will hap- To find a whisk-broom is to find
pen to you. cleanliness.
To find a mouse-nest, foretells If you find a ribbon which is tied
luck in business. in a knot, and you open it, you will
The Spanish are delighted if they get a wart.
can find an)1:hing with a star on it. If you happen to find a nail,
If you find a whole bunch of make a wish, hammer the nail deep
keys, you will unlock the bosom into something, and you will ham-
secret of some acquaintance. mer your wish into fact.
Pick up all the old buttons that It is lucky to find a yellow rib-
lie in your path, as everyone will bon, especially if it is floating on
bring )ou a new friend. water j it presages gold
If you find a wig, be careful if To find anything that is purple,
anyone is sick in your family, for is an unfailing sign of good luck.
it augurs a death. To find a potato in the road, is a
If you accidentally find a mush- sign of wealth.
room, it is a sign of long life. It is very lucky to find a peanut;
Finding a bird's nest is a sign but very unlucky to find an empty
that your family will be augmented. peanut shell.
Finding a package of needles is If you find a silk nobon, you will
a sign that you have friends who be distressed.
are deceitful and wish you mischief. Do not pick up rags; they mean
Finding a nest of snakes is a sign poverty.
that someone is trying to give you You will get as many unexpected
a bad reputation. dollars as there are holes in the
If anyone finds a penknife, it is button you find.
a sign of infidelity in married life. It is very lucky to find a rusty
To find an arrowhead is bad luck, nail. Do Dot pick it up, however,
for it is a sign of contention. but reverse the ends, and let it re-
To find a knife on a bridge, pre- main where you found it.
dicts misfortune. To find postage stamps, is an
If one happens to pass a hatchet omen of luck.
or an axe on the ground, lying with To find a shell full of sand, is an
the edge toward him, it is a sign omen of good luck.
of misfortune. To find pencils, is lucky.
To find a pearl-button, is extra If you find money and keep it
good luck. a whole year, it will draw more
If a person finds a small key and money.
puts it in a pocketbook to carry, he If you throwaway twenty-five
will always- have money. cancelled postage stamps, tied up
If you are a good finder of lost in a little parcel, you will find
articles, you will prosper. something of value before night.
1182 BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.
I

To find anything belonging to a To find a corkscrew, signifies


baby, signifies that you will be very that you will meet an inquisitive
happy. friend.
To find anything black, signifies To find a diamond, signifies a
vexation, disquiet. brief and false happiness.
To find a lost book, signifies a If you find a dime, let a left-
heritage. handed, blue-eyed smith engrave
To find a bottle, signifies that on it a snake in the act of swallow-
you will lose a friend. ing itself tail first, and you will be
To find a bouquet, signifies suc- most fortunate in all your transac-
cess in any undertaking. tions.
To find a box, signifies that you To find an eatable, signifies that
will bake a cake. you will be hungry.
To find a piece of anything red, To find a fish-hook, signifies a
especially if it be anything wool, theft.
signifies that you will have luck in To find a fan, signifies cunning
love. deceit to be practiced.
To find a button, signifies that To find a fish-pole, signifies that
you will better yourself in mar- you will lose something.
riage. To find a flower in an unlooked-
To find a button, signifies that for place, signifies great joy.
you will win a confidence. To find a lady's garter, if you are
When you find a button, if you a male, signifies that your sweet-
pick it up and put it in your shoe, heart is true.
you can have the next thing you To find an odd glove, signifies
,wish for. great misfortune; do not pick it up.
To find a coat-button, is the sign To find anything gold, signifies
of the receipt of a letter within good fortune.
twenty-four bourse
To find anything gray, signifies
To find a white collar-button, peace, calm, content.
foretells a lawsuit.
To find a black-bordered or
If you find a straw in your cham- black handkerchief, signifies death.
ber, expect a visitor; if a grain is
on the straw, a gentleman; if no To find a silk handkerchief, sig-
grain, a lady. nifies that you will lose your laun-
dry.
If you find a cane, or a stick, that
some one has used on the road, To find a white handkerchief,
pick it up and carry it along, signi: signifies an engagement.
fies that you will mourn soon. To find a hair-pin, signifies that
To find one or more links of a you will suffer a fall.
chain in the street, is said to be a To find a crooked hair-pin, signi-
fortunate omen. fies jealousy on the part of your
To find a collar, signifies that friends.
you will make an enemy. To find a horseshoe, signifies
To find a comb, signifies that happiness, bright days to come.
you will be accused unjustly. If you are not thinking of a jour-
Never pick up a crutch in the ney and find a key, expect to pack
street; it is unlucky. your trunk.
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

If you find a shoe floating on the danger of fire as long as it re-


water, signifies that you will soon mains.
be loved. (Gipsy.) Thiers, the great Frenchman.
If you find a pair of cotton stock- said that some people keep eggs,
mgs, it is a true sign that your hap- laid on Good Friday, all the year
piness will be moderate. around, because they believe that
To find a pair of spectacles, sig- they \\rill put out fire if thrown
nifies that you will see something upon it.
pleasant. FORTUNE TELLER - To
To find a spoon, signifies sick- draw the ace of diamonds, is a sign
ness. that you will marry a rich man.
If you find a stirrup, signifies it It is unlucky to thank a fortune
is a sign of a journey. teller, a magician, or anyone who
If you find a pair of silk stock- teaches you anything of the black
ings, signifies that you will get rich. art.
To find a stone with an L mark- H you are having your fortune
ed on it, signifies splendid luck. told, and the fortune teller drops a
card, have her stop at once, as to
To find a thimble, signifies a continue will bring very bad luck
change of employment. to you.
To find a ticket to a place of It is considered very lucky to
amusement, signifies pain. hold communication with a fortune
To find a rusty nail, signifies do- teller on the eve of any great evenL
mestic joy. It is being told of the Empress
To find a veil, signifies approach- Eugenie that on a late visit to
ing marriage. Paris, she went "incog." to a fash-
To find a watch, signifies tidings ionable palmist to have her fortune
of a friend. read. As part of the necroman-
To find anything yellow, signifies cer's art is not to see his fair peni-
jealousy of gold. tents, she had to put her hand
through a slit in a screen. After
When you pick up anything, all quite a cursory examination, the
will go well with you if you say: fortune teller said: "Madame.
"I do not pick up" (naming the ob- your hand is so extraordinary that
ject); "I pick up good luck, which one of two things must be the
may never abandon me." This is truth; either my skill must be at
an incantation of universal applica- fault for once, and 1 see impossible
tion, enabling one to secure a wish events, or you must be the Em-
out of every chance occurrence. press Eugenie, for no other hand
FIRE-A charm to extinguish could tell of such strange vicissi-
fire: "There went three holy men tudes."
over the land, they met with hellish It is a general belief in Greenock
6re. And they said, 'Thou shalt (Scotland), that if a fortune is read
withdraw and all harm shall slink by a person who is deaf and dumb,
away!' " and written with a stick on the
A protection from fire, bums, ground, it will certainly come true.
and scalds: A plant of houseleek Gipsy fortune tellers usually bid
affixed to the roof protects the in- their customers to cross their hand
mates from scalds and burns and with a bit of silver for luck, and to
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

riches. Hearts, true love. Spades, 4-blank: You will receive a let-
thrift. Oubs, poverty. ter from an angry friend.
In China, fortune-telling is Double 3: A double wedding, at
generally practiced with divining which you will be vexed, and where
blocks similar to geomancy. Be- you will lose a friend.
sides this they are experts at pal- . 3-2: Buy no lottery tickets nor
mistry, physiognomy, divination by enter into any game of chance, as
nativity, and handwriting. The you will surely lose.
most skilled professors in these arts 3-1: A great discovery is at
live in grand style, they have serv- hand.
ants to usher in their visitors and 3-blank : An illegitimate child.
they put on airs of no little im- Double 2: You will have a jeal-
portance. ous partner.
2-1: You will soon find some-
Fortune-telling by dominoes: thing to your advantage in the-
Lay them with their faces on the street or road.
table and shuffle them; draw one 2-blank : You will lose money 01"
dozen, and read the numbers as money's worth.
follows: Double 1: The loss of a frien~
Double 6: Receive a handsome whom you will miss very much.
sum of money. I-blank: You are very closely
6-5: Going to a place of public watched by one whom you little
amusement. expect.
6-4: Lawsuits and trouble which Uouble blank: The worst pre-
can only be avoided by great care. sage in the entire set. You will
6-3: A ride in a carriage. meet trouble from a quarter for
6-2: A present of clothing. which you are quite unprepared.
6-1: You will soon perform a These omens are of value only
friendly action. when used at intervals of a week..
6-blank: Guard against scandal
or you will suffer by your inatten- Fortune-telling by dice: Take
tion. three dice, shake them well in a
Double 0: A new abode to your dice-box with your left hand, and
advantage. cast them on a table on which you
6-4: A fortunate speculation in have previously drawn a circle with
business. chalk or pencil Those that fall
5-3: A visit from a superior. outside of the circle do not count.
5-2: A pleasant excursion on Repeat three times. Read yow:
water. omens as follows:
5-1: A love intrigue. 3: A pleasing surprise.
5-blank: A funeral, but not of a 4: A disagreeable surprise.
relation. D: A stranger who will prove a
Double 4: Drinking liquor at a friend.
distance. 6: Loss of property.
4-3: A false alarm at your 7: Undeserved scandal.
house. 8: Merited reproach.
4-2: Beware of thieves and 9: A wedding.
swindlers. Ladies take notice of 10: A christening.
this; it means more than it says. 11: A death that contems you.
4-1: Expect trouble from credi- 12: A speedy letter.
tors. 13: Tears and sighs.
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

versed, a discontented military Two: An engagement against


man. the wishes of friends.
Ten: Happiness, triumph; re-
versed, some slight anxiety. SPADES.
Nine: Joy, satisfaction, success; Ace: Pleasure; reversed, bad
reversed, a passing chagrin. news.
Eight: A fair person's affec- King: An envious man, an en-
tions; reversed, indifference on emy, or a dishonest lawyer, who is
their part. to be feared; reversed, impotent
Seven: Pleasant thoughts, tran- malice.
quillity; reversed, ennui, weariness. Queen: A widow; reversed, a
Six: A generous but credulous dangerous and malicious woman.
person. Knave: A dark, ill-bred young
Five: Troubles caused by un- man; reversed, he is plotting some
founded jealousy. mischief.
Four: A person not easily won. Ten: Tears, a prison; reversed,
Three: Sorrow caused by a per- brief affliction.
son's own imprudence. Nine: Tidings of a death; re-
Two: Great success, but equal versed, death of some dear one.
care and attention needed to secure Eight: Approaching illness; re-
it. versed, marriage broken off, or of-
DIAMONDS. fer refused.
Ace: A letter of importance; if Seven: Slight annoyances; re-
reversed, it will contain bad news. versed, a foolish intrigue.
King: A fair man, cunning and Six: Wealth through industry.
dangerous; reversed, greatly to be Five: A bad temper requiring
feared. correcting.
Queen: An ill-bred, scandal- Four: Sickness.
loving woman; reversed, greatly Three: A journey.
to be feared. Two: A removal.
Knave: A tale-bearing servant The court cards of hearts and
or unfaithful friend; reversed, will diamonds usually represent persons
cause mischief. of fair complexions; clubs and
Ten : Journey or change of resi- spades the opposite. Four aces
dence; reversed, will not prove for- coming together announce danger,
tunate. failure in business, and sometimes
Nine: Annoyance, delay; re- imprisonment. If one or more of
versed, either a family- or love- them are reversed, the danger is
quarrel. lessened.
Eight: Love-making; reversed, Three aces: Good tidings; re-
unsuccessful. versed, folly.
Seven: Satire, mockery; revers- T\vo aces: A plot; reversed, it
ed, a foolish scandal. will not succeed.
Six: Early marriage and widow- Four kings: Rewards, dignities,
hood. honors; reversed, less, but sooner
Five: Unexpected news. received.
Four: Trouble from unfaithful Three kings: A consultation on
friends, a betrayed secret. important business, the result of
Three: Quarrels, lawsuits, and which will be highly satisfactory.
domestic disagreement. Two kings: A partnership in
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

Nine: Crosses. the "grand pendu," that is, the king


Eight: A disappointment. of diamonds, is the most fatal card
Seven: Troubles. in the pack, and the person who
Six: Eating and drinking. draws it in having his fortune told
Five: Falsehoods and deceit. by cards, is destined to die by the
Four: Tattle. hands of the executioner.
Three : Tears.
Two: Little space of water. HORSESHOE-The nail of a
horseshoe will bring luck. (Bel-
SPADES. gium.)
Ace: Travel if point is up; pack- It is unlucky to lose a horseshoe~
age if point is down. but you may avert the danger by
King: Very dark man. tying up a lock of your hair.
Queen: Very dark woman. "Lucky Dr. James" attributed
Jack: Dark young man. the success of his fever-powder to
Ten: Sickness at a distance. the appropriate finding of a horse-
Nine: Anger. shoe in "just the nick of time."
Eight: Vexation.
Seven: Unexpected annoyance. In some parts of France, it is be-
Six: A quarrel or anxiety. lieved that an old horseshoe put
Five: A death or drunkenness. under the mattress will cure the
Four: A sick-bed. toothache.
Three: Sorrow. An ass's shoe nailed to the door
Two: A coffin or an accident. will bring you good luck, because
To tell your fortune by cards, ask this animal was in the stable when
any question that can be answered Christ was born, and has ever since
by yes or no, and shuffle the cards; been blessed.
the first ace you come to, answers Nelson, the great English ad-
your question. The red aces are miral, was of a superstitious turn,
yes; the blacks are no. and had great faith in the luck of
a horseshoe; one was nailed to the
FRIENDSHIP-Place two ker- mast of the ship "Victory."
nels of com in a skillet and let two
friends bend over it; if the kernels In the West of England, the
pop decorously in the skillet, the' story is told of a fanner who con-
two are to remain friends forever. sulted a witch doctor about the ill-
If one pops outside of the skillet, ness of his cattle, which refused to
the one toward whom it pops, will yield to treatment. He was told
be the breaker of the friendship. that it was because the horseshoes
If both pop outside, the separation affixed to the farm buildings were
will be mutual. arranged point downward instead
of up. He reversed the horseshoes,.
If, on Michaelmas day, a maiden and strange to say, the cattle re-
gathers all the crab apples she can covered.
find and forms them into various
initials, and then looks at them One of the reasons why a horse-
again at Christmas, the initials shoe is considered a lucky object is
which she will find most sound will based on the legend that there once
be the friend's whom she can trust. lived a saint who was also an artist,.
and painted pictures of the other
GRAND PENDU-In France, saints that were miraculous, inas-
it is believed that the card called much as the head, when finished,
BNCYCLOPA-E.DIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

tional adaptatioD of the horseshoe- Whoever possesses a fairy cap.


form in its superstitious symbolism. can at all times make himself in-
The following is a very popular visible.
legend connected with the horse- The helmet of Perseus, in Greek
shoe, supposed to indicate the ori- mythology, renders the wearer in-
gin of the horseshoe's power to visible. This was lost among the.
keep away evil spirits. One day the caves of Hades, and he who ever
devil came to St. Dunstan, who was finds it can also possess the winged
known for his skill in shoeing sandals and magic wallet of the
horses, and asked him to shoe his god.
single hoof. The saint, knowing There is a superstition among
well who his customer was, tiedhim the Southern negroes that a partic-
tightly to the wall, and proceeded ular bone in the tail of a perfectly
with his work; but put the devil to black cat, when carried by any per-
so much torture and pains that he son, renders them invisible. The
cried for mercy. Ever since, the animal must be placed in a pot
devil shuns a place where a horse- alive, and boiled.
shoe is nailed over the door, or on A mystic mantle conferring in-
the door-step. visibility, is one of the things fully
INCUBI-The people of Dem- believed in by the American In-
erara believe in Incubi, who take dians. It is made of deerskin.
off their skins, and have one in par- painted with signs, symbols~ and
ticular called the swan-maiden, sacred emblems. It is supposed to
which has the qualities of a vampire. enable them to pass with impunity
They fly through the air and suck through the country and even
the blood of children in the night. through the camp of their enemies.
If you can find the skin and throw The symbols show the rain-cloud..
down before it an odd number of the serpent, lightning, the winds,
grains of com, the owner must and the four cardinal points.
pick them up two at a time before If you wish to become invisible,
she can resume her skin, and as get a raven's heart, split it open
she cannot make odd even, she is with a black-hafted knife, make
caught. three cuts, and place a black bean
INVISIBILITY-In Germany, in each cut; then plant it, and when
the luck-flower makes its possessor one of the beans come up, put it
invisible, but it must be found by in your mouth and say:
accident. "By virtue of Satan's heart,
And by strength of my great art,
In Iceland is a "raven-stone," I desire to be invisible."
which renders the possessor invis- and you will be invisible as long
ible. as you keep the bean in your
To catch the seed of the fern as mouth.
it fell on St. John's night, would Gyges, whose magic ring ren-
confer on the person who caught it dered him invisible when he turned .t-
invisibility. it inside, bethought him that it : #j
Hemlock eaten will cause you to would be the means of ascending ~.
become invisible. the throne of Lydia and making~.....
The cock has a stone in its giz- the queen his wife. He succeede~~
zard that will render the owner in- in his designs, having killed th~~
visible. king Candaules, her husband. Th~
BNCYCLOPAEDIA. OF SUPERSTITIONS.

ening or defeating love, as aiding In Burmah, a cord is hung


women in labor and in other ways. around the neck of a patient who
One of the torments with which is "possessed," while the evil spirit
witchcraft worried men, was the is being thrashed out of him.
knot, by which a man was withheld Marcellus commended for sore
so that he could not work his will eyes that a man should tie as many
with a woman. It was called, in knots in unwrought flax as there
the Latin of the times, Nodus, and were letters in his name, pronounc-
Obligamentum, and appears in the ing each letter as he worked; this
glossaries translated by the Saxons he was to tie around his neck.
into Iyb, drug. Gohn G. Bourke,
The Medicine Men of the Apache.) To prevent nosebleed, people
To make a "ligatura," is pro- are even now told to wear a skein
nounced "detestable" by Theodo- of scarlet silk thread around the
rus, Archbishop of. Canterbury, in neck, tied with nine knots down
668. The knot is still known in the front; if the patient is a man,
France, and is a resort of ill will. the silk must be put on and the
Then is given the adventure of knots tied by a woman; and if the
Hrut, prince of Iceland, and his patient is a woman, these good
bride, Princess of Norway, by services are performed by a man.
whom a "knot" was duly tied to A cord with nine knots in it is
preserve his fidelity during his ab- esteemed a sovereign remedy for
sence. To-day, we speak of tying whooping cough in Worcester-
the hymeneal knot, for the same shire, England.
purpose. (Saxon Leechdoms.) "On the 2nd of May, fearing evil
A knot tied in a cord among the spirits and witches, Scotch farmers
ancient Northern nations, seems to used to tie red thread on their
have been the symbol of love, faith, wives and their cows, saying these
and friendship, pointing out the in- prevented miscarriages and pre-
dissoluble tie of affection and duty. served the milk." (Forlong, "Riv-
The ancient Runic inscriptions are ers of Life.")
in the form of a knot. Camden, in his "Ancient and
Among the ancient Danes, was Modem Manners of the Irish,"
the peculiar knot, a mutual present says that "they are observed to
between the lover and his mistress, present their lovers with bracelets
which, being considered as the of women's hair, knotted and twist-
emblem of plighted fidelity, is ed, whether in reference to the
therefore called a true-love knot, a cestus of 'lenus I know not." This
name which is not derived from the idea of the resemblance between
words "true" and "love," as one the girdle of Venus and maiden's
would suppose, but from the Dan- hair, may be worth consideration.
ish verb trulofa, fidem do, "I On the same page, Brande quotes,
plight my troth or faith." (Brand's in his "Popular Antiquities," from
Popular Antiquities.) Beaumont and Fletcher:
Charmed belts are commonly "Bracelets of our lovers' hair,
worn in Lancashire for the cure of Which they on our arms shall twist."
rheumatism. Also garters of the woman was ...
A cord around the loins is worn frequently worn by the lover.
to ward off toothache. "Knots" are still made and used .--11
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS.

tomed manner, by which they be- ing to the witches, says: "Though
lieve it is armed against all sickness you untie the winds and let them
and ill accidents. (Pinkerton's fight against the churches; though
Voyages to the Congo.) the yesty waves confound and
The Mateb, or baptismal cord, is swallow navigation up."
de rigueur and worn when nothing Mr. Astle informs us that the
else is. It fonned the only cloth- first Chinese letters were knots
ing of the young at Seramba, but formed on cords. (Higgin's Ana-
was frequently added to with amu- calypsis.)
lets, sure safeguards against sor- The Mahometans believe that at
cery. (Winstanley, Abyssinia.) the day of judgment Jesus Christ
The Abyssinian wears a cord of and Mahomet are to meet outside
blue silk, to show that he has been of Jerusalem, holding a tightly
baptized, and no Abyssinian is stretched cord betwen them, upon
quite respectable without one. which all souls must walk. This
Some of the Australians preserve probably preserves a trace of the
the hair of a dead man, to make a 'medicine" cord of fonner use.
magic medicine of, and it is spun (Father Dandini's Voyage to
into a cord and hangs from the Mount Libanus, in Pinkerton's
head of the warrior in two ends be- Voyages.)
hind. (Smith's Aborigines of Vic- Hagennaar relates that he saw
toria.) men wearing ropes with knots in
Among the Carriers of British them flung over their shoulders,
North America, the lads, as soon as whose eyes turned around in their
they come to the age of puberty, tie heads, and who were called Jam-
cords lined with swan's down maboos, or conjurers and exorcists.
around each leg a little below the (Carron's J.~ccount of Japan.)
knee, which they wear during one Folk medicine in all regions is
year, and then they are considered still relying upon the potency of
as men. (Harmon's Journal.) mystical cords and girdles to facil-
Lapland witches confessed that itate labor.
while they fastened three knots in Among the American Indians,
a linen towel in the name of the the father of the expected child
devil and had spit on them, they takes his cord or girdle off, and
called the name of him they doom- knotting it around the mother~
ed to destruction. This was one of says: "I have tied it and 1 will un-
the "sorcery cords" by which so tie it," and takes his departure.
much evil was supposed to be done. Henry, in his History of Britain.
(Leems, Account of Danish Lap- tells us that among certain Britons ~
land.) when a birth was attended with d i f -
Scheffer describes the Lapland- ficulty, they put certain girdle ~
ers as having a cord tied with knots made for the purpose about th ~
for the raising of the wind; Brand women, which they imagined gay-- ~
says the same of the Finlanders of
Norway, of the priestesses of the
immediate and effectual relic:
Such girdles were kept with gre
=-
Island of Sena, on the coast of care until very lately, among tl::::::=::::~
Gaul, in the time of the Emperor families of the Highlands of SC.'--_-
Claudius, the witches of the Isle of land. They were impressed wiiiIt -
Man, and others. Macbeth, speak- several mystical figures, and t.~-
12gB BNCYCLOPAEDIA. OF SUPERSTITIONS.

you." The power resided in the she exclaimed: UN ow I have DO


knots. (Thomas Wright, "Sorcery hope for myself!"
and Magic.") So late as the beginning of the
When )farduk, an Assyrian god, last century, two persons were sen-
wishes to comfort a dying man, his tenced to capital punishment for
father Hea says: stealing a "charm of knots," made
"Take a woman's linen kerchief, by a woman as a device against the
Bind it round thy left hand: IGOR it welfare of Spalding of Ashintilly.
from thy left hand;
Knot it with seven knots: do so twice, The Navajo Indians have a med-
Sprinkle it with bright wine: icine cord of one, two, three, or
Bind it round the head of the sick man, four stripes, in which they put the
Bind it round his hands and feet like greatest faith. These cords are or-
manacles and fetten,
Sit round on his bed. namented with shells, petrified
Sprinkle holy water oyer him. wood, rock crystal, eagle-down,
He shall hear the voice of Hea, claws of the hawk or eaglet, claws
naykina shall protect himl of the bear, rattles of the rattle-
And Marduk eldest Son of Heaven
shall find him a happy habitation." snake, buckskin bags of hodden tin,
circles of buckskin in which are en-
Lenormant speaks of the Chal- closed pieces of twigs of trees that
dean use of magic knots, the effi- have been struck by lightning,
cacy of which was so firmly be- small fragments of the abalone-
lieved in, even up to the Middle shell from the Pacific coast, and
Ages. much other sacred paraphernalia
Magic cords with knots were still of a similar kind. They are used in
very common among the Nabath- dances for war, calling up of ghosts
ean sorcerers of the Lower Eu- and spirits, and every medicine
phrates in the fourteenth century, man of any consequence would ap-
and were probably derived from pear with one hanging over his
the ancient Chaldeans. right shoulder. These cords will
The Je\vish phylactery was tied protect a man on the war-path,
in a knot, but more generally knots and it is fully believed that no bul-
are found in use to enchant or dis- let can pierce a person who wears
enchant. Thus in an ancient Baby- one. The wearer can tell who stole
lonian charm, we have: "Mero- his ponies or other property from
dack, the Son of Hea, the prince, him or his friends, can help the
with his holy hands cut the knots." crops, and cure the sick. If the
That is to say, he takes off the evil circle attached be placed on the
influence of the knots. head, it will cure any ache; while
the cross on another will prevent a
Witches sought, in Scotland, to man from going astray, no matter
compass evil by tying knots, and where he may be. A careful peru-
could supply themselves with milk
from a neighbor's cow by getting
some of the hair from the tail,
sal of the subject convinces Cap-
tain John G. Bourke, author o =-
"The Apache ~fedicine Men," tha..~-...
twisting it into a rope and tying it
in knots.
this sacred and magic cord is a sar--=-
vival of other cords found in 3hz- . . .
Upon the underclothes of a witch ages and all parts of the world.
burned at St. Andrews in 1572, was In India, in a family sacrUa---=
discovered a cloth tied in knots, among the Chakmas of BeofEt f'!!
and when this was taken from her, around the whole sacrificial P~4
BNCYCLOPABDI~ OF SUPERSTITIONS.

the Gallic shore" as the place with a circle of stones, that no hu-
where are heard "the tearful cries man hand ever carried there.
of fleeting ghosts; the natives see
At the time of the first Punic
their pallid forms and ghostly fig- war, Africa was looked upon as a
ures moving on to their last land of monsters; it had serpents
abode." The traditions of Brittany large enough to stop armies; it had
still bear traces of this belief. headless men. Sicily had its Cy-
Places where murder or suicide clops, giants, enchantresses; gold-
was committed, or where people en apples grew in Spain; the mouth
were executed, are haunted; par- of hell was on the shores of the
ticularly the isolated spots or hills Euxinel (Draper, "The Intellec-
where gallows stand or stood are tual Development of Europe.")
avoided and considered with super- In Kerry, Wales, exists the su-
stitious awe. perstition that if a person passed
The fishermen relate that by a over Trefeen Bridge after mid-
bridge in Rendsburg, a whimper- night, he or she would be sure to
ing is often heard in the water that see three ladies sitting on the rail-
is like a young child crying; some- ing, dressed in green silk. (Mule.)
tim"es, too, small flames dart up, In Lurleyburg, on the Rhin~
which are always a sign that some- there dwelt once a maid so beauti-
one will perish there. ful that she turned mad all who
The body of Pontius Pilate was looked at her. Despairing hus-
buried in a marsh two leagues from bands of the gravest cast commit-
Vienne, and the people imagined ted suicide after beholding ber.
that "at night they heard shrieks Artists made her the subject of
and groans coming from the place. their paintings, and poets sang her
They also believed the neighbor- praise. She was seated on a rock
hood of the body to be the cause of over a dangerous current in the
violent thunder and lightning, Rhine, combing her golden hair
which were frequent at Vienne. with a golden comb, and singing
beautiful songs, thus bewitching
In the district of Carhaix, is a sailors and fishermen, who would
mountain called St. Michael, whith- stare up to her in admiration, for-
er, it is believed, all demons cast getting to steer their boats away-
from the bodies of men, are ban- from the dangerous rapids and hid--
ished. If anyone sets his foot at den rocks, and perish.
night within the circle they inhabit,
he will begin to run, and will not Near Saragossa, there is a fortres~
cease for an instant all the night called "Fear Fortress." It is ==
long. bogie place conjured up by fear m:JI
which vanishes as it is boldly an~"
Who visits the cavern of thirteen courageously approached. "If;:;:
pillars (or old Scotch dungeon of child disappeared or any cattl ~
thirteen pillars) and does not count were carried off, the frightene ~
the pillars therein, will be confined peasants said, 'The lord of Fe~-
there before he dies. Fortress has taken them.' If a fir- "c.
A particular spot on the summit
of Cader Idris, in North Wales, is
broke out anywhere, it was tr=
lord of Fear Fortress that lit
=-
believed to have been the scene of The origin of all accidents, mish~
many fairy revels, and is marked and disasters \\pas traced to
1302 ENCYCLOPAEDIA. OF SUPERSTITIONS.

of Oberon. If he catches them out character of island having aris-


with this badge of their calling on en from the encroachment of the
them, he whisks them off to a place sea, the common people do not be-
where he turns them into a ma- lieve this, and have many stories
chine, which grinds them out in regard to iL One of them is told
youthful again; but they are not for of the hermit of Herm, who walked
earth, they must be nurses to the across three miles of water in order
fairies. to be present at the consecration
There is a common superstition of St. Sampson's church in the
in the valley of Nottinghamshire, year 1111. This is, of course, held
where a village is said to have been by the natives as miracle story; yet
swallowed up by an earthquake. It it may have been possible for him
has been the custom for the people at that time to wade across through
to assemble in this valley, on shallow water, and therefore the
Christmas morning, and listen to sceptic may explain it as an easy
the fancied ringing of the church- and natural matter.
bells underground. Hutchinson tells us that in Eden
"Monkculm is a hamlet in the Hall were some old-fashioned
parish of Silverton, whose name apartments in which was kept the
expresseth to whom it belonged, fairy crystal-cup that had once be-
and the river it adjoineth. Hayne longed to the fairies of SL Cuth-
also, in regard to which there is an bert's well, which is situated near
observation had by tradition of a by. The butler, going to draw some
pool in that barton, whereof they water one moonlight night, saw
say it was never emptied but there them dancing, and grasped this
fell some great storm or violent marvelous cup; and although the
~ weather ere it was finished, which fairies tried to save it, they could
.some gentlemen of good worth not do so. He carried it to the
would lately make proof of: think- house, and it became a "vessel of
ing it but a frivolous relation. For luck" to the family. As he went in~
their better proceeding, on a fair however, the fairies flew away,
morning in the summer time, they singing:
timely prepared themselves and "If that glass either break or fall.
their people, and to work they go, Farewell to the luck of Eden Hall"
and by three in the afternoon they Near Varta, in Bohemia, is a hill
had near finished their work, when upon which sits a marble woman,
suddenly there came such a violent Sybilla, mounted on a marble
tempest of thunder and lightning, horse, and her hand raised to heav-
and great rain, that they were en- en. When she sinks into the
forced to leave off and seek shelter, ground, so that not even the end o
even when they were jesting at her finger will be visible,her proph---
their old neighbors that maintained ecy will be fulfilled; and eve~
the sundry trials thereof, which now she is with the sand as high az ..
they also found true." the horse's breast. She was a wis__ 4
The islands of Guernsey, Jersey, woman and prophecied that muc~-=
Alderney, Sark, Herm lethon, etc., misery was to come to Bohemi~
are of course surrounded by water, that there would be wars, famine:: ~
and though geologists show, and and plagues, but that the wor=-----:3
very clearly too, that in prehistoric time would come when the fath.. ...
times they were all joined, the could not understand the son, .t...' _ - - -
1304 BNCYCLOPABDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS.

ter. The people are natives long lore, shuddering in the shadowy
descended. chimney corner, or recited the
It has been said that Block Isl- strange, wild legends of the island~
and is quaint and peculiar, and the "The Phantom Ship," "The Wait-
statement may be added that, being ing Child," "The Buccaneers~
a miniature world of itself, it has Gold," and so OD.
adhered to the habits and customs Moreover, superstition still
of 150 years ago. Probably no thrives here, with its strange fan-
other nook in the country so cies and creations, begotten of the
abounds in legendary lore; no- sobbing night wind, the moaning
where else has superstition retain- of the surf; but the islanders are
ed its hold so late and so tenacious- not garrulous, and they look as-
ly. Each stormy point of land is kance at the stranger that flippant-
invested with traditions of pirates ly presumes to break down their
or mythical shipwrecks, and each native reserve with questionings.
gloomy valley is associated with
grisly specters of witchcraft. The Blanic Hill in Bohemia, in
The native Block Islanders, who the district of Vlasim, is the subject
are ninety per cent. of all the in- of many legends among the pe0-
habitants, are reticent in their in- ple, not only of its neighborhood.
tercourse with strangers and recoil but of the whole country. It is be-
with taciturn suspicion from the lieved that there is a large cave un-
idle curiosity that seeks to investi- der the hill, where a great number
gate their folklore. of knights are sleeping in their ar-
It is like going back to the spin- mor, with their leader, St. Wenzes-
ning and apple-roasting circles of laus, a Bohemian duke of the ninth
150 or 200 years ago to listen to century; or, according to others.
white haired farmers' wives or griz- with Zdenek of Zasmak. There
zled fishermen reciting in low tones they are waiting for the time wben
the witchcraft or legendary tales of the worst fate will befall Bohemia.
the island. In their fancy and be- At that time the big old oak upon
lief, Captain Kidd and his phan- the top of the hill will grow green
tom crew still pay random visits to and the old dry spring will give
wind-swept Sandy Point, where water. The knights will awaken,
they buried treasures, coming un- the hill will be opened, they will fall
der the full moon in a spectral boat, out against the enemy. General
impelled by broken surf billows. prosperity will be the result in B0-
Goblins tenant the black, rush-bor- hemia. Many distressed persons
dered sides of inland pools, and were so happy as to find the en-
from his latticed window the awe- trance to the cave at certain times,
struck cottager and his family dis- and having found one of the
cern in the deepening twilight the knights waking, were relieved of
phantom ship, the ghost of the Pal- their distress. In literature, the
atine, rushing in spectral flames legend of the knights of BlaDic ap-
eastward over Block Island Sound. pears in 1199. Klicpera has dram-
Until fifty years ago, the island- atized it, and many poems have
ers dug peat in the deep fens been written about it.
among wild hollows on the west There is an underground Stam- -
side, and it was about their grow- bOuI, consisting of great cisterms ~
ing peat fires at night in the winter and caves, supported by long ro~-.
time they narrated tales of witch and clusters of columns. Th~...
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS.

they inserted one stone so cleverly ace, Queen Caroline of Anspach.


that it could be easily removed wife of George II., wanders at
from the outside and the treasure night in the throne-room, throw-
stolen by night. But on one oc- ing her shadowy hands over her
casion, when Agamedes was caught head, uttering moans of deep dis-
in the trap laid by Hyrieus to dis- tress, in an attitude of entreaty. At
cover the thief, Trophonius, to save the Hofburg, or Imperial Palace of
himself from being betrayed as his Vienna, the dread specter of the
brother's accomplice, cut off the White Lady roams around every
head of Agamedes. Being pur- time a misfortune is about to over-
sued, however, by the king, he was take the family. It was last seen
swallowed up in the earth at Leba- on the eve of the Prince Rudolfs
dea, and by command of Apollo, a tragical death. At the Imperial
cult and an oracle were dedicated Palace of Berlin, a gigantic street
to him as Zeus Trophonius. sweeper, carrying a broom, a
The oracle was situated in a sub- ghostly looking affair, appears a
terranean chamber, into which, week before the death of any mem-
after various preparatory rites, in- ber of the Hohenzollem race. In
cluding the nocturnal sacrifice of a the Winter Palace at St. Peters-
ram and the invocation of Aga- burg, it is a beautiful lady clothed
medes, the inquirers descended, to in snowy draperies and crowned
receive, under circumstances of a with white roses, who is the death
mysterious nature, a variety of rev- messenger of the Romanoffs; while
elations, which were afterwards according to tradition, a little man
taken down from their lips and dressed in scarlet haunted the Tuil-
duly interpreted. The descent into eries until the day when the Re-
the cave, and the sights which public was proclaimed in France
there met the eye, were so awe- and the torches of the Commune
inspiring, that the popular belief reduced the grand old pile to ruin
was that no one who visited the and ashes. The superb old Castle
cave ever smiled again; and it was of Heidelberg is visited at midnight
proverbially said of persons of on the vigil of St. John, by a whole
grave and serious aspect, that they procession of shadowy figures,
had been in the cave of Tropho- dressed in the fashion prevailing
nius. (Seyffert's Dictionary of under the reign of Emperor Fred-
Classical Antiquities.) erick Barbarossa, and it is asserted
It is a curious fact that Windsor that their advent is invariably her-
Castle should be one of the only alded by strains of the sweetest and
great palaces in Europe which is most enthralling music. (From
not supposed to be haunted, espe- ~Iarquise De Fontenoy's "Revela-
cially when it is borne in mind that tion of High Life in European
it has been the residence of the Palaces.")
most cruel and bloodthirsty of Robert Machim, son of a mer-
English kings. Hampton Court is chant residing in Bristol, loved and
haunted; so is the Tower, the lat- was beloved by a lady of noble
ter by a most undoubted ghost, family, who were opposed to their
which has been on the walk for daughter marrying anyone not of
centuries. Whitehall was haunted noble birth. He was therefore cast
by the headless specter of Charles into prison, and was kept there un-
I., as long as there was anything til the daughter ,vas given in mar-
to haunt there; in St. James' Pal- riage to a ,vealthy baron. This oc-
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

Australia: At one time, the land for covered and smothered now
extended southwards as far as the from sight by mounds of sand, a
eye could see from the site of the long cave goes thither, "full of gold
township of Port MacDonnell. A and silver, and the most beautiful
splendid forest of evergreen trees, parlors and drawing-rooms." Once,
including a wattle from which ooz- before the sand covered it, a dog
ed a profusion of delicious gum, a strayed in and was heard yelping
rich carpet of beautiful Bowers and vainly deep underground in a fort
grass grew upon it. A man of far inland. . These forts or raths,
great height, fearful in his anger low circular ditches made before
and a terror to trespassers on this history began, cover all Rosses and
favored ground, was the owner; all Columbkill. The one where the
one hot summer's day, whilst walk- dog yelped has, like most of the
ing through his land, he saw at the others, an underground bee-hive
foot of the wattle tree a basket full chamber in the midst. Once when
of gum. His anger rose, and in his I was poking about there, an un-
rage, in a voice like thunder, he usually intelligent and "reading"
cried out, "Who is robbing me of peasant who had come with me and
my food?" Looking up, he saw waited outside, knelt down by the
a woman concealed amoftgst the opening and whispered in a timid
boughs, and in a loud voice com- voice: "Are you all right, sir?"
manded her to come down. He feared I had been carried off
Trembling, she obeyed, and like the dog. No wonder he was
pleaded for her life; he was relent- afraid, for the fort has long been
less, and told her he would drown circled by ill-boding rumors. It is
her for robbing him. He seated on the ridge of a small hill, on
himself upon the ground, extended whose northern slope lie a few cot-
his right leg toward Cape North- tages. One night, a farmer's
umberland, and his left toward young son came from one of them
Green Point, raised his arms above and saw the fort all flaming, and
his head, and in a great voice called ran toward it. The glamor fell 011
upon the sea to come and drown him, and he sprang onto a fence
the woman. The sea advanced cross-legged and commenced beat-
and covered his beautiful land, and ing it with a stick, for he imagined
destroyed the offending woman. It the fence was a horse, and that all
returned no more to its former bed, night long he went on a wonderful
and thus formed the present coast ride through the country. In the
of MacDonnell Bay. (Legend of morning, he was still beating the
the Boonandik tribe, Mount Gaur- fence, and they carried him home-.
bier, Australia.) where he remained a simpleton fo~
three years before he came to him--
At the northern comer of Rosses self again. A little later, a fanne~
is a little promontory of sand, rocks, tried to level the fort. His cow _";
and grass; a mournful, haunted and horses died and all manner ,
place. Nowise peasant would misfortune came to him, and finnwauJ_ _..
fall asleep under its low cliff, for he himself was led home and It:=~==
he who sleeps here may wake "sil- useless, "his head on his knees -~
ly," the "good people" having car- the fire to his dying day."
ried off his soul. There is no more A few hundred yards south~ ii(j
ready short cut to the dim king- of the northern angle of Rosse j
dom than this plovery headland, another angle, having also its ( ~
I3JO BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

of three persons, man, woman, and after their existence and tribe or
child. Their exposure and efforts nation has become only an incident
to remove them was met by such in anthropology, a name unsullied
protests from the Indians of the ex- by subjection, but brilliant on free-
ploring party and others in that doms shield, from man's early his-
section of the country, that their tory through thousands of centu-
consent was not obtained for their ries, and to continue a synonym
removal, until the governor of the symbol and sacred name to free-
department declared that the na- men's sons and daughters until the
tional government would build a earth is wandering dark and cold
mausoleum over them at the capi- without a living tongue to lisp a
tal, and annually invite all the In- DaIIle."
dians to a grand memorial feast.
For they all believed that in his oc- LOSING-If an article is lost,
casional appearing, he has, by his its owner can find it by whistling
gestures, promised them that he for it.
will come again before long, to ral- If you lose anything, instantly
ly and lead them as he did their an- throwaway something, and you
cestors, to many victories, and de- will find the lost article.
velop them again into a mighty A sportsman is said to have lost
people. Thus it is more than prob- a ring on the moor. Next season
able that the remains of the savage he found it in a peat which he
host who made Christopher Co- broke up and threw on a fire in a
lumbus welcome, have been seen cottage.
by these European travelers. No A lady lost a ring, and it was
doubt, the one hundred and fifty found next year by her servant in
men who accompanied the great a potato which she was peeling.
discoverer on his last voyage, re-
turned to Europe deeply impressed To drop a button 011 a bridge.
with the Amerriques, the only peo- foretells an unlucky journey.
ple seen by them, natives of the If you lose a key or a bunch of
newly discovered world who wore keys, look well that someone or
habitually heavy ornaments and some act does not bring you to
charms of brightly burnished gold; shame.
these mariners most probably often If a highly prized relic is lost.
and enthusiastically repeated in great trouble will follow the loser
Europe the name Amerrique, until it is found.
until it became familiar there to If you lose anything, say over
designate the newly discovered and over, "Satan, I will obey you,"
lands, known only as the "New and he will find it for you. (Persia.)
World"; but thereafter as Amer-
ica. At present the Amerriques If an article is lost, close the eyes,
are few in numbers and appear to turn around three times, and throw
be dying off with unaccountable a pebble in the air; the direction in
rapidity, although they are free which it falls will be toward the lost
from oppression and not afflicted, object.
so far as known, by any deadly An article may be twice lost and
epidemic. recovered, but a thing three times
"They will die in freedom uncon- lost is gone forever.
quered by any other people, but If you lose an article, spit in your
their lWpe, America, will live long palm and blow upon it, and the
BNCYCLOPABDI.4 OF SUPBRSTITIONS.

Orielo was an Egyptian robber prognostications. The air, winds,


and magician, who lived under the and substances that were believed
mouth of the Nile. Should his to come from the atmosphere, were
bead be cut from his body, he their material instructors in the art
could replace it, as his life con- of divination.
sisted in one hair. A learned Dominican friar of the
If you wish to converse with the thirteenth century, named Albertus
dead, dig a pit with your nails and Magnus, was born in Suabia. He
pour into it the blood of a coal- was a man of a most curious and
black ewe, which has previously inquisitive tum of mind, and a wide
been tom piecemeal. knowledge of the physical sciences,
Jourdain, the wizard, told the which gave rise to an accusation
Duke of Somerset if he wished to brought against him that he was a
live, to avoid "where castles magician. He labored to find the
mounted stand." The duke died in philosopher's stone, and be made a
an ale-house called "The Castle," machine in the shape of a man
in St. Albans. which was an oracle to him, and
Magicians claim that no word is explained to him all the difficulties
efficacious in magic unless it is first he proposed. He wrote twenty-
animated with the word of God. one volumes in folio, on various
"To sit upon the wizard's grave subjects, scientific, philosophical
On which no sunbeam ever shines and theological.
So supentitious creed divines.."
(Scott's Lay of the Last MinstreL) A wizard told King Edward IV.
Valivoni, an old magician, of the that after him would reign one
whose first initial would be G. The
time of Agrippa, says: "If you
king thought the person meant
take euphorbium, bdellium, gum was his brother George, but it was
ammonaic, the roots of both helle- the Duke of Gloucester.
bores, the loadstone, and a little
sulphur, and incorporate them al- Old authors, distinguished for
together with the blood of a hart, sense and talent, record with great
the blood of an elephant, and the seriousness that the devil once de-
blood of a black cat, and sprinkle it livered a course of lectures on
near the papers to be removed, magic at Salamanca, habited in a
that it unseals them and brings professor's gown and wig.
them to your presence, or just The magicians used to catch and
where you desire." secure spirits between two glasses
Hecate, the Greek goddess, pre- like flies. These were compelled
sided over magic and enchant- by the owner to do for him what-
ments, and was generally known as ever was in their power, as to make
having the head of a horse, a dog, him invisible, give him power over
or a bear. Sometimes she is rep- others, compel riches to come to
resented as having three heads and him, cure wounds, and the like.
three bodies, turned in three differ- The Laplanders have a "celestial
ent ways. This probably signifies wand," resembling the wand of the
her clairvoyance. Median magi. The gods them-
The Moors had conjurers called selves found their only protection
Adelites, who foretold the fortune from certain enchantments in this
of the people by means of the flight wand. \Vainamoinen, one of the
of birds, and other omens and heroes of Northern mythology, be-
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

Hecate was a cruel and infernal and not given to romance. Innu-
deity of the Greeks, presiding over merable strange stories are told of
magic and nocturnal incantation. him. On one occasion, when hay-
She was represented in a hideous making, he suddenly exclaimed:
aspect, her head surrounded by ser- "My hen roost is being robbed,"
pents, and howling dogs around and putting down the scythe to go
her. and catch the thief, the scythe went
The Australian natives stand in on mowing by itself, as if still in the
awe of foreign sorcerers, whom hands of Bevil Blizard.
they think are able to come into A magic brooch, which was at
their camp, and, after securing a the same time an amulet, was made
man to a tree, have the power to in the reign of Queen Elizabeth,
remove his insides and fill him with and belonged to a Highland chief,
grass. Their own sorcerers pre- Maclean of Lochbuy, in the Isle of
tend to be able to restore the man Mull, being formed of silver from
to his natural condition. his own estate. It is circular in
All through the Bible is recorded form, scolloped, and surrounded
the belief of the Jews in the actual by small upright obelisks, each set
powers of evil spirits, and the pow- with a pearl at top. In the center
er of the "black art" to give riches, is a round crystalline ball, consid-
power, and luxury without the nec- ered a magical gem. It was used
essary labor to obtain them. The to read the future fate of the wear-
"books of magic" burnt in Paul's er. (Ten Thousand Wonderful
days at Ephesus, were supposed to Things.)
be worth eighty thousand dollars "Take an adder's skin, and auri-
of our money. pigmentum, and greeke pitch of
The three most powerful divina- reuponticum, and the waxe of
tions are by fire, water, and earth new bees, and the fat or greace of
or clay. These are the three great an asse, and breake them all, and
wonderful powers; the power that put them all in a dull seething pot
ascends, like an aspiration to heav- full of water, and make it to seethe
en, pure and purifying, that is fire; at a slow fire, and after let it waxe
the power that falls from heaven, cold, and make a taper, and euery
infinitely beneficent to all manner man that shall see light of it, shall
of life, that is water; and the power seeme headless." (The Secreetes
that lies in our mother earth and of Nature, set foorth by Albertus
bas the mystery of the dead within Magnus in Latine, newly translated
it, that is clay. From before the into English. Imprinted at Lon-
times of the Chaldean soothsayers, don by me Wyllyam Copland.)
these three powers have been used [No date.]
in divination. The American Indians believe
"Bevil Blizard" was well known that the tribal "medicine" is sacred
and his fame spread through all the and that no man could look upon
neighboring villages of Oxenton, the contents of the bag and live.
England, where he lived, died, and The medicine man who made it,
was buried, but was not content to would sooner die than tell what is
rest in his grave. He frequently in it. No greater calamity could
appeared, and was last seen by befall the tribe than to lose this
one Anne Tustin, at the Oxenton bag of ashes. It contains a god,
church-gate. She was a good body and that god holds the fortunes of
ENCYCLOPABDIA OP SUPERSTITroN~".

tinual occurrence; but these prac- in the year," in his time, but he did
tices have, of course, been strictly not believe it.
repressed by our civilized govern- In India, it is very firmly believ-
ment. Practice as a male or female ed that certain persons can change
diviner, or a rain doctor, or as a themselves into tigers and again
Iigh~ing doctor, is now forbidden resume their natural shape at pleas-
by law. (Natal Statutes, 19, 1891.) ure.
All practice of selling love charms
and the like is now punishable. Vivien, the mistress of old Mer-
lin, the great enchanter of King
In 152'1, one John Dee raised Arthur's time, in a soft dalliance in
himself at an early age in London the wood, coaxed his secret of wav-
to a great reputation for magic. ing arms and other ceremonies by
He had a mirror formed of a black which he enchanted people, &om
polished stone, in which an assist- the love-stricken old man. No
ant looked under his influence, and sooner than she knew it, she tried
was able to see visions, tell for- it, and on him I Dunlop, in his
tunes, and foreshow events. He "History of Prose Fiction," says:
was said to call up spirits, who "At length, this renowned magician
showed themselves in this pear- disappeared entirely from England.
shaped mirror. Dr. Dee consid- His voice alone was heard in a for-
ered this stone as very precious. est, where he was enclosed in a
His assistant's name was Kelly, bush of buckthorn, he having been
and Butler mentions him in his entrapped in this' awkward resi-
"Hudibras." dence by means of a charm he had
"Kelly did all his feats upon communicated to his mistress
The devil's looking-glass or stone, Vivien, who, not believing on the
When playing with him at bopeep,
He solved all problems ne'er so deepl" spell, had tried it on her lover. She
had failed to learn the counter-
In Abyssinia, potters and iron- charm of release. The lady was
workers were not only supposed to sorry for the 'accident, but there
be especially endowed with the evil was no extracting her admirer
eye, which excluded them from all from his thorny covering. And so
religious ceremonies and made there he still lives, tied up in the
them responsible for certain ail- tree, a melancholy figure, his arms
ments, but they were also believed extended as if in pleading, but no-
to have the power of the were-wolf, body knows the precious words
namely, that of changing them- that would release him."
selves into hyenas and other raven-
ous beasts, the counterparts of the The manufacture of mystical
wolves of the North. Nathaniel writings is a very ancient art, so
Pearce, an old African traveler, de- also is the teaching of how to
clares that a friend of his had seen choose propitious days. Much
one of these transformations, and light is thrown on the art by a very
that the peculiar ear-rings worn by remarkable papyrus in the British
the descendants of the Budas had Museum (No. XLVI. Greek) of
frequently been seen by himself in about the second century. Several
the ears of hyenas that had been spells are given in this document
entrapped. This agrees with the for various purposes, amongst
. account of Herodotus, who said which is one for producing an im-
they "declared they could change mediate vision of the god evoked
themselves into wolves for one day by the operator. Various channs
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

The medicine men rely greatly urged them to teach their descend-
upon pieces of crystal in finding ants the cult of the noble ones
lost ponies and other property, and who had preceded them. They
declare that they can see every- were also commanded to give ex-
thing they wish by gazing intently amples of strategy, endurance, and
upon the crystal. bravery to the young men. She
A beautiful and mystic young restored to health and strength the
enchantress, prophetess, and priest- infirm and aged who, in her pres-
ess lived among the ancestors of ence, passed daily through the cer-
the Amerriques, of Nicaragua, to emonies of her nagua1istic rites or
whom they gave allegiance, and Elusinian-like mysteries. Sudden-
whose mandates they obeyed. To ly the beloved priestess become of-
her shrine, the descendants of that fended because the fathers began
tribe and several of the few scat- to wear rosaries, and she never
tered remnants of the Sumas, Ten- again returned. She took with her
cos, and Mosquitos, still give their the old man and woman whom she
hearty devotion. She frequently had transformed into handsome,
materialized and visited the Amer- youthful forms, each with large,
riques, even until the Spaniards oc- expanded wings, robed gorgeously
cupied some parts of that country. in beautiful tiger- and deer-skins,
Her appearance was unheralded, and decorated profusely with nu-
and happened usually at some pic- merous brilliant plumes of birds,
turesque grove in the forest, dur- abundant then and now in the ter-
ing the early springtime, when al- ritory in the east-central moun-
most every tree and bush and vine tainous districts, where the Amer-
were developing bright, varicol- riques exist as vagrants, rude agri-
ored buds, leaves, fronds, or flow- culturists, or gold miners.
ers, as if by magic, under the influ- The Rev. James Macdonald con-
ence of a genial semi-tropic cli- tributed an interesting paper on
mate, until such groves had be- "Bantu Customs and Legends,"
come a most attractive and beauti- collected by himself in South Af-
ful bouquet. The Indians first be- rica, to the English magazine, "By-
came aware of each of her visits by gones." Some of the native doc-
the movements of delegations from tors in South Africa carry their
other divisions of the animal king- conceit of themselves so far as to
dom toward the grove where she send messages like the following
was to be found. She exhibited in to persons who they know would
many ways great power over all not believe them. One Masellulie
kinds of insects, reptiles, birds, and despatched a messenger during a
animals, and retained a number of thunderstorm to a missionary to
each, convenient to the residence say that he hoped the missionary
of her materialized form, for use as would not be offended "because
servants, guards, messengers; she your cow has been killed by light-
also retained and fed on the most ning that I have made."
delicious food a number of old men The doctors have unlimited pow-
and women, as assistants in her er over men's lives and property.
wonder-working ceremonies. She Among the tribes farther inland,
exhorted the elder Indians to ad- trial by ordeal is commonly prac-
here strictly to the old forms of ticed by them. This may consist
worship of their ancestors~ and of a poison-bowl, when the dose is
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

ed, he made a pact with the devil in their home, after she had learned
(who assumed the name of Mephis- from a sorcerer who he was.
topheles, and the appearance of a Not very long ago, a curious
little gray monk), that if he might case was before the Paris courts.
indulge his propensities freely for The accused was an alleged sor-
twenty-four years, he would, at the cerer named Bernard, and he was
end of that period, consign to the charged with transferring by
devil both body and soul. sleight of hand, some jewels from
The compact terminated in 1550, a case to his pocket at the Bon
when Faust disappeared. His March6. It was also alleged that
sweetheart was Margherita (Mar- he professed to have scientific rela-
garet), whom he seduced, and his tions with the devil. The first wit-
faithful servant was Wagner. The ness was one Boulicot, a farmer,
stories told about him are legion. who was persuaded that Satan had
According to some legends, he was taken up his abode in his home-
an old man when he made the con- stead, because calves wept and the
tract with the devil, signing it with eggs laid by hens exploded like
his blood, and thereupon regaining bombs. He had never seen imps
youth and strength. The devil had issue from the addled eggs, but his
to be, during the term agreed upon, wife and the maids were neuly
his obedient servant, fulfilling any sure they had seen them, in the
wish that he may have. He was gloaming, dance about the house
said to have been riding through where the hatching went on.
the air on a beer-barrel; using his A noise as if of clanking chains
mantle as a means of rapid transpor- was heard at nighL Bernard was
tation; causing wine to spout from applied to, and offered to chase the
a table; and numerous other won- devil and his imps for the sum of
derful feats. The character of :8. Boulicot admits that the
Faust is a favorite subject in liter- noises ceased, and that all the
ature and arL (Cf. Goethe's mas- calves save one--and it has since
terpiece; Marlowe's tragedy; op- died-left off weeping. Two other
eras by Gounod, Boito, Spohr, etc.) rustics, husband and wife, believed
The Maoris believe in the power that they were subjects of the
of incantations, and tell how Hin- devil's malevolence. Satan drag-
auri, being teased with jealousy by ged them out of their bed in the
two women, uttered one so power- dead of night, beat them black and
ful that the two plagues fell dead blue, and left them more dead than
to the ground, with the soles of alive. They naturally went to Ber-
their feet projecting upward. Then nard. He began by giving them
Hinauri was at ease about her hus- drugs, to take which made them
band, who thereafter belonged to violently ill at once, convulsing
her alone. Some time later, how- them, and acting as an emetic.
ever, her brother-in-law fell in love When this medicine had taken its
with her, and in order to put his full effect, he handed the wife a tal..
brother out of the \vay, he again, isman, which was never to be
by one of these powerful incanta- touched. The simple couple paid
tions, threw him into an enchanted Bernard 1,300 francs for his differ-
sleep, from which he awoke chang- ent services. An item in his bill
ed into a dog. But Hinauri, was "12 francs 50 for vicars, 250
though at first not recognizing her francs for grand vicars, and 500
husband in that form, received him francs for Bishop of Moulins,"
1322 BNCYCLOPLfEDIA OF SUPBRSTITIONS.

the epoch of the conquest (about A power, universally attributed


1550) to Christianity, in that sum- to the magicians, is that of turning
mary way which the Spaniards de- themselves into beasts. This is an
lighted in. If they would not be unquestioned belief all through
baptized, they were hanged or Central America. Father Baeza
drowned; and once baptized, they relates that one of these old sor-
were flogged if they did not attend cerers declared in his dying c0n-
mass, and burned if they slid back fession that he had repeatedly turn-
to idol-worship. To this day the ed himself into various wild beasts.
belief in sorcerers, witchcraft, and The English priest, Thomas Gage,.
magic is as strong as ever it was, who had a church in Guatemala
and in various instances the very about 1630, tells with all serious-
same rites are observed as those ness a number of such instances.
which we know from the early Even in our own days, the learned
fathers obtained before the COD- Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg is
quest. not entirely satisfied that animal
The diviner is called "h'men," a magnetism and such trickery can
male personal form of the verb account for the mysteries of nagu-
men, to understand, to do. He is aJism. The sacred books of the
the one who knows and who ac- Kiches, a tribe living in Guatemala,.
complishes. His main instrument related to the Mayas, ascribe this
is a clear stone, transparent crystal. power to one .of their most cele-
This is a quartz crystal, or other brated kings. As an illustration,.
translucent stone, which has been the passage is worth quoting:
duly sanctified by burning before "Truly this Gucumatz became a
it gum copal as an incense, and by wonderful king. Every seven days
the solemn recital of certain magic he ascended to the sky and every
formulas in an archaic dialect seven days he followed the path to
passed down from the wise an- the abode of the dead; every seven
cients. It is thus endowed with the days he put on the nature of a ser-
power to reflect the past and the fu- pent and he became truly a ser-
ture, and the soothsayer gazes into pent; every seven days he put on
its clear depths and sees where lost the nature of an eagle and a tiger
articles may be recovered, learns and became truly an eagle and a
what is happening to the absent, tiger; every seven days he put on
and by whose witchery sickness the nature of coagulated blood and
and disaster have come upon those then he was nothing else but coag-
who call on his skill. There is ulated blood."
scarcely a village in Yucatan with- Men and women alike possessed
out one of these wondrous stones. this power. This is shown in a cu-
These wise men have gftat in- rious little native story heard by
fluence over the growing crops and Dr. Berendt in the wilds of Yuca-
perform "field mass" in the corn- tan, from a native woman, who told
fields. This is a ceremony in which it to prove the value of salt as a
a fowl is killed and cooked as a counter-eharm to these mysterious
sacrifice to the gods of rain and fer- beings. The Doctor wrote it down
tility. In it is a strange mixture of with scrupulous fidelity:
heathen and Christian superstition, "A man married with a woman.
which is the outcome of three cen- nor did he know her as a witch.
turies of so-called Christian in- One day he said to her, 'Mix two
struction. measures of salt.' She mixed
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

"I loose the hobgoblin at mid- The Grecian athletes wore am-
night, and command h~ to draw ulets, to ensure them victory in the
chairs and roll barrels along the gladiatorial conflicts.
street, and wring the neck of any- A ring engraved representing a
one who dares look out of the win- human head, with an elephant's
dow at him. trunk holding a trident, was an am-
"I teach the composition of the ulet against the perils of the sea.
charms, seals and spells of the
magic looking-glasses. A jaw-bone or skull of an animal
"I teach the use of the enchanted is worn in Tasmania as a protection
figures. from danger.
"I teach how to find the mistle- The Greeks thought that prayers
toe of the New Year. written in rolls and worn as amu-
"I teach the wanderer to find en- lets, would protect from man and
chanted herbs. beast.
"I teach the gamester the mag- The cup of Djemschid revealed
netic plaster which holds his
money. knowledge to all who gazed into it.
"I send the goblins, the shod (Arabian.)
mule, the hags, the nightbats, the The utterances of mad men, of
scrags, the breaknecks, the black children, and women, will never
men, the white women, the phan- fail to come to pass. (Hindu.)
tasms, the apparitions, the seven Some people consider it a lucky
crows, the busy brains, the shad- amulet, to carry or keep pennies
ows, in fine, I am the Devil of Cau- that have been taken from the eye
vert, the Son errant, the grand of a corpse.
Huntsman of }4'ontainebleau for- Pope Adrian is reported to have
est."
constantly worn an amulet the in-
MISCELLANEOUSCHARMS gredients of which were: Dried
AND OMENS-To see anything toad, arsenic, pearl, coral, hyacinth,
move and click like a telegraph- and hagacanth.
machine, signifies that the person To have the left arm and hand
who notices it will soon have news. of a woman who died in childbirth,
To clinch luck, stick a pin into is to possess a lucky talisman.
the first tree you come to. (Mexican.)
To carry a lock of a blind wom- There is a magic virtue as an
an's hair, is said to bring good luck. amulet in the Hindu woman's nose-
It is good luck to wear next to ring, bracelet, and knotted string. - -
the heart a hair taken from a lion's The nose-ring has especial respect:::-=-
tail or mane. paid to it, and for a stranger eve~
to mention it, is a breach of deli----
To watch for anyone to come, is cacy.
a sign that he will not come.
It is unlucky to pay money fo~':
A ring made of a sea-horse's charms, as they will lose all the~
teeth, will prevent cramps. power.
A lawyer with a caul in his pos- Good luck is not to be repeat~.:
session, will be rendered eloquent.
The amulets of the Tasmanians
prevent witchcraft and other evils.
If an illegitimate person tries
--=
charm, he or she will neutralize i. .
power.
BNCYCLOPAEDI..f OF SUPERSTITIONS.

talismanic belief; witness the avidi- Some tribes of Indians esteem


ty with which the caul of an infant an arrow that has been shot into a
is sought after to preserve from human being as a charm, or as they
danger by water; as also the cele- call it, "a medicine."
brated romance of "The Talisman," Favorite jewels, or some ancient
by Sir Walter Scott; the intense in- amulet, or a handkerchief that once
terest of which arises from the nar- belonged to a dear friend who was
ration of a singular instance of the dead, were considered by the
faith formerly reposed in talismanic French to bring success.
agency. It is now well known that
when Napoleon went to Egypt, he The sputtering or crackling of a
was there presented with a talisman lamp was regarded as a propitious
by a learned Eastern magician, omen by the ancient Greeks.
the effect of which was to pro- Brothers kill and eat their sis-
tect and defend him from sudden ter, from whose bones a bamboo
attacks, assassinations, and all man- grows. Every night, the spirit of
ner., of hurts from fireanns. the girl comes out of the tree, and
the king catches and marries her.
Make garters of hare-skin, sew
motherwort in them, wear them on To kill a girl seven years old and
the legs, and you can run so fast drink her blood, is a charm against
as to beat horses. evil influences.
The following charm is found in An old saying is: N ever flatter
Shakespeare's "Macbeth" (I., 3): yourself, for when you think you
are all right, you will at once fall
"Thrice to thine and thrice to mine through with everything.
And thrice again to make up nine,
Peace I The charm's wound up!" There is an old German proph-
The most curious paper-weight ecy that the ones you go about with
in the world is said to belong to the when young, will be the ones
Prince of Wales, and is the mum- you will be travelling with when
mified hand of the daughter of old.
Pharoah. He keeps it for luck. If you search a negro's pocket
A certain farmhouse in Dorset- in the South, you will be as apt to
shire carefully preserves a human find a rabbit's foot in it as a razor.
skull. The people believe that if If you are looking for some one
the skull is taken away, the house and, thinking you see him, exclaim:
will be disturbed by supernatural "Here he is!" when he is not in
noises, and the person who took it sight, he will be angry when he
will die. does come.
Some people think that mutter- Say, "One, two, three, good luck
ing a certain formula or spell will for me," when you know you have
stop a runaway horse, make a said or done something unlucky.
watch-dog silent, staunch blood, It breaks the spell.
drive back fire and make it con- The Romans believed that every
sume itself. occurrence or appearance beheld A
Bourne speaks of "dancing on the right hand was to be consid- - -
charms," or those which are to be ered as an omen of good luck, bu~
kept in a dancing position, as ear- all those on the left, as bad.
rings, or rings made of the bone In Ireland, if the stacks are n ~
of an ostrich. circled each night by the noiseles~..... - -
POLKLORB~ ~D THB OCCULT SCIENCES. 1317

bam-owl, a blight will fall upon other's medicine-bag, is considered


Dat season's crops. very unlucky among Indians.
The Totonacs made a dough of The Arabs carry about them
first fruits and the blood of infants, photographs of the Koran, which
of which men and women partook they place upon their breast to
every six months, to give them prevent sickness, misfortune, and
health and long life. witchcraft.
Indians believe it good luck to A person who wishes to be lucky
keep as many scalps as they can should never speak of himself in
procure. the third person.
To rid yourself of bad luck, To carry the knuckle-bone of a
throw a penny over your shoulder, ham, will bring good luck.
and the one who picks it up will The people of Perugia wear ar-
get the bad luck. rowheads as lucky charms.
Among the Ashantees, certain Ill-gotten gains thrive not till
families eat certain meats, and the third heir.
others wear certain colors, for luck. Unlucky at play, lucky in love.
Dr. Samuel Johnson would go II you lie upon roses when
back half a mile if he remembered young, you will lie upon thorns
that be had omitted to touch any when old.
ODe of the lamp-posta on his daily Queen Victoria firmly believes
walk. that objects made by blind people
It is lucky for a New Zealander are lucky.
to wear the teeth of his enemy If you would have good luck
IIOUDd his neck. throughout the day, bafBe the evil
MaiJ-sacks that have been in an genius by saying the following
accident, are considered lucky to words immediately after rising in
have on a train. the morning: "Let this be my
If you sWIer privations in early lucky day; let my enemies fail."
life. you are lure to make up for it One extreme follows another. If
ill later years. If you are rich as you sing all day to-day, to-morrow
child, you will not always be so. you will probably cry.
Every one must once wear the It is lucky to carry the tip of a
Jdtcbea apron. dried beef-tongue in your pocket.
The seventh son was f~nnerly To own any rope on which a
~idered to be endowed with pre-
penon hanged himself or was
e.-ninent wisdom. hung, brings luck.
It is said that if you grasp a If you want to have good luck
~fu1 of mold from any ruin and and wealth, keep the talismanic
S~d Iny object in it, you will not word "S-A-V-E" about your per-
die for a )ear. son.
11 you make anything for any- When you desit:e that a friend
bOdY and drop it while making, it is shall have good ludic-in any under-
.ign that it will suit the person taking, walk around him or her ~.... ~ ..
for W"hom it is intended. three times, in the direetion cI th~
To sell or give away a medicine- sun. .' (. . .1
Jag, O r to touch or examine an- The bone of an executed crim- r~ .' ~~
BNCYCLOPAEDI..f OF SUPERSTITIONS.

inal, if carried in the pocket, will sack that has been in a wreck, )'011
ward oif violence. will never be in a wreck yourself.
It will bring you good luck in In the Bible, Moses gives us the
whatever you undertake, if you sign of the bush burning witboat
carry a bat's liver as a talisman. being consumed.
If you let it go out of your posses- W onder-dollars, with cabalistic
sion, it breaks the charm, and no designs, are considered a pr0tec-
second one will have the same vir- tion against sickness, bad luck, aad
tue. defeat.
It is said good luck and bad luck The people of Benin, West Af-
comes in waves, one following the rica, think to possess the head of
other. This may have given rise a dead man is to have a Jacky
to the adage: "It never rains but charm.
it poursl"
The Dahomeyans purchase of
The Incas, when taking posses- the Moors a piece of parebrneat
sion of land, threw a stone, shot an
having a sentence of ~e .KDnm ~
arrow, or hurled a firebrand to scribed thereon, and It IS kept
each of the cardinal points. This their apartments for luck.
insured peace in possession.
The Milanesians have a carioas
Touch an ill-formed person or a
tight-laced girl with the end of a taboo. A mother-in-law wiD DOt
walking stick, and it will bring the go along the sand behind her lOD-
best of luck. in-law, until the tide has washed
out his footsteps.
o If one has good luck, he must
not tell how he got it, or it will When you look at a dirty aweep-
turn to bad luck. er in India, look him ia the face;
but when you look at a BnInMn,
Don't try to hear conversation look at his feet first.
not intended for you, as eaves-
droppers never hear any good The ancient Egyptians wore
about themselves. inders with hieroglyphs eugrawd
upon them, about the neck, 80 tbat
If you hide a lucky bean and let they might be lucky in all their . .
no one know where it is, you will dertakings.
be lucky for a year.
When one admires anythiag Ia
If you carry the lucky bone Egypt very much and exprellel it,
taken from the head of a sheep, the owner instantly blesses it ia the
you will be protected from adverse name of the prophet, eIIe m lack
influences. will follow.
Do not clean a stable, sell milk,
or fetch water, after dusk.
The Chinese character meaamr
happiness, written on red paper in
Take a rubber ball and bounce it black ink, and pasted on the door-
as many times as you can without posts, is sure to bring happiness to
missing. Begin with your own age the inmates.
as you count, and when you miss, A printed list of the paltry arb- -
it shows when you will either die des the Prophet left at his decease...::
or marry. such as rosaries, staff, etc., kept i.:z:.
If you are a postal clerk and car- the house in Egypt, wiD ward ~.
ry in your pocket a piece of mail- evil
POLKLf)RB~ ~D THB OCCULT SCIBNCBS.

To obtain what you wish from A Scotch proverb says: "Freits


another, lay a swallow's tongue un- follow them 'at freits follow."
der your own, and then kiss the (Freits are superstitious notions or
penon. (Swinemiinde, Germany.) beliefs with respect to any action
To drop an amulet, is a sign of or event, as a good or a bad omen.)
death. A Hindu would never carry any-
He who has about him a string thing out of his house in the morn-
with which a rapture was tied up, ing until he had anointed the door-
can lift the heaviest load without posts with cow-dressing.
danger. (Norman.) One who carries on his person
The letter from an Indian raja a bullet that has once struck a per-
is spotted with gold leaf as a pre- son, is in no danger of sudden
servative, partly to avert the glance death.
of fascination, and partly because When so much as speaking of
COld is a scarer of demons. your good health or fortune, tap
the back of your hand or forearm
Always say, for good luck, "With three times, to avert the bad omen.
God and the Czar's permission,"
when you have any important thing ~ew Zealand natives highly
to transact. (Russia.) pnze an amulet made of green
stone, in the uncouth image of a
Dried human skulls wrapped in man, and worn around the neck.
banana leaves and hung on the It is called a "Hectiki," Tiki being
wall, or depending from the roof the "creator of man."
of eve!J' well-regulated Dyak fam-
ily, bnng luck and prosperity. Many Indians will not allow
themselves to be viewed through
The Emperor Domitian bought field-glasses, as they imagine their
of merchant a talisman consisting nakedness is exposed, nothwith-
01 three sentences of advice, for standing their clothing.
which be paid the good round sum
of a thousand florins. .~en you are camping out in a
mmmg country, and you are so
AD Turkish women carry about lucky as to find a lost wayfarer, you
tJM:m some magic word or phrase, will discover gold.
written on paper, and enclosed in
.littJe case. To lose this talisman If a person was talked of and,
'Very unlucky. ' while something was being said
of him, he entered the room, it was
It is lucky for the Chinese to a sign that he was very hot-tem-
aye bit of paper with "god of pered, easy to get mad. (Western
wealth" written on it. These are Norway.)
poIted on the wall, for luck.
Idleness is the root of all evil.
The Jut thing that touches the (Sicilian and German proverb.)
body of a man who was hanged
brings luck to the possessor. ' Keep a dove made of an egg-
shell over the table, to remind you
I f a quill is thrown over the of the Holy Ghost and bring you
IIoase and falls into a basin you a blessing.
1riI1 have a silver spoon. '
. A horse-t~th, put by stealth
-Straiabt i. the line of duty; mto someone s pocket, will pre-
earwd i. the liDe of beauty.
1:0110. the fint and JOU .ilJ see. serve him from witchcraft and
TIle IeCODd foJlowinc after tbCe.Ii toothache. (Belgium.)
1330 BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

A boy brought to King Arthur's When two persons meet and.


court a mantle which no one could having the same thought, give it
wear who was unfaithful in love, expression) it is a sign that at that
false in domestic life, or traitorous very moment a soul is delivered
to the king. If any such put it on, from purgatory. (Belgium.)
it puckered up or tumbled to The Iroquois Indians wore amu-
pieces. lets suspended from their necks
When Tiberius was making his and ears, to ward off sorcery and
first expedition and leading the witchcraft.
army through Macedonia to Syria, It is a common saying in Glou-
the altars which had been formerly cestershire. England, that running
consecrated at Phillippi by the vic- water breaks spells.
torious legions, blazed sudden I)"
with spontaneous fires. The women of Albania make
balls of rags and stitch them
The carr)ing away of chaff by through and through assiduousl}" t
the wind is; in the Scriptures, a thus "sewing up the plague, snakes,
sign of the destruction of the wick- and sickness I"
ed.
When an Indian woman has
N ever gaze on a creature that is a son sick somewhere away from
being killed, as it makes it die home, or if he has been killed on
hard. the way home, her breasts will be-
If amulets consecrated and worn come very painful.
on the body are given to anyone Laughing before sunrise causes
else, that person will thereby re- tears at evening. (Ancient Syra-
ceive power over the former wear- cuse saying.)
er. (Bohemia.)
Oblong boxes containing little
Incantations, witch-channs, and pieces of wood wrapped in white
devotion to unseen powers, are all paper, are kept, in East India, as
prevalent among the Shetlanders. charms against evil.
"As coal is black, so are my Ancient coins are used in China
prospects dark and gloomy," is one as amulets, for protection against
way for the Indians to express evil spirits.
their forebodings.
It is not customary among the::
To speak evil of his ancestors, Chinese in this country to w ~
will bring evil on the speaker. amulets or charms, except the jad~
(!\fadagascar.) wristlet, which is regarded by som'-'
Tickle a girl with a straw on the as giving strength to the aIDE
face or hands. The first thing she One that has been recovered fro~
says after it, will be the first thing a grave is most highly valued, _an~__
she will say after being married. thought to furnish protection to tl .-...
(New England.) wearer against evil spirits.
Go to the wood-pile and say: If animals and weapons shQl~ ...
"Johnnie with your fingers and Willie be found to speak, the king W01_-_ _--
with )our toes," die. (Hindu.)
and something will come out of All those who wear the me:e::=~==
the wood-pile and tear off all your of the Blessed Virgin will di... _
tlothes. (Gilsum, N. H.) happy death.
BNCYCLOPAEDI..f OF SUPERSTITIONS.

him the news of a legacy. Labor so. Think persistently of success


turns out at six o'clock, and with and deny the possibility of evil, and
busy pen or ringing hammer, lays no matter how unlucky you have
the foundation for a competency. been, your luck will change.
Luck whines. Labor whistles. Luck
The Chinese introduced between
relies on chance. Labor relies on the shells of the pearl oyster, lead
character." (Cobden.)
images, which the animal covered
The old gentlemen of the senate with nacre or the pearly substance
from the Southern state of Arkan- familiar to us, and after a time they
sas and the silver state of Colorado, were recovered and superstitiously
are now anxiously looking for held as a protection from all evil
some portent in the skies favora-
ble to Bryan. They have had In the Highlands of Scotland, a
some favorable signs lately. They large crystal of a figure somewhat
have treasured the stopping of a oval was kept by the priests to
clock in a railroad shop in Indiana work charms by. Water poured
at sixteen minutes to one as indica- upon it is at this day given to cattle
tive of their success. They were against diseases. The stones are
delighted for two whole days over now preserved by the oldest and
that Michigan potato which had most superstitious in the country;
sixteen small ones growing from they were once common in Ireland.
the main vegetable. They distinct- A certain burglar had a talisman
ly see the hand of Providence in in which he had perfect confidence.
the fact that all the blades of a cer- It was the shod hoof of a donkey.
tain second crop of oats in Michi- So great was his faith, that he has
gan had the letter "B" distinctly been known to tum back from
- stamped upon them. (N. Y. Her- "burgling" because he found he
ald, Oct., 1896.) had forgotten to take it for his pro-
"Dawntee be like old Solomon Wise, tection.
'Lof tu go tu beyd and lof tu rise; The way to make a "band of
Cuz then yull zune be
Out tu elbaws out tu toes, glory" is to get the hand of a man
Out ov money an' out ov cloase." who has been hanged, and prepare
"Bacley, bucley biddy bene, it in the following manner: Wrap
Is the way now fair and clean? the hand in a winding-sheet and
Is the goose gone to nest, squeeze out all the blood. Pickle
And the fox gone to rest? it with saltpetre, salt, and pepper.
Shall I come away?"
Dry it in an oven heated with ferns.
These curious lines are said by Next make a candle with the fat
Devonshire children, when they go of a hanged man, virgin-wax, and
through any passage in the dark; Lapland sesame. This hand hold-
they are meant to be addressed to
Puck or Robin Goodfellow, as a ing this candle will cause anyone
method of asking permission to who looks at it to lose the power
trace the way. of motion as if he were dead. ~
If a person always keeps saying In India, people believed in ~
over every trifling annoyance or amulet whose peculiar virtue ~
disappointment, "Oh, 'tis just my such that when it fell to the gro~nd
luck!" such person will never be no one could pick it up but ~e
lucky. To think you are lucky father or mother of the person ~bc
and successful, is to make yourself dropped it. If another p e ~ at'
FOLKLORB~ AND THE, OCCULT SCIENCES.

tempted to pick it up, it turned to he WIll appear behind the hedge";


a serpent and bit them. 'Speak of an angel, and you hear
To find the unlucky one among the rustling of its wings"; "Speak
a number of people, count "Onery, of the devil, and you will see his
twory, zachery zen, hollowbone, hoofs and horns."
crackerbone, willberry, waxstone, "Sttre I said my praJen, role on m,
tollaway, tan"; the one on whom right side,
Washed my hands and eyes, put on mJ
falls the last word, is the unlucky girdle last;
one. Another count for the same Sure I met no splay-foot baker,
purpose, is: "Izort, twozort, zig- Nor hare did cross me, nor no bearded
%011, zal, bobtail, a domineeker, tee, witch,
Nor other ominous sign."
taw, tal, virgum Mary, halem, sea- (Shakespeare.)
lem, zinktum, zanktum, buck, spur,
Tom, drive the nail, good old The Scythians and Thracians
man." threw every evening a white pebble
"Fate steals along with silent mad, into an urn, if the day had been an
Found oftenest in what ~ast we dread; agreeable one; and a black pebble,
Frown in the storm with angry broW' if it had not; so that, after their
Bat iD the sunshine strikes tM blow." death, their relatives could count
(Cowper.) the pebbles and see whether the
In some parts of France, it is life had been happy or unhappy.
1IIUa1 to tap the forearm thrice in
order to avert a bad omen, when a If you boast of never having had
penon has been speaking of his or a certain misfortune occur to you,
her good health or good fortune. it will soon happen, unless you rap .
your knuckles at once on wood or
If you boast of a thing, you are underneath the table three times,
sure to lose it. This is what was or say, "I do not mean to boast."
meant by "cursing by loud praise," If you congratulate yourself on
the same as "damning with faint your good health or upon any other
praise." blessing, that blessing will leave
It is lucky to carry a hoodoo-bag you, sometimes as soon as twenty-
coataining the hind-leg of a grave- four hours. It is always unfortu-
yard rabbit, seven hairs from the nate. to praise your own luck. It at
head of a black baby, lizard's once deserts you. Nothing has as
teeth, and twenty grains of earth, yet been found to counteract this
taken from a grave at midnight, law, for it is a law.
aDder a piece of skin of a black Sick people will drink, with per-
make. fect faith in its potency, water in
In Greece in ancient times, to be which a piece of paper armed with
the possessor of a Gorgon's face, words from the Koran, is soaking;
was to be provided with a charm and little bags with equally effica-
against ills; many hundred of these cious scraps, are worn at the throat
faces worked in thin gold and in- as charms.
tended to be stitched on garments, Among the familiar Turkish su-
were found in a tomb of a priestess perstitions in daily use, is the cus-
of Demeter in Kertch. tom of leaving some small defect
It happens very often that when or unfinished part in every work,
~ are speaking of any person, he some slight irregularity in design
or she will appear; or, as the prov- or pattern, as it is unlucky and evil
erbs go: "Speaking about the fox, for man to aiSume the power of
1334 BNCYCLOPABDI..f OF SUPERSTITIONS.

bringing anything to perfection, as of bacon in his pot if he looks after


perfection is an attribute of the Al- his garden and keeps a pig."
mighty. In the Middle Ages, people
"He that will not when he ma" seemed to fall to the depths of
When he will he shall have nay." ignorance, and believed that some
"Who seeks and will not take wben could sail ships in the air for the
once 'tis offered, purpose of collecting treasures that
Shall never find it more." had flown up in the clouds, and so
(Shakespeare, Antony and Oeopatra,
ii., 2.) deeply rooted was this idea among
the people, that in 833, Agobert,
There used to be a magic powder
called "sympathy powder," which the bishop of 14yons, had the great-
est difficulty in rescuing from the
is frequently alluded to in old
works, about 300 years ago. "1 fury of the mob, three men and a
woman who were supposed to fall
have sympathy powder about me,
to the earth from such a ship.
and if you will give me your hand
while the blood is warm, it will cure In the Isle of Man, an inscription
it immediately." (Sedley.) was found under a cross, which the
priest wrote out for the people. It
Every Indian who has come of read: "Fear God, obey the Priest-
age, has some especial, personal
hood, do by your neighbor as you
way of propitiating the evil one,
would have him do by you. Who-
and their superstitions are remark-
ably individual; as one man will ever has this about him shall be
not allow certain meats to be cook- successful in all business, defended
ed for him, while another thinks from witchcraft, evil tongues, and
it is no bad luck for him; or one all efforts of the devil or his agents,
. ,man will not allow a loaded weap- and a woman wearing this upon her
. on in his lodge, as being unlucky, bosom, if she expects a little child,
while the other has no such idea. shall by no "means be disappoint-
One of the reasons why the Indian ed."
is so stolid and will not make a sign "There 15 a tide in the affairs of mea
even under torture, is because he Which, taken at the Soocl, lead OD to
fortune;
believes if he cries out, the charm Omitted.. all the voyage of their life
of luck which comes with bearing Is bound in sha1Jows and in miseries."
pain silently will be broken, and he (Shakespeare, Julius Caesar, iv., 3-)
will lose his good luck. To bear "Rabbi Jochannan and Rabbi
it without a murmur, placates his Simeon Ben Lachish were anxious
evil divinity. about a friend Rabbi Samuel, ~
Among the Tasmanians, a girdle hundred miles distant on the Eu---
of human hair, with a netted string phrates. Whilst talking eamestl~
from the root of the bulrush, is the together on this subject in Pal~
most efficacious charm. tine, they passed a school; and the=-
paused to listen; it was a chil---.-.
The scrapings from a bone and reading the first book of Samue=-. ~
a skull are great protections from and the words which they caugL
evil in Tasmania. were these-'And Samuel diec~:a
Spurgeon's definition of luck These words they received humb.,---
was: "I never had any faith in and sorrowfully as a Bath-col-- .....
Juck, except to believe that good the daughter voice; and the n ::!I
Juck will carry a man over a ditch horse~an from the East broul E
if he jumps well, and will put a bit word accordingly that Rabbi Sa ...
1336 BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

angry, it would bring good fortune struck by lightning upon the ides
to repeat to himseH the twenty- of March; as was also the apart-
four letters of the alphabet before ment of the chief porter of Palati-
he ~e a word. urn at Rome. Some construed the
It is unlucky for the scepter to latter event as a presage that the
fall out of the hand of a piece of master was in danger from his own
statuary representing noble or guards, who indeed afterwards as-
royal persons. It has frequently sassinated him. The other was re-
happened, and always been follow- garded as a sign that an illustrious
ed by disaster to the house. person would be cut off, as had oc-
curred in the case of Julius Caesar.
The credulous Hindu notes care-
The Duke of Alva thought it a
fully every occurrence in the morn-
good omen to build a bridge for his
ing, for the sights that meet his
enemies. Count de Tartillan said
eye, the sounds that greet his ear,
it was so lucky he would make a
and the living creatures which
cross his path, forebode much of bridge of gold for his flying ene-
the success or failure of the day's mies. Louis XI. said: "One
should not spare a bridge of silver
undertakings.
to chase his enemy," so fortuDate
Lord Bacon believed that, if a did he believe iL
man wore a "planet-seal:' it would On gem talismans of Egypt, the
give him aid in his love affairs, pro- intention of the amulet is frequent-
tection at sea and battle, and make ly fully expressed, as "Nib 0 ca-
him courageous. pattic ton 0 oonon," "Baftle the evil
In the Roman Catholic church, eye, 0 Serapisl" the bust of Sera-
a cake of wax is stamped with the pis, the sun-god, being engraved
figure of a lamb supporting the thereon. The king of Cyprus, bav-
banner of the cross. It is conse- ing asked the god of his nature,
crated by the pope, and is supposed Serapis replied:
to possess great virtues, in being a CIA god I am such as I abow to thee:
safeguard, a cure, to ward off evil, The starry heavens my head~ m,. tr1IDk
and save from sorrow. It is called the Sea,
Earth forms my feet, mine ean the Air
the "Agnus Dei" ("Lamb of God"). supplies,
The Sun's far-darting, brilliaDt I'&7S~ my
A fetich, like a sharp instrument, eyes."
if unskilfully used, or if applied
otherwise than in strict accordance A few days before liberius left
with the advice of the priest, may Rhodes, an eagle, a bird that was.
be the ruin of the very man who never seen in that country bef~
has procured it for the destruction perched on the top of his house;;;;;:;-
of someone else. and the day before he received in----
telligence of the permission grant.-~
If a man, while wearing a fetich, ed him to return to Rome, as h~ ~
has some wonderful escape from was changing his dress, it a p ~ ~
danger, or has some good luck in to be all on fire. (Suetonius.)
trade, he always attributes it to the
influence of the charm he wears, A girl will have as many childr~~=
and values it accordingly. after marriage as she has uholdeJ.._.__
given her before marriage. ( :
The approaching doom of Calig- holder is a stuffed square of pat,,-c _
ula was indicated by many pre- work or cloth, intended for raiS;!!1_ _~
sages. The capitol at Capua .as hot kettles from the fire, or t = - -
ENCYCWPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

that would work against the en- DO matter how minute or unimpor-
emy. tant, comes along in its regular
If, in the morning, there is a order. Nothing is omitted, and
plain print of a foot leading from everything happens as written in
the door, a death in the family may the "preserved table," the "book of
be expected. But if a strange foot- fate."
print leads to the door, a birth will In Natal, a charm used to be
occur. made by boiling sorrel with mealies
The ignotant natives of Africa (maize), or mixing it with mealie-
have had for ages the idea that any porridge and boiled pumpkin. The
instrument which has caused death mixture was churned until it froth-
to a human being, is possessed of ed, and was drunk off by the per-
supernatural powers, which can be son to be acted upon. It had the
utilized by the possessor. Hence immediate effect of an emetic. and
their desire to procure swords, it is supposed that the evil spirit
rope, pieces of the scaffold, etc. went forth too. This charm was
used for catching wildcats, enticing
When Achilles was tormented persons to love, and for making
and sad for the loss of his dear witch-doctors.
friend Patroclus, his mother Thetis
brought him a most elaborate and The Chinese have sacred fruits,
curious buckler made by V ulean, as green nutmeg, two slices of
in which were engraven sun, moon, cocoanut,some saponaceous leaves,
stars, planets, sea, land, men fight- slippery elm, and sassafras, arrang-
ing, women scolding, hills, dales, ed into little packets. These are
towns, castles, which so diverted made fresh every day and eaten.
and healed his mind that he arose, to secure good luck.
himseU again. The ordinary amulets of the Si-
Ulrich Jahn, the German author- amese are composed of gold and
ity on amulets, says: "There are silver beads, strung on a thread that
little tortoises made of bronze, of has been blessed by the "bonze," or
precious stones and of amber, priest, or of small metallic plates
sometimes with other amulets on which mysterious characters are
hanging on a necklace so that the engraved.
meaning of the tortoise as an amu- Charles the Great, as Platina
let cannot be doubted." The appli- writes, had three fair silver tables,
cation of tortoises on amulets is in one of which superficies "9as a
based on the ancient belief, authen- large map of Constantinople, in the
ticated by Pliny, that the tortoise is second Rome, and in the third an
a most efficient remedy for many exquisite description of the whole
diseases; in fact, Pliny enumerates \vorld; and so much delight he took
no less than sixty-six remedies in in them that they would drive a\va}"
:which the tortoise plays a promi- his humors and keep him in a state
nent part. of health.
It is believed by all faithful Ma- In Braganza, Portugal, it is a
hometans that God has a written good omen to carry a coin with a
table called the "preserved table," cross on it, for they say, if one dies
of every event past, present, and suddenly, it is not only an evidence
to come, from the beginning of the that the person is a Christian and
world to the end of it. Each event, rna) be buried in holy ground. but
FOLKLORB# ~D THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1339

it also serves for St. Peter at jurations written by the duke partly
heaven's gates. A person wearing in an abbreviated form, also some
such a coin can enter, even if he astrological rules in French for
or she did not receive the last sac- finding out anything required, to-
ramenL gether with an explanatory wheel,
A paper with the following dated 1680.
charm was found on the body of a If you ever have an opportunity,
man named Jackson, a smuggler do not fail to study the wonderful
and a murderer, who died in Chich- Persian amulets with gold inscrip-
ester gaol in 1749, and who car- tions inlaid or carved upon them,
ried it in a linen purse: usually the name of Allah, or a sen-
"Ye three Holy kings, tence from the Koran or Persian
Caspar, Melchior, Balthasar, poet. It is lucky to even look upon
Poy for us now and in the hour of our them.
death-"
These papers, having touched the A ring with a council of ravens.
heads of the three kings of Co- prophetic birds, or crows engraved
logne, were supposed to preserve on it, was an amulet of conjugal
fidelity.
travelers from accidents on the
roads, falling sickness, fevers and Cato one morning met a friend
sudden death. who seemed to be in trouble, and
The luck of Eden Hall: Hutch- who said he was afraid some evil
inson, in his "History of Cumber- was about to happen to him, for
land," speaking of Eden Hall, says: when he woke up in the morning,
"In this house, are some old fash- he saw a mouse gnawing his shoe.
ioned apartments. An old painted "Calm yourself," replied Cato.
drinking glass, called the "Luck of "The prodigy would indeed have
Eden Hall," is preserved with great been frightful if the shoe had been
care. In the garden, near to the gnawing the mouse I"
bouse, is a well of excellent spring "How superstitiously we mind our ems I
water, called SL Cuthbert's well. The throwing down of salt or crossing
of a hare,
The glass is supposed to have been BI~ding at nose, the stumbling of a
a sacred chalice, but the legendary horse,
tale is, that the butler, going to Or singing of a cricket are of power
draw water, surprised a company To daunt whole man in us '"
of fairies, who were amusing them- A charm and spell to place in the
selves upon the green near the garments of evil-doers:
weD. He seized the glass which "Whoever thou art that meanest me ill,
was standing upon its margin; they As the river of Jordan did, stand thou
tried to get it from him, but after still,
When our Lord and Saviour Jesus
an ineffectual struggle flew away, \Vas baptiud therein, in the name of
singing: the Father and the Holy Ghost."
If that glass eithno break or fall, An old woman in "rales died at
Farewell the luck of Eden hall. the age of one hundred and t\\'enty.
A pocketbook which the unfor- As she was dying, she bequeathed
tUDate Duke of Monmouth kept to Queen Elizabeth a gold piece
carduI1y as an amulet, was taken the size of an "angel," and said that
&om him at the time of his arrest, as long as she wore the charm she
and is now in the British Museum. could not die. The queen, who
It coatains speI1a, charms, and con- was very superstitious, gladly ac-

l.
1340 BNCYCWPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

cepted the charm and hung it about bent effigy of Bishop Oldham in
her neck; but is said to have lost it Exeter cathedral, is remarkable for
later. the pressed thumbs being enclosed
A charm against the evil effects by a single ring.
of a drink that is forespoken or be- The learned Dr. Warburton is
witched: evidently wrong when he assigns
"Three bitters thou hast bitten, the origin of magical amulets to the
The heart, ill eye, ill tongue; age of the Ptolemies, which was
Three bitters shall be thy boots, not more than three hundred years
A' God's name I
Five Pater Dosters, five aves, and a before Christ; for Galen tells us
creed, that the Egyptian king Nechepsus.
In worship of the five wounds of our who lived six hundred years before
Lord." the Christian era, had written that
We read in the old French a green jasper, cut into the form of
chronicles that Gonderband, King a dragon surrounded with rays. if
of Burgundy in the fifth century, applied externally, would strength-
sought as an amulet St. Sergius' en the stomach and organs of di-
thumb, which, being fastened to gestion. We have, moreover, the
the arm of a certain king in the authority of the Scriptures in sup- .
East, had made him always victori- port of this opinion, as the ear-
ous; not succeeding in this, he by rings which Jacob buried under the
force obtained a piece of the saint's oak of Sechem, as related in Gene-
finger. sis, are nothing else but amulets.
L.T.L.K.H.B.K.N.K.pr~ The Winnebagoes believe in a
'nounced in the name of the Father, magic animal, and Little Hill, one
the Son and the Holy Ghost, is a of the chiefs, has made a drawing
charm, and whoever wears it needs of it. He is of the upper Missis-
have no fear of thieves, murderers, sippi. He says that the animal is
swords or firearms, nor injury seldom seen; that it is only seen by
from storm, fire, water or the evil medicine men after long fasting.
one. He has a piece of bone which he
Park, in his "Travels in the In- asserts was taken from this animal.
terior of Africa:' speaks of amulets He considers it a potent medicine,
called cCSaphies," which are prayers and uses it by scraping or filing a
or sentences from the Koran, small piece into water. He has
which the Mohammedan priests also a small piece of copper, which
write on scraps of paper. Some he uses in the same manner, and
wear them as a protection from the entertainc; like belief in its sover-
bite of snakes or alligators, and on eign virtues. (Mallery, "Picture
such occasions, snake's skin or skin Writing of the American Indians.")
of alligator is wrapped up with the The Apache Indians, both men
writing. The "saphie" is tied and women, wear amulets which
around the ankle. are called tzi-dalta, bits of wood
Thumb-rings have always been taken from a tree riven by light-
used as "mascots" for luck, and not ning, and cut very thin into the ...:
only by the uneducated or super- rude semblance of a man. The ~
stitious! A massive gold ring was owner of this inestimable treasure ~
found upon the thumb of the skel- prays to it in all times of trouble. ~
eton of the Bishop of Chichester, learns from it where his stol~
who died in 1169; and the recum- ponies are, finds out which way ~
1342 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

A ring studded with diamonds uable amulet which would deliver


and pearls hangs suspended by a them from every kind of danger,
silken cord around the neck of a and with which philters of different
statue in one of the most frequent- properties could be made. This
ed parks in Madrid. It is safer rude belief still exists in the moun-
there than in one of the strongest tains of Ron~, although examples
rooms of the Bank of England. are unknown of this cruel mutila-
Thou~nds of people pass it every tion ever having been affected un-
day and admire its beauty, but the less by the artifice of gipsies or
greatest thief in Spain hesitates to Jews. It was also believed that the
touch it. It is believed to deal out blood of children was useful for
death to whom it belongs. The invigorating the weak bodies of
ring was especially made for the women. (Marianda Monteiro, Leg-
late King Alfonso XII., who gave ends of the Basque People.)
it to his cousin Mercedes on
the day of their betrothal. She In 1892, Mr. William Smith, a
died. Upon her death, it passed grocer at Naples, while in the
into the possession of the king's course of cleaning his house, took
grandmother, Queen Christina. down from the valance-board an
Three months afterwards she died. object which he handed to Mr.
The king passed on the deadly Rolfe, knowing he took an interest
band of gold to his sister. She died in such things. It consisted of an
a month after she received it. The ordinary Neapolitan green lemon,
king then placed it in his own cas- into which twenty-four clout-head-
ket of precious relics, and he lived ed nails and half a dozen wire nails
less than a year. were stuck, the nails being secured
by a twisted string around their
Wolf-fish teeth and other grind- heads. Many stories are current of
ing teeth, called "Bufonite" or witches using such things for in-
"toad stones," were formerly much cantation. The man declared that
esteemed for their imaginary vir- after the thing was made by the
tues, and were set in gold and worn witches, they put it in a brazier and
as rings. Thomas Lupton tells us danced around it naked, thus giv-
that "you shall know whether the ing it its deadly power.
ad-stone be the right or perfect
stone or not. Hold the stone be- Among the Arabs, the amulet,
fore the toad, so that he may see "EI Hazeem," generally takes the
it; and, if it be a right and true form of a small leather pouch, tied
stone, the toad will leap toward it, just above the elbow. It is said
and make as though he would to insure the wearer from evil spir-
snatch it, he envieth so much that its, or bad or vicious thoughts. Its
man should have that stone." (The use is confined to boys and youths.
bufonite is a roundish tooth of a before they are yet old enough t~
fossil fish, found in the oolite for- have formed their character. The
mation.) pouch contains a few slips from th~ ~
Koran. After being once sewn up ~ ~
It was a general belief among the pouch is never opened, as thaa7==-'
the mountain dwellers of the would dissipate the charm. An--
Basque provinces of Spain, that the other form of the hazeem is an iror:::a=3
left hand of a child, severed during ring, welded on just above th......-w
sleep, and wrapped around with right elbow. This is worn b~
the child's own curls, became a val- adults, and in contrast to the chia . .
ENCYCWPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITioNS.

originate with one who has had a "Good tuck is the gayest of all gay girts.
vision ot dream, in which the mys- Long in one place she will not stay.
Back from her brow she strokes her
tery object was manifested. There curls
are mysterious bags and sacred Kisses you quick and flies away.
stone arrows, clubs, and the like, But Madam bad luck soberly comes
all possessing supernatural power And stays: no fancy has she for flitting:
Snatches of true love songs she hums
to guide, guard, render invulnera- And sits by your bed and brings her
ble, or cast "bad" medicine on an knitting."
enemy. In some of the bags are Oohn Hay [From the German.])
sacred stones, which the warriors "In the most high and palmy stale 01
rub over themselves before going Rome
to war, to prevent their being killed A little ere the mightiest Julius fell,
or wounded. The graves stood tenantless and the
sheeted dead
The Iowa Indians claim to have Did squeak and gibber in the Roman
a mysterious object by which they streets.
try men or make them swear to As stars with trains of fire and dews of
speak the truth. This mysterious blood,
Disasters in the sun; and the moist star
iron or stone had not been gazed Upon whose influence Neptune's empire
upon within the recollection of any stands
man living in 1848. It was wrap- Was sick almost to doomsday with
ped in seven skins. No woman eclipse;
And even the like precurse of fierce
was allowed to even see the outer events,
covering, and ~Ir. Hamilton was As harbingers preceding still the fates
told he would die if he looked at And prologue to the ol'Mn coming on,
it. High rocks are supposed by Have heaven and earth together demon-
strated
the Iowa to be the dwelling place Unto our climatures and countrymen."
of the gods. They also think that (Shakespeare, Hamlet ,i, I.)
l

human beings may become gods The pagans of Madagascar be-


and are thus like the Mormons. lieve in charms. and few people
There is a distinct branch of the surpass them in credulity of ghosts,
science of portents and predictions witches and apparitions. Almost
in India, called "Cheshta," which is everything is a god. A book is a
so old as to be almost beyond the god; a deceased human being
records of history. It is the inter- is a god; velvet is the son of
pretation of casual words, appear- god, and silk is god in the highest.
ances, actions, and incidents, to They think lying and cheating very
predict something of note which light offenses compared to step-
will occur in the future. History ping on a grave, and would not d~
tells us that belief in Cheshta has it for any money, as it would bring"'
been universal, and that some of them such bad luck. They will not::-
the greatest men of the world run after a fowl or a wildcat, fo~
were guided by it, receiving its in- bad luck would result. Eve~
dications as coming from a higher clan has its idols, and every fami1~
intelligence; just as to this day al- its charm. It is an evil omen, if
most everybody not only believes stranger approaches their house~iiiiiiii!~
more or less in current or tradi- and no stranger should be penni~. .
tional signs and omens of some ted to see their idol. If it is take- ~
kind or another, but very frequent- out, it is placed in a covering of re ~
ly construes certain occurrences to cloth and elevated on a pole, at ....
be of some particular significance the people are not permitted ~
in his individual case. gaze upon it, as that would ma~~
1346 BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

The appearance of the "bloody on the forehead or around the left


hand" on armorial bearings is as- arm.
cribed to the fact that some an- The phylactery worn by the Jew-
cestor of the person on whose ish priest was considered not only
shield it appears had committed as a remembrancer of God, but also
some dreadful murder, and he and as a protection against demons.
his ancestors were compelled to
bear it as a punishment for the The Hebrew word for talisman..
deed. The Herberts, of Powis magan, signifies a paper or other
Castle, in Montgomeryshire, have material, drawn or engraved with
on their carriages the emblem the letters composing the sacred
of a bloody hand, with which name of Jehovah, and improperly
is connected the legend that
applied to astrological representa-
one of their ancestors had com- tions, because, like the letters
mitted some great crime; but composing the "incommunicable
every generation was allowed to name," they were supposed to be a
paint it one shade darker, and preventive of sickness and danger
when in course of years it became from tempest, fire, lightning, and
the same color as the rest of the sudden death. The Hindus use the
carriage, then the punishment was word aum or om as the representa-
to end. It is said that at different tive of what they say cannot be
times members of the family tried pronounced, and it has the same
to paint this ominous emblem out, efficacy.
but every time when the coachman The Hebrew talisman: "It over-
went into the coach-house on the flowed, he did cast darts, Shadai is
following morning, there it was all sufficient, his hand is strong, he
again, as fresh and red as ever. is the preserver of my life in all its
variations," will keep one from all
A fetich is a material thing, evil.
either living or dead, which is made
the object of superstitious worship. H you wish to own a stick which
It is a sorcery, a charm, often will preserve you from robbers and
casually selected and believed in by wild beasts, take a thick and
those of the lowest mental endow- straight branch of elder and, after
ment. extracting the pith, put a ferrule
on the end. Then substitute for
The Egyptians carried claws, the pith, the eyes of a wolf, the
fangs, roots, and stones, called tongue and the heart of a dog,
fetiches, as a preventive of ill luck. three green lizards, and the hearts
Urganda war-fetiches consisted of three swallows, all of them re-
of dead lizards, bits of wood, hides, duced to powder by the heat of the
nails of dead people, claws of ani- sun between two papers sprinkled
mals and beaks of birds. with saltpetre. On the top of this
powder place seven leaves of ver-
The Jews believed that the phy- vain, gathered on the eve of St-
lacteries would avert all evil and John the Baptist, together with the
drive away demons. Phylacteries stone of divers colors (opal), whicb
are charms or amulets consisting is found in the nest of the lapwing ~
of scrolls upon which Scripture- and then put whatever kind of at. . -
texts were inscribed. They were knob or handle on the stick you -
enclosed in black calfskin cases, may fancy. Whatever you strik~
which had thongs for binding them with this stick becomes powerless
1348 BNCYCWPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

have been possessed by the legend- applicable to the little figures of a


ary Rustem. It is called Mer- man or woman, and is sometimes
zoum, and has the reputation of rudely traced on birch bark or in
ntaking conspirators immediately other instances carefully carved in
confess. When the shah's brother wood. These little images are
was accused of treason some years greatly used by all the Algonquin
since, the star was shown him, and, tribes. Their use is magic, and
terrified and overcome by remorse, not confined to hunting, but ex-
he avowed his iniquities. tends to the making of love, and
The next important talisman is a the gratification of revenge and all
cube of amber, which fell from malignant passions. It is a prevail-
heaven in Mohammed's time. It is ing belief that the necromancers or
supposed to render the shah invul- those acquainted with the hidden
nerable, and he wears it about his powers of their "wusks," can, by
neck. practicing upon the muzzin-ne-
Another is a little box of gold, neen, exercise an unlimited con-
set in emeralds, and blessed by the trol over the body and mind of the
Prophet. It renders the royal fam- person represented. ~Iany a sim-
ily invisible as long as they are ple Indian girl gives to some crafty
celibates. The shah had, however, old squaw her most valued orna-
numerous wives before it came ments, or whatever property she
into his possession. may possess, to purchase the love
Another is a diamond set in one of the man she is most anxious to
of his scimitars, which renders its please. The old woman, in a case
possessor invincible; and there is of this kind, commonly makes up
also a dagger with the same prop- a little image of stained wood and
erty, but it is ordained that those rags, to which she gives the name
who use it should perish by it. It of the person whose inclinations
is, therefore, carefully shut up in a she is expected to control; and to
sandalwood box, on which is en- the heart and eyes, or to some
graved a verse of the Koran. other part of this, she from time to
Petrarch, the Italian poet, men- time applies her medicines, or pro-
tions a curious superstition which fesses to have done so, as she may
he witnessed during a visit to Co- find it necessary to dupe her em-
logne. To the banks of the Rhine ployer. To gratify revenge, the
came large numbers of comely, ele- image is pricked with pins, as in
gantly dressed women, crowned the old Salem witch days, or the
with flowers, wearing cheerful mouth is blackened, to indicate the
countenances, and going to the near approach of death. There is
edge of the river, bathed their an evident similarity, almost iden-
hands and arms in its flowing wa- tity, of these practices with those ~
ters. While doing this, they repeat- of Europe in the Middle Ages. .e
ed certain harmonious phrases. In Italy, amulets are worn n~ at
Thus impending calamities were so much to protect against evil, ~
washed away and blessings substi-
-6
as
for good luck, and as such in~-4IIftci
tuted by these ablutions. This cer- dentally worked against malefic ~ iD-
emony was annually renewed. fluences.
There is a little drawing or Professor Bellucci, of Pert1t- .......gia,
image among the Indians, called has a large collection of Italian ~ am-
Muzzin-ne-neen; the same name is ulets, many of which were obt"~ned
FOLKWRB, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1349
from cbarcbes and shrines where gems, charms, implements of divi-
they bad been offered by the peas- nation, objects used in religious
ants as their most precious posses- ceremonies, etc., etc., in this coun-
sion. Others were discovered in try, is Professor l\laxwell Som-
the foundations of buildings, where merville's collection in the Archae-
they had been placed to preserve ological Museum of the University
the structure against thunder. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.
The collection comprises many
chipped arrow-points, correspond- From "Folk Prayers/' by S. Bar-
ing with those of prehistoric times. ing Gould, in the Sunday Maga-
They are set in a rim of silver or zine," Dec., 1894, we cull the fol-
iron with a ring, or inclosed in a lowing: A charm prayer is called
little bag, often with other amulets, the "white paternoster," and it is
for suspension from the neck. The complained of in White's "Way to
ancient flints from the wheel-lock the True Church," London, 1624,
guna of the fifteenth, sixteenth and as ua mass of prodigious igno-
seventeenth centuries also serve as rance" used by his parishioners.
safeguards against thunder. "White paternoster I SL Peter's brother.
What hast i' tb' oue haud? White book
Also "wart money," which re- laveL
moves warts, one specimen of What hast i' tb' tother hand? HeaveD
which is an old Byzantine piece and pte keys.
OpeD heaven gates aDd strike bell gates.
the other a modem Neapolitan ADd tet every cryan child creep to lts
coin. Keys appear to be regarded mother.
as especially efficacious as charms, White paternoster, Amen."
and in addition to the practical keys These white paternosters are in
of iron, miniature keys are manu- use in France and England, among
factured in silver, to which particu- the peasantry.
lar virtues are attributed. "Patt!r d'habitade.
In addition to the contemporary Our Saviour salute all
Italian amulets, Professor Bel1uc~ He is at our head, he Is at oar Ieet.
bas formed a large collection of He is DOW and be il after.
He is in the bed where I He.
earl)" and prehistoric charms from Five angels then I find.
YUious sites in Italy. ~Iany of his Three at bottom two at head;
recent amulets appear to find their And the mother of God in the aaidltl
prototypes in these relics of Rome She bids me sleep so sound.
Never fear nor flames Dor fire,
ad Etruria. Nor any sudden death at alL
A large number of stones in the I take our Saviour u my father.
collection were used against wiz- The Virgin ~fary as my mother.
ardI, of which one at least was re- St. Joho for my cousin,
St. Michael for my spODsor.
prded as also efficacious against There are god-parents foar.
the evil e)e. Also many serpent- Whatev~r haps, whatever befalll,
stones, as a protection against ani- I shall go to Paradise."
bites; kidney-6tones Gadeite The "Qercy Prayer" is called the
pebbles), as charms against pains uBarbe-Dieu." It runs thus: "TIle
in the loins; blood-stones, to stop Barbe of God. Who knows it and
bleeding; milk-stones, as an aid to sayS it not will lose his soul. There
the secretion of milk; thunder- behind thee lies a plank, a little
stones, etc. etc., are to be found in plank, that's long, not broad. The
lhil interesting collection. elect pass over it. The lost fall
A most valuable collection of from it and cry and groan, falling
merican and foreign amulets, into the abyss of hell. Learn the
BNCYCLOPABDIA. OF SUPBRSTITIONS.

Barbe of God at seven years old. to ward off evil Phallus is a figure
There is no time for repentance of the male generative organ, used,
when parted are body and soul." especially in the Orient, as a re-
This is a "dirge-prayer-eharm," ligious symbol of the generative
like the Lykewake dirge found in power of nature. In ancient
Aubrey's ~{SS., and first published Greece, it was borne in the Bacchic
by Sir Walter Scott. processions; in old Rome, where it
The painting of a hand on the was a symbol of Priapus, the god
houses in i\lgiers, Tunis, and other of fecundity, it was erected in his
oriental countries, is not wholly a honor, in gardens, fields, and vine-
Jewish custom, but is common to yards.
the natives of all. It is always an One of the most remarkable
emblem of good luck, and in Syria, charms now or very lately in use in
also in Naples, is a charm against Lanarkshire, for the cure of illness
the "evil eye." in cattle, is a talisman of great an-
Hands arranged in the form of a tiquity, still preserved at Lee, a
branch are merely an aesthetic gentleman's house in that country,
form of the charm. The reason the and popularly known as the "Lee
Jews paint hands on their walls at Penny." The following account of
the time of the passover is because this ancient talisman is given in the
at that season of the year their Picture of Scotland, by R. Cham-
houses are renovated inside and bers:
out, and the hand will protect them "Simon Locard of Lee accom-
from adverse influences. The hand panied the good Sir James Doug-
charm is used by the Phoenicians, las to Palestine (in the fourteenth
and that it occurs on votive altars century), bearing the heart of King
at Carthage is not surprising, as it Robert Bruce enclosed in a locked
is common in neighboring towns case, on which account his name
and cities. Hands are painted on was changed to- Lockhart, and he
the walls of St. Sophia at Constan- obtained for his armorial bearings
tinople, and they are frequent all a heart attached to a lock. Engag-
over India. They are even found ing in the wars of the Holy Sepul-
in some parts of Ireland, showing chre, this hero, who, at the death
a very diffused belief in the effica- of Douglas in Spain, became the
cy of this human emblem to push leader of the mission, had the good
away and combat trouble and evil. fortune to make a Saracen of rank
Aside from the hand, or some- his prisoner. The lady of the war-
times in connection therewith, rior came to pay his ransom, and ~
ther~ seems also the phallus to was counting out the money, when ~
have been used as a safeguard she happened to drop from ber~
against the evil eye, and three purse a small jewel, which she im--~.
grouped together and carved on mediately hastened to pick up wi~tb
the corners of buildings are fre- an air of careful solicitude. Loc~-ic-
quently seen in the Sabine terri- hart eagerly inquired the nature -of
tory of Zerni. the jewel, and learning that it ~
Sculptured phalluses have been a medicatory talisman, refused to
found in Pompeii, which were deliver up his captive, until it w- aae
either worshipped as an emblem of added to the sum previously sti:~u
fecundity, or else, like those above lated. The lady was obliged to
mentioned, were used as talismans comply, and Simon brougl1~ it
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

cause. In this, as in all similar tions of their kings, the Aztecs had
traditions, the testimony is defec- a sacred unction and a holy water
tive, every circumstance unfavora- drawn from a sacred spring, and
ble to the superstition being sup- about his neck a small gourd con-
pressed. (Chambers' Information taining a certain powder, which is
for the People.) esteemed a strong preventive of
disease, sorcery and treason.
The medicine sack or bag of the Tanner relates that among the
Apache medicine man contains the Ojibways, the two best hunters of
"hoddentin," or powdered tule, the band had each a little leather
which closely resembles the "bul- sack of medicine, consisting of cer-
lae" of the Romans. In the dances tain roots pounded fine and mixed
for the benefit of the sick, this sa- with red paint, to be applied to the
cred and magical powder is sprin- little images of the animals he
kled in the form of a cross on the wished to kill. These would bring
breast, then in a circle around his the animal to sight.
couch, then upon the heads of the The use of sacred powders
chanters and their sympathizing among the American Indians
friends, and lastly upon their own seems to be one with that of many
heads and in their mouths. They different countries in all ages. The
put a pinch of it on their tongues, employment of "hoddentin" by the
when worn out with fatigue, to re- Apache, and "kunque" by the Zuni.
store strength. When one has is about the same as came from
been wounded, they throw some of Asiatic countries and found its way
the powder in front of the wounded into Europe. Among the rustics
man's horse as he goes, so it will of Great Britain, down to a very
be easier for him. recent period, there were in use
"When Apaches go on the war- certain love-powders, the composi-
path, hunt, or plant, they always tion of which is not known, a small
throw a pinch of hoddentin to the quantity of which had to be sprin-
sun, saying: 'With the favor of the kled on the food of the beloved.
sun I am going out to fight, hunt, The magic powder called "ugan-
or plant,' as the case may be, 'and ga," used as the great weapon of
I want the sun to help me.''' divination of the medicine men of
When an Apache dies, hodden- some of the African tribes, as men-
tin is sprinkled upon the corpse. tioned by Speke, must be identical
The very first thing an Apache with that spoken of by Cameron.
does is to blow a little pinch of the who was traveling with a caravan ~
powder to the dawn in the mo~n in which the principal man was a ..
ing when he wakes. He worships haH-breed Portuguese, named Al- _~
both dawn and darkness, as well as vez. "On our making our entry, .. ~
the sun, moon, and several of the Alvez was mobbed by the women, ~ . . ,
planets. who shrieked and yelled in hODo~~.
The Navajo, Tusayan, Pueblo, of the event and pelted him wi~~
Zuni, and other Indians, all use the flour. This was in welcome."
yellow powder with its healing, When witches, in Spain, enter&~~
curing, worshipping qualities, ~nd people's houses, they threw a PO~c:::JJ1
its power to strengthen the tired der on the faces of the inmate.-a---leJ
and weary, help the headache and who were thrown thereby into so
otherwise bring good fortune and deep a slumber that nothing ~.......ud
luck to the people. At the corona- wake them until the witches VI ~ere
1354 BNCYCLOPAEDIA. OF SUPBRSTITIONS.

A young married lady says that It is an ill omen to have a negro


if you will wear your husband's hat for the first comer to the house in
for ten minutes in the morning, you the morning.
will have your own way all day. It is an ill omen to have dealings
It is a sign of good luck to have with a man who has power to kill
a blind person bless you. To pass anything that you might
To be blessed by a dying person, pick up, is against your luck.
is also a very good sign. It is bad luck to speak to a man
Abstain from killing any living on the stairs.
thing, if you wish the best of luck. If court-plaster will not adhere
Be careful not to tread upon in- readily, it is a sign of coming pov-
sects in the road or set fire to for- erty.
ests, lest you take a life and your If you ever possess a skeleton,
luck go out with it. never give it away; it is unlucky.
It is good luck to wring your
It is a bad omen for father and
hands on entering a new place.
mother to want to live in a hotel
It is lucky to attend literary ex-
aminations on the day called Kap It is bad luck to have a crutch
Tsze. (Chinese.) fall across your way.
To see the bare hinder part of It is bad luck to quarrel with a
a person in bathing. (English.) hunchback.
To hang an egg in the house. It is unlucky to awaken anyone
(Gipsy.) suddenly. The soul might not get
back in time. (Burmese.)
To throw the tongs after a per-
son going out on business. It is unlucky to receive pay for
food from a deaf mute. (Cape
If a person leaving the City of Breton.)
Washington sees (the shadow of)
the Statue of Liberty kiss Wash- It is unlucky to speak of boiling
ington's monument, he will have water.
the best of luck. It is unlucky to speak of the liv-
The Swedes think it unlucky to er. (Chinese.)
find two straws crossed. It is unlucky to measure a per-
It is an ill omen to hear an "0, son in bed.
my!" or an "Oh, dear!" Things hard to procure bring
It is considered unlucky for a evil upon the possessor.
grown person to mark on the The l\lalabrians consider it un-
ground. You will fallout with lucky to even so much as glance at ~
your lover. an oil-mill.
It is bad luck for a lady to pow- He who passes under a hempeDW:lr-
der with another lady's powder- rope will die a violent death, o. .~
rag. commit murder.
A proud eye, an open purse, and It is unlucky to whistle aft~~
a light wife, breeds mischief to the dark.
first, misery to the second, and It is unlucky for friends to wat.---...__
horns to the third. a train out of sight.
It is very bad luck to step on the It is a direful omen for any k-.~
spot where anyone has fallen and of a crown to fall from any ~
broken his or her neck. head.
BNCYCLOPA.BDl~ 011 SUPBRSTITIONS.

In the South of France, it is con- To say while eating, "How fat


sidered unlucky if a young woman you are I" is extremely unlucky, as
hands a young man a smutty pea, a sudden blight may fall upon the
for it tells him she is tired of his person, and he will perish. (Spain.)
company. If a 'person is diverting himself
In China, it is an omen of i1lluck and having a "good time," it is very
to see a porpoise or a person of evil unlucky if somebody else exclaims:
disposition. "How merry you are!" for he will
A blackamoor is considered an at once have a misfortune. (Spain.)
unlucky "first-foot." A "first-foot" It is unlucky to kill any living
is the first foot that comes in the thing until you have especially
house of a morning. washed your face.
There is not a greater sign or If you dally about in the morn-
omen of misfortune than to pre- ing on a busy day, you will want
sume of good. the hours at night.
If a person cannot get the idea It is unlucky to get back
of deep dark water out of his head, anything that has been stolen.
it is a sign that he will hear of a (Scotch.)
death within twenty-four hours.
If the signs are bad, take the ad-
The barbarians in the West In- vice of the old mammy, who said:
dies believe that if you give any- "Honey, that was a bad sign, and
thing away and take it back again, you must go right off and do a
you will get a stye. kindness to someone, and den de
The Arabs give the name of bad luck will all be turned to good,
"Kades" to a bad omen, such as sure."
seeing a deer descending a moun- Never cross under an elevated
tain, or seeing it going behind the railroad when a train is going over
beholder. it; it is unlucky.
For a child to bring a col1ector Do not leave the room back-
at Marangu any natural history ward. If you do, you will curse
specimen, was thought to be un- your parent before sundown.
lucky, and it was done in the dark
and secretly, as they think that An old Scotch superstition is to
such things are nlaterials for sor- the effect that it is unlucky for a
cery. (Report of Smithsonian In- Graham to wear green; for a Bruce
stitution.) to kill a spider; and for a St. aair
to cross the Ord on ~fonday.
If you find sand under the table,
some dreadful accident will happen In Madagascar, it is unlucky to
to a near relative. (Luxembourg.) keep cats, goats, or pigs; to receive
a single article of any kind, a pres-
In Natal, it is thought unlucky to ent must always be given in pairs;
talk of the death of a sick person, to sit on another person's bed; to
or the possibility of an accident brush another person with your
happening to a person traveling. clothes-brush; to use another per-
If a woman strides over a car- son's eating utensils. It is also un-
rier's pole, the skin on the carrier's lucky not to be buried after death,
neck will come off the next time because one would be doomed to
he uses the pole. (Malagasy Super- wander with or become a wildcat,
stition.) owl or bat.
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIBNCES. 1357

The "pope's nose" of a fo\vl must dropped, without spitting on it


not be eaten except by the most three times.
elderly or distinguished person To speak the name of one \vho
present. A son must not sit on a is a miser in the morning; to speak
chair while his father is sitting on the name of a place called after a
the ground.. He must not walk in miser in the morning; to mention
front of him or use a spoon before an owl or to nleet one in the morn-
him. All these things bring bad ing; to mention an ass, a bear, a
luck. (~fadagascar.) snake, or meet one in the morning;
A peak of any kind pointing at to see the face of a low-caste the
you, your house, your grave, or first thing in the morning; to meet
an)thing else, as the peak of a tem- a jackal crossing the path from left
ple, house, or even the top of a hill, to right; for one to call out to a
casting a peaked shadow, is very traveler when starting; for one to
unpropitious, and the evil accruing put a question to a traveler when
therefrom must be warded off by starting; for anyone to cough as
man) different charms. (China.) travelers start; are unlucky omens
among the Hindus.
The reason why it is believed to
be unlucky to pass under a ladder, To strike the plate one is eating
is because, in old times, convicts off; to stand while eating; to hand
who ,,ere condemned to death food to anyone behind the back;
were made to pass under a ladder; to eat grains of rice which have
while those who were not con- been used for weighing money; to
demned to death passed outside. pound in an empty mortar; for a
child to make a strumming noise
The superstition that it is un- with his lips, \vill each and every
luck)- to look back when starting one cause a famine. (Madagascar.)
aD)where, is supposed to have
originated with Lot's wife, who The following tines are from
was turned into a pillar of salt for Withers' "Abuses \Vhipt and
looking back, in disobedience of Stript," 1613:
the command. ifFor worthless matters some are WOD-
drous sad:-
Parnell was superstitious. He Whom if I call not vain I must tenD
would begin no new business on mad,
Frida)-, he started if anyone offered If that their noses bleed some certain
drops
to help him to salt, and he would And then again upon a sudden stops,
drink no ,,-ine at table unless the Or, if the babbling fowl we call a jay,-
decanter came around from right A squirrel, or a hare but cross their way,
Or, if the salt falls toward them at table
to left. He was also afraid of the Or any suchlike superstitious babel
Dumber thirteen. Their mirth is spoiled, because they
hold it true,
To sleep on the wrong side of a That some mischance must thereupon
mat. or to cut anything with the ensue."
back of a knife, is to lay oneself M 0 N S T E R S, G I :\ N T 5,
open to evil influences, and one is DWARFS, ETC.-Caligorant \vas
especially liable to be deceived or an Egyptian giant and cannibal,
plotted against by others. (Mada- who ensnared travelers with an in-
gascar.) visible net.
In Trans}-lvania, it is unlucky to Orion ,,as a wonderful giant of
pick up anything that anyone has great beauty, ,,-ho cleared the isl-
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

and of Chios of all wild beasts. language, are the Kamapravara-


(Greek.) nas, people who have their ears for
Pacolet, a dwarf, rides an en- their covering.
chanted wooden horse. Therefore If a child falls into the hands of
to say, "You ride like Pacolet," the little brown dwarfs of the Isl-
means "you ride very fast." and of Rugen, it must serve them
Dwarfs of the mountain are lit- for fifty years.
tle elfish beings with boys' faces, The dwarf Alberich belongs to
green clothing, and caps. Their the old German mythology. He is
favorite food is raisins. They are the guardian of the Niebelungen
well-disposed little fellows though, hoard.
and their knockings indicate where
the richest veins of ore lie. (Ger- Mariette, in his "Outlines of
man.) Egyptian History," tells of aD
Egyptian giant who was "nine cu-
It was believed in St. Augus- bits high" and who reigned one
tine's time, that there were giants hundred years.
formerly inhabiting the earth, and
he says that he saw the tooth of a The Gorgons were monsters in
man so large that it "would have Greek mythology, frequently plac-
made a hundred of his own or any ed side by side with furies, and rep-
other man's that lived in his time." resented as honid old women with
f The Lemean Hydra, a mon- snakes instead of hair, who could
~ strous water-serpent which was
change anyone into stones whom
they looked upon.
:slain by Hercules, had seven heads
according to Apollodorus, fifty ac- King Arthur once fought a giant
cording to Simonides, and one hun- and killed him, but he bad to cut
dred according to Diodoms. off his legs first to reach his bead.
The belief is strong in Sweden Adopis are, in folklore of British
that a giant has two hats; if he Guiana, little men ol the woods.
wears one, it renders him invisi- with great power and without
ble; if he wears the other, things thumbs. If you see one in the
invisible to him will become visible. bush, cover your thumbs 01" he will
Giants were believed to be cre- tear them off.
ated to destroy wild beasts and pro- The people of Demerara believe
tect the dwarfs. in a female spirit or monster, called
In 945, while a cyclone visited "Long Bubbies," a woman who
Paris, monsters armed with battle- thrashes people with the right
axes are said to have dropped from breast, which can be elongated at
the skies, and rushing into a her pleasure to form a whip.
church, tore down the pulpit, which The Bohemians believe living
they used as a battering-ram to de- persons can be "ghouls" or vam- :-:
stroy a neighboring house. pires, and by association can draw
Error was a huge monster, the the blood from your veins and then
upper part the form of a woman, choke you, and not let you find rest
the lower part a dragon-tail with a even in your grave.
venomous sting.
Among the strange fabulous
The Greeks believe that the owl
goes before and gives warning of --
people spoken of in the Sanscrit the coming of a vampire.
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIBNCBS. 1359

In Crete is a legend that a mon- and to have carried Sir Bevis, his
ster swallowed up nine youths, and wife, and his horse under his arm.
the deliverance by their father Allusions to him occur in Shake-
forms one of the subjects of folk- speare, Drayton, and other Eliza-
song. bethan writers.
Celtic folklore tens of Oscar, son "Each man au Ascapart, of strength to
of Ossian, having been gobbled up toss,
by a monster, but having cut his For quoits. both Temple-bar and Char-
ing-cross." (Pope.)
way out again with his sword.
In the ancient days of France,
In the Old Testament are ac- Rabelais teUs of the death of Gar-
counts of the Anakim, a race of gantua's wife, Badebek, the mother
giants, dwelling in southern Pales- of Pantagruel, whose birth was the
tine. They were surrounded by cause of her death; which is not to
legends and called "the dead, the be wondered at, since he came into
giants, the phantoms, and the he- the world accompanied by eighty-
roes." A plain to the southwest of one sellers of salt, each leading a
Jerusalem bore their name, and mule by a halter; nine dromeda-
they were confounded with the Ti- ries laden with ham and smoked
tanic races buried underneath the tongues; seven camels laden with
sea. eels; besides twenty-five wagons
The Centaurs were monsters of full of leeks, garlic, onions, and
Greek mythology, horses with the shallots.
body, head, and arms of a man.
They were terrible warnors, able In Sicily exists a curious super-
to run with great speed and shoot stition about a dwarf's fair. In the
their arrows with wonderful skin. space of time which elapses be-
tween the introit and the lesson,
When Noah built his ark, there dwarfs are supposed to hold a fair
lived a giant named Hurtali. He sprung up by magic in a field near
was too big to get into the ark, but at hand, at which every conceiva-
he was almost too big to be ble good thing is sold at ridiculous-
drowned. So when it was launch- ly low prices. The whole affair
ed with all its cargo on the stormy lasts only a few minutes, for as
flood, he sat on it astride, as chil- soon as the priest begins to read
dren do on a hobby horse, and so . the lesson, everything vanishes into
was saved, to be the head of the thin air. Those who come sud-
giant family of old times. denly into some great good fortune,
The mbulu is a fabulous creature are believed to have been fortunate
firmly believed in by the Kaffirs. enough to attend the dwarf's fair,
It can assume the human form, but and bought their luck with a trifle.
it cannot part with its tail. One of In many of the old fairy stories
its peculiarities is that it never and myths, an escaping hero or
speaks the truth when it can possi- heroine flying from a dragon or a
bly tell a falsehood. monster, throws behind some arti-
According to an old romance, cle which turns into a forest and
Bevis of Hampton conquered a stops the pursuer, or into a lake, or
giant named Ascapart. His effigy into a fire, or a mountain. These
may be seen on the city gates of magic changes s)mbotize the effect
Southampton, in England. He of sacrifice. If we give away some-
is said to have been thirty feet high, thing of our own, perhaps it will
BNCYCLOPAE.DIA OP SUPERSTITIONS.

come back to us in some other tilling the soil. She picked them
form. "Cast your bread upon the together with their beasts of bur-
waters." (Andrew Lang, Custom den, implement, and so forth. into
and Mrt!t.) her apron and took them to her
In old Norse mythology, there husband, saying: "Just look at
was a dwarf who lived in the river these weaklings I have foundl"
in the form of a pike. He was But the giant answered: 'Weak
caught by Loki and forced to give now I but strong enough to rule
up all his treasure, but on the last the land after us; let them gol"
ring of all his jewels he placed an So she let them go, and now where
everlasting curse of destruction to are the giants? (Swedish folk-
everyone who should ever wear it. lore.)
His treasure came to be known as The fable in regard to the lignite
"the Niebelung hoard," from the and fossil bones of cetaceans 01"
name of its possessors. whales found abundantly in the
Andhaka was a monster of Indi- tertiary clay of Gay Head, Martha's
an mythology, having a thousand Vineyard, is very interesting. The
arms and heads, two thousand eyes Wampanoag Indians supposed that
and feet, and called Andhaka be- the blackened wood of lignite
cause he walked like a blind man, marked the spot where the giant
though he saw well. Siva slew him Manshope broiled the whale on a
when he tried to carry off the tree fire made of the largest trees, which
of paradise from heaven. he pulled up by the roots.
Grendel was a terrible man-eat- In Roman mythology, we find
ing monster of supernatural pow- a giant and son of Vulean living
ers, in Anglo-Saxon legend. He near the spot on which Rome was
was slain by BeowuH, a Swedish built. He sk>le from Hercules
hero. some of the cattle of Geryon, drag-
ging them into his cave under the
The Phorcids, or Gorgons, were Aventine backwards, so that their
three terrible daughters of Phor- footsteps would not show the direc-
cus, "the old man of the sea," who tion in which they had gone. But
had in common but one eye andone he did not calculate that they would
tooth, which they used alternately. low, which Hercules heard, and
They dwelt at the uttermost end thus tracing them, found the mon-
of the earth, where neither sun nor strous thief and slew him.
moon beheld them. Their hair
consisted of venomous vipers, and The giant Nor, in Scandinavian
anyone who beheld their terrible mythology, is the father of night.
gaze would be transformed to and dwells in Utgard, the circle of
stone. They represent the climax rocks that hemmed in the ocean
of all that Greek imagination has which was supposed to encompass
created of the horrible and repul- the world. Utgard is the home of
sive. the giants. Utgard-Lok is the de-
In the mountain, an old giant mon of the infernal regions.
was lying sick and dying. His The idols and images of clay
wife, yet frisky, had been out on found about old ruins in Mexico
some errand, and in the fields she are believed by the Indians to be
had found man, a new species, as dwarfs and imps, who have the
yet unknown to her, occupied in power to sour the pleasures of life.
FOLKLORE, ~ND THE OCCULT SCIENCES.

The come to life at sunset, and ap- him consisted in lodging a ball of
pear as very small, naked men, silver in his head.
with a hat on the head. They are . In 1828, several burying-grounds
swift of foot, and can run back- were found in White county, Ten-
ward just as well as forward. Their nessee, U. S., in the town of Sparta,
touch produces sickness, especially wherein very small people had
chills and fever. There is another been deposited in tombs and coffins
malevolent creature called "Little of stone. The greatest length of
Boy," who hangs around the woods the skeletons was nineteen inches.
and causes smallpox. The bones were strong and well
There is a monster in Basque set, and the whole frames well
land called Basso-jaun, the "lord formed. Some of the people had
of the woods." The superstition appeared to live to a great age.
depicts it as a horrible monster in their teeth being worn smooth and
a human form, having nails long short, while others were full and
and hard as those of a wild boar, long. They were all bwied with
and being covered with hair. It their heads to the east, in regular
is supposed to reside in the deepest order. One of these skeletons had
part of the woods, but occasionally about its neck ninety-four pearl
it appears at the mouth of caverns beads.
and mountain torrentl. It is the Theseus was the national hero of
terror of all who must go into the Attica. He was a cousin of Her-
woods. cules, whose exploits he emulated
The Kudan is a creature of Japa- by killing monsters and robbers.
nese folklore, with the face of a He killed the Minotaur, and read-
man and the body of a bull. It is ily found his way out of the Laby-
usually born of a cow, and its ap- rinth by means of a ball of thread
~arance is taken as an omen that which Ariadne gave him, one of
something unusual is going to hap- which he had fastened at the en-
pen. The Kudan always tells the trance and let it trail after him.
truth, so in letters and documents He aided a friend to attempt to ab-
it is customary to use the phrase, duct Proserpine from the palace of
"on the truth of the Kudan." Pluto. They failed, and Theseus
There exists in North Wales a was confined in Tartarus, but at last
legend, according to which an ex- released. His life is, like that of
traordinary being which passes for Hercules, supposed to be half his-
a vampire, formerly haunted the torical and half mythical.
recesses of Snowdon. If unfortu- Castle Rushen, on the Iste of
nately any young people ventured Man, has long been famous in the
near his retreat, he threw himself estimation of the natives, for its
immediately upon them and killed subterraneous passages, and there
them by drinking their blood to the are individuals amongst them who
last drop. According to the leg- still believe that they lead to a
end, the life of the monster was beautiful country underground, in-
lengthened by the number of years habited by giants. l\lany attempts,
which each of his victims would they say, have been made to ex-
have lived if he had not killed them, plore these passages, but they have
50 that he would have lived forever been generally unsuccessful. Once,
if some one had not discovered that however, a number banded them-
the only means of exterminating selves together, and, having armed
1361 BNCYCLOPABDI~ 011 SUPERSTITIONS.

themselves and provided torches, Among the Basques, they have a


they descended. After proceeding tradition that the giant Tartaro was
some way, they came across an old a one-eyed creature, who, although
man of great size, with a long very strong, was always conquered
beard, and blind, sitting on a rock if he attacked a man. He was not
as if fixed there. He, hearing them to be rid of his deformity until a
approach, inquired of them as to young girl should marry him. One
the state of the island, and at last day he asked a girl to be his bride
asked one to put forth his hand, on and sent her a talking ring. As
which one of them presented him soon as she put it on her finger the
with a ploughshare, when the old ring began to chatter with all its
giant squeezed the iron together might, and she was so frightened
with the greatest ease, exclaiming that she flung it into a large pond.
at the same time, "There are yet where, in despair of anything g0-
men in the Isle of Man." ing well with him, Tartaro drowned
It is believed by the Jews that himself.
when Goliath saw little David, the There is a Bohemian legend of
sight seemed so ridiculous that he "strong Ctibor," the shepherd of
threw back his head and laughed. Riesenburg. In the meadow, his
By so doing, he threw his brazen master caught him carrying a huge
helmet away from his temples, at tree on his shoulder. When he was
which moment David threw the asked where he got it, he confessed
stone and struck him in the fore- that he had stolen it from the (01"-
head. He fell stunned, not dead; est. His master, pleased with his
and David ran and cut his head off candor, not only forgave him, but
with the giant's own sword. told him to come to the fortress and
Chimaera was a terrible fire- he would give him as much food
breathing monster that had the as he could carry. Ctibor was so
head of a lion, the body of a goat, greedy that he took his wife's nine-
with a goat's head in the middle, ell feather-bed cover and went to
and the hind part ending with a the fortress, where they filled it
snake's or dragon's head. It has with peas and ham. The knight
become proverbial in almost every liked him on account of his
language to designate something strength and frankness, and when
imaginary or impossible. there was a tournament in Prague.
The Greek Lamia, a vampire or he took him along. Ctibor over-
female monster, who had the face came a certain German knight
and breast of a woman and the rest whom no one else could conquer,
of the body like that of a serpent, and on that account was knighted
like the Bulgarian Samodiva, is by the king.
often represented as marrying a The following is a legend of the
human husband, though in popular Hudson Bay Eskimos: "Between
estimation they make such poor two men there existed keen rivalry.
housewives that the expression Each asserted himself to be the
"she sweeps like a Lamia" has be- stronger, and endeavored to prove
come proverbial. Mermaid brides himself superior to the other. One
are a common feature in Western declared his ability to form an isl-
folklore. In Celtic story, Thomas and where there had none pre-
the Rhymer is said to have been viously existed, and flung a stone
the son of a mermaid. into the sea so large that it became
FOLKLORB, ~ND THB OCCULT SCIENCES. 1363
an island. The other with his foot two persons must place their legs
pushed it so hard that it landed on across each other's in silence, or
the top of another island lying be- draw off the fourth wheel of a
yond. The mark of the footprint wagon and then hasten to get un-
is visible to this day, and that place der a roof, else it will go badly.
is now known as Tukik Tok. (German.)
Thanase Vaghia was a Greek The Sphinx was once a mon-
lieutenant of the tyrant Ali Pasha strous being near Thebes, in
of loannina. When all his other Egypt, with the head of a woman,
officers had refused to massacre the body of a lion, and the wings
the men of Gardiki, eight hundred of a bird, who put forth riddles to
in number, entrapped by falsehood every passer-by, and devoured all
and treachery in the courtyard of who could not answer them. Oedi-
the Khan of Valiere, this man of- pus solved the one proposed to
fered to begin the butchery. For him, and in her chagrin she de-
this deed, the Greeks believe his stroyed herself by turning herself
body, after death, could not decom- into stone.
pose, but walked the earth as a Argus was a monster, in Greek
vampire, in company with his vic- mythology, who had a hundred
tims and the vizier Ali. eyes. When Mercury, the gods'
Longfellow, in one of his private messenger, killed him, Juno set his
letters to his friend Samuel Ward, eyes in the tail of the peacock,
called his feeling of sadness some- which was her favorite bird. ] uno
thing that was like the "old man of had set Argus to watch 10, of .
the sea." He alluded to a monster whom she was jealous. Hence Ar-
in the "Arabian Nights," who was gus-eyed means jealously watch-
encountered by Sinbad the Sailor, ful.
in his fifth voyage. This old man The Greeks believe in vampires,
made Sinbad take him on his shoul- and the bare possibility of becom-
ders and carry him about, but at ing a vampire after death, fills them
last the sailor got him intoxicated, with horror. Yet a contrary view
and dropping him, made his escape. is taken in the following popular
The allusion was made by the poet verse:
a short time after the tragica1 death "Q friend may'est thou live foreverl
of his beautiful wife, who was But if death be thy doom
burned to death. ~layte5t thou Vampire become,
Thou'lt enjoy then, this fair world twice
The Roman poet Ovid tells of a over."
curious monster of a man, whose The belief that a dead person de-
ap~tite was insatiable. He spent lights in the blood of a human vic-
all his ~state in the purchase of tim is frequently met with in classic
food, and nothing was left but his authors. The phantasm of Achilles
daughter, so he sold her to buy is represented by Euripides as ap-
food for his ,-oracious nlaw. After pearing in golden arnlor at his
a time, being reduced to nothing, tomb, and as being appeased by the
he ,,-as obliged to eat his own flesh sacrifice of a )-oung virgin, whose
rather than to go hungr)-. blood he drank.
If you desire to secure the drake The "Black D,varf', is a malig-
and make him give up a part of nant fairy of Scotch folklore, Qeing
that which he is carrying with hiln, the cause of nluch mischief done
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

in the neighborhood where he liv- cules." Having performed them.


ed. He is the principal character he was conveyed by a cloud to
of a novel by Sir Walter Scott. Olympos, and rewarded with im-
According to Persian belief, hell mortality. He was afterward wor-
is guarded by the giant Zohak. He shipped by all the Greeks.
was the fifth king of the Pishdadian Rustam, a Persian hero, became,
dynasty. Zohak had murdered his on the first day of his life, as large
predecessor, and invented flaying as a child a year old, and ten wet
men alive and killing them by cru- nurses were required to provide
cifixion. The devil kissed him on him with milk. While a mere child
the shoulders, and immediately two he killed a raging elephant, and as
serpents grew out of his neck and a youth, found a spring in a burn-
fed constantly upon him. He was ing desert, killed a dragon eighty
dethroned by the famous black- feet long, slew an enchantress, and
smith of Ispahan, and then appoint- finally slew the famous white de-
ed by the devil to keep hellgate. mon. The poet Omar Khayyam
Saint Veronica, whose day is the alludes to him in the following
4th of February, was the woman verses:
who handed the Saviour" a cloth Let Zal aDd Rustam thunder u they
when he was on his way to Calvary. will,
He wiped his brow with it, and the And Hatim call to sapper. heed Dot J'oal
impression of his features remain- With me along this strip of hel"bqe.
ed indelibly impressed on the hand- strewn,
kerchief. The emperor Vespasian, That just divides the desert from the
sown,
who heard of its miraculous proper- Where name of slave and 5a1taD is for-
. ties, sent for it, and was cured from got,
.0 .:v a severe illness by looking at it. And peace to Malmad on his soIdea
For centuries the handkerchief was throne I
preserved in a church and shown
to the people on the anniversary of
boa'"
.... book of verses underneath the
A jug of wine, loaf of breacl-aud
her commemoration. Thou
Beside me singing in the WilderneSS,-
Hercules was the most celebrat- Ob, Wilderness were Paradise enow!
ed hero of antiquity, and a proto- (Zal was Rustam's father, and
type of athletes. He was supposed their mutual exploits are the most
to have been born at Thebes.
While he was an infant in the cra- celebrated in the Shah-nama. Ha-
dle, he strangled two serpents sent tim Tai was a well-known type of
by Juno to destroy him. When a Oriental generosity and hospital-
ity.)
young man, two beautiful fonns ap-
peared to him and asked him to In Banks island, the natives be-
make a choice. One was Virtue lieve in vampires. A man or wom-
and the other Pleasure. He chose an will steal and eat a piece of a
Virtue, and was soon renowned for corpse. Then the ghost or spDat
his exploits. Having consulted the of the dead person will join the
oracle of Apollo, he was directed vampire, or the person who has
to serve Eurystheus for t\velve ate its corpse, and will aftIict the
years, when he should become a person's enemies. The man so af-
god. His master, envious of him, flicted will begin to feel the injury
set twelve tasks to be performed, and to dread the vampire and sus-
called the "Twelve Labors of Her- pect him. The vampire is called a
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES.

talamaar. The neighbors will then As instances of the myths and


seize him, and cause to be made legends of the Roumanians: A
a strong smoke of smelling leaves, certain Hungarian, Janok, bids one
and will then callout the name of of the performers on the small
the dead man, whose spirit is the shepherd's reed to a banquet.
"familiar" of the vampire. This Mihou accepts the invitation; but
phase of vampirism seems to be ex- at the end of the banquet, which
actly at opposites with all other be- has lasted the whole day until the
liefs. evening, the two braves fall into
The same name, talamaur, is dispute. Mihou cuts off the head
given to one whose soul is suppos- of his entertainer, and casting his
ed to go and eat the soul of the weapon on the ground, defies the
&eshly dead corpse. Such persons spectators to raise it. No one has
take a morbid delight in the dread sufficient strength, and with words
they inspire. of bitter scorn the brigand majes-
tically withdraws, filling the forests
The Boonandik tribe, Mount as he goes with his enchanting
Gaurbier, Australia, has the follow- notes on the "kobouz."
ing legend about the end of the Another hero who has slain with
giants: A man, whilst out hunt-
his merciless battleaxe a whole in-
ing, left his wife at a temporary
nocent family, father, mother, and
camping place; on his return, he children, discovers one of his gang
saw traces which led him to con- devouring the murdered house-
dude that the giant "Brit-ngeal"
wife's store of butter. It was a fast
bad carried her off. He tracked day. "Impious pagani" cries the
the giant and found the partially
outraged chief, "hast thou then no
eaten body of his wife. Close by
fear of God, to eat butter on a Fri-
was a deep narrow-mouthed cave, ayl"
out of which the giant got water,
and beside it lay the long drinking- Legend of Glamis Castle: The
reed. The man got up into a tree Castle of Glamis, Forfarshire, Scot-
that overhung the cave, having land, is the residence of the Earl of
first crushed the reed to make it Strathmore. Concerning the fam-
useless for its purpose. Presently, ily there is a mystery, which is ex-
the giant came to get a drink. He plained to the eldest son on his
lowered the end of the reed into coming of age. On the eventful
the cave and tried to suck up the day, the heir is taken down to a
water, but he drew up nothing but secret room under the castle, and
air; he bit off the end, but with the there is shown the cause of the se-
same result; he bit off a piece more, cret, and made to swear that he
but again failed to obtain water; will never tell a soul except his own
he repeated the same experiment; son when that eldest son shall have
but to reach the water now he had reached his majority. Thus the
to bend his head and shoulders story has been passed from genera-
right down into the hole. In so do- tion to generation and the people
ing, he exposed his really weak of the neighborhood know nothing
part to the watcher in the tree, who of what goes on on the young earl's
jumped down, struck his spear into birthday. But amongst the ad-
the giant, and shoved him head herents of the family is an old
fint into the cave. In this manner, housekeeper, who has gradually
the last of the giants met his death. formed her stol) from hints let fall
BNCYCLOP~DIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

and shrewd guesses. From her this monster, and they agreed to
comes the following: Almost two kill him. One day they found him
hundred years ago, the wife of the sleeping and killed him, burning
then Earl of Strathmore had a son his body to ashes, and they had
and heir. There were great rejoic- peace afterwards.
ings at his birth, but in a short time The natives of the Adelaide tribe
these c~sed and mourning took have a monster which they call
their place, for the son who "Koonyoo':' not unlike the vam-
was born was a monster without a pire or incubus of other nations.
brain. In vain the best doctors He flies about at night, makes a
were consulted, and the father and noise in the trees, but is never seen.
mother, in deepest despair, offered and is an object of great terror to
a large reward to anyone who could the natives. This being descends
help them; it was useless. After a to the earth in the dark, alights
time a second son was born, and upon the body of a man while
since the eldest could not be the sleeping, and presses on his liver,
earl, the second was made heir. causing him to suffer excessive
When his parents died, the new pains, and sometimes producing
earl had his brother put in one of death.
the dungeons of the castle, which The natives of the Port Lincoln
was fitted up for him so that he tribe believe in the existence of a
was well out of the way. From that fiendish monster named M8rralye,
time till now he has lived in the whom they describe as a man who
dungeon, and this is what the first- assumes the shape and power of a
born sees on his twenty-first birth- bird, so that he can fly through the
day, when the story of his house Is air. He is most feared during the
.j told him. The real earl still lives, nighttime, when he is supposed to
.., or exists, he cannot be said to real- pounce upon his sleeping victims.
ly live, as he merely vegetates, and either killing them by eating their
he may continue to exist, as such hearts out of their bodies, or doing
brainless monsters may, for an in- them some other grievous injury;
definite period, as now he has lived he takes care, however, not to leave
almost two hundred years; but he any mark of his ravages, and it is.
:will never come into his rights as therefore, only from the effects,
the Earl of Strathmore. such as pain and illness, that the
~ufferers know of his nightly visits.
Australians of the Boonandik
tribe have the following legend The death of children and the loss
about the devil, called "Tennate- of sight are usually ascribed to
ona." "Wirmal," "Baringial" and MArralye, if no other palpable
"Daroo" were three good men. cause can be assigned.
"Tennateona" was a very wicked Ambohed Rapeto was the dwell-
man, of a very savage nature. He ing place of a wonderful mytholog-
murdered men, women, and chil- ical personage of Madagascar, of
dren, and was a perfect terror to whom most extraocdinary stories
the blacks; some to save their lives are related. He is said to have
laid themselves on ant-hills and let been a giant, and originally came
the ants cover their bodies as if from one of the highest mountains
dead, to avoid his cruelty. The of the Imerena district, about fifty
three good men consulted together miles from the capital. On its sum-
how they were to rid the earth of mit his tomb is still shown, and
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES.

saaifices and prayers were former- hand and the Antarctic with the
ly offered there in his honor. The other. This probably meant that
powers of Rapeto were of the most the race of man was already scat-
marvelous kind. He could fetch tered over the whole globe.
things from the farthest extremi-
Norway, in ancient times, was
ties of the earth, and could at a
stretch reach the sky. One single believed to be inhabited by giants,
who all suddenly perished except
step of his would be equal to a ~ix two women, who annoyed and at-
days' journey of a man. When VIS-
ited by strangers he would, with- tacked the people who came from
out moving from his seat, put out the Eastern countries to inhabit the
his hand and secure abundance of land, until Thor, wrathful to see
women have such power, slew
fowls, sheep, and bullocks. ~i~h them with his thunderbolt.
ing occasionally for a few daIntIes
for his table, he produced the beau- Pantagruel was one of the princi-
tiful and extensive Lake Itasy, pal characters in Rabelais' satirical
which abounds to this day with ex- romance of the same name. He is
cellent fish. On one occasion, he represented as a gigantic person-
had a serious quarrel with the age, beneath whose tongue an
moon, with whom he fought; but army takes shelter from the rain,
notwithstanding his gigantic size in whose mouth and throat are
and strength, he was slain. cities which contain an immense
population, etc.
Traditionary memorials of the
primeval giants still exist in Pales- "Old Chaucer doth of Tropas tell,
Mad Rabelais of Pantagruel."
tine, in the form of graves of enor- (Drayton.)
mous dimensions; as the grave of
"He fair besought the ferry-man of bell,
Abel near Damascus, which is That he might drink to dead Pantag-
thirty feet long; Seth in Anti-!:eb- rael." (Bishop Hall.)
anon, which is about the same sIZe;
and that of Noah in Lebanon, In Hungary and Roumania, the
which is seventy yards in length. belief in the mythical vampire in-
vests this being with fatal reality.
High giants are mentioned in If in a village a youth or maiden,
Judith xvi., 7, and giants famous without apparent cause, grows pale
from the beginning, great in stat- or wastes away, the elders deliber-
ure and expert in war, are named atelv and generally conclude that
in Baruch iii., 26. In 1718 Hen- there must be a vampire in the lo-
rion, a French Academician, en- cality. The creature is not a bat
deavored to show the very great or reptile, but a human being de-
decrease in the height of men be- ceased. Those of the dead are
tween the periods of the creation numbered, and it is decided which
and the Christian era. He sa)'S of them feeds in his tomb on the
that Adam \\'as 123 feet high, Eve blood of the living. Men gather at
118, Noah 27, Abraham 20, and night bearing torches, and one of
Mos~s 30 feet high. The above them a trident; they seek the
.11~gation of Adam's height is very
priest, conlpel him to assume his
moderate compared with those stole, and carry him off to the
made by early rabbinical writers, graveyard. The grave-digger is
who affirm that his head overtop- made to open the tomb of the sup-
ped the atmosphere. and that he posed vampire, the coffin is burst
touched the Arctic pole with one open, and if the corpse appears un-
ENCYCLOPA.EDIA. OF SUPERSTITIONS.

decayed and with the color of life ful, decent, clever, moderate, pious,
in the cheeks, they declare that obedient, rich, poor, young, old,
their supposition is correct. With agreeable. lovely, friendly, half,
savage howls and imprecations, the quick, deep, round, contended,
trident is plunged in the breast of more, less, to greet, to thank, to
the body, the heart tom asunder, punish, to be silent, to promenade,
and the limbs pierced. When to complain, to worship, to doubt,
nothing remains but a confused to buy, to flatter, to caress, to per-
mass of flesh and blood, the fury secute, to dwell, to breathe, to im-
of the avengers is satiated, and they agine, to idle, to insult, to console,
strew earth over the ghastly re- to live, and a thousand words of a
mains, and with a final execration, similar character. But even those
depart. Then only is the vampire who seemed to understand some of
dead, and if perchance the youth what the good priest, Jacob Bae-
or maiden recovers, it is attributed gert, who lived among them sev-
solely to the dreadful outrage com- enteen years, taught, still clung to
mitted. their own notions.
Of all the tribes on the face of Oeomedes, a mythological giant
the earth, the aborigines of the of ancient Greece, committed many
California peninsula seem the most desperate freaks, and at last, in a
utterly degraded. They live to eat. school-house, striking a pillar that
To eat is all they think of, and if sustained the roof, with his fist,
they eat anything whatever, even broke it in the middle, so that the
the vilest possible things, quite un- house fell down and destroyed the
imaginable by a civilized person, children in it. He was pursued.
they are happy. A few of them and fled into a great chest, and
with great difficulty were convert- shutting the lid, held it so fast that
ed to Christianity, because they many men with their united
have no words to indicate the sim- strength could not force it opeD.
plest ideas. All terms relating to When, at last, they had demolished
rational human and civil life, and the chest, they found nobody in it,
a multitude of words for signifying neither alive nor dead! Astonished
other objects, are entirely wanting, at which, they sent to consult the
so that it \vould be a vain trouble oracle at Delphi, to whom the
to look in the Walcuri vocabulary prophetess made this answer:
for the following expressions: "Of all the heroes, Qeomedes is
Life, death, weather, time, cold. last!"
heat, world, rain, understanding. Vampirism is a belief common to
will, memor), knowledge, honor, many countries of Europe. There
decency, consolation, peace, quar- are twelve "authenticated" cases
rel, member, joy, imputation, mind, with names and addresses in full.
friend, friendship, truth, bashful- given with signatures of three army
ness, enmity, faith, love, hope, surgeons and many other men of
wish, desire, hate, anger, gratitude, education andstanding, in Mayo's
patience, meekness, enV)', industry, Popular Superstitions. These vam-
virtue, vice, beauty, shape, sick- pires flourished in 1732. The char-
ness, danger, fear, occasion, thing, acteristics of one of the creatures
punishment, doubt, servant, mas- will represent all. . Usually they be-
ter, virgin, judgment, suspicion, long to corpses of young or middle
happiness, happ}, reasonable, bash- aged persons, who die in the prime
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1369

of life, suddenly, and whose spirits of the coast of El Nombre de Dios,


are supposed to become conscious the natives had such long ears that
in the grave and desire to prolong one was used for a bed and the
life in the body. They therefore other for a coverlid. Another tale
sally out at night at convenient was that they had found a people
seasons, and approaching some in- who lived on sweet scents alone,
nocent sleepers, suck the blood and were killed by foul smells. The
from their bodies and retire to live noses of these smell-feeders, as
upon it until they come out again. they were called, were so big that
Those afflicted, gradually have a they made up the whole head.
wasting sickness, and die of lack of There were other people who were
blood and inanition. When a re- quelled by the very sight of a cru-
cent corpse is suspected of being a cifix, and all the strangers had to
vampire, the grave is opened and do was to hold one up before them
the corpse is found to have the and they would at once lay down
stomach full of blood, the cheeks their arms.
rosy, and the form almost life-like. In the merry days of good King
One of the tallest giants of which Arthur lived Merlin, the enchanter.
legend tells us, was a soldier in the who could do anything under the
army of the Venetian doge Dan- sun he wanted to. A poor plough-
dolo. He was said to be fifty-four man and his wife, having heard of
feet high, and wore a casque on his the astonishing things done by the
head as high as a turreted city. magician, determined to ask him
Strabo makes mention of the skel- for a son, since they had lived long
eton of a giant sixty cubits in years together without having any.
height. Pliny tells us of another So, with tears in his eyes, he be-
forty-six cubits. Boccacciodescribes seeched Merlin that he might have
the body of a giant from bones a child, "even though it should be
discovered in a cave near Trapany, no bigger than my thumbl" Now
in Sicily, two hundred cubits in ~lerlin had a strange knack of 13k-
length; one tooth of this giant . ing people exactly at their words,
w~ighed two hundred ounces. This and without waiting for any more
giant, however, was later explained explicit directions, he at once
by scientists to have been a masto- granted his requesL What was the
don. (A cubit is an ancient meas- ploughman's astonishment when
ure of length originally represent- he got back home, to find his wife
ed by the length of the forearm, with a tjny child that it required a
from the elbow to the end of the strong exercise of vision to see;
Jon(est finger. Its original length but his growth was equally won-
in t:gypt was 20.63 inches, but it derful, for,
varied widely in different times and In four minutes he grew so fait,
countries. It corresponds approxi- That he became as tall
mately to the English )ard.) As was the ploughman's thumb iD !eDith
And 10 she did him call
At the discovery of America by
Columbus, there were many mar- The christening of this little fellow
velous things told and believed by was a matter of much ceremony,
the Spaniards. Nothing was too for the fairy queen, attended by all
marvelous, indeed, for the Spanish her company of elves, was present
people to believe about the New at the rite, and then and there he
World. It was said that in one part received the name grown so fa-


1370 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

mous that every child has heard of from earth to heaven, are endowed
him, Tom Thumb. with such wonderful vitality that
His costume is worth a brief when cut to pieces by the legend-
notice. His hat was made of a ary hero, with whom they main-
beautiful oak leaf; his shirt was tain a perpetual warfare, the de-
composed of a fine spider's web; tached pieces are in vivid move-
his hose and doublet of thistle- ment, and seek to reunite as long
down. His stockings were made as the sun remains above the hori-
of the rind of a delicate green ap- ZOD.
ple, and the garters were two of the The Zmei are another sort of
finest little hairs one can imagine. monster of supernatura1 atreDgth
out of his mother's eyebrows. and size, and furnished with im-
Shoes made of the skin of a little mense wings. They dwell in the
mouse and tanned most curiously. center of the earth or in the depths
His death was caused by his get- of impenetrable forests, where they
ting entangled in a spider's web, conceal their treasures, as aI80 the
and being suffocated. The names maidens of royal race whom they
given to the fingers in many parts have carried off. According to an-
of the country begin with that of other belief widely credited, pre-
Tom; thus in Essex, England, they cious stones are formed of the sali-
say: "Tom Thumbkin, Bess Bump- va of serpents, so that their nests,
kin, Bill Wilkin, Long Linkin, if they could be found, should COD-
Little Dick." tam incalculable riches.
The Roumanians believe in fair- But the most tenible of aD these
ies. werewolves, vampires, sorcer- superstitions is the idea that DO
ers, water-spirits, the power of the building will stand firm 011 its
evil e)"e, and other phenomena. foundations unless a human victim
The Stafii are sinister demons, be walled up alive within it. It is
harmful beings who abide in deso- said that even to this day, in the re-
late places in the midst of ruins, mote towns and vi11ages of Boa-
and who wage implacable war with mania, masons still hold this super-
mankind. They are the most dan- stition, and endeavor to work oat
gerous of neighbors, and the un- the chann in a figurative manner.
happy man who may forget their They believe that every builcliDg
daily supply of food and drink or in stone is haunted by a "stabie,"
the Saturday's basin of pure \vater the spirit of the person saaificed
for their ablutions, is condemned to (in imagination), to ensure the sta-
feel the effects of their vengeance. bility of the structure. The "U'IODI
There is, however, a remedy, of watch for an opportunity to mea-
which the priest takes charge. He ure the shadow of someone pass-
will bless in your presence a small ing, build the rule into the wall, aad
bo~e of oil, in which a paper, mys- believe that in forty days the pass-
teriously folded, is soaked. This er-by will die and become a stahie.
paper is fixed on the crown of the The l\fexican Indians are grea
head with seven hairs taken from smokers, and it is a general belif
the spring of the hair of the fore- among them that the shooting staJ
head. In less than three weeks, are nothing else than the stumps I

Stafii or Strigoi (vampires) will the huge cigars thrown down t1


have ceased their pursuit. sky by the giant beings who goa
The "Balauri," whose jaws reach the crops, and who should be p7
Magicians of the Middle Ages Bringing Forth the Spirits of the Dead.
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1371

pitiated. else there WIll be thunder- has his head cut off even with his
storms and the owners win fall sick shoulders. He wanders around
and die. nights frightening everyone.
The giant Balams will carry off The Troglodytes, which means
children for their own purposes dwellers in caves, were various un-
and inculcate modesty by hit- civilized people, so named by the
ting a person who goes naked ancient Greek geographers because
in the fields with an invisible stick. they had no abodes but caves. They
The winds are supernatural and were principally inhabitants of the
strike terror to the heart of the western coast of the Red sea, along
Mayas of Yucatan. The whistling the shores of Upper Egypt, Aethio-
wind is called "father strongbird." pia; there were Troglodytes in
The night is full of horrors, among Moesia, on the banks of the Dan-
whom is the giant "Grab," who ube, and according to recent re-
ltalks into a town at midnight, and searches, also on the Canaries and
planting his feet like a huge Co- other islands on the west coast of
lossus, one on each side of the Africa.
roadway, he seizes some incautious The accounts of these curious
passer-by and breaks his legs with people, as given by ancient writers,
his teeth, or conquers him with always represent them as con-
ludden faintness. structing their dwellings under
Another giant fiend is the man ground; as being hunters of such
of the woods, called by the Spanish, activity and skill that they take
"Salonge." He is a huge fellow, their game while in pursuit, living
without bones or joints. For that for the most part, however, on the
reason, if he lies down he cannot flesh of serpents and lizards. They
get up again without gr~t diffi~ul are described as being poor and in-
ty, hence he sleeps leanIng agaln~t different to their own interests,
tree. His feet are reversed, hiS having no trade except in carbun-
heels being in front, the toes be- cles, for which, however, they were
hind. He is larger and stronger merely agents. Their language
than a bull, and his color is red. differed entirely from that of any
ID his long arms he carries a stick other people, it being compared by
as long as a tree-trunk. He is on Herodotus to the strident cry of the
the watch to seize and devour any- bat.
one going through the woods. To These summary accounts, inco-
prevent this, you have to pluck a herent and sometimes fantastic,
branch from a green tree and begin have had the effect of rendering
to dance. This invariably throws most modem historians of African
the woodman into convulsions of geography incredulous as to their
mirth. He laughs and laughs, un- truth. These ~xtraordinary beings
til he falls to the ground, and once have been ordinarily banished to a
down, having no joints, he cannot world of the imagination, the spe-
rise, and the traveler can go on his cies of whom antiquity has so
way. It is singular, says Dr. Be- largely multiplied ev~n to the con-
rendt. how widely distributed is the fines of known countries. R~liable
firm belief in this absurd fancy. travelers came, however, in their
Another ugly customer is the tum to discover in the very same
Npriat without a neck." He is a regions where the ancients had lo-
hobgoblin 10 named because he cated their Troilodytes, important
ENCYCLOPAEDIA. OF SUPERSTITIONS.

tribes, living like them in subter- of slow development, until he says:


ranean abodes, natural or artificial. "But now we come to a classic
Their social condition is verY period in this Guanche life. For
similar to that of the Arabs, whom though they remained untouched
the Matmatians imicate as closely by what was going on in the world,
as possible so long as it entails the world itself already began to
nothing contrary to their tradition- feel a deep interest in these 'For-
allegislation (Kanoun). They pos- tunate Islands,' especially the
sess a Zaonia, who enjoys a great Greeks and Phoenicians, to whose
reputation in the mountains, and influence it is not to be doubted
their religious rites follow closely the islanders owed some advance
those of the dissenting Ibbadites, in their ceramic art, and possibly
whose beliefs they share. They improvements in their mode of life.
bury their dead, according to Ara- For these were the islands of the
bian custom, in shallow graves, Hesperides, and the peak of Ten-
so near the surface of the earth that eriffe was the Atlas that bore up
a poet, in visiting the spot, has been the heavens; and to these very isl-
able to say without exaggeration ands Homer made Jupiter send
that in this strange land the dead Menelaus as a reward for all his
occupy the place of the living, wrongs and all that he had suffered.
while the living "have for habita- They were the Elysian Fields,
tion true sepulchres." "When you 'those blessed isles where the bit-
see them come forth," the Arab terness of winter is unknown, and
poet goes on to say, "it seems as if where the winds of the ocean for-
they were rising for the day of ever freshen the balmy air.' This,
judgment." too, is the home of Plato's vanished
In regard to the Troglodytes Atlantis, his ideal republic.
of the Canary Islands, the "It thus becomes a strange spec-
Guanches, Captain ]. W. Gambier ulation as to how around the lives
says: of these simple islanders, people
"Whether the Guanches owe only half emerged from the actual
their origin to some primordial condition of primocdial man, the
race of men coexistent with the most exquisite myths and the most
earliest genesis of man, or whether deeply suggestive legends of old
they brought these strongly mark- days have grouped themselves.
ed structural characteristics from Here were a people who scarcely
Berber or other mainland races, knew vice. Paid vice was un-
does not affect the question of their known; and the Spaniards record
antiquity. with wonder that they never liedl
"These Iberians inhabited the But to return to the historical: In
greater part of western Europe in later days Pliny, historian of Pom-
an infinitely remote period, prob- peii, mentions an expedition sent
ably toward the termination of the to 'the Fortunate Islands,' which
last glacial epoch, which some brought back its 'golden apples'
would place at eighty to ninety (oranges), and alludes to those
thousand years ago. These men wonderful dragon trees, whose age
Jived and died among the gigantic has been computed by Humboldt
animals now extinct; among mam- as not less than 10,000 to 12,000
moths, the giant elk of Iceland, the years. One of these enormous
cave bear, and so forth." The trees stood within recent times at
author traces them through ages Orotava. It was the largest tree
FOLKLORB, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES.

probably in the world, and was con- England, Central Africa, New
sidered especially sacred. It was England, and the islands of the
the meeting place of all the island- Malay and Polynesian archipela-
ers on religious and political occa- goes, designate the spirits which
sions. leave the tomb, generally in the
"The m~n were brave, a lie was night, to torment the living.
an unheard of crime, and the The Hebrew synonym of demon
treachery and fraud of the Span- was serpent; the Greek, diabolus,
iards a revelation to them. The a calumniator, or impure spirit.
women were notoriously chaste. The Rabbins were divided in opin-
Men had but one wife, and paid the ions, some believing they were en-
profoundest respect to their fathers. tirely spiritual, others that they
The food was simple-the flesh of were corporeal, capable of genera-
goats, with milk and fruit, and go- tion and subject to death.
60 (still the main food of the isl- As before suggested, it was the
ands), which consists of the grain general belief that the vampire is a
of barley crushed and roasted and spirit which leaves its dead body
mixed with milk or water, accord- in the grave to visit and torment
ing to their circumstances. Life the living.
in every form was as precious as it The modem Greeks are per-
is to a Brahmin, and they looked suaded that the bodies of the ex-
with horror on those whose voca- communicated do not putrefy in
tion it was to destroy it. As is the their tombs, but appear in the night
case in China to this day, a butcher as in the day, and that to encounter
was an outcast, generally a crim- them is dangerous.
inal, who expiated the enormities "The first theory of the vampire
of his crimes by having to imbue superstitions," remarks Tylor, "is
his hands in the innocent blood of that the soul of the living man,
animals." often a sorcerer, leaves its proper
body asleep and goes forth, per-
The belief in the vampire and haps in the visible form of a straw
the whole family of demons has its or fluff of down, slips through the
origin in the animism, spiritism, or keyhole, and attacks a living vic-
personification of the barbarians, tim. Some of these Mauri come by
who, unable to distinguish the ob- night to men, sit upon their breasts,
jective from the subjective, ascribe and suck their blood, while others
good and evil influences and all think children are alone attacked,
natural phenomena to good and while to men they are nightmares.
evil spirits. "The second theory is that the
Under the names of vampire, soul of a dead man goes from its
were-wolf, man-wolf, night-mare, buried body and sucks the blood of
night-demon - in the Illyrian living men; the victim becomes
tongue oupires, or leeches; in thin, languid, bloodless, and, falline
modem Greek broucolaques, and into a rapid decline, dies."
in our common tongue ghosts, each The belief of the Obi of Jamaica
country having its own peculiar and the Vaudoux or Vodun of the
designation-the superstitious of \\est African coast, Jamaica, and
the ancient and modem world, of Haiti, is essentially the same as that
Cbaldea and Babylonia, Persia, of the vampire, and its worship and
Egypt, and Syria, of Illyria, Po- superstitions, which in Africa in-
JaDcI, Turkey, Servia, Germany, clude child-murder, still lurvive in
1374 BNCYCLOPA.EDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

those parts, as weD as in sev.eral death; in Russia, that the vampire


districts among the negro popula- does not stop his unwelcome visits
tion of our Southern states. The at a single member of a family, but
negro laid under the ban of the Obi extends his visits to the last mem-
or who is vaudouxed or, in the ver- ber, which is the Rhode Island be-
nacular, "hoodooed," slowly pines lief.
to death. The captain of grenadiers in the
In New England, the vampire regiment of Monsieur Ie Baron
superstition is unknown by its Trenck, cited by Calmet, declares
proper name. It is there believed "that it is only in their family and
that consumption is not a physical among their own relations that
but a spiritual disease, obsession, the vampires delight in destroying
or visitation; that as long as the their species."
body of a dead consumptive rela- The inhabitants of the island of
tive has blood in its heart it is proof Chio do not answer unless called
that an occult influence steals from twice, being persuaded that the
it for death and is at work draining brucolaques do not call but once.
the blood of the living into the and when so called the vampire dis-
heart of the dead and causing his appears, and the person called dies
rapid decline. in a few days. The classic writers
In some places, the specter ap- from Sophocles to Shakespeare and
pears as in the flesh, walks, talks, from Shakespeare to our own time.
infests villages, ill uses both men have recognized the superstition.
and beasts, sucks the blood of their In Hungary and Servia, to de-
near relations, makes them ill, and stroy the demon it was considered
finally causes their death. necessary to exhume the body, in-
Russian superstition supposes sert in the heart and other parts of
nine sisters who plague mankind the defunct, or pierce it through
with fever. They lie chained up in with a sharp instrument, as in the
caverns, and when let loose, pounce case of suicides, upon which it ut-
upon men without pity. ters a dreadful cry, as if alive; it is
The late Monsieur de Vassimont, then decapitated and the body
counselor of the chamber of the burned In New England, the
courts of Bar, was informed by body is exhumed, the heart burned.
public report in Monrovia that it and the ashes scattered. The dis-
was common enough in that coun- covery of the vampire's resting
try to see men who had died some place was itself an art.
time before, "present themselves In Hungary and in Russia, they
in a party and sit down to table choose a boy young enough to be
with persons of their acquaintance certain that he is innocent of any
without saying a word and nodding impurity, put him on the back of
to one of the party, the one indicat- a horse which has never stumbled
ed would infallibly die some days and is absolutely black, and make
after." him ride over all the graves in the
About 1735, on the frontier of cemetery. The grave over which
Hungary, a dead person appeared the horse refuses to pass is reputed
after ten years' burial, and caused to be that of a vampire.
the death of his father. In 1730, in The real belief in vampires is to
Turkish Servia, it was believed that be found at the birthplace of Gil-
those who had been passive vam- bert Stuart, the painter, at the head
pires during life became active after of Petaquamscott pond, six miles
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1375
from Newport, across the bay, and ALIFANFARON or ALIPHA-
about the same distance from Nar- RON, emperor of Trapoban. (Don
Quixote.)
ragansett Pier, in the state of ALOEOS, son of Titan and Terra.
Rhode Island. (Greek fable.)
By some mysterious survival, ALOIDES, sons of Aloeus, named
occult transmission, or remarkable Otos and Ephialties. (q. v.)
atavism, this region, including AMERANT, a cruel giant, slain by
Guy of \Varwick (P-ercy: Reliques.)
within its radius the towns of Exe- ANGOULAFFRE, the Saracen
ter, Foster, Kingstown, East giant. He was twelve cubits high, his
Greenwich, and others, with their face measured three feet in breadth, his
scattered hamlets and more pre- nose was nine inches long, his arms and
legs six feet. He had the strength of
tentious villages, is distinguished thirty men, and his mace was the solid
by the prevalence of this remark- trunk of an oak tree, JOO years old.
able superstition-a survival of the The tOMr of Pisa lost its perpendicu,-
days of Sardanapalus, of Nebu- larity by the weight of this giant lun-
ing against it to rest himself. H-e WIllS
chadnezzar, and of New Testament slain in single combat by RoladtQ at
history in the closing years of what FronsK. (L'Epine: Croquemitaine.)
we are pleased to call the enlight- ANTAEOS, sixty cubits (eighty-five
ened nineteenth century. It is an feet) in height. (Plutarch.)
extraordinary instance of a bar- ARGES, one of the Cyclops. (Greek
fable.)
baric superstition outcropping in ASCAPART, a giant thirty feet high,
and coexisting with a high general and with twelve inches between his eyes.
culture, of which Max Mtiller and Slain by Sir Bevis of Southampton.
others have spoken, and which is (British fable.)
ATLAS, the giant of the Atlas Moun-
not so uncommon, if rarely so ex- tains, who carries the world on his back.
tremely aggravated, crude, and A book of maps is called an "atlas"
painful from this giant. (Greek fable.)
BALAN, "bravest and strongest of
A list of giants of mythology and the giant rac~" (Amadis of Gaul.)
fable (from "The Reader's Hand- BELLE, famous for his three leaps,
book"): which gave names to the places called
Wanlip, Burstall, and Bellegrave. (Brit-
ACAMAS, one of the Cyclops. ish fable.)
(G~k fable.) BELLERUS, the giant from whom
ADAMASTOR, the giant Spirit of Cornwall derived its name "Bellerium."
the Cape. H is lips were black, teeth (British fable.)
blue, eyes shot with livid fire, and voice
louder than thunder. (Camoens: BLUNDERBORE, the giant who
Lusiad, Y.) was drowned because Jack scuttled his
AEGAEON, the bund~d-handed boat. 0 ack the Giant-killer.)
siant. One of the Titans. (Greek BRIAREOS, a giant with a hundred
fable.) hands. One of the Titans. (Greek
AGRIOS, one of the giants cal~d Ti- fable.)
tans. He was killed by the Parae. BROBDINGNAG, a country of
(Greek fable.) giants, to whom an ordinary sized man
ALCYONEUS or ALCION. brother was "not half so big as th~ round little
of Porphyrion. He stole some of the worm pricked from the lazy fingers of
Sun'l oxen, and Jupiter sent H~rcules a maid." (Swift: Gulliver's Travels.)
against him, but he was unable to pre- BRONTES, one of the Cyclops.
vail. for imm~diately the giant touched (Gr~ek fable.)
the earth he received fresh vigor. Pal- BURLONG. a giant mentioned in
las. seizing him, carried him beyond tb~ romance of Sir Tryanlour.
the moon, and he died. His seven CACUS, of mount Aventine, who
dauJ(hters were turned into halcyon. or dragg~d the oxen of Hercules into hi.
kingfishen. (A~l1onius Rhodus: As- ca\e tail foremost. (Greek fable.)
~nautic Expedition, i., 6.) CALIGORANT. the Egyptian giant,
ALGEBAR. The giant Orion is 10 who entrapped tra\-clen with an invisi-
caUcd b1 the Arabi. ble net. (Ariosto.)
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

CARACULIAMBO, the giant that


EURYTOS, one of the giants wbo
Don Quixote intended should kneel at made war with the gods. Bacchus
. the foot of Dulcinea. (Cervantes, Don killed him with his thJhUII. (Gt"eek
Quixote.) fable.)
CEUS or COEUS, son of Heaven FERRACUTE, a giant thil't7-six feet
and Earth. He married Phoebe, and in height, with the strength of forty
was the father of Latona. (Greek men. (Turpin's Chronicle.)
fable.) FERRAGUS, a Portuguese giant.
CHALBROTH, the stem of all the (Valentine and Orson.)
giant race. (Rabelais: PantagrueL) FIERABRAS, of Alexandria, "the
C H R 1ST 0 P HER U S or ST. greatest giant that ever walked the
CHRISTOPHER, the giant who car- earth." (Mediaeval romance.)
ried Christ across a ford, and was well- FION, son of Comnal, an enormous
nigh borne down with the "child's" ever- giant, who could place his feet on two
increasing w.eight. (Christian legend.) mountains, and then stoop and drink
CLYTIOS, one of the giants who from a stream in the valley between.
made war upon the gods. Vulcan (Gaelic legend.)
killed him with a red-hot iron mace. FIORGWYN, the gigantic father of
(Greek fable.) Frigga. (Scandinavian mythology.)
COLBRAND, the Danish giant slain FRACASSUS, father of Ferrag1lSp
by Guy of Warwick. (British fable.) and son of Morganta.
CORFLAMBO, a giant who was al- Primus erat quidam Fracassus prole gi-
ways attended by a dwarf. (Spenser: ganlis,
Faerie Queene, iv., 8.) Cujus stirps olim Morganto yenit _b
CORINEUS. (See Gogmagog.) ilIo,
CORMORAN, the Cornish giant Qui bacchioconem campanBe Serre sole-
who fell into a pit twenty feet deep, bat,
dug by ] ack and filmed over with a Cum quo mille hominum colpas fracas-
thin layer of grass and gravel. Uack let in uno.
the Giant-killer.) (M.erlin Cocaius (i. eo Theophile Folen-
go): Histoire Macaronique [1606]).
CORMORANT, a giant discomfited GABRARA, father of Goliab (sic) of
by Sir Brian. (Spenser: Faerie Secondille, and inventor of the custom
I Queene, vi., 4-)
COTTOS, one of the three-hundred- of drinking healths. (Duchat: Oeunes
headed giants, son of Heaven and de Rabelais, [1711]).
GALLIGANTU8, the giant who liyed
;Earth. His two brothers were Briareus
and Gyges. with Hocus-Pocus the conjurer. a-dt
the Giant-killer.)
COULIN, the British giant pursued GARAGANTUA, same as Gargantaa
b1 Debon, and killed by falliDg into a (q. v.).
deep chasm. (British fable.) GARGANTUA, a giant 10 large
CYCLOPS, giants with only OM eye, that it required goo ells of linen for the
and that in the middle of the forehead. body of his shirt, and 200 more for the
They lived in Sicily, and were black- gussets; 406 ells of velvet for his shoes.
smiths. (Greek fable.) . . and 1100 cow-hides for their soles. His
DESPAIR, of Doubting Castle, who toothpick was an elephant's tusk, and
found Christian and Hopeful asleep on 17,91 3 cows were required to give him
his grounds, and thrust them into a milk. This was the giant who swal-
d4lngeon. H~ evilly entrea~d them, lowed five pilgrims, with their staves.
but they made their escape by the key. in a salad. (Rabelais: Gargantua.)
"Promise." (Bunyan: Pilgrim's Pro- GEMMAGOG, son of the giant
gress, i.) Oromedon, and inventor of Poulan
DONDASCH, a giant contemporary shoes, i. e. shoes with a spur behind,
with Seth. "There were giants in the and turned up toes fastened to the
earth in those days." (Oriental fable.) knees. These shoes were forbidden by
ENCELADOS, "most powerful of Charles V. of France, in IJ6S, but the
the giant race." Overwhelmed under fashion revived again. (Duchat:
mount Etna. (Greek fable.) ~uvres de Rabelais [1711]).
EPHIALTES, a giant who grew nine GERYONEO, a giant with three
inches every month. (Greek fable.) bod~s (Philip II. of Spain). (Spenser:
ERIX, son of Goliath (sic) and Faerie Queene, v., ii.)
grandson of Atlas. He invented leger- GIRALDA, the giantess.. A statue
demain. (Duchat: Oeuvres de Rabe- of victory on the top of aD old Moorish
Jais [1711.]) tower in Seville.
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCBS. 1377
GODMER, son of Albion, a British MALAMBRUNO. the giant who
giant slain by Canutus, one of the com shut up Antonomasia and her husband
panions of Brute. (Spenser: Faerie in the tom b of the deceased queen of
Oueene, ii. 10.) Candaya. (Cervantes: Don Quixote,
GOEMAGOT, the Cornish giant II., iii., 45.)
who wrestled with Corineus and was MARGUTTE, a giant ten feet high,
hurled over a rock into the sea. The who died of laughter when he saw a
place where he fell was called "Lam monkey pulling on his boots. (Pula:
Goemagot." (Geoffrey: British His- Morgante ~laggiore.)
tory.) MAUGYS, the giant warder with
GOGMAGOG, king of the giant race whom sir Lybus did battle. (Libeaux.)
of Albion when Brute colonized the MA U L, the giant of sophistry, killed
island. He was slain by Corineus. The by Greatheart, who pierced him under
two statues of Guildhall represent Gog- the fifth rib. (Bunyan: Pilgrim's
magog and Corineus. The giant carries Progress, H.)
a pole-axe and spik-ed balls. This is ~10NT-ROGNON, one of Charle-
the same u GoemagoL magne's paladins.
GRANGOUSIA, the giant king of ~10RGANTE, a feroci0118 giant who
Utopia. (Rabelais: Pantagruel.) died by the bite of a crab. (Pulci: Mor-
GRANTORTO, the giant who with- gante Maggiore.)
held the inheritance of Irena. (Spenser: MUGILLO, a giant famous for his
Faerie Oueene, v.) mace with six balls.
GRIM, the giant slain by Gl'eathearf, OFFERUS, the pagan name of St.
because he tried to stop pilgrims in Christopher, whose body was twelve
their way to the Celestial City. (Bun- ells in height. (Christian legend.)
yan: Pilgrim's Progress, ii.) OGIAS, an antediluvian giant, men-
GRU~fBO, the giant up whose sleeve
tioned in the apocrypha condemned by
Tom Thumb crept. The giant, think- Pope Gelasius I. (49Z-496-)
ing some insect had crawled up his ORGOGLIO, a giant thrice the
sleeve, gave it a shake, and Tom fell height of an ordinary man. He took
into the sea, when a fish swallowed captive the Red Cross Knight, but was
him. (Tom Thumb.) slain by King Arthur. (Spenser: Fae-
GYGES, who had fifty heads and a rie Queene, i.)
bundred hands. He was one of the ORION, a giant hunter, noted for
Titans. (Greek fable.) his beauty. He was slain by Diana, and
made a constellation. (Greek fable.)
H.",PMOUCHE, the giant "By- OTOS, a giant, brother of EphialteL
cateher." He invented the drying and They both grew nine inches every
smoking of neats' tongues. (Duchat: month. According to Pliny, he was
Oeuvres de Rabelais (1711]). forty-six cubits (sixty-six feet) in
HIPPOLYTOS, one of the giants height. (Greek fable.)
who made war with the gods. He was PALLAS, one of the giants called
killed by Herma. (Greek fable.) Titans. ~linerva flayed him, and used
HRASVELG, the giant who keeps his skin for armour; hence she waa
watch over the Trees of Life, and de- called Pallas ~linerva. (Gr~k fable.)
'Yours the dead. (Scandinavian Mythol- PANTAGRUEL, son of Gargantua.
ac) and last of the race of giants. (Rabe-
HURTALI, a giant in the time of lais.)
the Flood. He was too large of stat- POL\"BOTES, one of the giants who
are to get into the ark, and therefore fought against the gods. The sea-god
rode straddle-legs on the roof. He pursued him to the island of Cos, and.
perpetuated the giant race. Atlas was tearing away part of the island, threw
bil_lrand50n. it on him and buried him beneath the
INDRACITTRAN, a famous giant mass. (Greek fable.)
af Indian mythology. POLYPHE~IOS, king of the Cy-
lOTUS, the giant of ]ortunheim or clops. His skeleton was found at
Giant-land" in Scandinavian story. Trapani, in Sicily, in the foumenth
JULIA~CE, a giant of Arthurian century, by which it is calculated that
romance. his height was JOO feet. (Gr~k fable.)
KIFRI, the aiut of atheism and in- PORPHYRON, one of the giants
6delity. who made war with the gods. He
KOn-oS. a giant with a bundred hurled the island of Delos against Zeus;
handL ODe of the Titans. (Greek but Zeus. with the aid of Hercules, over-
fable.) came him. (Gre~ fable.)
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS.

PYRACMON, one of the Cyclops. American Indians, dogs share with


(Greek fable.) hogs and horses the power to see
RITH0 the giant who commanded
1

king Arthur to send his beard to com- supernatural beings which are in-
plete the lining of a robe. (Arthurian visible to men.
romance.) The activity of the soul is illus-
SLAY-GOOD, a giant alaia by the
Great-heart. (Bunyan: Pilgrim'. Progress, trated by an old story of an apothe-
ii.) cary who, during his sleep, read his
STEROPES, one of the Cyclops. prescriptions through his finger-
(Greek fable.) tips, and in the somnambulic
TARTARO, the Cyclops of Basque
legendary lore. state made them up better than he
TEUTOBOCHUS, a king, whose re- could when awake.
mains were discovered in 1613, near the
river Rhone. His tomb was JO feet The hypnotist believes that a
long. (~Iazurier: Histoire Veritable pin-scratch on the negative of a
du Geant Teutobochus [1618]). photographed subject produces a
THAON, one of the giants who made similar mark on the body of the
war with the gods. He was killed by subject.
the Parcae. (Hesiod: Theogony.)
TITANS, a race of giants. (Greek If a person possessed of second
fable.) sight sees the phantom of a woman
TITYOS, a giant whose body cov- standing at a man's left hand, it is
ered nine acres of land. He tried to
~file Latona; but Apollo cast him into a sign that the phantom of the liv-
Tartarus, where a vulture fed on his ing person will some day be his
liver, which grew again as fast as it was wife. (Scotch.)
devourecL (Greek fable.)
TYPHOEUS, a giant with hundred To look upon the shoulder-bone
heads, fearful eyes, and most terrible of a black lamb, confers second
voice. He was the father of the Hair- sight.
pies. Zeus, Oupiter) killed him with a
thunderbolt, and he lies buried under The seventh daughter, like the
mount Etna. (Hesiod: Theogony.) seventh son, is a clairvoyant, and
TYPHON son of Typhoeus, a giant
1
can tell your fortune.
with a hundred heads. He was so tall
that his heads touched heaven. His When the seer in a vision sees a
offspring were Gorgon, Geryon, Cer- shroud about one, it is a sure sign
beros, and the hydra of Lerne. Typhon
lies buried under mount Etna. (Home!": of death.
Hymns.) In ancient times in Greece, it
WIDE-NOSTRILS, a huge giant, was believed that what an insane
who lived on windmills and died from
l

eating a lump of fresh butter. (Rabe- person prophesied would come


Jais: Pantagruel, iv., 17.) true.
YOHAK, the giant guardian of the
caves of Babylon. (Southey: Thalaba, Cicero, in his first work on divi-
v.) nation, gives a story of the predic-
tion of the death of Alexander by
NAIL PARINGS-The Rus- an Indian about to die on the fu-
sians carry about with them the neral pile.
parings of an owl's claws and of
their own nails, to enable them, If you look over the shoulder of
should they die suddenly, to climb one who can see spirits and future
the steep mountains which they events, you can see the same
thing.
are suppos.ed to climb after death.
When a seer sees a spark of fire
PSYCHIC PHENO~IENA fall upon one's arm or breast, it is
According to a superstition current a sign of a dead child which the
among the Irish, as well as the person will carry there.
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1379

If a clairvoyant sees a woman by one and then by hundreds, who


standing at a man's left hand, it is distinctly saw the passage of an
a presage that she will be his wife, army of foot and horse in natural
whether they are married to others shape, and even battles between
or not married at the time of the the two armies. Mothers have
apparition. been known to see a vision, and
In 1752, there was a strange Por- transfer the image to her child, so
tuguese woman who could see any- that the little one would tremble
thing, no matter how covered up with fear as long as the ghost was
or concealed. She could look into in sight.
the earth and see water many feet \"olga was a Russian hero, and
below the surface, and could see a soothsayer told him he would be
anything that was covered six feet killed by his horse. So he ordered
deep with stuffs, provided the stuffs the animal to be slaughtered, and
did not include anything red. The long after he mounted its fleshless
king of Portugal, greatly at a loss skeleton. But a serpent came out
for water in his newly built palace, of its whitened skull and stung the
consulted her; and after a glance hero to death. Thus one cannot
around, she pointed out an abun- escape his fate I
dant spring, upon which his majes- A Hanoverian knight was walk-
ty rewarded her with a pension for ing in the garden of the royal pal-
life. ace and saw a funeral procession
An oracle foretold that Aeschy- approaching from the castle. At
lus, the great Greek dramatist, the same time, he heard all the
would die by a blow from heaven. bells ringing. Much surprised, the
This is said to have been fulfilled knight went into the castle and
by the manner of his death. An inquired who was being buried.
eagle, wishing to crack the shell Everyone laughed at him. Six days
of a tortoise, had carried it up very afterwards, the news was received
high, to let it fallon a stone. Mis- that King George of the Hanove-
taking the bald head of Aeschylus rian fanlily had died on that day
for a stone, he let the tortoise and at the very moment \\'hen the
fall upon it and instantly killed him. knight had seen the procession.
Claus the Fool at the court at If you have some dread in your
Weimar suddenly entered the mind, a presentiment, drive it away
privy council and exclaimed: by calling over slowly one after the
--There are you all consulting about other the seven wonders of the
very weighty things no doubt, but world. Presentinlent and the evil
no one considered how the fire at also will flee. (The seven wonders
Coburg is to be extinguished I" It of the world are: 1. The pyramids
was afterward discovered that a fire of Egypt. 2. The hanging gar-
was raging at the very time in Co- dens of Babylon. 3. The tomb of
burg. (Steinbeck.) ~Iausolos. 4. The Temple of Di-
Second sight is believed to be ana at Ephesus. 5. The Colossos
contagious, and l\lartin remarks of Rhodes. 6. The statue of Zeus
that young persons are not only b) Phidias. 7. The palace of Cy-
infected by the touch, but often by rus cemented with gold.)
the slightest contact with the seer. In the year 400, 51. .l\mbrose, in
'isions of battles and processions the church of ~Iilan, Italy, fell
have been seen in Scandinavia, first asleep during mass and discovered
BNCYCWPABDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

the death of St. Martin of Tours, breasts, or whose eyebrows meet.


which had just occurred. When often have the faculty of second-
he awoke he said: "It has been a sight, and so had those of post-
great blessing to me to sleep, since humous birth. Such people, if they
God has worked a great miracle. ,go into a churchyard on the eves
Know that my brother St. Martin of the New Year, of SL Mark's
has just died." They noted the day day, and of 1\tlidsummer day, can
and hour, and found that St. Alartin tell who will be bwied in it during
had actually died at that time. 5t. the ensuing year. A child whose
Gregory of Tours, an historical eye touches water in baptism has
writer, states this fact. no chance of becoming second-
Goethe says in his autobiography sighted.
that his grandfather had the power If one goes on Christmas night
of prophecy, especially in matters in the morning twilight into a
relating to himself, of which he wood or forest without uttering a
gives some instances, and also says word or letting a sound be heard,
that persons who were otherwise without looking around, without
destitute of such a power would eating or drinking, without seeing
suddenly acquire it when in the any fire, and follow a path leading
presence of his grandfather. to a church, when the sun is rising,
]ajali was a Brahman who ac- he will see as many funerals as will
quired, by asceticism, a supernat- pass that way during the year. He
ural power of locomotion, of which can also see how the produce will
he was so proud that he thought be in the meadows and pastures,
himself superior to all men. A and whether any fires will break
voice from the sky telling him that out, or epidemics occur; in fact, for
he was inferior to Tuladhara, a the time, he will be clairvoyanL
trader, brought him to his senses, Before Caesar was assassinated,
and he went meekly to the trader he had warning of his fate given by
and learned of him. indubitable omens. A few months
The German philosopher Schel- before, colonists at Capua were de-
ling gives a very interesting narra- molishing some old sepulchres, and
tive of the sudden discovery by a discovered a tablet of brass in a
person who was clairvoyant, of a tomb in which Capys, the founder
death in her family at a distance of of Capua, was said to have been
more than 150 leagues, the letter buried, with an inscription on it to
being on its way and confirming this effect: "\Vhonever the bones
the soul-sight. of Capys are discovered, a descend-
The secretary of Talleyrand re- ant of Iulus will be slain by the
lates a story of the Prince's escape hands of his kinsman, and his death
from death by a sudden intuition. avenged by dreadful disasters
4'The Prince remarked, 'I can never throughout Italy." (Suetonius.)
forget that I was once gifted for The following story was told re-
a moment with an extraordinary cently by a late manager of a
prescience, which was the means Rhondda colliery, who is said to be
of saving my life; without that sud- a thoroughly trustworthy man, to a
den and mysterious inspiration, I Welsh journalist. Sitting one Sun-
should not be here to tell of it.' " day morning with three comrades
It is a Manx belief that people in the lodge room at the bottom of
who have a hairy cross on their a shaft, he was suddenly seized by
FOLKWRB, AND THB OCCULT SCIENCES.

an irresistible impulse to ascend at John of Jerusalem and captain of


once, which impulse he told to the "the grand company," in the four-
other men, who, however, refused teenth century, when sentenced to
to go. While talking, a drop of death by Rienzi, summoned him
water from the wall above put out to follow within the month, and
the lamp of one of the men, oblig- Rienzi was, within the month, kill-
ing him to ascend. When he re- ed by the fickle mob. George Wis-
turned, the impulse stronger than hart, a Scotch reformer, was con-
before, again prompted the manag- demned to the stake by Cardinal
er to urge their ascent, and again Beaton. While the fire was blaz-
while talking a drop of water fall- ing about him, the martyr exclaim-
ing into the lamp again put the ed in a loud voice: "He who from
light out. In consternation, they yon high place beholdeth me with
gave the signal to be lifted up, and such pride, shall be brought low,
no sooner had they reached the even to the ground, before the
open air than a terrible explosion trees which have supplied these
took place, shattering the shaft, and fagots have shed their leaves." It
filling it with debris, which could was March when these words were
only be. removed after some uttered, and the cardinal died in
months of hard labor. This re- June. (Reader's Handbook.)
markable incident stands by no
means alone, forebodings and It is said in the New Testament
dreams having warned the same that the Holy Spirit gave the apos-
miner at various times of coming tles the "gift of tongues," that is,
danger. they were supernaturally endowedr
with the power to speak and under-'"
Oberlin relates some singular stand intelligently various lan-
s)~bolica1 visions: "I beheld two guages of which they knew noth-
young men who, from mere ambi- ing, but which were adapted to the
tion, were striving to force them- understanding of their hearers.
selves through the eye of a needle. Thus, if they were speaking to Per-
They were exhausted, dripping sians, they would speak and under-
with perspiration, and so red in the stand Persian, although they never
face that they appeared to be on had even so much as heard it spok-
the verge of apoplexy. Then a en. Dr. Middleton, a great divine,
voice said to me: 'If these will says that we are not to understand
peril everything-life, health, wife, this miracle as being occasional, so
and children-for a mere shadow, that the apostles would be able to
what should you not do to gain the discourse in Persian one hour and
great promise?''' forget it the next, but that the
apostles were endowed with the
Jacques Molay, grand master of education of linguists without any
the Knights Templars, as he was
led to the stake, summoned the study.
pope, Oement V., and the king, In the first year of the reign of
Phillippe IV., the former within Edward IV., the brave Sir John
forty da)s, and the latter within Arundell dwelt on the north coast
forty weeks, to appear before the of Cornwall, at a place called Ef-
throne of God to answer for his ford. As a magistrate, he had
murder. They both died within the given some offense in his official
stated times. Montreal D'..-\Ibano, capacity to a \vild shepherd, who
called "Fra Moriale," knight of St. was reputed to possess supernat-
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

ural powers. This man bad been great ease before the commence-
imprisoned by Arundell, and after- ment of his fourth year, 1725, when
wards constantly waylaid him, and he died. His constitution was so
always looking at him in a threat- delicate that he was not weaned
ening manner, muttered slowly: until a few months before his death.
"When upon the yellow sand, Melampus, the prophet, was ac-
Thou shalt die by human hand." quainted with the language of
Sir John was not free from the su- worms, and when thrown into a
perstition of the age, and might in- dungeon, heard the worms com-
deed have been impressed with the municating to each other over his
idea that the man intended to mur- head that the roof would fall in, for
der him. It is, however, certain the beams were eaten through. He
that he removed from Efford on imparted this intelligence to his
the sands to the wood-elad hills of jailers, and was removed to another
. Terrice or Trerice, and here he dungeon. At night the roof did
lived for many years, without the fall, and the king, amazed at this
annoyance of his old enemy. But foreknowledge, released Melampus
in the tenth year of Edward IV., and gave him the oxen of Iphiklos.
he was obliged to lead a large host The prophet was a mythical per-
to an attack on S1. Michael's sonage of Argos, famous as a
Mount. The retainers of the Earl soothsayer, a son of Amythaon. He
of Oxford, who had seized this was considered the first mortal who
place, on one occasion left the had prophetic power, and the first
castle and made a sudden rush who practiced medicine.
on Arundell's followers, who were Nicetas Goniates gives the fol-
encamped on the sands near Mara- lowing, in his life of Isaac Angelus:
zion. ArundeU then received his "When the emperor was in Ro-
death wound. Although he left dostes, he went to see a man named
Efford to "counteract the will of Basilakus who, it was reputed,
fate," the prophecy was fulfilled, knew the future, though all "sensi-
and in his dying moments his old ble" people called him a fool Bas-
enemy appeared, singing joyously: ilakus received the emperor with-
"When upon the yellow sand, out any signs of respect, and gave
Thou shalt die by human hand." no answers to his questions; but,
It has been repeatedly recorded going up to a portrait of the em-
as historical, but seems more a peror which hung in the room,
matter of superstitious belief, that poked out the eyes with a stick
Christian Henry Heinecken, a and endeavored to knock the hat
baby born at Liibeck in 1721, spoke off. The emperor left him, think-
his maternal tongue fluently when ing he was indeed a fool. But
only ten months old; at the age of soon the nobles revolted against
one year he knew the principal him, took off his crown, and placed
events of the Pentateuch; in two his brother Alexis on the throne,
months more he was master of the who had the emperor's eyes put
entire histories of the Old and New out I"
Testaments; at two years and a half John Knox,the great Scottish re-
he answered the principal questions former,. when upon his deathbed
in geography, ancient and modem expenenced a most remarkable
.
history. He spoke Latin, French, presentiment as to the fate of his
and High and Low German with friend Kirkaldy of Grange, who.
FOLKLORE., AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1383
during the civil war of that period, render, whereupon he was con-
was holding the Castle of Edin- demned to death as a traitor and
burgh in the cause of Mary Queen hanged at Edinburgh on the 3rd
of Scots, and of the anti-Protestant of August, 1572, at four o'clock in
party. The particulars are in this the afternoon, the sun being west."
wise related by Calderwood, the In 1821, there was a seer named
historian, whose testimony is un- Niebiill, who had many singular
impeachable: visions. He was a glazier, and at
"John Knox, being on his death- one time was engaged in putting
bed, sent for his colleague and suc- in some panes of glass for a person
cessor, Mr. Lawson, Mr. Lindsay, of the name of Welfen. In the
l-finister of Leith, and the elders room where he was working he
and deacons of Edinburgh, all of saw Welfen's daughter, a girl of
whom he addressed in a farewell eighteen, lying on a bier; and re-
speech. turning home, he met her funeral.
aaThey were departing, when The father heard of this, but would
Knox called back Lindsay and not believe it, and laid some wagers
Lawson, and desired to speak with that his prediction would prove
them in private. 'Weel, brother,' false. The seer then added that a
said he,. addressing Lindsay, 'I certain number of carriages would
have desired all this day to have follow, and that there would be a
had you, that I may send you to strong wind, as in carrying out the
)OD man in the castle, whom you
coffin a quantity of wood-shavings
know I have loved so dearly. Go, would be blown about. Lastly, he
I pray you, to him, and tell him said that the coffin would be let
that I have sent you to him yet down unevenly, so that they would
once to warn him and bid him in the be obliged to draw it up again out
name of God, leave the evil cause of the grave. After a short time,
and give over the castle. If not, he all this came to pass, exactly as he
shall be brought down over the said.
walls of it with shame, and hang
against the sun. So hath God as- One of the most famous in-
sured me.' Lindsay went to the stances of clairvoyance is in the
castle accordingly and delivered thirty-eighth volume of the French
Knox's message; but Kirkaldy, Encyclopaedia, narrated by the
after conferring with Secretary Archbishop of Bordeaux, in which
Letington, said: 'Go, tell Mr. a young ecclesiastic was accustom-
Knox he is but a drything prophet.' ed to get up at night in a state of
llr. Lindsay returned to ~lr. Knox somnambulism, compose and write
and reported how he had discharg- sermons, and after writing a page,
ed his commission. 'Well I' said would read it aloud, and correct it
Knox, 'I have been earnest with with his pen. The archbishop put
my God anent these two men. For a piece of pasteboard under his
the one, I am sorry so shall befall chin to prevent his seeing the
him; yet, God assureth me that paper, but he wrote as usual, not
there is mercy for his soul. For regarding the interruption. Yet
the other I have no warrant that it when the paper was removed and
shall be well with him.' a blank sheet substituted, he was
.. Kirkaldy maintained the castle at once aware of the change. Thus
for some months after Knoxs he showed that he was able to see
death, but was at last forced to sur- what he wished to see, but that he
13&1 BNCYCWP..fBDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS.

did not depend upon the transmis- battles, capture of cities, massacres,
sion of light, and was not hindered and investments, was in the bazaars
by an opaque substance. twelve hours before it reached the
The Buddhists believe that a authorities, and so much was it re-
man can arrive at such a state of lied on by the natives, that fortunes
perfection that he has transcendant were made in speculation, and
faculties of knowledge, the inner other measures taken with absolute
eye, the inner ear, knowledge of all confidence. Nobody has ever been
thoughts, and recollection of his able to say how over hundreds and
previous existences (for they hold even thousands of miles dispatches
that we have all lived here on earth and news are carried, and the na-
before, some of us several times). tives themselves have ever been
He is, if an adept, capable of re- reticent about it, only saying it is
ducing the body to the size of an done by mind-transference, what
atom, increasing weight and size we would modernly call telepathy.
at will, making the body light at But such is the speed of the intelli-
will, reaching any object. no matter gence and the accuracy, that it is
how remote, unlimited exercise of depended on as if it were the tele-
the will, absolute power over self graph.
and others, subjecting the elements There is a peculiar power called
and suppressing the desires. "soul-seeing," that is, seeing by
Galen, the great Greek physi- interior intuition. This, it is told.
cian, who lived during the second was exercised about two hundred
century, seemed to be possessed of years ago by a humble peasant in
an inner vision of such clearness France, to detect a terrible mur-
that he predicted the most minute der. He visited the spot where the
things about his patients. For in- murder had been committed, and
stance, he predicted to the Senator when he came upon the ground or
Sextus, then in perfect health, that touched the instrument with which
upon the third day he would be the deed had been performed, he
seized with fever, that this fever was greatly agitated by the im-
would decrease upon the sixth, it pression which was imparted. By
would abate, return on the four- means of this impression he ac-
teenth, and on the seventeenth he quired an idea of the murderers
would entirely lose it in a violent and their movements, and tracked
sweat. So it was. A young Ro- them from house to house and vil-
man lying sick of fever, the physi- lage to village, until he actually
cians wished to bleed him; but found them. The wonderful per-
Galen said it would be unnecessary, formances of this man were attest-
as the young man would soon ed by magistrates and physicians
bleed of his own accord from the in a public manner, and were of so
left nostril. He did, and recovered. much notoriety at the time, that it
caused him to be presented at the
Anglo-Indians and all who live
court of Louis XIV.
in Asiatic countries, are aware that
the natives have means of convey- The following are two of the
ing news which at important junc- prophecies still related in Wales of
tures enable them to forestall the a man gifted with prophetic pow-
government. Thus throughout the ers:
Indian mutiny, the intelligence of After the birth of the son and
all the important events, such as heir of Sir George Herbert, of
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIBNCBS. 1385
Swansea, a feast was held and customed to do. This causing him
great rejoicing at the christening to lose his hold, he fell down on a
of the child; and they shod the great branch and broke his neck,
horses with silver, and many other and from there into the river, and
costly things they did likewise. thus he met with three deaths, to be
Twm, seeing this, said: "Ha I here wounded by an adder, to break his
is parade, and great pride about the neck, and to drown.
baptism of a child born to be hung
The following very curious and
by the string of his forehead-band."
He was seized, and put in prison very ancient prediction, entitled by
popular tradition Mother Shipton's
in Kenfig Castle; and the child
was placed in the care of a nurse,
Prophecy, was published three
who was ordered to watch him nar- hundred and thirty years ago:
rowly and carefully, night and day. Carriages without hones shall go,
And accidents fill the world with woe.
This went on some time, when Around the earth thoughts shall fly
it was reported in the house that In tM twinkling of an eye.
the nurse had the itch. Sir George The world upside down shall be,
and his lady sent for her to the hall And gold be found at the root of a tree.
Through hills men shall ride,
to them, that they might see I And no horse be at his side.
whether it was true or not, and U ader water men shall walk,
when they saw that there was no Shall ride, shall sleep, shall talk.
itch upon her, they went with her I n the air men shall be seen,
In black, in white, in green.
back to the chamber where the Iron in the water shall float,
child was, and the first thing they As easy as a wooden boat.
saw was the child in his cradle, hav- Gold shall be found and shown
ing twisted his hands under the In a land that'. not now known.
Fire and water shall wonders do.
strings of his forehead-band, and England shall at last admit a foe.
entangled them in it in such a man- The world to an end shall come
ner that he got choked, and died In eighteen hundred and eighty-one.
from that cause, or, as it might be There was in Llangynwyd, in
said with truth, he hung himself in \Vales, a strange seer, who was
the strings of his forehead-band. believed to be of "second sight."
Then they sent in haste to liberate He received the name of John,
Twm, and gave him some money. the son of the Dewless, because
Another time he was threshing he was found, as already men-
in a bam, and a young lad went by tioned on the Dewless Hillock,
and addressed him as follows: on St. John's midsummer festival;
Well, Twm Celwydd Teg, what and because he was a large man,
news have you to-<lay?" "There he was calJed Big John, the son of
is news for thee," said he; "thou the Dewless. He lived and died at
shalt die three deaths before this Llangynwyd, where he was bur-
nighL" "Hal Hal" said the youth, ied with the family of Llwydarth.
'nobody can die more than one It was currently reported that in all
death," and he went on his way probability he was the son of Rhys,
laughing. In the course of the day, the son of Riccart, the son of Ein-
the lad went to the top of a great ion, by a lady of high rank, and
tree on the brink of a river, to take when it was asserted in his pres-
a kite's nest; and in thrusting his ence, he merely held his tongue,
hand into the nest, he was wound- allowing that belief to continue.
ed by an adder, brought by the kite (From "Cotion Ieuan Bradford,
to ber young ones, as she was ac- from the book of Anthony Pywel
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS.

of Llwydarth, at Coytrehn."-Iolo peared angry at this, and pushed


MSS.) the letter away. Mr. Balanche,
The catalepsy of a lady in Lyons struck with this obstinacy, went to
had been for some time the sub- one side with the letter, read it, and
ject of conversation in that city; found to his great astonishment
that he had not laid the letter he
and M. Petetain, a well-known intended to have selected OIl the
physician of that city, had already
stomach of the sleeper; and that,
published several very surprising therefore, he was in error. He ap-
facts relative to it, when Mr. Bal- proached the bed a second time,
anche, another scientist of Lyons, laid that particular letter on the
became desirous of being an eye- place, and the patient then said,
witness of the effects of this dis- with a certain degree of satisfac-
order. tion, that she read the name which
He chose the moment for visit- he previously named.
ing this lady when she was ap- This experiment, doubtless,
proaching the crisis (the time of would have satisfied most men; but
the magnetic sleep). At the door Mr. Balanche went further still.
he learned that it was not every- He had been told that the sleeper
one, without distinction, was per- could read writing and letters even
mitted to approach the patient's through walls. He asked if this
couch, but that she must herself were really the case, to which she
grant the permission. She was, replied in the affirmative. He there-
therefore, asked if she would re- fore took a book, went into the ad-
ceive Mr. Balanche. To this she joining room, held with one hand a
replied in the affirmative. Upon leaf against the wall, and with the
this he approached the bed, in other took hold of one of those who
which he saw a female lying mo- were present. Then, joining hands.
tionless, and who was, to all ap- they formed a chain which reached
pearance, sunk into a profound to the patient, on whose stomach
sleep. He laid his hand, as he was the last person laid his hand. The
instructed, on the stomach of the patient read the leaves that were
somnambulist, and then began his held to the wall, which were often
interrogatories. The patient an- turned over, and read them without
swered them all most correctly.. making the smallest error.
This surprising result only excited
the curiosity of the inquirer. He Second sight is a power believed
had with him several letters from to be possesed by certain persons,
his friends, one of which he took, of seeing future events, particular-
with whose contents he imagined ly of a disastrous nature, by an ex-
himself to be the best acquainted, hibition of the persons to whom
and laid it folded upon the stomach these events relate,accompanied by
of the patient. He then asked the such emblems as denote their fate.
sleeper if she could read the letter, Thus, if a man be dying or about to
to which she answered, yes. He die, his image will appear exactly
then inquired if it did not nlention as in its natural state, but in a
a certain person he had named. She shroud, with other funereal appur-
denied that it did. Mr. Balanche tenances, to a second-sighted per-
being certain that the patient was son, who perhaps never saw his face
mistaken, repeated the question, in reality. If such a vision is seen,
and received a similar answer in the person will surely die. If ao)-
the negative; the patient even ap- thing is seen in the morning which
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1387
is not common, the event will be ac- we see, how astonished you would
complishedwithin a few hours. If at be to note the change wrought in
noon, it will take place sometime the thought of a group of persons
during the day. If in the evening, when suddenly a mind of pure,
perhaps at night. When a shroud clear, spiritual nature comes among
is seen about a person, the time of them. Virtue goes out to others
his death is judged according to from all who desire the good of
the height of the shroud upon his others. If you long to bless the
person. The higher it is toward world, you can bless it by being
the head, the sooner his death will heavenly-minded, prone to good
be. Visitors are seen coming to a will, charitable. Your thought is
house before their arrival, and all your personal atmosphere, which
sorts of things are predicted with touches other thought atmospheres
more or less correctness. either to good or evil." (Ennemos-
In Scotland children, horses and er's History of Magic.)
cows are thought to all have the Levitation, the raising of the
power of second sight. There is body without contact of hands, is
also a way of foretelling death by one of the mysteries said to have
a cry called the "Taisk." This is occurred both in ancient and mod-
heard within doors, and resembles em times. In Horst's Zauber-
the person's voice. bibliothek is the record of a Maria
Speaking of the contagious pow- Fleischer, who was celebrated for
er of evil, the Cabbalah says: "As many wonderful actions. Superin-
ph)esical disease streams forth from tendent ~Ioller, in Freiburg, said:
men, so does the uncleanness of the "When her convulsions are most
soul ever magically stream forth, violent, she begins to rise in the
possessing a power of contamina- air, and at this time it is dangerous
tion not alone for men, but for ex- to touch her. In the presence of
ternal things. From this proceeds two deacons who related this, she
the repulsion felt by the pure in the was suddenly raised in bed with her
presence of the wicked. Each evil whole body, hands, and feet, to the
deed, each impure word, is thus height of three ells and a half, so
possessed of a magical existence that it appeared as if she would
which renders unclean all about it. have flown through the window."
In a land where great crinle is Spiritualists believe in levitation,
rife, all things-houses, furniture, clainling to be able to overcome
beasts, plants, the very earth and gravity by spiritual means.
air--are corrupted." Apropos of G. P. Lathrop speaks, in his
this, the Voices in "As It Is To introductions to "Representative
Be,' say: "Your thought is your- Iloems," of "the mysterious levi-
self, and goes with you wherever tation that enables the poet to rise
~ou go. So if,for instance.you enter above the general run of men."
an elevator full of people you never This, however, is doubtless meant
saw before, if your thought hap- but figuratively.
pe11S to be pure, sweet, humane, Iamblich, the zealous defender
hannonious, or elevating, you in- of the heathen religions, who from
r evitably impart it to the atmos- his theurgic writings, his piety, and
phere, and attract to you and them supernatural po\\crs, \vas usually
the forces of such thought out of called Uthe divine," was, during

l the general mass. Unaware of it,


they absorb it. If you could see as
prayers, always raised ten feet
above the earth, and at such times,
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

his skin and clothes assumed the before quitting the senate, warned
color of gold. Similar accounts the Romans that as certainly as
are given of very piou$ men, and Veii was doomed to fall, so the
the legends of the saints contain same books foretold that soon after
many who had the power of rising the fall of Veii, Rome would be
and walking in the air. taken by the Gauls.
Toward the end of the Ten The Sibyls were as celebrated
Years' War between Rome and and as superstitiously believed in
Veii, the Romans were terrified by by the Romans and early Chris-
a number of portends, among oth- tians as the old oracles in Greece,
ers, an unexampled swelling of the and the Persian and Chaldean Sib-
Alban lake. In the midst of the yls were among the first known.
dog days, without any fall of rain They were women who claimed to
or anything unseasonable in the be endowed with a divine power to
weather, the water rose to such a foresee future events and predict
height that it overflowed the the deaths of men. Virgil describes
mountain which enclosed it, and in a masterly manner the agitated
deluged the neighboring country. condition of the Sibyl when in
At any other time, the senate the midst of her prophecy. "She
would have consulted the Etruscan changes her features and the color
Qracle on the import of the prodi- of her countenance. Her hair erects
gy, but as it was, they were afraid itself; her bosom heaves full and
they would receive a deceitful an- panting, and her wild heart beats
swer. A solemn embassy was violently. Her lips foam and her
therefore sent to inquire of the voice is terrible. As if beside her-
Pythian oracle. During its ab- self, she paces to and fro in her
sence, a soothsayer of Veii scoffed cave, as if she would expel the god
at the efforts of the Romans, the from her breast." The Sibyl her-
futility of which was foretold in the self thus describes her state: "I
prophetic books. He was captured am entirely on the stretch I My
by a stratagem and forced to body is stupefied. I do not know
speak, though loudly bewailing the what I say. When my spirit rests
destiny that obliged him to betray after a divine hymn, God com-
the secret of his nation. He con- mands me to vaticinate afresh. I
fessed that the Veientine books of know the number of the grains of
fate announced that so long as the sand. The measure of the sun I
lake kept overflowing Veii could know. The height of the earth,
not be taken, and that if the waters the number of men, the number of
were to reach the sea, Rome would the stars, trees, and beasts." Ac-
perish. The ambassadors to Del- cording to Plutarch, she foretold
phi brought an answer to the same the eruption of Vesuvius which
effect, whereupon the Romans overwhelmed Pompeii, Herculane-
made a tunnel, drew the water um, and Stabiae,in which Pliny,the
from the lake, and spread it naturalist, is said to have met his
through the fields in ditches. When death. The Cumaean Sibyl, Amal-
the Veientines learned that the thaea, was styled the seventh. Her
fatal consummation on which their books were the most trustworthy
destiny hung was at hand, they and were always preserved by the
sent an embassy to Rome to im- Romans, carefully hidden in stone
plore forbearance. They met com- caskets buried under the temple,
passion. The chief of their envoys, and consulted only in the most im-
FOLKLORE, AND THB OCCULT SCIENCBS. 1389
portant times. Of these books of of the prophecies are doubtless pre-
predictions, were said to have ex- Christian and of Jewish origin, but
isted originally nine, which, accord- many are Christian. They are sup-
ing to a legend recorded by Livy, posed to date from the second cen-
the Sibyl offered to Tarquin the tury B. C. to the second century
Proud, one of the legendary Ro- A. D., or later.
man kings. The offer being reject- One of the most furious enemies
ed, she burned three of them; and of the Christians, the Emperor Au-
twelve months later, offered the re- relian, forbade the books of the
maining six at the same price. Sibyls to be read, under the sever-
Again being refused, she burned est penalti~s, but nevertheless, so
three more; and again twelve much did he believe in them, that
months later, offered the last three when he did not see his way clear
at the same price as before. The in the Markoman war, he wrote to
offer was now, at the advice of the the senate and said: "I wonder,
augurs, accepted, the sum paid, and Holy Fathers, that it is so long de-
Amalthaea disappeared forever. In layed to open the Sibylline books.
the year 83 B. C., the temple as if they belong only to the Chris-
of Jupiter, where the original Sib- tians, and not to all the temples of
ylline books, or rather leaves-for the gods."
the prophecies were written in
Greek, on palm leaves-were pre- A tower situated at the entrance
of the river the Bristol Avon, is
served, burnt down, and the books
called "Cook's folly," and the fol-
were destroyed. Thereupon, a spe-
lowing legend is connected with
cial commission was appointed by
it. This tower bears on its lintel
the senate to visit all the cities of the inscription, "I. Cook, 1693."
Greece, Italy, and Asia Minor, and The legend runs that Mrs. Cook,
to collect all the floating Sibylline
verses and leaves. Over 4,000 wife of Sir Maurice Cook, sheriff
of Bristol, gave alms to a gipsy a
were thus collected, and deposited
short time before the birth of her
in the new temple of Jupiter, but in child (a son), who in return, prom-
11 B. C. Augustus had about half
ised to predict the child's future;
of them burnt as spurious, and the and two days after the birth of
rat transferred to the temple of the baby, presented the following
Apollo on the Palatine. prophecy to the father:
The Sibylline prophecies enjoyed
sach a deep-rooted belief and rev- uTwenty times shan Avon'" tide
In chains of glistening ice be tied,
erence among the people all over Twenty times the woods of uigh
the world that the Christian church Shall wave their banners merrily,
lOOn made use of their powerful in- In spring burst forth in mantles gay
ftuence for her own purposes, by And dance in summer's scorching ray;
Twenty times shall autumn's frown
having numerous so-called Sib- Wither all their green to brown,
yDine oracles manufactured by And still the child of yesterday
monks, which were supposed to Shall laugh the happy hours away.
have predicted the coming of That period past, another sun
Christ, and to bear many allusions Shall not his annual journey run,
Before a silent secret foe
to the life of Christ and to the Shall strike the boy a deadly blow.
Christian faith. These are known Such and sure his fate shall be,
as the fourteen books of Sibylline Seek not to change his destiny."
Oracles. written in Greek hexame- As the belief in astrology at that
ten, and are entirely distinct from time was very strong, the father
the original Sibylline books. Some spoke lightly of the matter to the
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

mother, nevertheless when the end head, and which is so strong that
of his son's twentieth year drew he himself smells it, exhales it,
near, he showed him the scroll and tastes it, and that it even invades
begged him to remain in the tower other objects, such as flowers,
which he had built, so that no ODe which are brought in his presence.
could enter unless let in by the one Among the many remarkable
inside. At first the son declined, phenomena attributed to the adept-
but seeing how earnestly his father ship of Madame Blavatsky, was the
and sisters (his mother had been following, which was taken down
dead some time) wished it, he con- from the lips of the Countess
sented. Here he remained, visited Paschkoff, the world-renowned
daily by his father and sisters, till traveler, member of a dozen ge0-
only one day more remained. This graphical societies and correspond-
also passed, evening drew on, and ent for the Paris "Figaro": "The
requesting a fagot of wood to be Countess Paschkoff spoke again,
given him, the young fellow let and again Colonel Olcott translat-
down the basket in which he had ed for the reporter. . I was
drawn up whatever he wanted dur- once traveling between Baalbec
ing the twelve months, then, after and the river Orontes, and in the
bidding his friends prepare for his desert I saw a caravan. It was
release on the morrow, retired Madame Blavatsky's. We camped
from the window. Early in the together. There was a great moo-
morning his father and sisters as- ument standing there near the vil-
sembled under the window, but no lage of EI Marsum. It was be-
sign of life appeared in the young tween the Libanus and the Anti-
man's room. The sisters called Libanus. On the monument were
him repeatedly; still no answer. inscriptions that no one could ever
The father ordered a ladder to be read. Madame Blavatsky could do
brought, a man ascended, and re- strange things with the spirits, as
ported "The young master is sleep- I knew, and I asked her to find out
ing!" "Come down, manl" in a what the monument was. We wait-
frenzy cried Sir Maurice; "he is ed until night. She drew a circle
dead I"~ And on entering, this and we went in it. We built a fire
proved to be the case. An adder and put much incense on it. Then
had been carried up with the wood, she said many spells. Then we put
and was now twined around the on more incense. Then she point-
son's arm, and had severely stung ed with her wand at the monument,
him in the throat, thus causing his and we saw a great ball of white
death and the fulfilling of the flame on it. There was a sycamore
prophecy. tree near by; we saw many little
flames on it. The jackals came
It is a general belief among spir- and howled in the darkness a little
itualists that many mediums pos- way off. We put on more incense.
sess an odor of sandalwood, similar Then Madame Blavatsky com-
to the "odor of sanctity" of old, manded the spirit to appear of the
which pervades the room where person to whom the monument
they dwell, as well as their own was reared. Soon a cloud of vapor
body. Stainton Moses writes to arose and obscured the little moon-
the famous Madame Blavatsky that light there was. We put 011 more
he is pervaded by this peculiar incense. The cloud took the indis-
odor, which, he says, exudes from tinct shape of an old man with a
a small spot on the crown of his beard, and a voice came, as it

. ......
_._
FOLKLORE, AND THB OCCULT SCIENCES. 1391

seemed, from a great distance, ville, belonging to a family of Ger-


through the image. He said the man descent, named originally
monument was once the altar of a Voss, a name anglicized into Fox.
temple that had long disappeared. It was found that these sounds
It was reared to a god that had were alwa)"s perceived in the pres-
long since gone to another world. ence of one or both of the young
"Who are you?" asked Mad- daughters of ~Ir. Fox, and that a
ame Blavatsky. eel am Hiero, code of communication could be
one of the priests of the tem- established by which conversation
ple," said the voice. Then Mad- was carried on with the intelligence
ame Blavatsky ordered him to supposed to produce them. It ,,as
show us the place as it was when said that in this way evidence was
the temple stood. He bowed, and, obtained concerning a murder be-
for one instant we had a glimpse lieved to have been committed in
of the temple and of a vast city fill- the house some time before, and
ing the plain as far as the eye could the sounds purported to come from
reach. Then it was gone, and the the spirit of the murdered man.
inlage faded away." (From "Old Many years after, in 1888, ~Irs.
DiaJ) Leaves," by Col. Henry S. Kane (Margaretta Fox) came be-
Olcott.) fore the public with a confession
that she and her sister ma'de the
Spiritualism is the creed of those sounds with their toes; but before
who believe in the communication
of the spirits of the dead with the
her death, she repudiated this con-
living, usually through the agency fession.
of peculiarly constituted persons
The reported phenomena at the
time excited widespread attention
called mediums, and also in certain
physical phenomena, transcending in the United States, and led to the
ordinary natural laws, believed to formation of numerous circles of
accompany frequently such spiritu- experimenters, where rappings of
al communication, and attributed a similar kind were produced, and
supposed communication with the
either to the direct action of spirits,
spirits of the dead was established.
or to some force developed by the To the spirit-rappings were added
medium's own personality.
other phenomena, such as table-
The elements of the spiritualistic turning, automatic writing, trance-
creed are not in themselves new, speaking, etc.; and the persons who
but are traceable severally to a developed them received the name
high antiquity among different of mediums. ~fediums, according
races and in widely separated local- to the spiritualistic view, are en-
ities, and have usually been associ- do,,"ed with a special facult) ena-
ated with some form of religion; bling them to be the agents of the
they have been revived, though not communications and other mani-
of conscious purpose, and gathered festations of spirits. Some show
into one body on beliefs by a move- evidence of this gift in early youth,
ment having its origin as the result and others gradually develop it in
of certain incidents which took later years.
place at Hydesville, a small town in Spiritualistic communications or
tbe state of New York, in 1848. messages are received through the
In 11arch of that year, rapping automatic writing with pencil or
sounds were heard, apparently pro- planchette, or trance-speaking of
ceeding from the furniture, walls, the medium when under spirit-
and ceilings of a house in Hydes- control; by direct writing of the
1392 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

spirits on paper or slates with pen- The object of these phenomena


cil or chalk; by precipitated writ- is considered by spiritualists to be
ing-that is, writing supposed to the attestation of the genuineness
be produced on paper without visi- of the communication, and they
ble means; by table-turning, either bear to spiritualistic belief much
with or without contact of the me- the same relation that miracles do
dium, and interpreted by a conven- to revealed religion. Phenomena
tional code; and by raps on the fur- of undignified character, like the
niture or walls of a room, made in- corresponding communications,are
telligible by a code as in table- attributed to the lower orders of
turning. These communications spiritual beings. All these phe-
are supposed to have two objects- nomena do not occur at all seances
one is to convey proof of the sur- or with all mediums, and the latter
vival of the dead, the other to in- are often classified according to the
struct in moral and philosophical predomirt..ant character of their
knowledge. They are acknowl- special "development." Thus there
edged by spiritualists to vary great- are writing mediums, trance me-
ly in character and in value. Some diums, materializing mediums, etc.
are merely the expression of the
ideas and opinions of the medium A few, such as Home and Stainton
himself or of the sitters; some are Moses, seem to have been equally
trivial or false, and are attributed successful in every variety of man-
to a low order of mischievous spir- ifestation.
its; others, however, it is asserted, A typical belief is that of Allan
are genuine, and imply a knowl- Kardee, who asserts that the hu-
edge of events or of facts beyond man personality consists of the
the range of the medium or of the body, the soul or spirit, and a spir-
inquirers, and proving their super- itual body (Uperisprit'') of a rarified
normal origin. material, and that after death the
The principal so-called physical spirit can manifest itself to the
phenomena of spiritualism are senses through the perisprit, which
lights, musical sounds, as of invisi- by some force of the will or
ble instruments played on or play- through the agency of the medium,
ing of real instruments by visible becomes visible like vapor con-
or materialized hands; moving of densed under certain atmospheric
furniture and other heavy objects; conditions.
the passage of matter through mat-
ter, as bringing flowers or other Another theory of the materiali-
material objects into closed rooms; zation of spirits is that the spirit
materializations of hands or other dra\vs from the medium certain
parts of the body, or of complete emanations by which it can make
hunlan figures; spirit-photography; itself \vholly or in part visible in a
and finally, phenomena immediate- temporary reduplication of the me-
ly affecting the medium, such as diunl's body. While materialized,
levitation, or floating in the air the spirit remains in close rapport
without visible support, the elonga- with the medium, and at the end of
tion or shortening of his body, and the seance, or on any sudden dis-
fire tests, when the medium handles turbance, repercussion takes place
Bve coals, and gives them to others -that is, the materialized body at
to handle without injury, phenome- once withdraws into the orgariism
na for which Home was especially of the medium. (Thomas C. Fel-
renowned. ton, in Johnson's Univ. Cyclop.)
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1393

Some of the most convincing of RABBIT FOOT-Get a gun,


the strange spirit or ghost phenom- take it to a graveyard where ne-
ena of the United States which at- groes are buried, secrete yourself
tracted wide attention, particularly and wait till the clock strikes mid-
since the revival of spiritualism by night; then, from the northwest
the Fox sisters, was that recorded corner of the yard, shoot the first
of Dr. Phelps' house, in Stratford, rabbit that appears, sec~re his left
Connecticut. Dr. Phelps was the hind foot and carry it in your left-
father of the well-known authoress, hand pocket; thus you get the
Elizabeth Stuart Phelps Ward, who luckiest thing known, and wilJ have
made her first fame by the spiritual the best of luck as long as you car-
story, uThe Gates Ajar." This ry it. This is the famous Uleft hind
gentleman, who was a Presbyterian foot of a graveyard rabbit," that
minister, was a man of the most actresses so covet to use in the
perfect integrity, unusual culture toilette, and it is a mascot charm
and intelligence, and one whose worth a fortune to a gamblerl
mind was by education and heredi-
ty quite averse to the idea of SECRET-If the tongue of a
hauntings or ghosts. He says: uI goose is cut out while the goose is
have seen things in motion more alive and laid on the breast of a
than a thousand times, and in most sleeping person, that person win
tell all his secrets.
cases where no visible power exist-
ed by which the motion could have If you make a funnel of paper
been produced. There have been and insert the little end in a sleep-
broken from my windows, seventy- ing person's ear, you can make him.
one panes of glass, thirty of which or her talk of all his or her private
affairs. Another way is to stick the
1 have seen break with my own finger or hand in water.
eyes. I have seen objects such as
brushes, tumblers, candlesticks, SEEDS OF APPLES, MEL-
snuffers, etc., which but a few mo- ONS, ETC.-In eating a melon,
ments before I knew to be at rest, the person who gets the most white
8y against the glass and dash it to seeds will travel.
pieces, where it was utterly impos- If you accidentally cut an apple-
sible, from the direction in which seed in two when cutting an apple,
they moved, that any visible power your love affairs will not run
should have caused the motion. As smooth.
to the reality of the facts, they can If you cut two apple-seeds in
be proved by testimony a hundred- two, it is a sign of approaching
fold greater than is ordinarily re- widowhood.
quired in our courts of justice in A way of reading fate by apple-
cases of life and death." He open- seeds is to count thus: "One, my
ed his house for the most thorough love loves me. Two, he loves me
investigation of the supernatural not. Three, we shall agree. Four,
things that occurred there, the de- I am forgot. Five, is coming bliss.
tails of which we have not space to Six, love \vill not tarry. Seven, a
give; that some unseen, powerful, faithful kiss. Eight, we're sure to
and intelligent force occupied the marry."
mansion to the discomfort of the Count the seeds in your apple.
inmates. has been th'Youghly be- Five means bad luck. Six, you will
lieved. be disappointed in love. Seven,
BNCYCLOPAEDIA. 011 SUPERSTITIONS.

you will find a coin. Eight means deal a man a blow which will cause
to a maiden that she will marry the his death.
man of her choice, contrary to the To dance or play with your shad- ..
will of her parents; to a young man ow, is to play with the evil one.
it means that he will be jilted by (Portugal.)
the girl he is courting. Nine seeds
announce a letter by the next mail. If you can step on the shadow of
Ten seeds mean that your sweet- your head in Northern countries~
heart is constant and true. it is dinner time.
Shoot seeds of apples between There is an old superstition that
the fingers and say: when the devil cannot succeed in
"Kernel, come kernel hop over my getting a man himself, he will
thumb, sometimes steal his shadow. The
And tell me which way my lover will German poet Chamisso embodies
come. this superstition in his famous story
East, west, north, south;
Kernel come jump in my lover's of Peter Schlemihl, who sold his
mouth." shadow.
and the kernel will go into the The following extract from this
right one's mouth. This is a hal- remarkable book tells how the
lowe'en charm, all present standing devil, in the form of a respectable
in a ring. looking old gentleman in gray,
succeeded in obtaining Peter's
Eat an apple on Easter morning shadow in exchange for Fortu-
as soon as you awaken, and repeat natus' wishing-eap, mentioning
all the while: also various other charms and
"As Eve in her thirst for knowledge ate, magical objects which have always
So I too, thirst to know my fate."
played such a prominent part in
..:Then count the seeds, and if they folklore and superstition:
are an even number, your sweet- "1 had hastily glided through
heart wiD prove true; but if un- the rose-grove, descended the bill,
even, he will prove false. and found myself 00 a wide grass
Cut a melon in seven pieces and plot, when, alarmed with the appre-
distribute them by lot among seven hension of being discovered wan-
persons. Each one counts the mel- dering from the beaten path, I
on-seeds, thus: looked around me with inquiring
"One witt be wealthy, apprehension. How was I startled
Two witt be healthy, when I saw the old man in the gray
Three will seek fortune and fame; coat behind, and when the next
Four will be stingy,
Five will look dingy, breathed wish brought from his
Six will secure a great name; pocket three riding horses. I teU
5eftD for me my best friend shall be." you, three great and noble steeds,
The last seed will be your fortune. with saddles and appurtenances.
Imagine for a moment, I pray you,
SHADOW-If a negro sees a three saddled horses from the same
deep shadow lying across his path, pocket which had before produced
he feels that he proceeds at his a pocketbook, a telescope, an orna-
peril. mental carpet twenty paces long
An Albanian belief is that shad- and ten broad, a pleasure-tent of
ows are capable of assuming an in- the same size, with bars and iron-
dependent existence. and being work! If I did not solemnly assure
malevolently disposed, are able to )"ou that I had seen it with my OWD
FOLKLORE, AND THE O(;(;UL7' ~'tJENC;ES. 1395

eyes, you would certainly doubt What could I make of this singular
the narrative. proposal for disposing of my shad-
"Though there was so much of ow? 'He is crazy,' thought I; and
embarrassment and humility in the with an altered tone, yet more for-
man, and he excited so little atten- cible, as contrasted with the humil-
tion, yet his appearance to me had ity of his own, 1 replied:
in it something so appalling, that I "'How is this, good friend? Is
was not able to tum my eyes. Ad- not your own shadow enough for
vancing toward me, he immediate- you? This seems to me a whimsi-
ly took off his hat and bowed to cal sort of bargain indeed.'
me more profoundly than anyone "He began again: 'I have in my
bad ever done before. It was clear pocket many matters which might
he wished to address me, and with- not be quite unacceptable to the
out extreme rudeness, 1 could not gentleman; for this invaluable
avoid him. I, in my tum, uncov- shadow 1 deem any price too little l'
ered myself, made my obeisance, "A chill came over me. I re-
and stood still with bare head, in membered what I had seen, and
the sunshine, as if rooted there. I knew not how to address him
shook with terror while 1 saw him whom I had just ventured to call
approach; 1 felt like a bird fascinat- my good friend. I spoke again,
ed by a rattlesnake. He appeared and assumed an extraordinary
sadly perplexed, kept his eyes on courtesy, to set matters in order.
the ground, made several bows, ap- " 'Pardon, Sir; pardon your most
proached nearer, and with a low humble servant. I do not quite un-
and trembling voice, as if he were derstand your meaning; how can
asking alms, thus accosted me: my shadow-'
" '\Vill the gentleman forgive the "He interrupted me: 'I only
intrusion of one who has stopped beg your permission to be allowed
him in this unusual way? I have to lift up your noble shadow, and
a request to make, but pray par- put it in my pocket; how to do it is
don-' my own affair. As a proof of my
"'In the name of heaven, Sirl' gratitude for the gentleman, I leave
I cried out in n1Y anguish, 'what him the choice of all the jewels
can I do for one who--' which my pocket affords; the gen-
U\Ve both stared back, and me- uine divining-rods, the mandrake
thought both blushed deeply. Af- roots, change-pennies, money-ex-
ter a momentary silence, he again tractors, the napkins of Roland's
began: Squire, and divers other miracle-
" 'During the short time when I workers-a choice assortment; but
cnjo)'ed the happiness of being all this is not fit for you-better
near )-ou, I observed, Sir-will you that you should have r"ortunatus's
allow me to say so?-I observed, wishing-cap, restored spick-span
with unutterable admiration, the new; and also a fortune-bag which
beautiful shadow in the sun, which, belonged to him.'
with a certain noble contempt, and " 'Fortunatus's fortune-bag I' I
perhaps without being aware of it, exclaimed; and great as had been
you threw off from your feet; for- my terror, all my senses were no\v
give me this, I confess too daring enraptured by the sound. I be-
intrusion; but should YOU be in- came dizzy, and nothing but double
clined to transfer it to me?' ducats seemed sparkling before my
"He was 'Silent, and my head eyes.
turned round like a water-wheeL "'Condescend, Sir, to inspect
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

and make a trial of this bag.' He put shadow?' and immediately after-
his hand into his pocket, and drew wards a couple of women exclaim-
from it a moderately-sized firmly- ed: 'Good heavensl the poor fel-
stitched purse of thick cordovan, low has no shadow!' I began to be
with two convenient leather cords vexed, and carefully avoided walk-
banging to .it, which he presented ing in the sun. This I could not al-
to me. I instantly dipped into it, ways do; for instance, in the broad
drew from it ten pieces of gold, and street, which I was next compelled
ten more, and ten more, and yet to cross; and as ill luck would have
ten more; I stretched out my hand. it, at the very moment when the
'Done! the bargain is made; I give boys were being released from
you my shadow for your purse.' school. A confounded hunchback-
"He grasped my hand, and knelt ed vagabond-I see him at this
down behind me, and with wonder- moment-had observed that I
ful dexterity, I perceived him 1008- wanted a shadow. He instantly be-
~ning my shadow from the ground gan to bawl out to the young tyros
nom head to foot; he lifted it up, of the suburbs, who first criticized
he rolled it together and folded it, me, and then bespattered me with
and at last put it into his pocket. mud: 'Respectable people are ac-
He then stood erect, bowed to me customed to carry their shadows
again, and returned back to the with them when they go into the
rose-grove. I thought I heard him sun.'
laughing softly to himself. I held, ell scattered handfuls of gold
however, the purse tight by its among them to divert their atten-
strings-the earth was sun-bright tion; and, with the assistance of
all around me--and my senses some compassionate souls, sprang
.were still wholly confused. into a hackney coach. As soon as
". "At last I came to myself, and I found myself alone in the rolling
hastened from a place where appar- vehicle, I began to weep bitterly.
ently I had nothing more to do. I My inward emotion suggested to
first filled my pockets with gold, me, that even as in this world gold
then firmly secured the strings of weighs down both merit and virtue,
the purse round my neck, taking so a shadow might possibly be
care to conceal the purse itseU in more valuable than gold itself; and
my bosom. I left the park un- that as I had sacrificed my riches
noticed, reached the high road, and to my integrity on other occasions,
bent my way to the town. I was so now I had given up my shadow
walking thoughtfully toward the for mere wealth; and what ought,
gate, when I heard a voice behind what could become of me?"
me:
"'Holla! young Squire! holla! SOUNDS AND NOISES-To
Don't you hear?' I looked round hear sounds of fighting in the air,
-an old woman was calling after is a bad omen. (Korea.)
me. 'Take care, Sir; take care-
you have lost your shadow!' If you hear your name called and
'Thanks, good woman!' I threw no one is to be seen, it is the sign
her a piece of gold for her well- that the spirit of a beloved one
meant counsel, and walked awa)" wishes to commune with )"OU.
under the trees. The person who hears the bay-
"At the gate, I was again con- ing of a spectral pack of hounds
demned to hear from the sentinel: coursing through the air, is certain
'Where has the gentleman left his to die within the year.
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1397

To imagine you hear music after The sound of a supernatural


you have retired, is a favorable beating of drums is the death
omen. warning of a noble Scotch family.
Abroad at night, do not tum at Klopferle, a German knocking
the sound of footsteps; they are spirit, knocks and rattles his chain
likely to be those of the dead seek- before the death of one of the faln-
ing human companionship. i1y with whom he lives. These
If you hear knocking in the "Klopfgeister" are believed to ex-
stove, it is a sure sign of death. ist in every house, and are heard
but never seen, previous to any
When you hear mysterious raps ominous happening.
which cannot be accounted for, it is
a sign that the fairies are at work The superstitious in the Western
foe you. Islands of Connemara, say that at
night the dead men can be heard
Ghostly tappings are said to be laughing with the fairies and spin-
warnings of impending evil. ning the flax. But after a year and
A ghostly and shadowy hearse is a day from the burial, the voices
often heard in the winter nights, cease, and the dead are gone for-
rolling slowly and softly up and ever.
down the roads, till it comes to the People who shudder when they
bouse where a death is going to hear grinding, sharpening, or any
happen. movement against steel, have DOt a
The hearer of footsteps in the true conscience.
hall or on the stair, when there is Hearing strange voices and at-
nobody there, may be sure that a tempting to reply to all at once, is
spirit has come to call some one to a sure sign of insanity.
accompany him.
It was considered an evil omen
When the dogs of Ammon howl to hear the cries of wild beasts near
it is a sure sign of death t9 some the house at night, as these indi-
man of evil deeds. cated misfortune and disaster; also
To the memben of an old if strange humming sounds were
knightly family in the West of heard at night, they were dreaded
England, there comes before the as foreboding death or enslavement
death of its chief, the sound of a of some member of the family.
heavy carriage driven around the (Mexico.)
paved courtyard of the Elizabethan
In Germany, many of the prince-
mansion. ly families have especial warnings
In one Irish family, death is an- of death. For some it is the roar-
nounced by the loud cracking of a ing of a lion, for others it is the
whip. tolling of a bell, and for others the
The river Dart, in Devonshire, striking of a clock at an unusual
claims the heart of one victim a time.
year. Dr. Johnson heard his mother
Three raps from a spirit hand call his name in a clear voice, al-
foretells a death. though she was in another city.
An omen of danger to the negro When dogs bark at night on the
is to hear the clattering of hoofs heaths in the woods and crossways,
without being able to see the hone the countrymen know it is the god
or rider. Wotan who is leading them, and
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

pity the wanderer who has not ing of the Pezazi," a ghost of hor-
reached home. (North Germany.) rible luck, or a goblin, according
Descartes, the great philosopher, to where it is heard. (Andrew
was followed by an invisible per- Lang, "Custom and Myth.'')
son, whose voice he heard urging A certain shrill cry of a whistle
him to continue his researches after at night is said to come from the
truth. "seven whistlers whom nobody
Another Irish omen is a coach- knows." The poet Spencer takes
a-bower, an immense black coach, notice of them and calls them birds
drawn by headless black horses, of ill omen:
mounted by a coffin and driven by "The whistler shrill
a Dullahan. It comes rumbling to That whoso hears shall die."
your door, and if you open it, a There is a tradition that these sev-
basin of blood is thrown in your en whistlers are occupied by the
face. souls of those Jews who assisted
There are "wild huntsmen" often at Christ's crucifixion, and in con-
heard by the peasantty hunting in sequence are doomed to be forever
the air with a spectral pack of on the wing, moving through the
hounds. Scott mentions it in his long night hours bewailing their
ballad, "The Wild Huntsman": fate by their sorrowful sounds.
"This is the hom and horse and hound If, in the evening, strange
That oft the 'lated peasant hears, knackings were heard on the wall~
Appalled he signs the frequent cross in the cupboard, in the wardrobes,
When the wild din invades his ears."
or about the house in Belgium, one
A noted imposture was firmly of the family was to die that very
believed in 1762, called the "Cock night, and the number of knocks
Lane Ghost." It was in Cock told at what hour.
Lane, Smithfield, London, and
done by a man named Parsons and The "seven whistlers," also call-
his daughter only eleven years old. ed "Gabriel's hounds," which are
Knockings and other strange believed to be the souls of unsaved,
Doises were heard, and a luminous were often heard to pass over the
lady, supposed to be the ghost of people's heads, but no more than
Mrs. Kent, was seen. Dr. Johnson six of them were ever heard at
among others, visited the house, once. If they should all be heard
and was maliciously attacked for together, then would be the end of
his superstition by Churchill in his the world.
long poem, "The Ghost." Parsons When the Leicestershire colliers
was pilloried. hear the seven whistlers, they will
A singular bit of folklore comes not venture to go down into the
from as widely separated quarters mine, as death to some one is fore-
as England, Ceylon and Mexico, boded.
differing but little in each countty. Charles IX. of France caused his
It is of the "midnight axe," strokes brother-in-law, Henry III., to be
of which are heard on trees at summoned to him in the night,
"about the time when men most about eight days after the massacre
soundly sleep." It is never ac- of St. Bartholomew, in August,
counted for, and no reason why the 1572. He found him as he had
sound should be heard has ever sprung from his bed, filled with
been found out. It is an evil omen, dread at a wild tumult of confused
and by some it is called "the haunt- voices which prevented him from
FOLKLORE, ~ND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1399

sleeping. Henry himself heard nocturnal music, were told by an


these sounds. They appeared like English vicar:
distinct shrieks and howlings, "The vicar's informant was a
mingled with the indistinguishable woman, who had paid a visit to a
ragings of a furious multitude, and sick friend and was returning home
with groans and curses as on the along a lonely footpath, which was
day of the massacre. ~Iessengers pointed out to me, close to a wood,
were sent to the city to ascertain and as she was approaching the
whether any new tumult had brok- sideland she heard charming mu-
en out, but the answer returned sic, much like that produced by nu-
was that all was quiet in the city, merous small silvery sounding
and that the commotion was in the bells. Her path lay close to the
air. Henry the king could never spot whence the music was pro-
recall this incident without a hor- ceeding, and when she was within
ror that made his hair stand on end. thirty )ards of the hollow in the
When, on winter evenings, the field where it was, she stopped and
family being assembled quietly in listened to the sweet sounds; but
the wann sitting-room, in Belgium, she had not long been there before
a strange howling 01" woeful a something came running for-
crying and whistling is heard, wards from the direction of the hol-
)ou may be sure that very soon an low, and brushed past her and
old spinster or grandmother will struck against her as it passed.
explain: "There is a soul banished This frightened the woman greatly,
011 that place waiting for deliver- and in fear, she went quickly to-
ance." Everyone will look sus- wards her home. The only expla-
piciously at the stove as the place nation that she could give of the
whence the sound comes. If three strange music was that it was fairy
"pater nosters" are not sufficient, music."
six or nine will be said, until the The other tale is as follows:
noise ceases and the soul is deliv- "Some miners engaged in opening
ered. a work on the Merionethshire hills,
built a hut by the works, in which
:\oises of animals heard in the they deposited their tools on fin-
house at midnight, are ominous. ishing the labors of the day, and
U an insect cries "click, click, one of their number slept in this
click," the person who hears it will hut. The watcher one night, when
possess real treasure while he re- seated in the hut enjo)'ing his pipe,
sides there. If it cries "kek, kek, heard a tune played on a violin out-
kek;9 it is an evil onlen, both to his side. lie got up to see who it was
and his neighbors' houses. If it that ,vas there, but when he had
cries "chit, chit," it signifies that opened the door the fiddler and the
the person hearing it shall always tune had gone a distance off. It
feed upon the nlost sumptuous pro- ,\as a dark night and a drizzling
Yisions. If it cries "keat, keat," in rain was falling, and he could not
loud, shrill voice, it denotes that see far because of the rain and mist,
his residence there will not be for but he stood by the door listening,
long. and he heard the music until at last,
Music heard in the night, in apparently in consequence of the
places remote from human abodes, distance it was from him, he could
such as wild moorlands, is gener- hear it no more. This man was
aDy ascribed to the fairies. The fully persuaded that no mortal fid-
Iollowing two tales, relating to this dler played that tune."
BNCYCLOPAEDIJf OF SUPERSTITIONS.

A yelping or whistling sound In Norway, the people put out a


sometimes heard at night in the air, bowl of groats for the "nissen," a
is believed to be caused by the sort of fairy, similar to the English
"Gabriel Hounds," also called the brownies, to insure their good
"Seven Whistlers," or the "Wan- favor.
dering Jews," or the "Haunted It is said in Normandy, that
Huntsman." To hear them, fore- when a person is haunted by a gob-
bodes bad luck. They are called lin, he must strew flax seed where
"Gabriel Hounds," from the belief the goblin must pass, and he will
that they are the souls of the un- leave in disgust.
saved hunted by Gabriel, and
shrieking from the smart of his To meet with elves, is believed
whip as he lashes them along. The in Sweden to cause military fever.
cry really arises from birds, such as The elves take particular care of
teal, wild geese, and widgeons, fly- tulips, and those who cultivate
ing by night to new feeding them are under their protectioa.
grounds. The "wild huntsman" is The reason way it is unlucky to
supposed to be the ghost of a hunt- wear green is because it is the
er and his followers who hunted favorite color of the elves, and they
on Sunday, and was therefore resent the intrusion upon their
doomed to hunt without rest until rights.
the world's end. There are numer-
ous versions of this legend, differ- Sometimes the fairies carry off a
ing more or less, and to be found mortal child foe a sacrifice, as they
in all countries. Even the North have to pay such every seven years
American Indians have a similar for the power which the devil gives
tradition. them.
If a child in Ireland is fairy-
SPIRITS, GOOD AND EVIL, struck, it is given a cup of cold
FAIRIES, ETC.-Before the bat- water in the name of Christ, the
tle of the Boyne, the banshee was sign of the cross made over it.
heard singing in the Irish camp;
and during the Peninsular and N a- Fairies are believed to blight
poleonic wars, many families were corn with adder eggs.
warned bv the banshee of the death Fairies dress in green in order
of members falling in battle. to be able to conceal themselves
In some countries of Europe, it better. Walk in the woods and
has been the custom to leave a think you are looking at a mass of
bowl of porridge and milk for the leaves, and like as not it is just a
brownies. and so propitiate these fairy's mantle, and the fairy is
good little household fairies, in laughing, shaking it.
Germany, called uHeinzelmaenn- It is believed to incur certain
chen." destruction to endeavor to spy on
a fairy.
If you can find a fairy's drinking-
born, fill it up to the brim with Fairies have especial power OIl
some liquid, and carry it over a Wednesdays and Fridays. It is
running stream without spilling a dangerous to speak of them then,
drop; it will be a cornucopia of as they can hear you, and misfor-
good luck for you until it breaks, tunes will come upon you.
which will be disastrous. (Eng- Goldmar is a fairy of German
land.) lore, who is invisible but sensible
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIBNCBS. 1401

to the touch. He converses, plays The Tartars in Siberia believe


beautifully on the harp, and reveals that you ,can invoke a potent de-
secrets. When you feel a soft touch mon by beating a drum.
and hear strange music, be sure Fires kindled with human fat
that Goldmar is near you. frighten away bad spirits.
In Bavaria, one who places a With a hazel stick, a person can
palm leaf on the hearth and fills it draw a circle around himself which
with bread crumbs, will be protect- no fairy, demon, serpent, or evil
ed by the fairies. spirit can enter.
Look through the loop of a wise If a person wishes to do anything
man's arm, and you will be able to that he thinks will be displeasing
see spirits. to the fairies, he must spit thrice on
The most malignant East Indian the ground.
spirits are those of a man who has If you wear a piece of brown
died without the proper ceremonies cloth for a charm, you will be safe
and not on the ground; and of a from evil spirits.
woman who has died within forty
days of childbirth. Burning a perfumed punk at
night to keep away evil spirits, is a
Shells blown in Hindu temples superstition among the Irish.
scare demons away.
Finnish folklore attributes to
"The Highlander
Will on a Friday morn look pale some spirits the power of drawing
U asked to tell a fairy tale, blood from anything, even a ship's
He fears the vengeful Elfin king." mast.
(Scott's Marmion.)
Odds and ends of bone strung
In England, it is considered together and blessed by a voodoo
lucky to leave a small hole some- priestess, are a marvelous charm
where in the house for the pixies against the evil one.
to get out of. If you wish good luck, scatter
~ peasant see,
Bethink him of Glcndowerdy the "blithe bread" on your garden
ADd shan the spirits' blasted tree." walks for the good spirits of the
(Scott's Mannion.) air.
In China, a musical instrument Every old family is supposed to
called the Uhing:' is regarded with have their good and bad spirits,
great awe and is used for frighten- their ghosts that give warning of
ing away demons during religious impending calamity sometimes in
ceremonies. dreams and sometimes by visible
To read the Bible backwards in visitations or visions.
a haunted house, will exorcise the A heavy chain was kept in a
apirits. great many North of England
The Zruen is a changeable and homes, the violent shaking of
malevolent Roumanian spirit, inim- which was supposed to scare away
ical to braves and heroes; perhaps ghosts or spirits.
because he is usually the guardian The wing of a bat and the heart
of young maids. of a lapwing repel evil spirits and
It is unlucky for children to lis- wicked passions.
ten to the voice of Holda (or Frau It was the custom to make a
Holle), as she sits on the main, be- wide planted cross of rushes in Ire-
wailing. (German.) land, and place it over the inside
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

of the door of the dwelling house; On the Gold Coast, there are
then no evil spirit could enter stated occasions when the whole
there. people turn out en masse at night,
On the seacoast of England, to drive the evil spirits from their
there is a strange hollow noise, towns.
supposed to be a spirit come to Ares, a giant spirit of Persia~
foretell a great tempest. conducts all wars and brings all
The wild huntsman is said to be victories.
always abroad in storms, and any- The Jinn is a name applied to a
one who has the misfortune to see race of fairies living in mountains
him expects trouble. (Scotch.) and caves and only seen as reptiles.
When among unknown people In some parts of Gennany, it is
and in a strange place, cross your- bad luck to listen to the fairies
self three times, to avoid being mo- singing; children who do so may
lested by evil spirits. have to remain in the wood with
From midnight until morning is "Holli" until the day of judgment-
the chosen hour for spirits to ap- If anyone should hear, perchance,
pear on earth. fairies singing, the person must
Bucca, in Irish mythology, is the say the paternoster to avert ill luck.
cruel goblin of the winds, and fore- The Hawaiians have an omen
tells shipwreck. that when the sand slides down the
The Scandinavians believe that if steep sides and dunes of Kaluakal-
anyone is daring enough to rush rna, the sounds are produced by the
on a fairy feast and snatch the "uhane" spirits, who are troubled
drinking-eup, he would be lucky or being disturbed.
ever after. Should the glass ever You can get rid of a fairy by
be broken, the luck would be gone. turning your cloak wrong side out;
In "Bleak House," Charles but if you strike at one with a
Dickens has a banshee who haunts stick, it will dissolve into thin air.
the "ghost's walk." Robin Goodfellow had to have a
To curse with book, bell, and bowl of cream set out for him, or
candle, alludes to an old form of the next day the pottage would
exorcism, in which the bell was bum, the cheeses would not curdle,
used to scare evil spirits. and the butter would not come.
In India, a rude dough image of The Germans believe that under
a man is made at rice-planting and the ground, particularly in barrows
thrown away, as a sacrifice to the of the dead, there dwell little pe0-
spirit of the household. ple called by the Holsteiners,
dwarfs or subterraneans.
The Buggam is an evil Manx
Puck is supposed to be a little
spirit, which presages woe.
fellow with red jacket and cap,
The "1\rIoody-boo" is a spirit dog who may be seen passing through
that appears in Manxland. the air as a fiery stripe. (German.)
Fairies are fallen angels. The "tensarponleit" is a spirit
There are fairies who dwell in which often presents itseH to the
Welsh mines called "knockers," people under the form of a cow, a
who knock on the walls of the dog, a cat, or some other domestic
mine to indicate where is the silver animal, and like the Scotch brown-
or lead. ie will do all the work of the bouse.
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1J03

The Chinese fan themselves all To have white or yellow cloth


the time when in the presence of hung up in the streets, will keep
white people, to keep away the awa) evil spirits. (Chinese.)
white devils, who are supposed by To have the word UAgla" about
them to accompany the whites. the house, is good for exorcisms.
A charm to keep away evil spirits (Arabian.)
was to say three times all in a The Chinese think that by turn-
breath: "Three blue beans in a ing live crabs into the streets, the
blue bladder; rattle, bladder, rat- evil spirits will go with them.
tle."
Near Loch Lomond, \vas a mill The natives of the Orkney Isl-
which was haunted by a spirit in ands and Jutland believed in fairies
called "drows,' and thought that
the form of a goat, who did great
mischief in the mill, to the con- they could impart to one a super-
natural wisdom.
sternation of the nliller.
In the mountains of upper Aus- Fairy rings never appear in a
tria, the natives have a spirit called cornfield.
the Uklage," whose boding voice Fairy rings cannot be moved by
they deeply dread, as it bodes death a plough.
to whoever hears it, or whoever "Come, bring thy wand, whOle magic
meets her. power,
Can wake the spirits of the deep."
\\hen time hangs heavy, the (~Irl. HemanL)
wings of the spirit flap heavily.
The UBugnel-\\Tas" is a be-
The \\'elsh believe in the good neficent spirit of gigantic stature,
influence of a spirit called "Trw)'o who 'v ears a long \vhite cloak and
Pweca," whose appearance fore- is onl) to be seen between mid-
bodes a good time coming. night and two in the morning. He
The Truden are ugly old women is supposed to defend the people
who cause nightlnares. fronl the devil, by wrapping his
cloak about them.
Gennan folklore has a fireman,
whose dwelling place is boundary The Utensarponleit" is a spirit
stones. which often presents itself to the
Near Lake Tanganyika, in East people under the form of an animal
Central Africa, little carved images resembling the \\'est Indian sole-
filled with a certain substance, are nodon, something like a hedgehog.
tied around the necks or the upper Some people believe that when
parts of their arms as a charm Old Nick touches a man's body, it
against evil spirits. causes him to emit a hissing or
)Iany villages have an official whistling sound, like that of a ser-
whose duty is to keep away evil pent.
spirits. He has a knife and dagger, The Indian sailor would drink
kept as heirlooms of the village. the blood of a cock or swallow a
He offers sacrifices, and is an au- H\e coal, to propitiate the favor of
thority on all ancient superstitions. his god, l\fishiam, king of evil spir-
Charms, usually the bough of a its, and to avert evil influences.
tree, together with the bark, are \Vhen the spirit called UKolloh"
buried near the river, to keep off makes its appearance in Yangroo,
evil .pirits and enemies. (Africa.) West Africa, it is a sign of death of
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPBRSTITIONS.

a king or some distinguished char- little imps or spirits of the forests


acter. and mountains.
It is still believed among the In Eisleben, th'e "faithful Eber-
Cornish and Devonshire peasantry, hardt" appears as an old man on
if, when visiting certain caves in the eve of Maundy Thursday, and
the country, called "pixy caves," drives all the people into their
they forget to leave a pin for the houses, to save them from the
pixies, that bad luck will follow ghostly procession of that night.
them. He is also the good spirit who pro-
The mode of summoning and tects children who have lost their
exorcising spirits has been about way in the woods, and leads them
the same in all ages. You stand in on'the right road home. In other
a circle and utter incantations, con- traditions, he appears to warn per-
sisting of half foul magic and half sons from the ascent of the fatal
Biblical quotations. The magic is mountain of Venusberg.
usually for summoning, and the The Cluricaune, an Irish fairy,
Bible for exorcism. appearing as a wrinkled old man,
An expectant Hindu father must gives one a knowledge of hidden
not go out in a rich dress in the treasures. Another Irish spirit,
moonlight, as that attracts the fair- called the "Phooka," lures people
ies, and they will come and plague to destruction.
his wife. Sometimes the father is In the seventeenth century. pe0-
plagued, to make the malignant ple believed in what they called a
spirits think that there is bad luck "Fire-Drake." It flew in the night
in the house instead of good, so like a dragon. It was believed by
they will keep away. the common people to be a spirit
The "Still-folk" of Central Ger- that kept hidden treasure. "The
many, are a tribe of the fairy king- middle part being greater than the
dom that inhabit the interior hills rest, maketh it seem like a bellie.
in which they had their spacious and the two ends are like unto a
homes. The entrance to their head and tai1."
caves was only obtained by mortals Popnlar fancy attributes to fair-
by means of the luck-flower or key- ies the Inischievous habit of shoot-
flower. ing cattle with arrows tipped with
A disease consisting of hardness flint stone, and these arrows, when
of the side was called "elf-cake." found, are called "elf-shoots." To
To cure it, take the root of gladen, cure animals assailed with' some
make a powder of it, give the dis- disorder, they simply touch them
eased person a spoonful of it in with these arrows.
white wine, and the fairies will take On Saturday night lay straws by
the hardness away. the open window in full moonlight
The "Kobold" is in some parts and say:
of Germany believed to be a fiery "Straw draw, crow craw,
stripe with a broad head, which he By my lifel I give thee lawl"
usually shakes from one side to the The straws will become fairies who
other. If he enters a house and a will dance to the cawing of a crow
serving-man takes a wheel off the that comes and sits on the ledge
wagon, he must burn himself out of the \vindow.
of the house. Generally speaking, In Aberdeenshire, the banshee
however, kobolds are mischievous had to be propitiated by every trav-
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES.

eler over a certain hill. This was bed without first setting a tub of
done by placing near a well a bar- water out for the fairies' use.
ley-cake marked on one side with The fairies there are fond of
a round O. If the cake was not hunting, and when the natives find
left, the traveler would meet with their horses tired and covered with
dire misfortunes. sweat in the morning, they believe
Miss Martineau tells a curious that the fairies have had them out
story, in her "Feats on the Fiord." for the sport.
A certain bishop of Trondjem lost In China, at times of scarcity of
his cattle by the herdsman taking rice and sickness prevailing, evil
his eye off them to look at an elk, spirits look into it, and whoever
who was in reality a spirit. When does not believe it will die in Sep-
the herdsman looked at the cattle tember or October. When any
again, the)' were no bigger than evil spirits appear at midnight,
mice, and again when he turned in which is in China, as well as in
astonishment and looked at the elk. other countries, their favorite roam-
in order to understand the mystery, ing time, no person must speak
the cattle all vanished in a hole in to them, nor give an answer if they
the earth. should query.
At one time, priests in Rome ex- In a very curious work, "A Re-
orcised and expelled bad spirits lation of Apparitions of Spirits in
with salt, and placing some in the the County of l\lonmouth and the
mouth of a person to be baptized, Principality of \Vales," by the Rev.
would say: "Receive this salt, and Edmund Jones of the Trench, we
may it be a propitiation to thee for meet with what is termed an ex-
eternal rest." cellent way of getting rid of a fairy:
One of the most interesting spe- "C. T. (a person of strict veracity)
cies of nymphs are the Hama-dry- traveling by night over Bedwellty
ades, those personifications of veg- mountain toward the valley of Eb-
etable life which have the power to wy Fawr, was surrounded by fair-
reward and punish those who pro- ies, some dancing, and heard the
longed or abridged the existence sound of a bugle horn, like persons
of their associate trees. hunting. He then began to be
afraid, but recollecting his having
In the Abbe Hucs travels, we heard that if any person should
are told that the Tartars worship happen to see the fairies, if he
mountain-spirits, and gain their drew his knife they would vanish
good graces and good luck by rais- directly, he did so, and saw them
ing an "Obo," dry branches hung no m<Xe I"
with bones and strips of cloth and
planted in enormous heaps of Small groves of trees are care-
stones. In \Vestern Africa, Park fully kept cultivated in the vicinity
bung a shred of cloth to imitate his of l\larangu, J\frica, and preserved
conlpanions, on a tree at the en- from injury, as it is believed that
trance to the "wilderness," which spirits abide in them.
",.as completely covered with these When a thunderstorm occurs in
I)mhols which guard the wander- 1tlarangu, Africa, it is a sign that
er. the spirits are passing from one
In the Isle of Man, whose first grove to another.
inhabitants are supposed to have Amazona is a good fairy of
been fairies, the people never go to French folkl<Xe, who cleared the
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

land from the Ogri and the blue the moon, whose flower is the flax,
Centaur. At a blast of her trum- and whose delight is to reward in-
pet, the sick had renewed life. She dustrious little maidens. Horsel,
gave the lovely Princess Carpelona Holda or Hulda, also called Frau
a bunch of gilly-flowers which en- Holle, is, in Northern mythology,
abled her to pass unrecognized by a goddess of death and winter, and
all who knew her. plays a prominent part in German
The folklore of England, Ireland folklore.
and Wales is full of stories in which Evil spirits, male and female, re-
hell-dogs pursue men and beasts, side in the banyan trees of North-
though they differ in appearance ern India. A female appears to the
according to the country. All, householder and calls him out. If
however, are of great size, and he follows into the woods, he will
strong beyond comparison. Their be found in the morning stark,
eyes shoot flames and the mouths staring mad. A piece of iron is
emit fire that scorches all who ap- worn for a protecting charm
proach them. They can only be against this.
routed by a call on the Deity or by An effective charm against spir-
making the sign of the cross. its in China, is a cash-sword, so
In England, it is believed that called from its sheath being made
if you put your foot in a fairy-ring, of small coins strung together. It
with a companion's foot on top of is hung up horizontally on the cur-
yours, the fairy world and the little tains of the bridal bed for luck, and
elves will become visible. If you also on the bed-eurtains during
wish to have a charm that can defy childbirth, to keep all demons and
all their anger, tum your coat in- evil spirits away.
side out, while you put your foot in The Ponka Indians believe in
it. a being whom they call the Inda-
In China, charms are printed on cinga. This being is of a super-
yellow paper and pasted over the human character, who dwells in
door or on the bed-eurtains, or forests. He hoots like an owl, and
worn in the hair, or put into a bag is so powerful that he can uproot
and hung from the buttonhole, or a tree or overturn a lodge. The
burnt and the ashes mingled with Ponkas have a song about him, and
tea and drank, so as to avert the in- the mothers scare little children by
fluences of evil spirits. saying: "Behave, else the Inda-
There are a great variety of sto- cinga will catch you I" Another
ries of how fairies are frightened horrible being is the one with two
away by presents, or any notice faces, the sight of \vhom would in-
taken of them. If queer things go stantly kill an expectant mother.
on in the house, your washing Evil demons are turned away
and ironing done without anyone from places by hanging their im-
touching it, your rooms swept and ages on doors or windows. Cloth-
your beds made with no one to and stone-amulets and talismans
help, say nothing, nor spread any are hung on the person and furni-
presents or mantles of green for ture.
the little ones, or you will lose Among the Eskimos, every 0b-
them. ject, however simple, appears to
German children firmly believe have its patron spirit, which, in or-
in Horsel or Holda, whose boat is der that it may perform its services
FOLKWRE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES.

for the welfare of the people, must searched around repeatedly. She
be propitiated with offerings most said the fairies had taken her away
pleasing and acceptable to it. The a great distance riding on a fairy
rule seems to be that all spirits are horse. At last, she saw a big river,
bad and must be propitiated to se- and the man who had tried to keep
cure their favor. Each person has her fronl being carried off was
his own particular spirit, whom he drifting down it in a cockleshell.
consults, and all these are under (Yeats, "The Celtic Twilight-")
the control of a single great spirit, In the fourth century, the ~fes
having its dwelling in the sky, a silians believed themselves to be
term as illimitable with those peo- filled with demons, which they
ple as ourselves. strove to relieve themselves of by
The Russian peasant believes constantly spitting and blowing
that every house contains a house- their noses.
spiriL He is described as a little
I t is said by the wise women of
old man about as big as a five-year-
Ireland that the roots of the elder
old boy, variously dressed and hav-
tree and the roots of an apple ,tree
ing a long white beard, yellow
boiled together and drank fasting,
hair and glowing eyes. When peo-
will expel any evil spirit that may
ple are asleep he comes out of his
have taken up its abode in the body
hiding place, the big brick oven,
of a man.
and conducts himself amicably or
not, just as he feels he has been The young king of Servia is very
treated by the family. Sometimes superstitious, and is a firm believ-
he does the household work in the er in one of the most hideous Serv-
night, and sometimes he upsets ian legends-namely, the one con-
ever)~ing. nected with the broncolaque. This
horrible monster is supposed to be
Dr. Hyde, who writes beautifully a kind of vampire which assumes
of the folklore of Ireland, says de- all kinds of shapes-sometimes
spondently of it: "This exultant beautiful and sometimes horrible
world of fancies is soon to pass ones-and seizes on you when you
away, to exist fOl" none but scholars are asleep, and sucks your blood.
and the gentlemen of the sun-
m)th." 1 know that this is the The islands of Tarven are used
common belief of folklorists, but I only for grazing, in consequence
do not feel certain that it is alto- of the superstition that no one can
gether true. The fairy and ghost inhabit them on account of trolls
kingdom is more stubborn than and other devilish beings.
men dream of. It will perhaps be The Africans believe in an evil
always going and never gone. I spirit called "Abiku," who takes
have talked with many who have up his abode in the human body.
seen it, and I have had my own He is believed to cause the death
glimpse of unaccountable things. of children; and if a child dies, the
(Yeats, "The Celtic Twilight.") bod) is thrown on a dirt-heap.
Ragweed is sacred to fairies, and If YOU are afraid of demons, take
when a little girl was m)'steriously the ieaves of the swet't flag, tie
lost, the constable gave orders to them into a bundle and place them
bum all of it in the field where she near your bed; or place a sprig of
had disappeared. In the moming peach blossoms over lintels. This
the little girl appeared, wandering will cause the evil spirits to disap-
in this same field, that had been pear.
ENCYCWPAEDIA OF SUPERSTIT10N~".

The field-spirits that figure so large pile of timber all in readiness.


largely at the present day in the These flames are intently watched.
superstitions of the Russian peas- They believe that after these cere-
antry, linger in Germany in the monies their dreams will be filled
notion concerning grain, straw and with prophetic vision, by which to
so forth, which at an earlier period decide their course. .
were each believed to be protected The Scotch fanner leaves green
by its own guardian spirit. patches in his fields uncu1tivated~
In Iceland, the farmer guards his in order to buy the good will of the
fields with charms, lest the elves otherwise evil-disposed earth-spir-
that dwell in them shall invade his its.
crops. The Esthonians dislike parting
People in Norway dread what is with any of the earth from their
called "the wild hunt." They are fields, and in drinking beer and eat-
fearful phantoms. If they drop a ing bread, they recognize the
saddle on the roof, there will be a wants of the earth-spirits by let-
death soon. ting some drops and some crumbs
To keep off evil spirits, clip off fall to the ground.
the ends of the nails of a black cat Swedes believe that their fairies
with a pair of scissors, collect them, inhabit the rocks and mountains,
and sew them up in a piece of morass and moor, and woe betide
black silk, which can be carried the person who meets these spirits
about your person or kept in your in a mist, for they are believed to
home. It will bring you good luck. carry him off in the air.
In the Isle of Man, the people In many parts of Germany, there
believe in bad agencies, as well as is scarcely a house or a family to
in good angels, which are always which kobolds are not said to be
with them, though invisible, and attached According to the super-
rain, dew, and green crops come stitious notions of the peasantry~
from their power. they preside over all domestic op-
A correspondent tells a story of erations, many of which they per-
a pixy who helped an old woman form. The kobold brings luck to
to spin. One evening she spied those who possess him.
the fairy jumping out of her door, Among the Esthonians, it is be-
and observed that it was very rag- lieved that the timid elves, in order
gedly dressed; so the next day she to avoid the effects of thunder and
thought to win the further services lightning, get down several feet
of the elf by placing some smart under the roots of trees, which they
new clothes as big as those made inhabit.
for a doll by the side of her wheel. Since fairies dwelt in their green
The pixy came, clapped her hands knolls, a prayer like this has been
with delight and vanished, with offered in Scotland: "0 blessed
these words: One, provide for us and help us
"Pixy fine, pixy gay, and let not thy grace fall on us like
Pixy DOW will roD awayl" rain drops on the back of a goose.
Negroes on their native soil hold Preserve us on land and sea. Pre-
consultation in what they call their serve our wives, children, cattle,
inner sanctuary with a spirit called and sheep, from the power and do-
the devil's bush. After gutterat nlinion of the fairies, and from the
mutterings, fire is touched to a malicious effects of every evil eye.'
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENC&'.

The best way to prevent the evil misapprehension of the words


influence of fairies or demons en- "They fell asleep in the Lord,"
tering a house, especially during which really means that they died.
the first three days of ~lay, when There are many different versions
their power is the greatest, is to of the story.
scatter primroses on the threshold, The bird, beast, or reptile of
as DO fairy can pass this flower. which an Indian dreams, betokens
It is a Breton notion that fairies what he calls his "good medicine."
cannot utter the words Saturday It is a fetish, a sort of protecting
or Sunday. Saturday is the Vir- spirit, and when he sees it in the
gin's day, Sunday the Lord's day; woods he is encouraged, and would
it is therefore unlucky to mention not harm it for the world. But
these days before them unless one the first one he sees after his dream
adds, "and now the week is end- he kills, to procure its skin, which
ed"; otherwise the fairies will be he wears about his neck as a pre-
condemned to long penitence. servative against all diseases.
Medieval romances assert that The famous "Banshee" of Ire-
fairies are on Friday turned into land is described as a tall woman
hideous animals, remaining so un- with uncovered head, long floating
til Monday. hair and white draperies, announc-
According to the Welch, Irish, ing by piercing cries the approach
and Scotch, Friday is a day conse- of death. She is also known as
crated to the fairies, who then can "the woman of peace," "lady of
do much mischief. death," "white lady of sorrow,"
and "spirit of the air." Sometimes
Banshees are fairies, often ap- she appears young and beautiful,
t pearing in the form of an old wom- and at other times perfectly hid-
an, whose wailing foretold death. eous. When several banshees are
They are peculiar to Irish and together and they wail in chorus,
Scotch folklore and have, accord- it indicates the death of some great
ing to Baring-Gould, no corre- or holy one.
sponding feature in Scandinavian,
Teutonic, or classic mythology. The North Albanians have fair-
ies called "Vilas." These are of
In Arabia, a piece of paper with two kinds. The one, handsome,
the names of the seven sleepers well-disposed, and riding upon
and their dog, is used to protect beautiful horses; the other, hideous
the house from ghosts and demons. creatures, whose heads are covered
The seven sleepers were seven no- with serpents instead of hair. To
ble youths of Ephesos, who fled meet the first, is good luck; but to
ill the Decian persecution to a cave meet the others, is sure to be fol-
ill ltlouDt Celion. Here they slept lowed by some dire misfortune.
for 230 years (according to others,
309 years), when they suddenly One of the good Albanian fair-
awoke, but soon died. Their bodies ies is a beautiful woman, wearing
were taken to Marseilles in a large gold-gleaming garments, and on
stone coffin, which is still shown in her head a fez covered with jewels.
Victor's church. Their names If a man can secure this fez, he will
are Constantine, Dionysius, John, be happy for life.
Maximian, ltlalchus, Martinian, If one wishes to have a goblin,
and Serapion. This legend has he must go on St. John's day, be-
probably originated through a tween twelve and one at noon, into
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

the forest to an ant-hill, on which chilly mornings, lest the Bhut, be-
he will find a bird sitting; to this ing cold, should take the oppor-
he must speak certain words, when tunity to get into a warm place.
it will transform itself into a little Among some of the jungle tribes,
fellow and jump into a bag held they think there is no need to pr0-
ready for the purpose. He can then tect a child against Bhuts or spirits.
carry him home in his bag, where until it is old enough to eat ~
he will perform all the work com- for up to that time it is nothing
mitted to him. The words of the but a spirit itself.
charm, however, are a secret,
known to but a chosen few, and The elves of the Scottish High-
may be revealed especially to those lands are described as having worn
born on Christmas or New Year's silver shoes, long yellow hair hang-
night, or on a Sunday. ing down their backs, a green coat,
and breeches like bloomers.
Among the Eskimos, there are
spirits of the sea, the sky, the The trolls of Scandinavia also
clouds, and everything in nature. made sometimes gifts of magic siI-
There is one spirit more powerful v~r shoes t? mortals, to the posses-
than all the rest, and his name is SIOll of which some particular ben-
Tung-ak. He is no more nor less efit was attached. (The trolls were
than Death, which ever seeks to anciently. a fabled giant race; in
harass the people that their spirits modem times, they are believed to
may go and dwell with him, for be familiar and friendly, though
he is always lonesome and wants often mischievous, dwarfs, similar
more company. A legend related to the German " Heinzelmaenn-
of the Tung-ak is as follows: A chen.")
father had a son and a daughter, The brownies are, similarly to
whom he loved very much. The the German "Heinzelmaennchen,"
children fell ill and at last died, al- homely, good-nattlfed spirits, sup-
though the father did all in his posed to haunt farm houses, and
power to alleviate their sufferings, to do useful work about the house
showing his care and attention to
at night.
the last moment. At their death,
the father became changed into a Sometimes the "brownie" is
vicious spirit, roaming the world to thought to live under the house, in
destroy any person whom he might the form of a lizard, and his pres-
meet, determined that as his dear ence is thought to be an omen of
children died, none else should live. prosperity; great care is therefore
taken to pay him no disrespect.
In India, it is believed that spir- In modem times, it has become
its can enter into the body from a superstitious custom in this COUll-
any of the extremities, especially
the head, and this is the reason try to wear a little "br~e" in
why the head has sutures, which gold or silver, as a watch-chann or
are broken during cremation to al- scarf-pin for luck. It is said to
low the spirit to escape. The bring sure good luck if worn for
mouth, in particular, must be well three successive moons. This su-
guarded, for into it may creep perstition doubtless originates from
Bhuts, if you do not wash it out the great popularitv of Palmer
often and are careful not to yawn. Cox's Brownie books: these charms
The ears, communicating directly representing imitations of his draw-
with the brain, are kept covered on ings.
FOLKLORE; AND THB OCCULT SCIENCBS. 1411

THE FAIRY CHANGELING. is the following: The maidens of


Dermocl O'BJfne of Omah town old gathered the May-dew on the
In his garden strode up and down, grass, which they made use of to
He palled his beard and he beat hi. improve the conlplexion; but they
bRut; left that on the fairy rings un-
ADd this is his trouble aDd woe COD-
fcued: touched, afraid that in revenge the
fairies would destroy their beauty,
-rile good-folk came in the night, aDd and it was not considered safe to
the, put one's foot within the rings, as
Have slolen my bonn, wean awa" that would place one in the fairies'
Have put in his place a changelinL
A weashy, weakly, wizen thingl power. In the "Athenian Oracle"
is found the following: "If a house
From the speckled hen nine eggs I be built on the ground where are
stole, fairy rings, whoever shall inhabit
And lighting a fire of a glowing coal,
I fried the shells, and I split the yolk; therein, shall wonderfully prosper."
Bat never a word the stranger spoke: When Swedish peasants see cir-
A bar of metal I heated red cles marked on the morning grass,
To frighten the fairy from its bed, it is a sign that the fairies have
To put in the place of this fretting wean been there.
111 own bright beautiful boy again.
In the pretty fairy tale of "Ch~ry
Bat my wife had hidden it in her arms, and Fair-star," we read of three
ADd cried 'For shamel' on my fairy wonderful things which the Prin-
charms: cess Fair-star asked her lover
She sobs, with the strange child on her
breut: Chery to obtain for her. One was
'I love the weak, wee babe the bestl'" the " dancing water," which beauti-
fied ladies, made them young
To Dermocl O'Byme's tM tale to hear again, and enriched them. It fell
The neighbours came from far and near; in a cascade in the "burning for-
Out!ide his gate, in the long boreen,
The1 crOll themselyCI, and say between est," and could only be reached by
an underground passage. Chery
Their mattered pra,U1, "He hu DO was aided by a dove to obtain some
lack I of this water. The "singing apple"
Por sure the woman is fairy-struck,
To leave her child a fairy guest, was a ruby apple on a stem of am-
ADd 10ft the weak. wee wean the best I" ber. It had the power of persuad-
Don Sia-ersOD. (From "The Chap ing anyone to anything merely by
Book.") its odor, and enabled the possessor
The so-called fairy rings in old to write verses, make people laugh
pastures, little circles of a brighter or cry, and itself sang so as to rav-
green, within which it was suppos- ish the ear. The apple was in the
ed the fairies danced by night, are Desert of Libya, and was guarded
DOW known to result from the out- by a dragon with three heads and
spreading propagation of a peculiar twelve feet. Prince Chery scared
mushroom, the fairy-ringed fun- him by his armour of glass, which
gus, by which the ground is ma- reflected the dragon a thousand-
Dared for a richer vegetation. An fold, and thus succeeded. The last
immense deal of legendary lore, was the little "green bird," ,,hich
however. has clustered around this could speak, prophesy the future,
curious phenomenon, popular su- and answer any question which the
perstition attributing it to the mer- owner might put to it
ry roundelays of the moonlight In Ireland, witches, warlocks,
fairies. Among these superstitions and fairies are said to hold high
1412 BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

revel on the last day of October. he had a child every year he killed
I Then the terrible "phooka" is a child, and this custom went on
abroad. The phooka is a large until 1815, when the English for-
dusky-looking creature that some- bid it and put an effectual
times takes the form of a horse or stop to it. Few natives even now.
pony, sometimes that of a bull, and dare go up the hill after dark, and
not infrequently of a huge bird like no young girl will venture. But it
the roc, with fire gleaming from its is said that one girl escaped the
eyes and nostrils. On Hallowe'en, hungry god and lived to a good old
it lurks in lonesome places, creeps age; yet the natives think that
noiselessly behind the belated and Bahira is only waiting his time for
unwary traveler, and thrusting its his revenge.
monstrous head between his legs, The Chinese object to develop-
whisks him on to its back and ing their great resources of coa1-
whirls him up to the moon, or because the good luck spirits, com-
plunges with him to the bottom of ing every spring from the south-
a lake, or" flies with him over the would fall into the mines and be
ocean or up to the tops of moun- lost.
tains, or traverses the most remote
realms of space between dusk and The Chinese object to railways,
dawn. because the digging would disturb
the bones of their ancestors. No
In Egypt, evil spirits are called improvement can be suggested that
afrits. They are supposed to as- would not in some way interfere
sume either human or animal form, and make trouble between them
and there is no action of life that is and their ancestors. The spirits of
not fraught with more or less dan- the departed are the most impor-
ger from them, and the chief terror tant population of China.
is of the evil eye. Ruins are sup- In Magyar folklore, the origin
posed to be the favorite haunts of of the fairies is told in the follow-
these afrits, and no Egyptian will ing manner: Christ, when wan-
approach a ruin without a muttered dering along the road, entered the
acknowledgment of their powers, house of a woman under the garb
and he is sure to wear some sort of of a beggar. She knew him, how-
a charm, such as the ninty-nine ever, and she had so many children
titles of the Prophet, or a few that she was ashamed to meet him
words from the Koran written on or have him see them. She there-
paper and enclosed in a metal case, fore hid half of them and crept her-
to ward off the malignant influ- self under the trough, and sent her
ence. Another amulet is a silver little girl to tell him that she was
ring engraved with a few holy away from home. "May she never
words. come home, then I" said he, and de-
The Singhalese have a demon parted. She came out from the
who takes his name from a high trough and frightened her child
hill near the city of Kandy. The to death, for she had been trans-
natives believe that one of their formed into a turtle I She called
kings had no children, and the as- her children, but they had disap-
trologers told him that he would peared and she never saw them
never have heirs until he sacrificed after. Christ had turned them into
yearly a virgin to the god of the fairies, and since then they have
hill. He accordingly, for the sake multiplied into all kinds, as elves,
of getting a life, put out one, and fays, imps, and brownies, acc~
Satan Carr~ling Au'CZy a Lost Soul oJ Berkeley Old Drawing of the Witch Finder Discovering
in 1065. the Imps of Witches Whom He has
Starved Three Days.
FOLKLORE, AND THB OCCULT SCIBNCBS. 14IJ

ing to their natures and disposi- Irish antiquarians, "the Tuatha De


tions. Danan, who, when no longer wor-
The negroes of Congo believe in shipped and fed with offerings,
good and evil spirits. The former dwindled away in the popular im-
send rain, the latter withhold it. agination and are now only a few
To keep the witches away, they spans high." \Vhen the:)" are an-
have a "kissy" or presiding divini- gry, they paralyze men with their
ty. It is the figure of a man, the fiery darts. When they are gay,
body stuck with feathers, rags and they sing. Many a poor girl has
bits of iron, and resembling noth- heard them, and pined away and
ing so much as one of our scare- "died for love of that singing. Plen
crows. If any person attempted ty of the old beautiful tunes of Ire
to shoot one of these kissy, it is land are only their music caught
believed that he would fall dead, up by the eavesdroppers. Do they
and the flint would drop out of his die? Blake saw a fairy's funeral,
musket. The Kollah man carries but in Ireland they say they are
a stick in his hand to show his au- immortal. (W. B. Yeats, Fairy
thority, and to give notice of his Tales and Folk-Lore.)
coming he rings a bell which is fix- The lakes are believed by the
edinside of the kollah or basket. To Basque people to be inhabited by
be without these signs of his office, water-fairies. They have also
,,-ould bring all kinds of evil on "peris," or such spirits as the
him. He teaches that the first "genii" of the Persians. Accord-
parents of the natives committed a ing to popular tradition, it was this
great fault against the "great "hade" who fell in love with a
god:' so He had cursed both them shepherd called Luzaide, and took
and their children. him to the summit of Ahunemendi,
In the Orkney Isles, according where she had her palace made of
to Brand, elves were frequently Clj-stal. Animals, personifications
seen, clad from top to toe in armor; of the vices or virtues, and Satan
the)- carried off 111cn by secret pow- \vith a train of followers, witches
ers, and accidents were attributed riding on dragons and broom-
to them. One Joltn Sinclair, a sticks, and evil creatures of all
clerg)"man, who was extrenlely kinds,enter largely into the Basque
sceptical in his ideas, was one night belief. the supernatural accounting
going honle, when he was seized for the strange open places on the
b)- an elf and borne through the air other,,ise verdurous mountains, or
man)- nliles, "over ethereal fields for the one black, fir-covered peak
and fleec:)" clouds, t, and finally set of Aquelaire, \vhich is utterly dif-
down at his oy;n door; whereupon ferent to all the surrounding
he astonished his congregation by heights. (~Iarianda ~Ionteiro,
a full account of his adventure from Legends of the Basque Ileople.)
the pulpit_ (Ennemoser, History The Erl-king is the name of a
of Alagic.) personified natural po\ver or ele-
\Vho are the fairies of Ireland? nlentary spirit "phich, according to
"Fallen angels who were not good German folklore, prepares nlischief
enough to be saved, nor bad and ruin for men and especially for
enough to be lost," say the peas- children, \\'ith seductive illusions.
antr)-- "The gods of the earth," It is fabled to appear as a goblin.
sa,-s the Book of Arnlagh. uThe haunting the forest of ThurinJ;tia.
gOds of pagan Ireland," say the The existence of such elementary
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

spirits and their connection with spirit is "the lady of the wood."
mankind have in the earliest times She is a wild woman, and appears
occupied the imaginations of the as a beautiful young- lady. She is
most widely different races. The represented as being graceful, slen-
Erl-king was introduced into Ger- der, of an elegant growth, and deli-
man poetry from the Sagas of the cate features. She wins the affec-
North, and has become universally tions immediately, so that no man
known through Goethe's ballad. can resist her, and lures the pass-
ers-by. They disappear or are
Flibbertigibbet is one of the for-
found dead.
ty fiends cast out by the Spanish
Jesuits during the Spanish inva- There is a strange bugbear com-
sion, according to Bishop Harsnet. mon to the Mandingo towns, and
Shakespeare says, in King Lear. much employed by the pagan na-
(IV., 1): tives in keeping their women in
"Five fiends have been in poor subjection, called Mumbo Jumbo.
Tom at once; of lust, as Obidicut; The Kaffirs are not restricted in
Hobbididance, prince of dumb- the number of their wives, every
ness; Mahu, of stealing; Modo, of one marries as many as he can con-
murder; Flibbertigibbet, of mop- veniently maintain, so it frequently
ping and mowing; who since pos- happens that the ladies do not
sesses chambermaids and waiting- agree among themselves, and the
women." interposition of Mumbo Jumbo is
"This is the foul fiend Flibberti- needed to settle their quarrels.
gibbet-he begins at curfew, and This strange minister of justice is
walks till the first cock; he gives a monster dressed in a fantastic
the web and the pin, squints the costume, who comes into the midst
eye, and makes the harelip; mil- of them and whips {hem right and
dews the white wheat, and hurts left with his rod. He is thoroughly
the poor creature of earth." (King believed in by the women as being
Lear, III., 4.) a supernatural being, and yet it is
In Wales, they have an animal suspected that sometimes it is the
spirit called "the dog of darkness." husband in disguise. (Mungo
It is a horrible creature, as large Park.)
"as a nine-year-old horse." An- The incubus is a male demon
other is a "devil's nag," which runs who inhabits the regions of the air,
about in the dark, while the "gro- and was formerly supposed to con-
tesque ghosts" of that land are sort with women in their sleep. He
wonderful to see. They are very is also often spoken of as the per-
much like persons in grotesque sonification of the nightmare. or as
masquerade costumes, and frighten a vampire. In Chaldean demonol-
the farmers and peasantry as if for ogy the incubus, together with his
sport. Some of them are called female consort, the succubus, holds
"whirling ghosts," because they a prominent place. The latter is
whirl on their hands and feet topsy- a female demon of the night, of
turvy and over and over. Some of much the same character as the
the ghosts are gigantic, towering incubus, fabled to associate with
in great columns. The "familiar men in their sleep. Deformed chil-
spirit" is also almost a household dren were usually supposed to be
god in Wales, as it was with some the results of associations of incubi
of the ancients. One dangerous or succubi with human beings.
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES.

Of the "incubus," Chaucer Hrungnir had a head of stone, and


writes: a heart of stone; and a giantess,
"For there to walk as wonlen, was aD mother of Gmir, as many as nine
elf, hundred heads. Another giant
There walketh now but Limitor himself; was Thiassi, who slew Thor and
In every bush and under every tree,
There is nODe other Incubus but be (" cast his eyes up to heaven, where
they shone thereafter as stars. In
E. B. Tylor says, in "Primitive the extreme north dwelt the giant
Culturet': .,A not less distinct prod- Hresvelgr, the motion of whose
uct of the savage animistic theory wings caused the wind and tem-
of dreams as real visits from per- pest, in which respect he resembles
sonal spiritual beings, lasted on the gigantic bird of the Buddhist
without shift or break into the be- play, Nagananda, who raises the
lief of mediaeval Christendom. waves on the sea by the flapping of
This is the doctrine of the incubi his wings. On the extreme south
and succubi, those male and female was Surtr, whose flaming sword
demons that consort with man and guarded the bounds of ~luspelheim.
womao." The dramatist Cowley Besides these, there were the Troll-
alludes to the succubus in the fol- weiher (troll arvis), phantoms from
lowing lines: the land of the dead, who in the
"So men, (the, 1&,) b, Hell's delusions dark nights rode to the earth on a
lcd, ." wolf, bridled with snakes. The
Have ta'en a Succubus to thetr bed.
three Nomen were the Norse fates.
AD the numerous fairies, elves, The Valkyrien were fair maidens
giants, dwarfs, and spirits of the who hovered over the field of bat-
night, which occur in German and tle, woke up the dead heroes with
Northern folklore and superstition, a kiss, and led away their souls to
are remnants of the old Norse and fight and drink ale as of old, in the
German mythology. The elves happy Valhalla.
(allen, elfen) live in Alfheimer (elf-
home); their king is the Erlkoenig. Brewer gives, in his "Dictionary
In the night hours, they come in of Phrase and Fable," the follow-
troops to dance in the grass, leav- ing list of good and evil fairies, the
definition of which, however, dif-
ing, according to popular belief,
fers sometimes from the notions
their traces in the form of fairy-
rings. The dwarfs (zwerge), current in different localities:
,,hose father is named Ivaldr, AFREET or EFREET, one of the
linn tribe, of which there are five.
dwell in the heart of the hills. To APP.~RITION, a ghost.
them belong precious stones and ARIEL, a spirit of the air and guar-
metals, on which they prove their dian of innocence: a sylph: and accord-
skill in workmanship. As guard- ing to Milton one of the Angels cast
out of heawn.
ians of hidden treasures, thev were BANSHEE or BENSHEE, an Irish
propitiated by the seekers "of the fairy attached to a house.
same with a black goat or a black BOGG:\RT. (Scotch) a local hob-
cock. An echo is called by the Ice- goblin or spirit.
landers, dwergmaal-zwergsprache BOGIE or BOGLE, a bugbear
(Scotch form of bug).
-or dwarf-voice. The evil beings BROWXIE, a Scotch domestic fairy;
who stole the light every evening, the ser,ant's fritnd if ~II treated
and the summer every year, were BUG or BUGBEAR, any imaginary
called giants. Such were the thing that frightens a person.
CAULD LAD, the Brownie of Hil-
Reifri~sen (Hrimthursen), \vho ton Hall.
brought the winter. The giant D]INN, ]IN, or GINN (Arabian).
14 16 BNCYCLOPABDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

DUENDE, a Spanish house-spirit. lINN or GINN. These Arabian


DWAR'F, a diminutive being, human spirits were formed of "smokeless fire."
or super-human. (A Dg 1 0 - S a x 0 n, KELPIE. In Scotland, an imaginary
dweorg), Dwerger, Dwergugh, or Duer- spirit of the waters in the form of a
gar, Gotho-German dwarfs, dwelling in horse.
rocks and hills. KOBOLD, a German household
ELF, (plu. Elves) fairies of diminu- goblin, also frequenting mines, (Ger-
tive size, supposed to be fODd of practi- man kobold).
cal jokes. LAMIA, a hag or demon. Keat's
ELLE-MAID or ELLE-WOMAN, Lamia is a serpent which bad assumed . .
Elle-Folk, of ScandiDavia. the form of a beautiful woman, beloved
ESPIRIT FOLLET, the house- by a young man, and gets & soul (Latin
spirit of France. Lamia.)
FAIRY or FAERIE, a supernatural LAMIES, African spectres, having
being, fond of pranks, but generally the head of a woman and tail of a ser-
pleasing. (GermaD and French, fee.) pent.
LAR, Latin household deities.
FAMILIAR, an evil spirit attendant LEPRECHAU'N, a fairy shoemaker.
on witches, etc. MAB, the fairies' midwife. Some-
FATA, an ItaliaD fay, or white lady. times incorrectly called queen of the
FATES, the three spirits (Clotho, fairies.
Lachesis, and Atropos) which preside MANDRAKE. The root of the
over the destiny of every individual. maDdragora, either forming naturally
FAY, same as Fairy. the rude figure of a man or cut to
FEAR, Dearg (The) i. e. Red Man. represent one, possessing many wonder-
A house-spirit of Munster. ful virtues.
GENII (plu.; siDg. Genie and Geni- MERMAID, a sea-spirit, the upper
us). Eastern spirits, whether good part a womaD and the lower half a fish.
or bad, who preside over a man or MERROWS, both male and female.
nation. "He is my evil (or good) are spirits of the sea, o( human shape
genius." (Latin, geDius.) from waist upwards, but from the waist
GHOST, the immaterial body or downwards are like a fish. The females
DoumeDon of a humaD being. Supposed are attractive, but the males have green
to be free to visit the earth at night- teeth, green hair, pig's eyes, and red
time, but obliged to return to its Hades Doses. Fishermen dread to meet them.
at the first dawn. MONACIELLO or LIT T L E
GHOUL, a demon that feeds on the MONN, a house-spirit of Naples.
dead. (Persian.) NAIAD, (plu. Naiades or Naiads),
GNOME, the guardian of miDes, water-nymphs.
quarries, etc., (Greek, a Cabalistic be- NIS or NISSE, a Kobold or
ing). Brownie. A Scandinavian fairy friendly
GOBLIN or HOBGOBLIN', a to farmhouses. (Contraction of Nico-
phantom spirit. (French, gobelin; Ger- laus.)
man, kobold.) NIX (female, Nixie), a water-spirit.
GOOD FOLK, (The), The BrowDies The nix has green tfttb, and wears a ,,-
or house-spirits. green hat: the nixie is very beautiful.
GUARDIAN-ANGEL, an angelic OBERON. king of t~ fairies.
spirit which presides over the destiny OGRE, (pronounce og'r) an inhabi-
of each individual. tant of fairy-land said to feed on infant
HABUNDIA, queen of the White children.
Ladies. OREN.DS, mountain nymphs.
OUPHE, a fairy or goblin.
HAG, a female fury. (Comus 445) PERI. a Persian fairy. Evil peris are
speaks of "blue meagre-hags." called "Deevs." )"
HAMADRYAD, a wood-nymph. PIGWIDGEON, a fairy of very
Each tree has its own wood-nymph, diminutive size.
who dies when the tree dies. PIXY or PIXIE, (also pisgy, pisgie)
HOBGOBLIN. Hob is Robin, as a Devonshire fairy.
Hodge is Roger. POUKE, same as Puck.
HORNS or HORNIE, the Devil. PUCK, a merry little fairy spirit, full
IMP, a puny demon or spirit of mis- of fun and harmless mischief. (Ice-
chief. landic and Swedish, puke.)
]ACK-A-LANTERN, a bog or ROBIN-GOODFELLOW, another
marsh spirit who delights to mislead. name for Puck.
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCBS. IJI7

SALA~IANDER,a spirit which lives Holes are doorways for elves.


in fir.. (Latin and Greek, salamandra.)
SHADES, ghosts. Nama is a beautiful French en-
SPECTER, a ghost. chantress, ,vho can assume the
SPOOK, (in Theosoph)',) an elemen- form of anything that is beautiful.
tal. She was made before the earth, but
SPRITE, a spirit. is as lovel:y as ever.
STRO~IK:\RL, a Norwegian musi-
cal spirit, like Neck. The natives of British Guiana
SYLPII. a spirit of the air; so named believe that raging spirits of bad
by the Rosicl ucians and Cabalists. men are called "rolling calves, tt
(Gr~k. silphe; French, sylphide.)
TRITO~. a sea deity, who dwells and appear in the forn1 of calves,
with Father Septune in a golden palace dragging long chains.
at the bottom of the sea. The chief There is a French fairy named
employment of tritons is to blow a
conch to smooth the sea when it is 'iolenta, who lives in a mountain
:affted. nlade of a flower, and its doors are
TROLL, a hill-spirit.. Hence Trolls the petals.
arc called Hill-people or Hill-folk sup-
postd tq be immensely rich, and espe- There is a sort of fairy in human
cially dil1ike noise. fornl called a "Drac," whose abode
L! X D I X E, a water-nymph. (Latin, is the cavern of rivers. Sometimes
anda) these dracs will float like golden
{jRCHIN, properly means a hedge cups along a stream to entice bath-
hog, and is applied to mischie\'ous
children and small folk generally. ers, but when the bather attempts
VA~IPIRE, the spirit of a dead man to catch them, the drac draws
that haunts a house and sucks the blood him under water. (Mytholog)' of
of the living. A Hungarian supcrsti- Southern France.)
tiOD.
\\'ERE-\VOLF, (Anglo-Saxon, wer- Fairyland is at the roots oi oak
wulf. man-woli), a human being, some- trees.
times in one form and sonlctimes in
another. The djinns, fantastic beings of
\\'HITE LAD I E S 0 F r\ 0 R- the East, have such a terror of iron
)1/\SO\'o A !'pecies of fce, lurking in that the name alone is a charm
nviMs, iords, bridRcs and narrow pas- against them.
u.s" "'aylayinR' tra\elcrs.
\\'IIITE LADY (The), of the royal The people of Demerara believe
family of Prussia. A "Spirit" said to in "warning spirits," who come to
appear before the death of one of the their friends and tell them how to
famil,.. avoid impending danger.
\\IIITE L ..\ O\ OF AVENEL, a
tutelary spirit. (.J\ creation of Sir \\~hen a native of Natal narrowlv
\\'aJtrr Scott.) escapes some great danger, the
WHITE L."DY OF IREI.__"ND person ,,-ill say that a ,ery small
(The)_ the banshee or domestic spirit
of a family. spirit of his or her familv must
\\-IIITE ~IERLE (The), of the old have interfered, that it cann"'ot ha\'e
Basquts.. A "'hite fairy bird, which. by been a very powerful spirit.
ill sinKinK. ~stored sight to the blind.
hThen into the night he Jooked forth,
\\-IGHT, an) human cr~ture. as a And red and white the streamers bright
.eHi.bland wiRht:' Dwarfs and all \\-err dancing in th~ glo"oing north.
other fairy crral ur~o lie knrw by the strcanlrrs that shot so
\\'ILLO.TIIE-\rISP, a spirit of bright
the bog!', whose delight is to mislead That spirits ,,"rre riding the northern
belated travelrrl. light."
\\'RAITli (Scotch), the ghost of a (Scott's Lay of the Last ~liDstrel.)
perrlon shortly about to di~ or just dead.
which appe:lr~ to lurvh'ors, sometimes ~Iilton speak~ of fail1- ladi('-. ytho
at a Brat diltance off. dance on the hearth at the tinle of
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

a birth, and who bring good luck or put up in front of their doors
to the mother and babe. images of their house-god, for the
The Saxons made drinks for same purpose.
"fiend-sick" men, to be drunk out It is an Irish belief that it is de-
of church-bells, and used also holy mons, and not ghosts, that trans-
water and oil, to expel demons. form themselves into dogs and
Phooka is an old Irish spirit of cats. The people who see these
most malignant disposition, who demons are poor simple minded
hurries people to their destruction. fishing people, who have for these
He sometimes comes in the form things the fascination of fear.
of an eagle, and sometimes in that An object of much dread among
of a horse. the Mayas of Yucatan, is the "black
I asked Paddy Flynn if he was tail" This is an imaginary serpent
not annoyed by seeing so many with a broad, black, forked tail It
fairies, and had he ever seen the glides into houses at night when
"banshee?" "I have seen it," said the nursing mother is asleep, and
he, "down there by the water, bat- covering her nostrils with its tail,
ting the river with its hands I" Per- sucks her breasts.
haps the Gaelic people shall, by his
like, bring back again the ancient An Odjibbeway legend: Wampee,
simplicity and amplitude of imag- a great hunter, once came to a
ination they once had. (Yeats, strange prairie, where he heard
"The Celtic Twiligi.t.") faint sounds of music, and looking
up saw a speck in the sky, which
The natives of Natal believe in proved itself to be a basket con-
benevolent and evil spirits produc- taining twelve most beautiful maid-
ing prosperity and adversity, health ens, who, on reaching the earth,
and sickness; and witchcraft was forthwith set themselves to dance.
recognized as one of the evil arts, He tried to catch the youngest, but
practiced with the view of causing in vain; ultimately he succeeded by
death or injury to property. assuming the disguise of a mouse.
When the A.ntama's cry is heard He was very attentive to his new
in Madagascar, it is a sign of death. wife, who was really a daughter of
The Antama is the Madagascian one of the stars, but she wished to
counterpart of the Irish "banshee." return home, so she made a wicker
In Bohemia, wood-nymphs and basket secretly, and, by help of a
banshees are supposed to be most charm she remembered, ascended
dangerous at the hour between to her father. (Ignatius Donnelly.
eleven and twelve, midday, and Atlantis.)
people avoid going into the woods The Russians also believe in a
at that time if they can. To meet house-spirit, called a hobgoblin.
one, brings on bewilderment and J-Ie is a spirit without wings, body,
even madness. or horns. He lives in every honest
The Japanese use as a charm family. The difference between
against evil spirits, a small \vooden him and the devil is that he never
box called "ofaray," which has does anything bad, but only 'makes
been consecrated and given by a olischief, or even does favors for
priest; it is usually fastened on the the master or the mistress of the
street-door. They also use fre- house. It he likes the househol~
quently the liverwort, which they he is very quiet; but if not, he
believe to have magic properties, breaks things, makes noises, and
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIBNCES.

lets the people know that some- therein; all the houses are blessed
thing has displeased him. \vhere they visit, for they fly vice.
In Russia, when a family moves A person would be thought itnpu-
and has been happy and the fam- dently profane who should suffer
il,s cattle have not died or run his family to go to bed without
aQY, they believe that they have a having first set a tub, or pail full
good house-demon, and will invite of clean water, for these guests to
hinl to remove to the other house bathe themselves in, which the na"
"9ith them; but if they have had a tives aver they constantly do, as
great deal of trouble, they give no soon as ever the eyes of the family
invitation, but let the house-demon are closed, wherever they vouch-
stay and trouble someone else. safe to come. If anything happens
to be mislaid, and found again, in
Korea, "the land of the chosen," some place where it was not ex-
"the land of the morning calm," as pected, they presently tell you a
it is called, is full of strange super- fairy took it and returned it; if you
stitions, which have peopled the chance to get a fall and hurt your-
realm of fancy with numerous good self, a fairy laid something in your
and evil spirits, such as spirits of way to throw you down, as a pun-
the harvest, the spirit of the morn- ishment for some sin you have
ing star, the celestials, etc. Of par- committed.
ticular significance is the worship
of the tiger, long believed to be a The Mayas of Yucatan have
di';ine beast, and often represented many tales of a phantom bird. The
on the national flag as having hunter unexpectedly sees a hand-
wings like a dragon. some bird on the tree before him.
He fires but misses. He fires
The Karens of Burma make sac- again, but in vain. Finally the bird
rifices to the earth and build a falls of its own accord, and proves
small house, two or three feet high; to be nothing but a colored feather.
some fowls are sacrificed by cut- Then he knows that he bas been
ting off their heads, and the feath- fooled by the "Zobol chich."
ers are daubed on the posts of the
house, to keep off the evil spirits. In a house where order and
prosperity prevails, it is believed to
In Somerset, England. the be- be done bv the influence of the
lief in pixies, brownies. "little fairies or tonlts. {Sweden.)
folk,' and "good people," is still
,eer)- prevalent. TIle "blast" is a If the corn-crib is empty, it is a
large round tunlor, thought to rise sign the fairies have deserted the
premises. {Sweden.)
suddenly on the part affected by
the baneful breath cast on it by one \\ork on iron on "tOOlt night,'
of these "good people," at a time and )"OU \.,"ill be unlucky. {S,,cden.)
of their \indictivc malice. \\hen one has but little to eat in
The ~fanx people assert that the the house it is considered unlucky.
llr~t inhabitants of their island \\"ere as the fairies will desert the hous~"
fairies; so do they nlaintain that (S\\"cden.)
these little people have still their I:ronl the "Xational Legends of
residence among thenl" "nley call Roulnania," \\e gain the follo\\ing:
thern the good people. and say they "fhe ,,"ord balaur in \\:'allach signi-
live in wilds and forests, anti on fies a being \\ith the body of a ser-
mountains. and shun great cities pent and the voice of a Inan. in
because of the \\'ickcdness acted \\'hich they heartH)" believe. lie is
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPBRSTITIONS.

a phantom who fights against the kept in an immovable posture aU


braves. They are guardians of hid- the time it lasted; which, he said,
den treasure and the daughters of could not be less than three-quar-
kings. \Vallach peasants have a ters of an hour, according to the
tradition that precious stones are most exact calculation he could
formed by the froth of the balaur's make when he arrived at the end
mouth. of his journey and found how long
The "skeleton in the closet" is he had been coming. He, who
called Alaster, a house-demon, before laughed at all the stories
which haunts and torments a fam- told of fairies, now became a c0n-
ily. Cicero said that he meditated vert, and believed as much as ever a
killing himself that he might be- Manxman of them all. (Waldron,
come the Alastor of Augustus, "Description of the Isle of Man.")
whom he hated. (Plutarch.) "God The Dooiney-Oie, or "night-
Almighty mustered up an army of man," of the Manx peasantry, is
mice against the Archbishop Hat- reverenced as the tutelar demon
to, and sent them to persecute him of certain families, as he appeared
as furious Alastors." (Coryat. Cru- only to give monitions of future
dities, 571.) (Shelley has a poem events to certain persons. His
on Alastors.) voice was very dismal when heard
Goblin-foxes are peculiarly fear- on the mountains at night, some-
ed in Izumo Qapan), because they thing like H-ow-I-a-al When his
take diabolical possession of peo- lamentation is heard in winter on
ple, tormenting them into madness. the coast, you may be sure it is a
It is a sign that a man has a goblin- prediction of a coming tempest. It
fox, when he will not go near wa- was so awful that even the brute
ter, for it is believed that the man- creation trembled at the sound.
fox cannot be seen, but if he goes (Moore, "Folk-Lore of the Isle of
close to still water, his shadow can Man.")
be seen in the water, and he can
thus be detected. (Lafcadio Hearn, When Socrates stood before his
"Glimpses of Unfamiliar Japan.~') judges and made his last speech in
the acceptance and expectation of
"Such a soft floating witchery of sound, death, he told them that his famil-
As twilight elfins mak~ when they at
eve iar spirit or demon (the ancients
Voyage on gentle gales from fairyland." called them "holy"), did not sta}"
(Coleridge.) him that morning, nor warn him
An English gentleman, the par- of danger, neither when he started
ticular friend of our author, to from home nor when he made the
whom he told the story, was about fatal speech, although he had often
passing over Douglas Bridge be- been stopped in the midst of a
fore it was broken down, but the speech by the warning voic.e. He
tide being high, he was obliged to therefore judged that death was
take the river, having an excellent best for him. "That which has be-
horse under him and one accus- fallen me is not the effect of
tomed to swim. As he was in the change I" he exclaimed. "This is
middle of it he heard, or imagined clear to me, that now to die and
he heard, the finest symphony, he be freed from my cares is better for
\vould not say in the world, for tue. On this account, the warn-
nothing human ever came up to it. ing in no way turned me aside."
The horse was no less sensible of It can hardly be supposed that
the harmony than himself, and such a man, under such circum-
POLKLORE, ~ND THB OCCULT SCIBNCES.

stances, could possibly lie, and he married Raymond, Count of Poi-


declared that this guardian and tiers, and having been seen by him
warning angel had accompanied during her loathsome transforma-
him fronl his childhood. (Rob- tion, \vas immured in a subterra-
ert Dale Owen's The Debatable nean dungeon of the castle of Lu-
Land.) signan. The traditions concerning
"Xot only do we find the same ~Ielusina \vere collected by Jean
D'Arras in the fourteenth century.
"9ords and the same terminations
in Sanscrit and Gothic; not only The tradition and belief still lin-
do \\e find the same name for Zeus gers around the castle to this day,
in Sanscrit, Latin, and German; and at the fairs of the city, cakes
not only is the abstract nanle for are sold with human heads and the
God the same in India, Greece, and tail of a serpent, and called l\lelu-
Italy; but these very stories, these sines.
'~liihrchen' \vhich nurses still tell, There was a cave in the region
,,ith almost the same \vords, in the adjoining Babylon called Dom-
Thuringian forest and in the ~or daniel, the abode of evil spirits, by
,,egian villages, and to which some traditions said to have been
crowds of children listen under the originally the spot where the
Pippal trees of India-these stories, prophet Daniel imparted instruc-
too, belonged to the common tions to his disciples. I t was a
heirloom of the Indo-European purely imaginary region, subter-
race, and their origin carries us ranean or submarine, the dwelling
back to the same distant past, when of enchanters.
no Greek had set foot in Europe, "In the Domdaniel caverns,
no Ilindoo had bathed in the sa- Under the rocks of the ocean,
cred \\~ters of the Ganges." (Max Met the masters oi the spell."
~Iiiller.) (Southey.)
There is a frightful goblin, nam- In the ~Iiddle Ages, people be-
ed Barguest, in the north of Eng- lieved strongly in demons and
land. which is an object of terror. spirits. and thought that hell had
According to Ritson (Fairy Tales), four kings \\pho governed the four
besides its many other pranks, it portions, East, \\test, ~orth and
will sometimes in the dead of night, South. Amoymon governed the
in passing through the different East, and Asmodeus was his lieu-
streets, set up the most horrid and tenant and the first prince of the
continuous shrieks, in order to realm. He sonletimes came to
scare the poor girls who might earth, and taking favored ones with
happen to be out of bed. The fac- him, went into all sorts of houses
ulty of seeing this goblin is pecu- at night and all places of the world,
liar to certain people, but may be and sho\\'ed them what \\9as hap-
imparted by simply touching an- pening among their fellow-men.
other. There is an old legend of a fairy
~Ielusina \,as the daughter of who was the verv essence of las-
the fair\P Pressina. She was con- civiollsness, but who attracted many
demned" to become every Saturday lovers \\"hom, \\phcn she was tired
a ~~rpcnt from the waist do\\n, as of, she turned into trees, beasts,
a punishment for having by nleans and birds. However, this did not
of a charm inclosed her father in a last forever, for by a magic ring,
high mountain. in order to avenge she \\~S suddenly sho,,n in her
an injur) done to her mother. She hideousness, not a beautiful and
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

young creature, but an old hag, Shoshone Indians believe in little


horrible to look upon. imps that people the mountains of
The Abyssinians believe that Montana, called Nirumbees, two
certain diseases are caused by de- feet long, naked, and with a tail.
mons or by a "booda," who has The Gtoes located these little pe0-
taken possession of the patienL ple in a mound at the mouth of the
The Falashas of Semen and the Whitestone river, and say they are
neighborhood of Gondar, skillful eighteen inches high, with very
artisans in general, and a number large head. The Dakotas firmly
of other people possessed of more believe in fairies, and the Ojibbe-
than common intelligence or gen- ways know of elves that always dis-
ius, are looked upon as boodas. appear into the ground when dis-
The hyena is generally believed to turbed, but who can be seen danc-
be a transformation of booda. ing on the flowers after a shower.
(Dorman's "Origin of Primitive
The Manx people believe in an Superstitions.")
animal they call the "water-horse,"
which can live in fresh or salt wa- In Ireland, we hear but little of
ter, or on land. A certain glen, the darker powers, and yet the wise
haunted by the spirit of a man, is are of the opinion that wherever
his resort, and this spirit once man is, the dark powers who feed
thinking him an ordinary horse, his rapacities, no less than the
mounted him, and was carried as bright beings who store their
swift as the wind into the sea and honey in the cells of his heart, and
drowned. the twilight beings who flit hither
The description given by hun- and thither, encompass him with
dreds of Manx people of their won- their passionate and melanchol}
derful fairy water-horse is about as multitude. They hold, too, that he
follows: The bay or gray horse who by long desire possesses the
grazes at the lakeside, and when power, or he who through accident
he is mounted, rushes into the loch of birth can pierce into their bid-
and devours his rider. His back den abodes, can see them there,
lengthens to suit any number; those who were once women and
men's hands stick to his skin; he is men, full of a terrible vehemence,
killed, and nothing remains but a and those who have never lived
pool of water. He falls in love upon the earth, moving slowly and
with a lady, and when he appears with a subtler malice.
as a man and lays his head on her The dark powers cling about us,
knee for his hair to be dressed, she it is said, like bats upon an old
finds him out by the sand in his tree, and that we do not hear more
hair. He appears as an old wom- of them is merely because the
an, and is put to bed with a bevy darker kinds of magic are Dot suf-
of damsels, and he sucks the blood ficiently known. A clerk in a flour-
of all save one, who escapes across mill told me there were ghosts in
the stream, over which he dares the mill "who will talk to you face
not go, although he is a water- to face, and in shapes as solid and
horse. (Moore, "Folk-Lore of the heavy as your own." I went, and
Isle of Man.") after some sorcery, I felt clouds
TIle belief in satyrs and other and darkness closing over me, and
creatures, half man and half ani- the clerk cried out from his trance,
mal, exists to this day among the "Oh, Godl" He saw a huge ser-
~orth American Indians. The pent coiling about the room. I felt
FOLKLORE, ~D THE. OCCULT SCIBNCES. 1423

I too must fall into a trance if I did ing his banishment from his native
not struggle against it, so by my home. However, at last he must
will I got rid of the clouds and have been pardoned, for he disap-
blackness. But the two sorcerers peared; and the old folk say, "there
saw a monk and other things--too has not been a merry world since
dreadful. When they came to, I he lost his ground."
asked: "What would happen if The Eskimos believe in fairies
one of your spirits had overpow- as much as other people, and the
ered me?" "You would go out of following information has been ob-
this room with his character added tained at Grosswater Bay: Fairies
to your own." were originally the offspring of a
James Dawson says, in his "Aus- flying squirrel and a spider. The
tralian Aborigines" : They are king of the fairies is a very big man
not much afraid of the bad spirit possessed of three heads, one on
Muwurup in the daytime, but each shoulder and one on his neck.
dreadfully afraid at night. They His wife unscrews his heads before
think that he employs the owls to he goes to bed, else he would
watch and give him notice when he snore too much to sleep. He is
may pounce upon any unfortunate only afraid of fire.
straggler from the camps; hence The queen is about the size of a
their hatred of owls, which are re- two-year-old child. Her breasts
garded as birds of evil omen. are so long that they reach the
When the owl is heard screech- ground. If any wild beast attacks
ing or hooting, the children imme- her, she places one of her feet on
diately crawl under their grass each of her breasts, and it is power- .
mats and stay until he flies off. else less to hurt her.
the evil one would catch them. The fairies are so swift that they
Some blacks think that the evil can catch any wild beast. They are
spirit of the owl lives in the moon. so small that they can go in your
If a black thinks he sees his own cap or pocket. These, or whatever
likeness or that of a bad spirit. it they go into, must be turned inside
causes him to pine away and die. out, or they will lead you astray.
The Manx people have a "Wom- If they go into a house, a boot
an of the Sean and a "Man of the
must be put on a stick and they
Sea,' both of the mermaid order, must be chased with it; or shot
and spirits, fiends. and other invis-
must be put on a shovel and rattled
ible creatures galore. The phyn- over the fire till they leave.
nodd~r~ or "satyr," is, however, re- The Russians believe that evil
markable for his strength and his spirits originated in the following
hairy limbs, half man, hall beast, nlanner, and tell this story to their
having fiery eyes. He once work- little ones: King Solomon, his
ed all night for a gentleman who wife, and an attendant, were going
was building a residence on a hill on a journey. At night, they stop-
and carried a whole quarry of rock, ped by the side of a river to take
including a pure white block of im- food and rest. They caught three
mense weight, to the building spot fish fronl the river, made a fire and
(the stone can be seen in evidence). put the fish in a pot o\er the fire
He borrowed a sickle and Cllt to boil. King Solomon went to
down two fields of com in the par- sleep, and \vhen he awoke he said
ish of Bride in a sin~le night. He he had had a dream, and if the
is a fallen fair), and always lament- dream should conle to pass, one of
1424 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

the fish would leap alive out of the unseen influence. He makes a sac-
pot. Immediately he had said these rifice to appease these imaginary
words, one of the fish came to life spirits. The meat is sacrificed, for
and went into the river. The at- the spirit's hunger is satisfied with
tendant said to the king: "I have the smoke. From time to time.
a presentiment that some one \vill persons claim to have received rev-
kill you." When King Solomon's elations from the spiritual world;
wife heard these words she was these are implicitly believed, and
afraid, and confessed to her hus- obtain often a greater power and
band that she had a lover who in- influence than any priest.
tended to kill him. At this, the If you meet with a "duppie" and
king ordered this lover to be
brought, and said to him: "I have you wish to know whether it is a
a very large pitcher, and I wish goOO or bad one, say: "Jesus the
you to fill it with evil persons like name high over all I" If it is a good
one, it will help you to sing it; but
yourself, and if you fill it to the top,
then you shall have my queen." if it is a bad one, it will run awa).
The lover brought all the wicked Uamaica.)
people he knew and put them into People of the lower classes in
the pitcher, but he could not fill it. Russia, believe firmly in the evil
The king then said: "Get in your- spirits of Solomon, and think that
self and take the queen, and per- if they hear their names called and
haps it will then be full." The lov- they inadvertently answer, they
er immediately got in with the will fall into the power of these in-
queen, and at once King Solomon visible spirits, who can harm them
shut up the pitcher, so that all in many ways. If, on the contrar),
. these evil spirits were shut in to- the man does not answer when
o '. i gether. The king then had them called, the evil spirit is baftled, and
0

0 thrown into the sea, and for many has no power. The following story
years there were no persons with was told a correspondent by the old
evil spirits. But one day a fisher- man who experienced it: He was
man found it, opened it, and let all riding one night to the pond to
the evil spirits out again, who scat- give his horse a drink of water. On
tered themselves over the broad the road back, someone jumped
earth, some in one place and some up behind him on the saddle, and
in another. From these evil spirits held him with a tight grasp. The
came witches, wizards, sorcerers, man was frightened, and under-
all those who have an evil eve, and stood at once that it was an evil
the rest of the wicked crew of to- spirit; he crossed himself three
day. times and asked God to protect
The unseen world is constantly him. \Vhen they got to the stable.
filling the mind and influencing the the spirit loosed his grasp and said
action of a Kaffir. He believes in a to the man: "\Vho are you? Are
you a jackal ?" But the old man
host of water-spirits, hobgoblins, was too wise to answer a word, and
and the like, all malevolent, and so the spirit left him. He said this
ready to play pranks upon him and spirit was nothing but a skeleton
harm him. To protect himself, he with very long hair, and had he an-
\vears amulets and charms on his swered him, he would have gotten
person, and the superstition gives into his power and gone mad; but
a tone of seriousness to his charac- by not answering him he was kept
ter. He is alwa}ps afraid of some safe.
FOLKLORB~ 4'fND THE OCCULT SCIENCES.

Another similar story was told wonders and miracles. In his


bv another Russian peasant of the mytholog). he has a curious collec-
neighborhood of Negoite: One tion of spirits as ever had the an-
night a man, his wife, and boy were cient English, Irish, or Scotch.
sitting at supper. Suddenly the The "hairless one,. is one of these,
bov \,as taken very ill. From the and endless mischief and terror are
outside, someone called the name caused by his instrumentality.
of the boy three times. The boy The ancient rvlaltese thought and
tried to get up and go to answer insisted on others believing that
him, but he found he could not the bogy-man wanders about the
move. The mother opened the streets during the winter nights.
door and called out: "Who are The bogy-man is described as a
,ou? \Vho is calling my boy?" hideous animal. partaking of the
hut nobody answered. She then nature of an ox, a ram, and a don-
turned back to the boy and said: key, going about until it comes to
U It is an evil spirit; make the sign the first house which has been un-
of the cross, and ask God to protect fairly possessed, in order that with
you 1" The boy, however, s~t per- its hideous cries it might frighten
fectly motionless for a fe\v mInutes, the inmates. Parents and nurses
and then jumped up and knocked are still in the habit of frightening
hinlself, and everything else about the little ones with the bogy-man,
the room, and went mad. He was in order to induce them to "be
not in his right senses for five good."
,ears afterwards, and everyone
verily believed that he was under It is equally difficult to trace the
the curse of an evil spirit. origin of the various supernatural
beings with which ignorant and
Though Natal has now been for credulous mankind has peopled an
more than half a century a British unseen world, as to describe the
colonv, its first constitution. dating various kinds of spirits and fairies,
from -1843, neither Christianity nor and define their characters with
civilization has as yet taken hold definite correctness. In English
entirely of the inhabitants, and the folklore, most spirits were believed
large majority of the native popu- to have the power to contract or
lation has no religion whatever and enlarge their bulk at will, while ~he
is still wedded to the barbaric cus- fairies seem to have been essential-
toms and superstitions of their ly small in size. The latter are also
forefathers. Yet much has been usually described as beautiful min-
done by the missionary agencies iatures of the hunlan being, perfect
and judiciary government to weak- in face and fornl, while most of the
en their belief in witchcraft, proph- other spirits, such as d\,'arfs.
ecy. love philters, signs, on~e.ns, hro\\nies, and the like. are general-
and rnvths. Fornlerl,. superstitIon Iv presented as more or less de-
ttntered into all the affairs of their formed creatures. The fairies are
Ii,es, and formed part of their laws usuallv beings of a benevolent
and customs. character, and often called "good
The native in his heathen state neighbors" or "nlen of peace."
is firmly con,inced that the witch- !\evertheless thev have. in the be-
doctor and female diviners have liefs of various I;arts of the coun-
power to bring rain, to trace spells try, more or less an adruixture of
of ",.itchcraft, to heal by incanta- l'lfin nlalig"nancy. This evil part of
tion, and to perform sundry other the fairy's nature is fre<luently
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

demonstrated by kidnapping of exceedingly dry weather, the local


unchristened infants, or even some- gossip, being exhausted, I endeav-
times adult men and women. This ored, as is my custom, to find out
kidnapping is explained by the cir- something more of the folklore of
cumstance that the fairies were be- the people. To get them to make
lieved to be under obligations to a start, I began to talk about
deliver up to the master-fiend ghosts and spirits, and then de-
every seven years, one of their manded of the audience as to
number as a tribute, and instead of whether any of them had ever seen
paying "kane," as it was called, by a ghost, in Fijian parlance, "tevo-
sacrificing one of themselves, they ro." They shook their heads du-
preferred to substitute some hu- biously; all had heard of them, but
man being. Young married wom- on the whole inclined to think that
en were supposed to be carried off they had no actual personal experi-
sometimes for the purpose of be- ence, although the J.lataninivanua
coming nurses to their own infants, of the place (officials synonymous
and in Ireland the belief is found to with our heralds, who conduct all
this day that when a young woman matters of ceremonial importance)
falls victim to puerperal diseases, said that not long ago, upon the
she has been removed by the fairies death of the chief of his district, he
for this purpose. The land of fair- had for four long nights sat out
ies, where they lived like mankind and kept vigil upon the grave of his
in large societies and ruled by a departed master, as a mark of love
king or queen, is usually described and attachmenL Although all
as one of beauty and splendor. The alone, he had not seen anything;
fairy palaces, mostly underground, but he was inclined to think that
. were believed to be filled with there had been a supernatural
...,treasures of gold, silver, and pre- manifestation. On each night, just
cious stones. Their feasts and before the dawn, he had become
pageants were marked for magnifi- heavy with sleep, and then the
cence, greater than anything im- grave beneath him had quaked.
aginable. They were dressed in and starting up suddenly, he had
brilliant green, studded with inval- fully expected to see a spirit J but
uable gems, and rode milk-white nothing appeared. To one accus-
steeds. All these superstitions, tomed to keep watch, and to take
however, as well as the fairy people one's tum at the helm, to which the
themselves, were believed shad- most of us in the islands are used,
owy and insubstantial. through the frequency of boat trav-
el, the sudden feeling of falling as
Mr. Adolph Brewster Joske, of one wakes from an unintentional
Colo, Fiji Islands, contributes the nap, the phenomenon of the quak-
following, illustrating Fijian belief ing of the grave is without mys-
in ghosts, supernatural powers and tery, but not so to the simple 1\la-
spirits : "We were traveling through taninivanua. To him, it was a mat-
the interior of \liti Levu, and had ter of the deepest import, to
halted for the night at an up-coun- be carefully pondered upon and
try village. After dinner in the big thought out, and apparently to this
house of the place, the people canle day he has not arrived at the solu-
in to pass the evening away with tion. Nor did I venture to offer
yangona (kava) tobacco and con- him my idea of the cause. I pre-
versation, as is usual. Before long, ferred not to throw the light of
the stock topics of the crops, the common sense upon it, \vishing to
FOLKLORE, ~ND THB OCCULT SCIENCES. 1427

hear what the others thought about pear into the big bure at Taulevu.
it." I staggered along to th~ next vil-
Then from the listening assem- lage at ~airukuruku and managed
bly a young man nan1ed Timothi to fling n1)"self, speechless, into the
modestly observed: "I, sir, have house of Manasa, \vhere I retnain-
seen tevoro. At one time, I was ed for son1e tillle in a dead faint.
employed as a mail carrier on The people of the house clustered
the overland route, \vhich passes round nle and asked many ques-
through the \\pildest parts of the tions, but I was unable to re-
mountains of \liti Levu, and had ply to them. So old Manasa said:
to carry the letters during the night 'The bov must have encountered
between \'unidawa and Nambila. a tevoro i I know the medicine for
The mail had arrived as usual from that. Get lemon leaves quickly.'
Suva about seven o'clock one even- So some were brought, and he
ing, and I left Vunidawa with it. nlade an infusion of them with hot
The native magistrate in charge of \vater, and bathed my head and
the station, who handed me the chest, and after a while I recovered
bag, said I must not light my torch and told the people what I had
till 1 got clear of the place, as nak- seen. They said: 'Oh, yes! you
ed lights \..ere forbidden on the have seen the "Alewa Kalou"
station for fear of fire. So I trudg- (goddesses): they are the enchant-
ed along in the dark till I got to resses of our tribe, and haunt the
the next village at Deleitonga, and big dakua tree. As soon as I got
then I lighted my bamboo and a bit better I went on with the mail
"oent on my way. \\Then I got to all through the night till I got to
the part of the road \vhere it passes my destination at Nambila, sixteen
along the face of the precipice ov- nliles further on, and although the
erhanging the river, I felt my body path was solitary through \veird
begin to bum all over, and when I groves of trees and dense growths
turned the bend b) the big dakua of bamboos and reeds, I saw no
tree (a species of pine), I saw two nlore spirits. That was four years
gigantic goddesses coming along ago, and to this day I have met
in single file. They were the n10st \\itl1 none other."
beautiful women 1 have ever seen, "Ah!" said the Mataninivanua,
and their 'tombes' (lovelocks) thoughtfully, "though I have never
reached do\\n to their knees, and seen a tevoro, I have heard them
the)" had gigantic bosoms, which called, and a conversation carried
flapped against their breasts as on with them. It is done bv a
the) walked along. They were practice called in these parts "the
laughing and chatting together, Loiloi. \Vhen \\e find a man dead
but what thev said I could not un- in the bush, with blood coming out
derstand. The)" took not the slight- of his eves, ears, and nose, and '"lot
(tst notice of me, and I was in the with no signs of violence ahout.
most mortal terror. Down fell mv then we kno\\ he has been killed
torch and the mail bag, and I tried bv a 'tevoro: and we do the 'loiloi'
to ,ell. but could not. ~l \" voice t(~ find out the spirit that has d,)fle
ref~sed to come. Then I dropped it. It is perforn1ed in this luanncr:
on m, knees and endeavored to sa, The body is brought back to the
m)O pra)-crs. but not a word \\oul;1 house in the village which forn1erl}"
come. Then I pra}ed inwardly belonged to it, and the friends and
three times and then the ~oddesses relatives all collect thllorcin on the
fled. and I saw them go and disap" succeedin~ niJ{ht. Proclamation is
1428 BNCYCLOP~EDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

made to the rest of the villagers to tracks in the olden times were very
remain in their houses with closely narrow, with dense thickets on
shut doors. In the middle of the each side. Of course, the tevoro
night, the dead man's nearest could not avoid under such circum-
friend climbs on to the ridge pole stances treading in the bowls of
of the house where the dead body water spread in the way, and
is, and sits astride, facing one of thus by the splashing, showing
the gable-ends, and shouts: 'A loi, his whereabouts. The champion
loi, loi. A loi, loi, loi' (whence the stands at the end of the lane yell-
custom derives its name); 'ho I you ing defiance, whilst the warriors
tevoro over in that direction I' The are in ambush on either side.
spirits hailed reply: 'What do you When the splashing shows the
want?' The challenger says: 'Did presence of the spirit, his path is
you kill my dear friend ?' We will enfiladed by heavy volleys from
presume that in the first in- those concealed on either side, and
stance the inquiry has been made by this simple method the too con-
in the wrong direction, and fiding 'tevoro' meets his death, or
the answer is in the negative. is supposed to. But it was always
Then the challenger interrogates uncertain as to whether it was effi-
the spirits in the four corners un- cacious, through the invisibility of
der heaven, till he gets a reply in the spirit, and there were general-
the affirmative. The spirit who has ly great arguments as to what
done it always owns up, and says really had been effected, and the
defiantly : 'Yes I I killed your only real test was whether he ceas-
friend I' Then the man on the roof ed or not his malicious pranks."
defies the evil spirit, and chal- Considering that most of the te-
lenges it to mortal combat on the voro are the disembodied spirits of
morrow at a given spot. Of course, ancestors, they ought not, from
the tevoro accepts the wager of their acquaintance with Fijian
battle, and promises the dead treachery, to fall into the simple
man's champion the fate of his wile of their degenerate descend-
friend. The conversation has been ants. Yet it seems to be a rule
anxiously listened to by all the that, though spirits may be malig-
braves in the place, and they at nant, they are easily cheated. In
once proceed to take steps to 'lay witness of this, not very far from
the devil.' They arm themselv'es the place where this was recounted,
with every description of weapon, when a man died and was carried
more especially with missiles which to his last home, he was taken bv
can be discharged from a distance, devious tracks with many twists
and are therefore more to be rec- and turnings, so that he could not
oOlmended in an encounter with a find his way back to his old village.
spirit than the ordinary hand to and so cause trouble to the sur-
hand arms of warfare, such as vivors by his wandering appari-
clubs, which might necessitate too tion.
close a proximity to 'my lord the An old graybeard from a village
tevoro.' All the bowls and troughs away up in the dividing range, who
in the place are taken out and had been listening intently, inti-
placed along the path by which he mated that they managed things
nlust approach the place of combat, better from where he came. He
and filled with water. This is done said: "I'm an old man; I've never
to show his approach, as being a seen the 'loiloi,' but I've heard the
spirit, he is invisibJe. All the old men say how they did it. When
FOLKLORE, ,AND THE OCCULT SCIEN~]f,~".

a man got killed by a tevoro, he 70th psalm, is worn suspended


was taken to his house, and a num- from the neck.
ber of his friends collected there
with drums and conch shells, whilst SUCCES5-A lion's tooth car-
the remainder of the villagers post- ried in the pocket, will enable the
ed themselves about close to the owner to do whatever he under-
house, but in concealment. Then takes.
one of the friends climbed on to the TEETH OF ANI1YIAL5-If by
ridgepole and called to the various accident you find the back tooth of
dakua trees in the neighborhood, a horse, carry it about with you as
as the)- in our parts are always the long as you live, and you will never
abode of spirits. The man on the want for money.
roof shouts like this: 'Loi, loi, loi,
ha! \:Y ou spirit over there in the TIGER EAR - In India, to
big dakua tree at ~lataso, did you have a pair of tiger's ears about
kill my friend?' If the reply is no, you, is good luck.
he turns and yells to the various
dakua trees till he gets an answer TOOTHACHE - To eat no
in the affirmative. Then he replies: flesh on Easter day, is good for the
'Here I am in the house of my toothache.
dead friend, come along and fight
me, if you dare.' He then adds TREASURE SEEKING - If
abuse in a truly oriental style, and you drop a cross penny on a treas-
so works the tevoro up into a boil- ure, it cannot be moved away.
ing passion, until he rushes to the In looking for treasure, the ne-
house to utterly smite and wipe groes say that if something is
away the puny mortal who is in- found, and the spirits that guard it
sulting him. But when he gets to are not willing it should be taken,
the house he finds the door shut, it is "spirited away" again, and
so he dashes upon it with his clu-J, then it is gone forever.
whereupon the people inside strike
up the drums and blow the conch If a pot of money is found, a rice
shell and make such a noise that cake must be put in place of each
they nearly frighten him to death, coin taken, and spirit-money burn-
and he turns to run home. Then ed as an offering to any spirit that
comes the opportunity of the peo- might be irritated at its removal.
ple posted outside. They have (Japanw)
heard his footsteps as he has come In Stendal, Germany, exists the
along. and placed themselves so as belief that one can dreanl of a place
to be able to strike at him as he where treasure is hidden, if one
comes back. \"When they hear him lays the heart of a pewit, dried and
on his return journey, they strike reduced to powder, under one's
out right and left, with all their head at night.
main, and smite hinl hip and thigh.
\\When daylight comes they look The Bedouins believe that im-
nlense treasures were concealed bv
round for the fragments, and often
5o10n10n beneath the foundations
find ribs and teeth lying about.
of the buildings in the city of l)al-
Then it is known that the tevoro
myra, and cOlumitted to the care
has been successfully punished."
of Jinns. who still watch over them.
STREXGTH-To be strong, a TIle Irish believe that hidden
piece of bearskin inscribed with the treasure may be discovered with
1430 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPBRSTITIONS.

the help of a nenuphar, the great VERMIN-A malefactor's ann-


white water-lily. bone carried in the pocket, is a se-
Around Sasice, in Bohemia, the curity against vermin.
peasants say that a blue light hov- \'OODOO - \Toodoo-wonhip
ers above a buried treasure, but was brought from ~4Jrica by slaves
that everyone cannot see it, as it and is said to be still ftowishing.
disappears if you are not the right though more or less secretly, in
person. Haiti and other West Indian is-
If two people are together and lands. Not very long ago, it was
find a treasure, neither must speak still to be found among the negroes
until they have removed their find, and Creoles of the Southern Unit-
otherwise one of them would die. ed States, but now as a faith it is
There is an old belief that wher- practically dead. It has left, how-
ever treasure is hidden, it is guard- ever, many superstitions that are
ed by spirits. to this day current among colored
people. Voodooism consists in a
There is a certain mosaic moon practice of malicious, defensive,
which will enable the owner tb find amatory, healing, or sooth5aying
hidden treasure. enchantments, charms, witchcrafts
In hunting for a treasure, go to or secret rites, tinctured with Af-
a place where the shadow falls at rican superstitions and customs.
midnight under the end of a limb of In the main, these are only such
an old dead tree; there you will fanatical beliefs and important se-
find a treasure. cret libations, burnings, etc., as are
If a prayer was offered -to St. everywhere the conditions where
Christopher in order to discover the base and puerile of mind have
buried treasures, of which he is the recourse to such things. These
guardian saint, the treasure would ceremonies, often connected with
be found. cannibalism and human sacrifices,
If a forked twig of hazel or some are conducted - by special voodoo
similar wood, turns in the hands of priests. The American slang term
its bearer and points to the east, "hoodoo" is probably adopted
it is a sign that water or buried therefrom.
treasures will be found on that spot. Among the voOOoo worshippers,
Dig for it and you will find it. if a woman gets a pair of shoes
When digging for treasure, have which her rival has just taken off,
some bread about you, and the ties her own shoes inside of them,
specters cannot trouble you. and lets them remain so till morn-
ing, she will win away the affec-
If you think treasure is buried, tions of the man she wants.
take a black chicken or a black cat,
and make it walk over the spot; if One is safe from voodoo-conjur-
the creature suddenly disappears, ing if one owns a frizzly hen, which
it is a sign that the treasure lies will surely eat such charms as IDa)
there, and you may dig in sure be placed on the premises.
hope of finding it. To carry a voodoo charm, will
always bring luck.
TROUBLE-If you take a cat
at night to the grave of one whom A "hoodoo" can be transfonned
you disliked and place it there, the into a "mascot" by spitting on it
devil will take it and all your trou- It is believed that by magic
bles with it. spells a "voodoo" can cause the
FOLKLORE, ~ND THB OCCULT SCIBNCBS. 143 1
feathers in an enemy's pillow to stitions." These dre comprehend-
form themselves into some non- ed under the titles of "Obeah" (or
descript bird or animal. This grows Wanga) and "Voodoo" (or T'chan-
slowly and only by night. When ga). Writers who mention the sub-
completely formed, the person who ject generally ref~r to Obeah and
has useJ the pillow, dies. Voodoo as one and the same thing;
A similar practice is to tear a live but as cults they are perfectly sep-
bird asunder and put the wings arate and distinct. They may be
into the pillow. Another form of defined as follows:
the same idea finds vent in placing The Obeah means killing, and
some charm such as a combination wanga nleans incantation or spell
of bones, hair, and other trifling and represents the tribal system of
objects, into the pillow; all this single magic of the Popa, Koro-
with the intention to do the person mantyn, Eboe, and other tribes.
who is to sleep on that pillow, The v"oudoo cult is the dual magi-
harm. cal system of the Arada, Yuruba,
Putting grains of corn into a and Dahomean tribes, and can only
child's pillow, prevents its grow- be performed by a priest and priest-
ing any more. ess together, and in presence of
the sacred snake, the totem or fe-
The surest way to prevent being tish of the sect.
"hoodooed," is to open one's pil- The Voudoo-T'changa, whose
low, and if any charms are found, sacred color is yellow and white,
to sprinkle them with salt and burn has a totem snake of a harmless
them. variety, to which are offered only
Scattering dirt before an ene- ripe fruits, milk, and the blood of
my's door is one form of conjuring pure white cocks and spotless
evil upon him. ~Iaking certain white goats. The Vidu has red for
fi~res on the wall of the llousc the sacred color, and the snake is
With chalk will also do him evil. the poisonous green Vidu or Mam-
Crumbling dead leaves and scatter- ba, to which are devoted the blood
ing them before an enemy's house of black cocks and black goats, as
will "hoodoo" him. Throwing salt well as other things mostly of that
after the person who places such color, and on great occasions, the
charms, if caught, and sprinkling "flesh and blood of the goat with-
the charms themselves with salt, out horns" (the human victim).
wiD break their power. Obeah is based on the use of the
spell or charm, and includes com-
If you think anyone has placed munication with the spirits of the
malefic charm under your door- dead (duppies or ghosts), the pro-
.iU, pour some oil in a line along tection of fields and crops by
the threshold, and whoever did it Ineans of glamour and "nature
wiD fall into tbe power of the voo- spirits," the infliction of disease
doos. if he or she crosses the oil- and the cure of it, supplemented by
line. a wide knowledge of poisons.
The people of the West Indies, The prototype of the Obeah-lnan
wbole grand-parents were recruit- is that long-leggtad grayish spider
ed from nearly every tribe living or brownish black (anansi) spider,
on or near the west coast of Af- which is generally to be seen carry-
rica, have inherited an almost un- ing a large white bag with him.
Yal}'iDg belief in many queer i\ urses tell Anansi stories to chil-
tbiDp of the sort called "super- dren, and of his cunning and \VOD-
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

derful feats. His rapid movements, take the treasure unless you
his venomous bite (to other in- give him a soul." That means that
sects), and his big medicine-bag, is the place in consideration has to
the very image of the Obeah-man, be sprinkled with the blood of
and Anansi stories are tales which some animal, which must be sacri-
keep alive the belief in Obeah and ficed there, together with rum or
faith in the Obeah-man. some other spirit.
The Obeah worshippers invest One branch of Obeah, extensive-
Anansi, the prototype of the ly practiced, especially by ladies, is
Obeah-man, with a halo of preter- the art of exciting "love" and en-
natural powers, cleverness and forcing fidelity in one person to
luck. another of the opposite sex. The
To protect crops from thieves, most learned Obeah doctors, when
the Obeah-man causes the birth of consulted, agree that the following
a snake in the field, which will means are the most powerful:
scare away anyone who enters. To establish and act on a psychic
The way he does it varies, but in rapport, is of course what is aimed
many instances he goes to the gar- at in the use of
den and hangs there on a tree: 1. I. Hair-The exciter bums and
A bottle containing (apparently) rubs to powder a portion of his or
discolored water. 2. A triangular her own hair, a pinch of which is
board, on which a similar shaped sprinkled from time to time in the
scrap of black cloth is glued, both food or drink of the person to be
\vith point downward. 3. A little excited. Usually requires about
skin bag, containing an egg, some three repetitions before the effect
nails, beans of various kinds, and begins to be produced.
rags of various colors. He then II. Perspiration-The exciter
walks about the tree three times, mingles a few drops of his or her
muttering spells. It is understood own perspiration in th~ food or
that a snake is hatched from the drink as above.
egg and feeds upon the contents III. Blood-The food of the
of the bottle, until it crawls down person to be excited is steamed in
full grown to do its work. a cloth by the exciter, on which
Another favorite article for the cloth a little, properly nine drops,
protection of fields is a miniature of the cook's own blood is dropped.
coffin, sometimes empty. but usual- Fresh blood is requisite. This
ly filled with pieces of bone, feath- method is almost exclusively used
ers, and generally an assortment of by women; blood drawn at certcUn
things, and these are placed in a seasons is most effective.
suitable place where any trespasser This third method is said to have
can see they are there and will "fix by far the most powerful and
him" if he enters. prompt effect, and according to a
When an Obeah-man is consult- person who has experienced its ef-
ed about the recovery of buried fects, it produces a semi-madness.
treasure, as is often the case, he and reduces the excitee to perfect
usually, after making all his prep- slavery to the excitor, from which
arations, will tell where it is locat- there is no escape till the excitor
ed and all about it, but he will say: properly renounces and breaks the
"There is a duppy of such and band. This is usually done by the
such a description living there excitor driving away the excitee
in charge of it (or a big with a blow or a kick J the hand or
snake), and he will Dot let you foot used having been dipped in,
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES.

and being wet \vith, ,vater in which "Setting on" a jumbie or duppy
cedar (Cedrela odorata) leaves to hunt out secrets, take revenge
have been boiled. on any enemy or to do other wick-
:\s an instance of the working of ed and unlawful acts of secret per-
the other means: The late Jules secution, is thoroughly believed in.
Laureton (a white man), lived \vith It is considered that the Obeah-
a far from beautiful mulatto wom- man makes the spirit or duppy of
an called Angelique, as his 'place.' the deceased do this haunting by
She was of a very violent temper, either invigorating it with some of
and behaved very badly to him, his own life power, or by using
but retained her influence over him a "nature spirit" for the purpose.
for many years-till his death. A They will "trick" ponies, donkeys,
relative of hers explains her power and horses, and make them throw
over him by saying: "Angelique and kill their riders. i\n instance
took the precaution, from time to in brief. There was a quarrel be-
time, when she thought it was tween Laury on one part and Daw-
needed, to mix a few drops of her son and Young on the other. The
perspiration in his chocolate." latter called an Obeah-man to aid,
These things must be done se- and Laury was at once thro\vn
cretly. Should the victim become from his horse and died. Laury's
a\\Oare and resist, if his will is the family included an Obeah-man,
stronger, the whole thing reacts on and by his advice, Laury's body
the operator, and she or he be- was put into the coffin without any
comes the very slave of her victim. of the customary burial prepara-
The following is an obeah meth- tions, in his clothes, just as he had
od of causing intense sleep in a died. Before the funeral, some of
person, and as a process it has Laury's relations, including the
similar liabilities and possibilities: Obeah-man last mentioned, went
To effect this, the evening is the . through a ceremony in which some
time usually chosen. The operator of Laury's blood was used, in pres-
takes a small piece of a garment re- ence of the corpse; later, the cere-
c~ntly worn by the person to be mony was concluded before the
acted on, and of course more or funeral party, by their putting into
less impregnated by his or her per- the left hand of the corpse-he had
spiration; and after folding it into a been a left-handed man-a sharp
Snlan flat bundle, which must be knife, and telling it to show then1
fastened by t\\-O pins placed X wise, ,,"ithin nine days who had killed
secretly places it into or under the hin1. Then the lid of the coffin
pillow the latter is going to sleep \\as nailed down.
on. During the whole of the fold- \\.eithin the nine days, \oung
ing process the operator is of disappeared; and Da\\-son ,,ent
course "willing" the bundle to nlad, going about raving that
cause sleep" This is considered a Laury was chasing' hin1 with a
\~rv effective process, and the (X) knife in his hand. He subsequent-
ero" whether \\Titten or other\vise Iv refused all food, but \,..ith his
is a frequently used and potent teeth ~l1a\\ed his left arnl, from the
s\~bol in Obeah. It is the hind- biceps nearly to the wrist, in a hor-
er! Th~ Obeah sleep bundle is, as rible way" Flies got to the artn
may be noticed, sonlewhat analo- thus \\-ounded, and it soon became
gous in its effect to that credited to a mass of corruption, and Da\\"son
the celebrated "Hand of Glory" of died in horrible agony, calling out
English witchlore. the \vhole time to those about him,
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

to save him from Laury, who was thing like a thought-reader after a
hunting him with a knife. pin.
A few days after Dawson's death, As disease and death are gener-
Young's hat and some of his ally believed to be caused by an
clothes were found on a rock by enemy using spells, this method
the seaside, where it was supposed is often used to find out who killed
he had gone to bathe, and had been the deceased. Names are said over
drowned. He never reappeared. and when the board emphatically
There is another performance, bows, it indicates who was the se-
in which clothes soiled with per- cret murderer. Measures are at
spiration, and ipso facto impreg- once taken to avenge the death,
nated with aura, play a very curi- and "war to the knife" soon sep-
ous, interesting and important arates the families.
part. It is, as far as I am aware, an The real Bella-bella or ]umbi
original conception and an exclu- dance is a method of finding out
sive possession of West Indian the grievances of restless "depart-
Obeah, and may be considered one ed spirits," or of communicating
of its distinctive operations. with deceased friends. These
It is the "Dirty Clothes oracle," dances (along with others of a
and is performed as follows: Im- much less innocent nature) are
mediately after the funeral of any- forbidden by law and are therefore
one who is supposed to have died conducted in secret. After a feast
in consequence of some Obeah op- and exciting music, the dance
eration by some unknown enemy, grows wilder, and someone be-
or of anyone who is supposed to comes "possessed" by the duppy,
have left money buried, and no di- who cannot lie still in his grave.
rections where to find it; or who The dancer proclaims himself in
has left property and no directions the very voice of the dead person,
for its division and bestowal; the and is only to be pacified if the
relatives and friends of the deceas- host will go to his grave OIl a cer-
ed assemble in the house, and pro- tain day, and there to kill a black
curing a board about five or six cock, and to sprinkle the grave
feet long, appoint four relatives of with its blood, and the contents of
the deceased to carry it on their a bottle of rum.
heads. On the board is placed a At these dances, it is not an un-
bundle of the yet unwashed gar- common thing for as many as sev-
ments the deceased died in. This en or more dancers to become pos-
being done, the board-bearers are sessed at one time, and each by a
directed to march with it round the separate 'J umbi'; but in such cases,
house, against the sun, and then to it is not probable that all are pos-
come in. Then, if the necessary sessed by 'Duppies.' The possess-
power is present, it manifests itself ed play all manner of strange an-
by the bearers being unable to tics. On one occasion. a man be-
speak, and reeling about with the ing possessed by the 'Duppy' of a
board 011 their heads as if intoxi- person who had committed suicide
cated. Then questions are ad- after going mad, sprang at one leap
dressed to the board by the name up on to the rafters of the house,
of the deceased, which are an- where he remained for some min-
swered by it-through its bearers utes, moving up and do\vn in time
-bowing with it toward the ques- to the music; and from thence
tioner; or by the board and its shot out of an open \\,indow and
bearers hunting out any person or down a precipice behind the house.
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1435

where he was found dead, with his hands over it, and talked to it in a
neck broken. The possessed of- tongue not understood by his
ten speak in Spanish, French, and guests. Next, he had fetched into
other languages, and frequently in the center of the floor a washing
tongues quite unknown to their tub, which was filled with fresh wat-
hearers. er brought in buckets from a spring
The ancient "Spellt.r Art" we close by. This done, he produced
we know has special secret formu- a walking-stick, a piece of twine
lae for every purpose under the about two feet long, and a fish-
sun, from snake-charming up\vards. hook. These he put together, and
The Norse "Troll-Runes," from asking the company to seat them-
what is now known of them, \vere selves round the tub, saying he was
a similar system. The spells and going to fish. After waving his
incantations of the European hands and saying some unknown
witches, etc., was another; and the words over the tub, he began, and,
"foreign language" speeches and to the very great \vonderment of
chants of the Hametic Obeah-men the company, fished out of that tub
correspond. All these fornlulae of fresh water over a dozen large-
,,henever or wherever used, are sized and living "snappers" and
in the same, the universal, "ele- "groupers" (two kinds of sea fish).
ment language": the use of one These he made over to certain
predicates the present and past members of his company, and told
knowledge and use of the whole them to go out to his kitchen and
system, and in short, the existence cook the fish for him. When the
of a s}-stem of magic in a state of fishing was over-it had taken
developnlent depending on the sur- about two hours-he again turned
roundings and other circumstances. his attention to the plantain sucker
As students well know, that lan- in the corner. Being uncovered, it
guage is composed of "sounds, not was observed to have grown under
words," etc., and so the reason of the sheet, and was now about four
Obeah spells forever being said to feet high. Again putting the sheet
be in a foreign language is not far over it, he held his hands over it
to seek. for some time, occasionally mutter-
One of the most learned and ing some words in the unknown
highly accomplished Obeah profes- tongue, and between times talking
sors ever known in the West Indies and chatting to the company. Fi-
was called Congo Brown; he was nally calling for a knife to cut the
brought, with other slaves, to the bunch of plantains, the sheet was
estate of La Gloire. and by all taken off, and there stood a full-
characteristics, was a ~loor. Con- grown plantain tree, bearing a
go Brown gave a party at his large and well developed bunch of
house, and for the entertainment green-ripe plantains. These were
of his guests, said he would show duly cut and also sent to be cooked.
them something. He first sent out Brown offended his nlaster, who
to his garden and had a plantain sentenced him to be whipped. He
sucker about eighteen inches long took the matter coollv, and re-
brought in. He then dug a hole in marked that the lashes would hurt
the beaten-cIav floor of his house, the real cause of the trouble. \\.PheD
in a corner; and planted the said three lashes only had been given
plantain sucker in it, which was and Brown was laughing, shrieks
then covered over with a sheet. issued from the great house, which
Then he stood up and waved his proceeded from the wife of the
1436 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

manager of the estate, on whose there had been no rain at all, al-
back those three lashes had simul- though it was the rainy season.
taneously fallen. He was accredit- The mealies were all dying for
ed with removing one hundred want of water, the cattle were be-
hogsheads of sugar in a single night ing slaughtered in all directions;
from La Gloire estate to the Bay, women and children were dying
a distance of two miles. Carting it by scores. . . . When, one day
down would have occupied the es- the king announced the arrival of
tate's cattle for a week. Brown two celebrated rain-makers, who
had offered to do it, but the man- would forthwith proceed to relieve
ager laughed at him. However, it the prevailing distress. . . . A
was done, and the incident is large ring . . . being formed by
known far and wide, and often re- the squatting Kaffirs the
ferred to. He used a staff, which king being in the center and the
fIe would throw on the ground, rain-makers in front of him, they
when it would instantly become a commenced their performances.
snake. He would pick it up and The zenith and the horizon were
it would at once stiffen into a stick eagerly examined by them from
again. time to time, but not a vestige of a
Of late years, we have become cloud appeared Presently, the
accustomed to hear of interesting older man rolled on the ground in
experiments, chiefly in America, convulsions, apparently epileptic,
having for their object the produc- and his comrade started to his feet,
tion of rainfall, though as yet they pointing with both hands to the
do not seem to have been attended copper-eolored sky. All eyes fol-
with any very striking success. In lowed his gesture, and looked at
countries which are liable to long the spot to which his hands point-
droughts, it becomes a matter of ed, but nothing was visible. Mo-
vital importance to the inhabitants tionless as a stone statue, he stood
to attain some degree of certainty with gaze rivetted on the sky. In
about the rainfall, and means of about the space of a minute a dark-
producing it at will would be most er shade was observable in the
welcome. It is not amiss, there- copper tint, and in another minute
fore, to cite some examples of it grew darker and darker, and in
Obeah rain production, which at a few more seconds developed into
any rate go to suggest that the pro- a black cloud, which soon over-
duction of rain when required is spread the heavens. In a moment
not an impossibility, even when a vivid flash \vas seen, and the del-
neither dynamite nor gunpowder uge that fell from that cloud ,vhich
are to be had. had now spread completely over-
It will be noticed that in the fol- head, was something to be remem-
lowing examples differences of bered. . . . The king dismissed
procedure exist between the East the rain-makers with presents of
and West African and other sys- wives, cattle, etc., etc. (T. T.)"
tems which are of considerable That is East African Kaffir rain-
value to the student, and they are making; readers \\,ho are interested
much enhanced by the fact that in that system may compare with
they can be compared with a case this the magnificent thunder and
of unconscious (mediumistic) rain lightning duel between two Zulu
production. rain-makers in Rider Haggards
Here is a Southeast African ex- "Allan's \\Tife." In which volume,
ample: "For weeks and weeks too, will be found a Zulu rain-mak-
FOLKWRE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1437

er using glamour and various other not, and Fraisse. of the Dominican
phases of arcane knowledge for order. (Pere Labat.)
beneficent purposes. The spell of words and incanta-
This is a West African rain-mak- tions is applied to all the elements.
ing scene: "A priest from Tou- as \vell as water. The wind is act-
louse, called Pere r~raisse, had ed on in this one: About the be-
brought from the kingdom of ]uda, ginning of this century, "a \voman
in Guinea, to ~Iartinique, a little of the parish of Blackcraig in the
African boy of nine or ten years of Orkney Islands, known to have a
age. Some months after the child deadly enmity to a boafs crew that
arrived, he heard the fathers speak had set off for the fishing banks,
of the dryness of the weather, took a wooden basin and set it to
which was affecting their garden, float on the surface of a tub of \va-
and heard them wishing for rain. ter; then, to avoid exciting sus-
The child, who had begun to speak picion, went on with her usual do-
French, asked whether they want- mestic labors, and, as if to lighten
ed a heavy or a light shower, as- the burden of them, sang an old
suring them that he could make a Norse song. After a verse or two
sho\,"er fall on their garden. had been recited, she sent a child
This proposal nluch astounded to the tub, and bade him tell her if
the fathers, but after consulting to- the basin was capsized. The little
gether, they consented-for the messenger soon returned with the
child was not yet baptized-to his news that there was a strange swell
causing a light sho\\-er. in the water, which caused the
The child immediately gathered basin to be sadlv tossed about. The
three oranges, which he placed on witch then sang still more loudly,
th~ ground at a little distance from and, for the second time sent the
one another. He prostrated him- child to the tub, to report the state
self with a surprising fervency and of the basin. He hastened back
devotion. He then gathered three with the information that the water
little orange twigs, which, after re- was frightfully troubled, and that
peated prostrations, he placed the basin ,,:as capsized.
against each orange. He then pros- "The y;itch, on hearing of the
tratlad himself for the third time. state of the basin, with an air of
and said some words with much nlalignant satisfaction, ceased her
respect and attention: then. lifting song and said: 'The turn is done!'
one of the little oran~e twigs in his On the same da}", ne,,s caIne that
hand, he looked all round the ho- a fishing boat had been lost on the
rizon till he perceived a very small banks. and the whole of her crew
cloud at a Ycr)- great distance; he had been drowned."
then extended the twig toward it, As to these ~orse songs: Odin
which instantl)" produced a snlart (the Norse god) says, in one of the
aho\\er, lasting nearly an hour. He Sagas: "I know a song of such
then took the orange and twigs virtue that were I cau~ht in a
stornl. I could hush the ,,-inds. and
and buried them. The fathers were render the air perfectly calm ,\"ith
much surprised. particularly as not it."
a drop fell outside their garden. }"ire is acted on here (though
The\" nc\-er could induce the child glamour also plays a larger part).
to t~1I them the words he had mut- The writer was with some Zulu
tered. The witnesses of this scene witch-doctors in their hut, and they
were Fathers Temple, Rosie, Bour- had been giving him examples Of
1440 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

few minutes his limbs stiffened, his and tobacco ashes, and before g0-
body became rigid, and he felt cold ing to bed next night I swallowed
and motionless as a corpse." Then it, and notwithstanding the excite-
at the command of the narrator, ment, went to sleep. with-
mentally expressed, the "double" out any warning, I seemed to be
(or rather, the consciousness) of standing on what appeared to be
the entranced man went to various the summit of a high mountain,
places and did various things, his overlooking a scene I can find no
voice relating to her all that he was words to describe. . . Sud-
seeing and doing. (R. B.) denly, my eye alighted on a build-
Assisted projection-uHow long ing which stood on the summit of
I had slept I cannot tell, but in a a peak lower than the rest, with
nloment-with the suddenness of luxuriant forest growing to its very
a flash of lightning-I passed from top; no sooner had I caught sight
unconsciousness to complete and of this building than some irresist-
vivid consciousness. I gave a quick ible attraction drew me to it. I
glance round my chamber; every- seemed to float through the air to
thing was visible clearly enough in it, the motion imparting a feeling
the subdued light of my lamp, of delight and security I had never
turned low for the night; all seem- before realized. On, on, I floated
ed as usual, nothing out of place, without any fear, but with a great
nothing to account in any way for expectation as to what was going
that sudden awakening. But the to happen. To my surprise I pass-
nextmoment there thrilled through ed over the courtyard of the build-
my soul the well known voice of ing; for the first time I felt some
my 'Master . .' That voice ut- suspense in seeing my progress
tered but one word, 'Comel' But blocked by a bare, windowless wall,
ere I could spring from my couch directly in front. I put out my
in obedience, I was seized with a hands to save a collision, but to my
feeling which it would hopeless to horror my hands passed through
attempt to describe so as to give the wall, as though nothing was
anyone else an adequate conception there. I shut mv eves and clenched
of it. Every nerve in my body seem- my teeth, expecting a shock; but
ed strained to the breaking point none came. . . . I awoke to find
by some hitherto unsuspected force myself in bed, trembling, and bath-
within; after a moment of excruci- ed in perspiration, my head split-
ating pain, this sensation focussed ting, my heart beating as if it
itself in the upper part of the head, would burst. . . . I was in a fe-
something then seemed to burst, ver-I could not sleep--so I got
and I found myself floating in the up. . lit a lamp and commit-
airl One glance I cast behind me, ted all this to paper." (P. H. F.)
and saw m)'self-or my body rath- The following history of a negro
er, lying as if soundly asleep, upon sorcerer who was burnt alive at
the bed-and then I soared out 5t Thomas, in 1701, was communi-
into the open air. . . ." (L. G.) cated to me bv ~Ions. Vanbel,
Projection as the result of ex- Chief of the Danish factorY there:
hibition of an internal drug-liThe "A negro convicted of "'being a
interests of experience, coupled no sorcerer, and of having caused a
doubt with a certain percentage of little figure of earthenware to
curiosity, prompted me to accept. speak, was condemned by the
. . I received the powder, to all judge of the island to be burned
appearance a mixture of fine sand alive. ~fons. Vanbel, meeting him
FOLKLOR6., ~ND THE OCCULT SCIBNCBS. 1441

on the road as he was being carried stopped the ship, so that it took
to ex~cution, said to him: '\Vell, seven weeks to go a distance it
thou canst not make thy little fig- usually nlade in forty-eight hours.
ure speak again! It is broken!' \\rater and provisions began to run
The negro replied: 'If )ou like, short, the mortalit), anlong the ne-
sir, 111 make the cane you hold in groes increased to such an extent
your hand speak!' This proposal that they had to throw a part of
filled evervone with astonishment! them overboard. Some of them
Arlons. 'Tanbel asked the judge, complained, while dying, of a cer-
who \\-as present, to delay the ex- tain negress. \\-ho, they said, was
ecution for a little while, to see if the cause of their death, because,
the negro could do as he said, since she had threatened to eat
which \\pas allowed. He gave the their hearts, thev had been driven
cane to the negro, who, having to despair by severe pains. The
planted it in the ground and made captain of the vessel caused the
several ceremonies before it, asked bodies of several of those negroes
Mons. Vanbel what it was he de- to be opened, when they found
sired to know. The latter replied their hearts and livers dry, and full
that he would like to kno\v with re- of air-bladders, while the rest of
gard to a vessel which they ex- the organs were in the ordinary
pected, whether it had started, state.
when it would arrive, who were on The captain then asked the \vom-
board, and what had happened to an if she could eat the heart out
them on the voyage. The negro of a cucumber or a watermelon as
recomnlenced his ceremonies, after easily as she ate the hearts of these
which, dra\ving back, he asked victims, and she said she could.
lions. Vanbel to approach his cane, "Show them to me," said she,
and he would hear what he wanted "and without my touching them,
to know. On approaching, ~lons. or even approaching them, be sure
'anbel heard a small but clear and that I \\;11 eat them \vithin forty-
di~tinct voice, which said to him: eight hours."
'The vessel thou expectest left El- He accepted the offer, and !\how-
sinore 011 such and such a day, so ed her the watermelons at a dis-
and so in command of her, ar{d he tance, and itllmediately locked
has such and such passengers with thenl a\vay in a coffer, the key of
him: thou wilt be content \vith her \\-hich he put into his o\yn pocket,
cargo: although a squall in pass- not trusting it to any of his people.
ing the Tropic broke her foretop- The second morning thereafter,
mast, and carried away her flying the neg-ress asked him \\phere his
jib, she will arrive here within nlelons were. He opened the cof-
three da)-s!' . -. The negro was fer in \\-hich he had locked them,
exttuted, and three days after, the and had nluch pleasure in seeing'
vessel arrived, and verified to the thenl quite entire; but the pleasure
letter the entire prediction." (Pere was shortlived, and soon chan~eet
Lobat.) into vast astonishment. for, when
The hags of the \"-est India Is- he lifted them to show thenl round.
lands are ~id to "eat the heart" of they were empty, nothing relnain-
persons \\-hOnl they hate_ ~Ions. ing but the sheer skin, distended
Le Compte de Gennes, command- like a bladder and as dryas parch-
ing a squadron of the king's ships, ment.
had on board in 1696 some slaves, It is fully believed that Obeah
and among them a sorceress who men and WOOlen can compa9S the
BNCYCLOPABDl.4 OP SUPERSTITIONS.

death of anyone by invisibly eat- A person suffering from an ab-


ing their hearts, but by incanta- scess would poultice it, and when
tions can also restore them to the poultice had done its work, it
health, even when at the point of was taken off, wrapped in a piece
death. This was confirmed by a of rag and left in a pathway J in the
similar story told at Ispahan by P. belief that the first person or ani-
Sebastian de Jesus, a Portuguese mal who passed there and kicked
Augustinian, a man to be believed, or trod on the bundle, would be af-
and of singular virtue, who was flicted by the abscess, to the im-
prior of their monastery when I mediate relief of the original suf-
departed He assured me that in ferer. These bundles are a com-
one of the places dependent upon mon sight on pathways even nowa-
Portugal, on the confines of Ye- days, in all Mahomedan countries,
men, I know not whether it was but elsewhere the belief seems to
at ~Iascate or at Omuz, an Arab, have died out.
having been taken up for a similar There is a story of a certain de-
crime and convicted of it, for he file in the Island of Trinidad being
confessed the fact, the captain or haunted by a curious entity which
governor of the place, who was a I have never heard described.
Portuguese, that he might better Whatever it is, it is said to jump
understand the truth of these black up behind the horseman and try to
and devilish actions of which there throw him off.
is no doubt in this country, ordered Another silk-cotton tree "Nancy
the sorcerer to be brought before Story" is one that will, doubtless,
him before he was led to his pun- recommend itself to my Roman
ishment, and asked him if he could Catholic readers. It is said that
eat the inside of a cucumber with- one day, a couple of centuries
out opening it, as well as the heart back, a priest was passing by
of a man. The sorcerer said, yes; a large silk-eottOD tree near
and in order to prove it, a cucum- Giiiria, and he saw a little devil
ber was brought. He looked at it, playing outside one of the buttress
never touching it, steadily for some hollows. The priest stalked him,
time, with his usual enchantments, and finally caught him-it is not
and then told the captain he had stated whether it was done by put-
eaten the whole inside; and accord- ting salt or holy water on his tail-
ingly, when it was opened, nothing and bound him, with two or three
was found but the rind. silken threads drawn from his
Bottles and vials are supposed, girdle, to the tree, in the name of
when buried empty with the mouth the Holy Trinity. The little devil
up and level with the surface of the asked when he would be released,
ground, near houses whose in- and the priest answered, 'when
mates are troubled by jumbies and women cease to conceive and bear
hags, to catch them and hold them children!' Since then, whenever
as in a trap, so they Can work no any woman passes that tree, the
more evil. They are also used in devil puts the pertinent question
the supposed infliction of disease, to her. With the lapse of years.
by burying them in a path fre- dust, leaves and debris of all sorts
quented by the desired victim, who have accumulated round the roots,
is believed to become diseased so that the devil is now some feet
from the moment his foot touches underground; the tree itself. hO\\9-
the mouth of the bottle, and may ever, is still visible-to the faithful
even die as a result. -on the Venezuelan coast.
FOLKLORE, AND THE, OCCULT SCIENCES. 1443

The Obeah-wanga "spell" is house spider that is to be met ,vith


more often a sound than any par- everywhere on the island. How-
ticular set words. There are others ever, every spider is spoken of as
than Freemasons who have heard "Xancy," and their webs as "Nan-
of a "Lost \Vord," which is uni- cy webs_It
versally desired b)' all ~fasons to "Death" is Anansi's brother, and
reanimate the body the)' kno\v of, it is probable this relationship was
\\-hich "is not dead but sleepeth." fancied through the relation of
That "Lost Word" is a "spell," and death with the poisonous sting of
the spell or charm is a formula of the tarantula and other spiders
sounds, arranged to produce cer- common in the tropics.
tain vibrations in co-relation with "Takuma" is Anansi's wife, and
certain chords; the utilization of a stupid sort of creature she seems
the natural magical power of sound to be, without wit or any positive
energized b)- the concentrated will. characteristics. Her character has
A spell or charm is by no means doubtless been conceived and es-
dependent for its effect on being tablished through the worthless-
couched in any particular words; it ness of the spider for purposes of
is a sound fonnula, which can be food or clothing, or any use of
as \\-ell--and sometimes better- primitive man.
played on an instrument than spok- The stories of CC~{an Mary" may
en. still be heard; and although the
(N. B.-The foregoing super- exact personality of this creation
stitions and practices of Obeah- cannot be distinctly gotten at, it is
worship are taken from a pamphlet without doubt true that he is a relic
by Dr. ~fyal Djumboh Cassecana- of an old-time fear of cannibalism,
rie, of Port of Spain, Trinidad, en- and a character of Obeah- or voo-
titled, "Obeah and the True Wan- doo-worship. It is told that a large
p.'') black man is sometimes met in the
woods and lonely places, gathering
Of all th~ folk-stories of Jamaica,
herbs and earthworms, which he
those most characteristic and most
uses for making soup. He is no
easily collected and understood are
other than "Man ~fary," who
the "Anansi Stories," or "Nancy
chases children when they pass his
Stories," as they are usually called
way, and who eats them if he
h) the natives. Of these, Anansi
catches them. ~I voId nurse has
is the hero; and he is represented
told me of many an exciting jour-
both as a human being and as a spi-
ney past Man Mary's hut, and of
der, while at all times he possesses
the wiles and subtle craft of the hair-breadth escapes from his boil-
spider. fIe is the prototype of the ing soup-kettle.
terrible Obeah-man. \Vhen child- The follo\ving is one of the pop-
ular "Anansi' stories:
ish curiosity would make a Euro-
One time /\nnancy Jibed in a
pean child push this point ,,ith its
country where the Queen's name
negro narrator and inquire: "But \vas Five, an' she was a ,,"itch: an'
was it Anansi the nlan or Anansi she say \\hoeber say five was to fall
th~ spider?" she would ~ive this do\\n dead. It \vas herry hungry
reasonable and convincing reply: tinles, and so :\nnancy go build
uLntlh, chil'! }"O' too poppesha! It himself a little house by de side of
,,-as ~ancy, jus' Nancy, yo' see." de riber. An' him make fi\'e yam
In Jamaica, the spider common- hills. ,\n' when an",bod\" come to
ly called Anansi is the large black get water at de rib~r he- call them
1444 ENCYCLOP~EDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

an' say: "I beg you tell me how The spring is the luckiest time
many yam hills I hab here. I can't for wishes.
count beny well." So den dey "Wishes wished in the spring
would come in and say: "One, Best results will bring."
two, three, four, five!" an' fall "Wish and rub your hand on brass,
do\vn dead. Then Annancy take Y our wish will surely come to pass.
dem an' com dem in his barrel an' Wish and rub your hand on tin,
eat dem, an' so he live in hungry Your wish will surely come again."
times-in plenty. So time go on, Whenever yoo wish a good
an' one day Guinea fowl come dat thing for somebody else, a bless-
way, an' Annancy say: "Beg you, ing will come to you; but if you
Missus, tell me how many yam wish evil to someone else, it will
hills hab I here." So Guinea fowl surely rebound upon you. Wishes
go an' sit on hill an' say: "One, are like boomerangs.
two, three, four, an' de one I am If a person goes into a strange
sittin' onl" "Chol" say Annancy; church and makes a wish, he or she
"you don't count it rightl" An' will get it before the year is out.
Guinea fowl mouve to anoder yam Wish on a load of hay, without
hill an' say : "Yes, one, two, three, looking at the load again, and your
four, an' de one I am sittin' ani" wish will come true.
"He! you don't count right at alii"
"How you count, den?" "Why, Get into the "expanding stone"
dis way," say Annancy: "One, and make a wish while turning
two, three, four, five!" an' he feU about; it is a sign that the wish
down dead, an' Guinea fowl eat will come to pass. (\Vales.)
him upl Make up a rhyme when you hear
Dis story show dat "Greedy a beautiful strain of music, and
choak puppy." (Article by Ada your dearest wish will be granted.
Wilson Trowbridge, in "Journal of What you eagerly wish for, will
American Folk-Lore.") be likely to meet you.
WEALTH-If anyone can find Throw a rusty nail over your
a living "golden snail," he can head and wish, and you will get it.
command unlimited wealth. Even If you stand on a stone that can-
an empty shell worn as a charm,
will insure the wearer wealth and you be
not moved and make a wish~
will get it.
prosperity.
Go into a graveyard, dip your
WISH-In England, if a person hand into a vessel of clear water.
drops a pin into a wishing-well and and any wish you make then will
makes a wish, that wish will surely come true.
come to pass.
Walk to the nearest cross at
If you can wish before the first midnight, make a wish, return
circle disappears when you throw honle and go to bed; do not speak
a stone into the water, you will get from the time you start until next
your wish. morning, and you will get your
Spit on the last car of a train and wish.
make a wish at the same time, and A Basque legend tells of a "wish-
your wish will come true. ing sack," which was given by our
The Welsh say that one has only Lord to a man named "Fourteen'
to wish for a thing with sufficient because he was as strong as four-
energy, to get it. teen men. Whatever be wished to
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES.

have, he had only to say: "Art- Take the little bow out of a gen-
chila murtchilal" ("Come into my tleman's hat without his knowl-
sack I") and it came in. edge, wear in your shoe, and all
If you have onion-skins, put a your wishes will come true.
sprinkle of salt and pepper on them If you find a dead bird, bury it
~"'riday morning and bum them for under a pine tree and make a wish;
good luck, makin~ a wish. your wish will then come true.
If you make a wish without If, in India, }'OU place a ring in
speaking, when about to eat any the center of a square that is sa-
new fruit or vegetable, the wish cred and pour buttermilk over it,
will come true. you will get whatever you desire.
Any wish would come true if it If a woman wishes a compliant
was made on the divining rod, but husband, let her have a ring made
it had to be made on certain nights of old iron nails during the hour of
of a new moon. mass on Friday. Afterward lay the
In Germany, the wishing-rod is gospels upon it, and if she wears
cut from the black thorn, and those the ring, her husband will grant
possessing it will have their wishes all her wishes for a year.
granted. . Cover an image of St. Francis
If you see a load of hay, say: Assisi with a petticoat in which a
"Load of hay, load of hay, give me pin has been stuck, if you desire
the wish I wish to-<1ay," and do not tne granting of a special favor or
look at it again; you will then get a wish; the saint, noticing the pin,
your wish. will grant the favor.
In East Prussia, the sap of dog- Every Japanese belIeves firmly
wood absorbed in a handkerchief, that at least one wish of his heart
will fulfill every wish. will be granted. Their goddess of
nlerC}', with her lunar aureole, must
When you find a stone broken not be prayed to but once in a life-
in halves, place the two parts to- time by any person, but that once
gether, throw them over the right she will hear and answer.
shoulder, and wish.
The wi~hin~-rod was a rod of \\'ISHBONE - If a broken
pure gold, belonging to the ~iebe- \vishbone is placed over th~ door,
lungs. \\!hoever possessed it could the first person going through th~
have anything he wished, and hold door will be the first to be married.
the wide world in subjection. \\'ITCHCRAFT - \Vitch-elm
(Reader's Handbook.) sewed up in the gatherings of a
If you pull wishbones, the one woman's petticoat, is a sure protec-
who ~ets the junction of the bone tion against evil influences.
does not get her wish, and if it flies .A.. witch can only weep three
away, neither girl will be married. tears, and those from her left eye.
If a person will make a wish and Square bits of green turf put in
then cut an apple in halves without front of doors and windows, will
cutting a ieed, it is a sign that the scare awa) witches.
wish will be fulfilled. The island of Guernsey is rich in
To obtain what you want from records of witchcraft and devil-
another, la) a swallow's tongue on lore. Many people have been
)OUl' own and then kiss the party. burnt at the stake here for poe-
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

If you lay aspen leaves across a timely dead, out of which they
witch's grave, she can never ride made their secret and potent
abroad nights. (Russian.) channs.
The protection of a house from An animal killed by witchcraft
witches \vas insured by placing a must be burned, to drive away the
jug filled with horseshoe nails un- witch.
der the door of the entrance. To keep witches out of the
In Bologna, it is believed that if house, lay a broom across the door,
a nut with three segments is placed or put thorns in the window, or
under a witch's chair, she will be sprinkle mustard seed on the
unable to get up. door-sill.
In the Tyrol, there is a belief In Central Africa, a huge bowl
that if rue, broom, maidenhair, ag- filled with tobacco and clay, is used
rimony, and ground root are bound to keep off witches. The fumes are
into one bundle, the bearer of the inhaled until the smoker falls stu-
same is enabled to see witches. pified or deadly sick.
Aztec witches used the left ann If a suspicious looking female,
of a woman who died in her first whom you take to be a witch, en-
childbirth as the greatest of weap- ters the yard, you must either
ons. strike her so that the blood will
In an extract from the "Penal run, or throw a firebrand at her, in
Laws Against Witches," it is de- order to avert her evil influence.
clared: "They do answer by their (Old Colonial.)
voice or else set before their eyes We read of one witch at Farn-
in glasses, crystal stones, and so ham, England, who was supposed
on, the pictures or images of things to make cows wild and prevent
and people sought for." them from giving their milk; and
If you can interpose a brook be- of another at Henly-oo-Thames,
tween yourself and witches or who was thrown into the river and
fiends, you can remain in perfect "floated like a cork."
safety. To prick a pigeon with pins, or
If you watch a witch', you will to stick pins in. the heart of a stolen
sometimes see her soul pop out of hen, was considered, in England,
her mouth, in the form of a red very efficacious in destroying the
mouse. power of witches. It was also said
Nickels and dimes with holes that bewitched persons vomit pins
bored in them and strung around in great quantities.
the neck, are said to be an efficient If you talk of witches on either
charm to ward off witches. Wednesday or Friday night, no
A witch, being asked how she matter how far off, they will hear
contrived to kill all the children of it and avenge themselves. (Ger-
a certain family, replied: "Easily man.)
enough I When the infant sneezes, In connection with the belief in
nobody says 'Domine Stekan' (the witchcraft, there is a story of an
Lord be with thee), and then I be- old woman who had two holes
come mistress of the child!" made in her coffin, one at each
Ancient witchcraft ascribed mag- end. so that she could creep out of
ic power to pounded lizards and one when the devil came in after
blood of revolting creatures un- her at the other.
FOLKLORE. ~ND THB OCCULT SCIENCBS. 1449

To unbewitch the bewitched, spit bottle it with some pins and nails,
into the person's right shoe before and set it before the fire, you could
he or she puts it on. confine her so she could not move.
To go in an opposite direction Witches raise a stonn by casting
to the sun, is called "withershine"; a flint-stone over the left shoulder
witches always go uwithershine." toward the west. They can also
Boesartus says: "There are raise a storm by hurling sea-sand
witches in Norway and Iceland, as up into the element, by wetting a
I have proved, that can make broom-sprig and sprinkling in the
mends enemies, and enemies air, and by putting water in a hole
friends, enforce love, tell any man and stirring it with the finger.
where his friends are and about If you could catch a witch in a
what employed, though in the narrow lane and take hold of her
most remote places; and if they right hand, you would be able to
will, bring their sweethearts to prevent her from working her
them by night upon a goat's back, channs.
fiying in the air."
Spit, among the ancients, was
\Vhen the witches are coming considered a charm against all
through tht keyhole, they sing: kinds of witchcraft.
"Skin, don't you know me? Jump
out, jump in!" and if you are able In old times, a person suspected
to throw pepper and salt on the skin of being a witch was ducked; if she
while they are out of it, they cannot sank, it was a sign that she was in-
get into it again. nocent; if she swam, she was guil-
ty.
If you find a rusty nail wrapped
around with horse-hair under your No witchcraft can ever harm you
doorstep, it is a sure sign that if you carry a water-lily bud about
someone bas been trying to be- your person.
witch you. The inhabitants of some North-
To keep the witches from riding ern countries nail the head of a
you at night, sleep with an open wolf over the door, to keep out
penknife on your breast. witches.
In some places, witches are sup- People are preserved from
poled to pun unchristened infants witchcraft by sprinkling holy wa-
out of the graves, to use for their ter, receiving consecrated salt, by
wicked purposes. candles hallowed on Candlemas
day, and by green leaves consecrat-
At midailbt boan o'er the Kirkyard
sbe raYes, ed on Palm Sunday.
ADd bowks unchriskoed weans out of Among the Wyandotte Indians,
their an veL" to ascertain if one practices witch-
A witch's hair is always red. craft, the accused runs, during the
A witch, in old times, who want- trial, through fire from east to west
ed to raise an extraordinary tem- and then from north to south, and
pest that would do terrible damage, if no injury is received, he is inno-
would boil hog-bristles and bury cent; but if he falls, he is guilty.
sage until it was rotten, and this To discover a witch, hang a bot-
would bring up the worst storm tle in the chimney of her victim and
imaginable. she will come and ask to have it
It was supposed that if you could removed. Then she can be prop-
pt lOme of the urine of a witch, erly dealt with.
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

Whoever is subject to the influ- the stove, prick the milk with a
ences of magic, witchcraft, or other flesh-fork, and the witch wbo has
malign influence, may destroy the done the mischief will have to ap-
effect of the same by standing in pear.
running water, or even crossing a In England, it is believed that
stream. any baptized person whose eyes
The descendants of sons of the are touched with the elder tree, can
Puritans attribute their success in see what the witches are doing in
life to the fact of some of their an- any part of the world.
cestors' baving been accused of In North Germany, they say if
witchcraft. A witch in the family you wish to see the witches on
brings good luck. May-day, you must stand where
There are said to be 33,333 four roads meet and take an egg
witches in Hungary. laid on Maundy Thursday; or else
There is an old Indian supersti- you must go into a church on
tion that a witch cannot move if Good Friday, but be sure not to
you put a shoe under her chair. stop to hear the benediction.
If you go out unwashed, you are Some people in Germany place
easily bewitched. a small bag of smooth human hair
In the Canary Islands, a coun- over their stomachs, to see if they
tryman, when afraid of witches, are bewitched. If the hair is tan-
gled after three days, they 000-
turns the waistband of his trousers
elude that they are.
wrong side out.
If a thing is bewitched and it If people are bewitched, aDd
burns, the Mtch is sure to come. wish to find out who bewitched
them, they steal a black hen, take
He who has a harrow-nail, found its heart out, and stick it full of
on the highway, can recognize all pins. Then they roast the heart at
witches. the midnight hour. The double 01
During the Middle Ages, and the witch will come and nearly pull
even up to this century, it was of- down the door in her efforts to get
ten considered a mark of impiety in and to save the heart from roast-
to doubt the existence of witches. ing. If this double does not come,
Old women are known as the but a neighbor should happen to
strongest tools of the devil, and as pass by, bad luck would attend the
having the most fatal powers of neighbor.
witchcraft. If a witch-woman overlooks a
To obtain the power and secrets beautiful child, it is bound to die. H
of witchcraft, it is necessary to vis- she overlooks the chum, the butter
it a churchyard at midnight, and cut will be carried off to her own.
off the hand of a recently buried When she enters the place, put a
corpse. red coal under the chum, tie a red
string to the cow's tail, and a
No witch can be killed, except branch of rowan tree on the child's
with a silver bullet. cradle; that will protect both.
To prevent witches from riding The English enveloped small
you at night, put a table-fork un- portions of rice in cloths, marked
der your head. with the name of women suspected
When something has gone of being witches, and placed the
wrong, boil some milk in a pan on whole in a nest of white ants. U
FOLKWRE, AND THE OCCULT SCIBNCES. 1451

the ants devoured the rice in any of then to be tied head and feet to-
these mystic bundles, the charge of gether, and put into a river, on sup-
sorcery was thereby established position that if they swam not they
against the woman whose name it must be guilty. This they offered
bears. to undergo in case their accusers
The Russians put aspen aD 8 should be served in like manner,
witch's grave, to prevent the dead which being done they all 5\\'8nl
sorceress from riding abroad. very buoyant and cleared the ae-
cused."
The residence of the witch Acra-
sia was called "The Bower of Bliss." In Scotland, a suspected witch
She \\~as a most beautiful and fas- was treated no less indecently than
cinating woman. This lovely gar- cruelly, for she was stripped naked
den \\as situated on a floating is- and "cross-bound," that is, her
land, filled with everything which right thumb to the left toe, and her
could conduce to enchant the senses left thumb to the right toe, and then
and wrap the spirit in forgetfulness. thrown into the water; if guilty, it
(Spencer's Fairy Queen.) was believed to be impossible for
her to sink.
In Wales, there is believed to live
a witch called Caurig Bwt, who eats In Wales, as soon as a calf is
the brains of little children. A man dropped, a slit is made in its ear, to
who dared to approach her asked protect them against witchcraft;
her to tell his fortune, when she an- also, wreaths of rowan tree are plac-
swered: "Wait a minute, until I ed about the necks of young calves,
finish this delicious morsel of brain for the same reason.
out of this sweet little skull I" \\Phen a pig is wasting away, it is
Welsh children are frightened with said that a witch has got it, and
the name of this creature. it must be immediately killed, but
A suspected witch was success- not eaten until part of the flesh
fully convicted in the parish of An- is burned, to avoid any ill luck
dreas by a sportsman, who, seeing to those who eat the remainder.
a hare crossing a field, fired and (\Vorcestershire, England.)
wounded it, and, when getting over In the latter half of the sixteenth
hedge to secure his prey, he found century, it was believed that a trag-
that he had shot an old woman, ment of eanh from a grave, when
who was a reputed witch. (Isle of sanctified in the mass and placed on
Mm.) the steps of a church, would pre-
In the Gentleman's Magazine vent the egress of any witch within.
(January, 1731), the following is The same power was attached to
mentioned: a splinter of oak from the gallows,
'From Burlington in Pensilvania sprinkled \vith holy water and hung
'tis advised, that the owners of sev- in the church portal.
eral cattle, believing them to be The witches of Scandinavia, who
be"itched, caused some suspected produced tempests by their incan-
men and women to be taken up and tations, are duplicated in America.
trials to be made for detecting 'em. :\ Cree sorcerer sold three davs of
About 300 people assembled near fair weather for one pound of
the Go,ernot"s house, and a pair of tobacco! The Indian sorcerers
scales being erected, the suspected around Freshwater Bay kept the
persons were each weighed against winds in leather bags, and disposed
large Bible: but all of them vastly of them as they pleased. (Doanel-
outweighed iL The accused were Iy, Atlantis.)

\
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OP SUPERSTITIONS.

The "ordeal drink" of Africa is mates the judicial murders for


prepared from the root of a small witchcraft in England in two haD-
shrub. Half a pint is given to the dred years at thirty thousaod per-
person accused of witchcraft, and sons.
he is obliged to walk five times over To bewitch a person, the witch
a row of small sticks laid doWD. If must have something that bas heeD
the drink makes him dizzy so that worn next the body, or get the vie-
the sticks look like logs to him and tim to accept something &om her.
be steps high or falls, then he is An apple, a sweetmeat, anything
guilty; but if he manages to keep a will do to get a person in your pow-
clear head, be is innocent. er, if he takes iL (Bohemia.)
Witches are gready feared in A "wonder-doctor," in the Tyrol,
Corea, and hated as well; but they when called to assist a bewitched
are employed in long runs of ill person, made exactly at midnight
luck, sickness, or other circum- the smoke of five different sorts of
stances which nothing else will herbs, and while they were bumiDg,
change, to exorcise the malignant the bewitched was gently beatm
demon that is the author of it. The with a martyr-thorn-bircb, which
witch is usually dressed in a fantas- had to be obtained the same nighL
tic garb of brilliant colors, and bas This beating the patient with thoro
a most frightful expression of coun- was thought to be really beatiDg
tenance. the hag who. caused the evil
The Rev. Hilderic Friend, in his The people of Madagascar are 01
"Flowers and Flower Lore" (1884), aD extremely superstitious Dature,
p. 554, gives the following York- and have a multitude of signs.
shire anecdote, narrated to the Rev. omens, myths, and supelstitiODS.
J. C. Atkinson: They have a firm belief in the pow-
"A woman was lately in my shop, er of witchcraft and sorcery, diviDa-
and in pulling out her purse, tion, ghosts and spirits, lucky aad
brought out also a piece of stick a unlucky days, ancestor-worship,
few inches long. I asked her why and the like.
she carried that in her pocket. 'Oh,' Whoever was S1ICcessful in draw-
she replied 'I must not lose that or ing blood from a witch, was free
I shall be done for.' 'Why so?' I from her power. Hence Talbot,
inquired. 'Well,' she answered, when he sees Joan of Arc, in Shake-
'I carry that to keep off the speare's I King Hemy VI (i., 6),
witches; while I have that about exclaims:
me they cannot hurt me.' On
"Devil, or devil's dam, I'll conjure thee:
my observing that I thought there Blood will I draw from thee. thOD art
were no witches now-a-days, she ob- a witch,
served quickly, 'Oh,'yesl There are And straightway give thou soul to him
thirteen at this very time in the thou serv'st."
town; but so long as I have my Circe was a sorceress who tomed
rowan tree safe in my pocket, they the companions of Ulysses iDto
caDDot hurt me.'" swine. He was able to resist her
In England, under the reign of power by the use of the herb moly,
Henry VIII., A D. 1541, a statute given him by Mercury.
declared that aU witchcraft and sor- "Who knows Dot CiJu,
cery was felony without benefit of The daughter of the sun, whose cbanDed
cup
clergy. This happened also in the Whoever tasted lost his upright shape
reign of Queen Elizabeth and of And groveling fell into a gronlilll
James I. James Barrington esti- swine?" (Milton's Comus.)

--d
FOLKLORR. AND THB OCCULT SCIBNCBS.

Sapentitioo, especially in COD- The Lapland witcbes could bring


aection with witchcraft, attached disorders upon men by spitting
great significance to the broom- three times upon a knife and anoint-
stick. Henderson, in his "Folk- ing the victims with the spittle.
Lace," describes a sermon preached Lapland witches are said to have
in Germany, A. D. 151'1, on the in- confessed "that while they fastened
iquity of old hap who drain their
aeighbors' cows milk by milking three knots on a linen towel in the
pump-bandies or broomsticks. name of the devil, and had spit on
them, they called the name of him
R. F. Tombs says, in his "Tradi- they doomed to destruction."
tions and Superstitioos," that in Among the Kaffirs, certain per-
aortb and south Littleton, W orces- sons are believed to have received
tershire, the belief in witches was so from demons the power to be\vitch,
deeply rooted that eyeD houses and thus cause sickness and death.
\vere constructed with holes over The priest, who is also a witch-
the doors or round windows, by finder, is usually appealed to in such
which the witches were assured an cases, and denounces the witch or
easy aiL sorcerer, who is then tortured or
Not very long ago, there lived a put to death. This denoun~ing a
very weD-known old woman in witch is called by the Kaffirs,
Scotland, who made her living by "smelling her OUL"
selling clwms of all kinds, among In the works of Horace, Epode
which ahe had also one against V., 42, "The witches mangling a
witchcraft, consisting in a gruel,
h
boy," reference is made to the witch
thick and slab." Folia, who, with her Thessalian in-
At a recent folklore coogress at cantations, brought down the moon
Yark, some curious charms against and stars from heaven. It was be-
witchcraft were exhibited by Prof. lieved that the Thessa1ians were
E. B. Tylor. He showed a pecu- possessed of these magic arts more
liar "worm-knot," used in the west than other people. They had a
of Ire1aod to heal cattle. The knot, magical instrument by which they
whicb is a small piece of twine done effected their will, called the rhom-
up in a peculiar fashion, is drawn bus.
over the ailing beast's back. If it At Peel, in the Isle of Mao, there
went smoothly, the cow would get is a tradition that a witch with a
well; bat if it caught and hitched, basin of water said that the herring-
death was expected to ensue. fleet would never return. Every
In the old slave da)"s, witchcraft ship was lost, and she was put in a
was practiced in the British West barrel with spikes and roDed down
IDdies, and especially in San Sal- the hill. The place of this horrible
vador, by means of wooden dolls or punishment was fonnerly cov~rN
images, with looking-glass insert- \vith grass. but has ever since re-
ed in the stomach. The Obi-doctor mained barren.
(a kind of sorcerer) would set a It was thought among the early
charm to injure one, and watch the English, that men were preserved
dfttts in the looking-glass stom- from witchcraft by sprinkling with
ach. Wax dolls. into which pins holy water, by receiving consecrat-
were stuck for producing various ed salt. by candles hallowed 00
cIiteua, were also used, as well as Candlemas day, and by green
witched" eggs, cakes, bread, and leaves consecrated on Palm Sun-
caadies. day.
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

U you put a sifteI- under your into the air and come down on the
head at night, the old "hag" will bead of the victim and wound, so
not ride you, for she must pass that be will die in seven days.
through every hole in the sifter, and "An old woman went to a farm
by that time it is day and she will house OD the confines of Radnor-
have to leave. (Negro.) shire, up above Kerry parish,
To keep witches from the bouse, Montgomerysbire, begging. She
bore holes in the door-sill, place in was tokl to leave the place, as they
them pieces of paper, containing had nothing to give away. The old
mysterious writing, and plug the woman departed, and it was seen by
holes. (Buffalo Valley.) some one who watched her, that
The dried skins of snakes worn she took away with her out of the
next the skin in Scotland, will pre- farm yard a fistful of straw. The
serve the wearer from the power of next day a healthy calf died; and
witchcraft. day after day, one after the other,
calf after calf, died. The fanner
If you have bread and salt about went to a conjurer, and told him all
you, you are safe from sorcery. about the woman's visit, of their un-
Years ago, it was believed that if kindness to her, and how she had
you strewed mustard seed about the taken straw away with her. The
bed, it would keep witches away. conjurer told the farmer to take the
If a woman puts her petticoat on heart of the next calf that should
hind part in froot, she will be secure die and prick it all over with a fock.
against witchcraft. adding that the person who bad
witched him and brought about the
In Spain and Italy, forked pieces death of his calves, would thea ap-
of coral are in high repute as witch- pear and ask for something, and
scarers. that they were to give her whatever
A German superstition is that if she asked. A calf died shortly after
anyooe can catch a little of the dust the farmer's visit to the coojurer,
which the minister throws into the and, acting on the instruetiODS re-
grave, and places it before the ceived, its heart was taken out of
church, any person who is a witch its body, and the farmer began
cannot cross it. pricking it with a fork, and for a
A charm to "shorten a night- while be continued doing so; tben.
goer OD this side," or rather to while in the very act of driving the
harm or destroy a witch, runs as fork to the very handle into the
follows: "Listen. In the frigid heart, the old beggar woman ap-
land above, you repose, 0 red mao, peared, and she seemed to be suf-
quickly we t\VO have prepared your fering agonies of pain, and rushing
arrows for the soul of the Impre- into the house, she said: "In the
cator. (The witch.) Quickly we name of God, what are you doing
two will take his soul as we go here ?" The farmer did not pretend
along. Quickly now we two have that he was doing anything in par-
prepared your arrows. He has them ticular, and when he saw the beg-
lying along the path. Quickly we gar he stopped the work he was eo-
two will cut his soul in two." The gaged in, and the beggar was in-
shaman places arrows outside of the stantly relieved of her bodily paiD,
tent, and if the witch approaches, and now she requested the gift oi a
under cover of night, or the "Im- few potatoes, which were iostaDtly
precator" under the form of an ani- given her, and she departed, and 00
mal, the charmed arrows will fly more calves died."
;-.~
~-::
..c::: .....
:oC:l
~
~
FOU:LORE. ~ND THB OCCULT SCIBNCES. 1455

In times of chivalry, the knight can, but always stops at her own
wore as a protection from witches a cottage, on the edge of a forest. She
clover leaf on his falchion ann. is plainly the wind, which ceases
"Woe, woe to the wight, who meetl the blowing when it comes to a thick
gray knight, forest. And there are the usual
ExJ)t on his falchion arm secondary evil spirits, who live in
Spell proof, be bear like the great St- the waters or the woods. (RussiaD.)
Clair,
The holy trefoil', charm." Normandy is par excellence the
The clover takes its sacred and land of witches and sorcerers. It is
lucky qualities from the fact that it common to hear of people OD which
: is three-leaved, and thus represents a "tour" has been cast. A "tour" is
J the Trinity. a species of malefic charm, which
can only be conjured by having a
The antiquity of witchcraft is mass said by a priest in a scarlet
vouched for by the book of Deuter- vestment, and if the patient returns
onomy in the Bible, where it says: home without speaking a single
'7here shaD not be iound among word. If these rules are complied
you anyone that maketh his son or with, the "tour" falls on the one
his daughter to pass through the who cast it, and he will be heard
fire, or that useth divination, or is shrieking at night in his bed, and
aD observer of times, or an enchant-
those who listen say devoutly: "The
er, or a witch, or a charmer, or a devil is scourging him I"
CODSulter with familiar spirits, or a .
wizard, or a necromancer." The In France, the notorious "Witch-
penalty for these things was to be Sabbath of Arras" was instituted in
pat to death. 1459, and the celebratioD of the un-
holy rites continued in the southern .
Russian folklore endows some provinces of France until the sev-
witches with wonderful power. Not enteenth century. In the reign of
long ago, one of them hid away so Charles IX., the great sorcerer
much rain in her cottage that not a Rinaldo des Trois Echelles was ex-
drop fell all summer long. One day ecuted, and he undauntedly said be-
abe went out, and gave strict orders fore the king that in France he had
to the servant girl in charge, not to 300,000 confederates, "all of whom
meddle with the pitcher which stood you cannot commit to the flames as
in the corner. But no sooner had you do mel"
she got out of sight than the maid
lift~ the cover of the pitcher and Spanish witches threw a powder
look~ in. Nothing was to be seen, over the fruits of the field, causing
but a voice said from the inside: a hailstorm which destroyed them.
"Now there will be rainl" The The demon accompanied them on
girl, frightened out of her wits, ran these occasions in the form of a
to the door, and the rain was com- husbandman. As they threw the
ing down just as if it was rushing powder, this verse was chanted:
out of a tub. The witch came "Polvol, polvos,
running home and covered up Pierda Ie tado,
Oueden los nuestro!,
the pitcher, and the rain ceased. If Y adrasense otros."
the pitcher had stood uncovered
Spanish witches, when they en-
much longer, all the village would
tered a house, threw a powder over
have been drowned.
the faces of the inmates, producing
There is a frightful witch, called so deep a slumber that nothing
the Baba Yaga, who flies over land could wake them until the witches
and &ea, doing all the mischief she had gone.
ENCYCLOP~IA OF SUPBRSTITIONS.

The Powysland tale tells the tale it would make anyone worse 101" re-
of a fairy cow, which was to give peating before the chum, 'The
milk to the famished people on blessing of God on the milk.'" But
Stapeley HiD as long as each only the magistrates thought differently,
drew one pail a day, and of the and informed the farmer that there
witch who tried to circumvent the was no freedom for him or anyone
beneficent gift by drawing milk at else to draw blood from old women
night into a bottomless pail: or to take them against their will to
The bottom from a pail she took bless the milk or the chum, as there
And there a riddle placed, was really no power in any SOI'-
That as she drew, the milk went thro', ceress to prevent her neighbors
And ran away to waste. from churning. It was a common
An hour she milked with wicked speed, belief among the old people that to
As hard as she could pull; draw the blood out of a witch would
The fairy cow much wondered how prevent her witching anyone else.
The pail was never full
A witch may be found out in va-
But suddenly a lightning flash rious ways: You may take glow-
Shot downward to the heath,
The wondering cow saw plainly DOW ing coals and throw them into wa-
The wasted milk beneath. ter, which will give the witch a sore
mouth or a sore finger, by which
One kick she gave, the wicked bag her character is made known.
Fell backward in affright;
While in the ground, without a sound, Or you may go out and select a
The cow sank out of sighL hard stump and give it three blows
The witch's feet were fastened to with an axe, and if the axe sticks
the ground, and when the people fast the third time, the witch, if any
. came for their milk, they exacted there be, will die in three days.
full vengeance. Or take a rusty nail from the
door or fence of a graveyard, beod
On Thursday, the 25th of March, it like a hook and throw it OD the
1830, an inquiry was held before ground. The witch will be sure to-
the magistrates at Uanfyllin, step upon it, and it will then be
Wales, which disclosed facts of a re- known by her limp. (Penosylvania
markable character. A young farm- German.)
er was charged with shocking bru- There is an old legend that the
tality to an old woman. The fol- devil was the original designer of
lowing was the old woman's state- the celebrated Cologne cathedral,
ment: "The defendant came to my with its twin towers 515 feet high.
house, and prevailed on me, against The devil drew the plan for a monk,
my will, to accompany him home,
and then made me kneel down be- who cheated the designer out of his
fore the chum and repeat these stipulated recompense. Satan, the
words: 'The blessing of God be on legend says, bit off his tail in pure
the milk!' On remonstrating \vith vexation, and has ever since done
him, he pierced a nail through my his level best to prevent the comple-
hand, until the blood flowed." The tion of the cathedral, which, in fact,
poor woman showed her wounded was over 500 years in building.
hand. The farmer \vas asked if he Near Salem, Massachusetts, there
had anything to say for himself, is a place called Gallows' Hill, on
when he replied: "I could not which the witches were executed
churn, which happened very often, after they were tried. This spot is
so I thought it best to get the wom- believed to be haunted ever since~
an to bless the milk. I do not think witches holding there, on a certain
FOLKLORE, ~ND THB OCCULT SCIBNCES.

night, their yearly carnival. Cour- for various diseases of children, ac-
ageous young people, anxious to cording to the locality. It was very
find out whether, when. or to whom common in south\vestern Pennsyl-
they would be married, could be vania. and trees from that locality
told by them, if they dare to go within the last ten }'ears have been
there on that particular night. found to contain a lock of hair, the
\\henever anything important was annual rings of wood around it
about to happen, the screeching and showing it to have been inserted
screaming of the witches would be over a hundred and fifty years ago.
heard in the neighborhood. Turner mentions a curious cus-
The "Sabbat" was a supposed as- tom existing in New Caledonia
sembly of witches met in mystic when he visited it early in the cen-
conclave and presided over by the tury, in connection ,,,ith the pre-
devil. An introduction to its orgies vailing belief in disease-makers. If
\\"as effected by rubbing the soles a nlan was suspected of \\"itchcraft,
of the feet and the palms of the and supposed to have caused there-
hands with an enchanted pomade. by the death of persons, he was for-
The effect of this was the supply of mally condemned. Immediatelv
\\jngs \\ith which the initiated flew after sentence had been passed
to the Sabbat. There they kept up upon him a great festival was held,
ridiculous baccanals until morning. during which the criminal. decked
..\ meeting-place of the witches, with a garland of red flowers and
made famous in Goethes "Faust," shells, and his face and body paint-
\\"as OD the summit of the Bracken, ed black, dashed into the midst of
in the Hartz mountains. The the assembled people, and jumping
greatest Sabbat of all the year was over the rocks into the sea, paid the
believed to be held on Walpurgis penalty of his supposed crime by
night, the eve of ~fay 1st. the forfeiture of his life.
The general prevalence. popular- When witches wish to raise the
ity, and influence of magic in the wind, they take a rag and a beetle,
civilized states of antiquity. renders knock the rag on a stone twice, and
it extremely probable that it ,vas say:
the most effectual instrument by "I knock this rag upon this slane,
To raise the wind in the devil's name,
which the people were ~ovemed, It shall not lie till I please again."
and by which a great degree of their
national tranquillity and power was To la}" the wind, they dry the rag,
sustained. and say thrice over:
"I lay the ,,"ind in the de\'il's name,
"iears ago. ,,"hen witches were It shall not rai~ tin he like to raise it
,er)" generally believed in this again."
country to exist, a child who \vas If it will not lie immediately, cry
supposed to be bewitched, was tak- "Thief, thief, conjure the wind and
~n to the woods and stood up cause it to lie."
against a white oak tree. A hole In 1759, a woman bv the name
was bored in the tree at the exact of Susannah Hameokes, who was
height of the child, a lock of its quite old, \\as accused of being a
hair stuck in the hole, and a tight \\itch. TIle charge against her by
plug inserted. The hair \\"as then one of her neighbors, was that in
clippM. freeing the child from the using the spinning wheel, she could
~ It was then carried home not make it go around, either one
without being permitted to look wa}' or the other. \\hen the \\'itch
back. This remedy was also used was brought to trial, her husband
ENCYCLOPAEDIA 011 SUPBRSTITIONS.

suggested that his wife be tried by the dead and in their belief in
the church Bible, and his wife witchcraft, asserting that witches
should be present. This was as- can assume the form of any animal,
sented to, and the husband brought pursue a man in the night, and cre-
her to be tried. The people flocked ate disease, by casting snakes,
in great numbers to see the cere- worms, stones, bits of fabric, and so
mony. The woman was stripped of forth into him, thus making sores
nearly all her clothes, and she was and the like. But the theurgists are
put into one scale, while the Bible able to remove these evils, and a
was put into the other. To the as- snake was removed from an Indian
tonishment of the crowd, she out- while the writer was staying with
weighed the Bible, and was thus them, much to the satisfaction of the
proved innocent. patient, who had a cold, but (by
In Russia, in olden times, when power of his own faith) got better
anyone was suspected of witchcraft, right away.
a number of people gathered by the In Russ~ the witches' holiday is
side of the river Soupsa, near the the eve of the first of September.
old tower "Bookees Seekha." To On that evening, all the witches
this place the unfortunate suspect come out of their hiding places and
was brought and stripped naked, roam about. To prevent their do-
hands and feet fastened, and a rope ing any harm to persons, cattle or
tied around his waist, to prevent crops, the people stick a piece of
him from drowning, and then the wax on their heads, and on the
person was put into a deep place in heads of their cattle. They also
the side of the river. If he went to shoot off guns on that evening, to
the bottom at once, he was quickly frighten the witches away.
drawn out, for that proved his inno- If witches are married, it becomes
cence; but if be 110ated on the top, necessary to administer to their
he was then taken and branded with husbands a potioD that shall cause
a red-hot iron, in the shape of a them to slumber and keep them
cross, to wam the people that he asleep during their absence in the
was a wicked witch. They believed night, and for this purpose the
that after that branding, he could "sleep-apple," a mossy sort of ex-
never after do them any harm. crescence on the wild rose, is em-
The natives of the Canary Is- ployed, which will not allow any-
lands are firm believers in witches one to awake until it is removed.
and sorcerers of all kinds, who go
out at night in the shape of pigs, "With lips of rosy hoe,
Dipp'd five times over in ambrosial dew,
donkeys, large dogs, or cats. Many She led them to their destruction."
are supposed to practice "black A famous enchantress, sojourn-
magic," such as making animals ill, ing in the Isle of Man, had b) her
wishing ill to people and making it diabolical arts made herself appear
come true, also sticking pins into so lovely in the eyes of men that she
images to make them waste away. ensnared the hearts of as many as
There are, in fact, many "wise" beheld her. The passion they bad for
men and women, who cure the her so took up all their hearts that
afflicted by means of their simples they entirely neglected their usual
and prayers. In Teneriffe, lives an occupations. They neither plough-
old woman who is believed to effect ed nor sowed, neither built houses,
cures by prayer, even at a distance. nor repaired them; their gardens
The Sia Indians have something were all overgrown \\"ith \veeds, and
appalling to thern in the return of their once fertile fields ,,ere cov-
FOLKWRE 1
~ND THE OCCULT SCIENCES.

ered with stones; their cattle died First \Vitch. Round about the cauldron
for want of pasture; their turf lay in go;
In the poison'd entrails throw.
the bowels of the earth undug for, Toad, that under cold stODe
and everything had the appearance Days and nights has thirty-one
of an utter desolation, even propa- Swelter'd venom sleepinl got,
gation ceased, for no man could Boil thou first i' the charmed poL
have the least inclination for any All. Double, double toil and trouble;
Fire burn and cauldron bubble.
woman but this universal channer. Second Witch. Fillet of a fenny SDake,
who smiled on them, permitted In the cauldron boil and bake;
them to follow and admire her, and Eye of newt and toe of frol,
gave everyone leave to hope him- Wool of bat, and tongue of dog,
self would be at last the happy He. Adder's fork, and blind-worm's StiD"
Lizard's leg, and howlet's wing,
When she had thus allured th~ male For a charm of powerful trouble,
part of the island, she pretended Like a hell-broth boil and bubble.
one day to go a progress through All Double, double toil and trouble;
the provinces, and being attended Fir~ burn and cauldron bubble.
Third Witch. Scale of dralon, tooth of
by all her adorers on foot, while she wolf,
rode on a milk-white palfrey, in a Witches' mummy, maw and gulf
kind of triumph at the head of Of the ravin'd salt-sea shark.
th~m. She led them into a deep Root of hemlock digged i' the clark.
river, which by her art she made Liver of blaspheming Jew,
Gall of goat, and slips of yew
seem passable, and when they were Silftr'd in the moon's eclipse,
all come a good '?lay in it, she caus- Nose of Turk, and Tartar's lips,
ed a sudden wind to rise, which, Finger of birth-stranlled babe
driving the waters in such abun- Ditch-deliftred by a drab,
dance to one place, swallowed up Make the gruel thick and slab:
Add thereto a tiaer'1 chaadron,
the poor lovers, to the number of six For the ingredients of our cauldron.
hundred. in their tumultuous waves. All. Double, double toil and trouble;
After which, the sorceress was seen Fire burn and cauldron bubble. '
by some persons, who stood on the Second Witch. Cool it with a baboOD'1
blood,
shore, to convert herself into a bat, Then the charm is firm and 10od.
and fly through the air till she was (Shakespeare, Macbeth, iv., I.)
out of sight, as did her palfrey into
a sea hog or porpoise, and instantly An old writer, speaking of the
pow~rs of witches, says:
plunged itself to the bottom of the
stream. 1. Some work their bewitchings
To prevent the recurrence of a only by way of invocation or impre-
like disaster, it was ordained that cation. They wish it, or will it; and
the women should go on foot and so it falls out.
follow th~ men henceforth, \vhich 2. Some by way of emissary.
custom is so religiously observed, sending out their imps, or familiars,
that if by chance a woman is seen to cross the way, justle, affront,
walking before a man, whoever sees flash in the face, barke, howle, bit~,
her cries out immediately: "Tehi! scratch, or otherwise infest.
T~Ki!" which, it would appear, is
. 3. Some by inspecting, or look-
Ing on, or to glare, or pe~p at with
the name of the enchantress who an envious and evil eve.
occasioned this law. 4. Some by a hoflow mutt~ring
First Witch. Thrice the brioded cat or mumbling.
hath mew'el. . o. Some by breathing and blow-
Second Witch. Thrice and once the
hedge-hoI _hin'd. Ing 00.
Tbir'd Witch. Harpier cries: 'Tis time, 6. Some by cuning and ban-
'tis time. ning.
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

'1. Some by blessing and prais- drinks of this belongs to our lea~
ing. and is directly capable of bewitch-
8. Some revengefully, by occa- ing." Thus by "bewitchment," they
sion of ill tumes. first kill the child, and then make
9. Some ingratefully, and by 0c- a "bewitching potion" out of its
casion of good tumes. body. And people believed it. "We
10. Some by leaving something bewitch cattle by the touch," says
of theirs in your house. another. "and make for such pur-
11. Some by getting something poses all kinds of magical instru-
of yours into their house. ments, pictures, toads, lizards, and
12. Some have a more special snakes. We lay these things under
way of working by several elements door-sills, and they spoil the milk
--earth, water, ayre, or fire. But in the house and produce disease in
who can tell all the manner of ways the cows." A few old women ad-
of a witch's working; that works mitted that they had made furious
not only darkly and closely, but va- thunderstorms, and were immedi-
riously and versatilly, as God will ately burnt for it. It was a damn-
permit, the devil can suggest, or the ing thing if the accused, when
malicious bag devise to put in prac- brought before the judge, did not
tice." shed tears. He at once decided the
person could kill by a glance of the
One of the most amazing things eye, and she was burnt on the spoL
connected with the persecutions of
so-called witches, consists of their But the records of the unspeakable
own confessions under the torture.
atrocities of the SUperstitiOD of
It seems a miracle in itself that any witchcraft are endless.
persons who were in their senses The folklore of the Canary ls-
should accuse themselves of things lands has the following story:
so contrary to nature and reason. There was a man who bad a witch
One would think that, knowing wife, but he did DOt know it. One
they were to die anyway, no matter night he got up at midnight and
what they said, they took delight in missed his wife. He wondered
fooling their judges as far as possi- much, but remained quiet. Next
ble. Thus, under the "witch-ham- night he resolved to watch what she
mer" book of Pope Innocent VIII., did, and he saw her go into the next
which accused everyone not a room, where she began to anoint
priest of being a witch, a "child-eat- herself, repeating: "From rafter to
er" related the following ceremonial rafter, without God or 51. Maria!"-
before the tribunal of justice: "We She repeated this three times, and
lie in wait," she said, "for children. then disappeared through the roof..
These are often found dead by their Said the husband to himself: hI
parents, and the simple people be- will do the same to-morrow, so as
lieve that they have overlain them Jo follow her and see where she
in bed or that they have died of goes." Next night, after she had
natural causes, but it is we who repeated the process and gone, he
have destroyed them. For that pur- imitated her, only instead of saying,
pose we steal babies and children "without God and St. Maria," he
out of the grave, boil them with said, "with God and St. Alaria."
1ime until all the flesh is loosened Consequently, when he rose to the
from the bones, and is reduced to ceiling, he hit himseH with such
one mass. We make out of the force that he was greatly burt. aDd
firm part an ointment, and fill a bot- when his wife returned in the m0rn-
tle with the fluid; and whoever ing, she found him dying.
FOLKLORE, ~ND THE OCCULT SCIENCES.

A correspondent from Teneriffe. \\hich they made themselves invisi-


Canary Islands, sent the follo\ving ble. Thev made the "pitch-butter,
story, which was told her by a poor co-operante diabolo. from the auro-
blind man as his own experience: ra-colored matter exuded fronl the
On the 19th of November, l~U-l, he bodies of children "'hich thev had
caDle from the village of Realijo, stolen and carried off to the Biocks-
conducting his donkey, laden with berg. (This is exactly parallel with
empt) soda water bottles. In the the idea still prevalent in India,
house from \\'hich he had brought elsewhere noted, of European gen-
the bottles, he had been, in com- tlemen stealing fat black bo)'s, to
pany with others, making fun and make seven drops of miraculous
laughing at the idea of witches, and fluid to cure wounds.)
he was one of the most scornful oi The fifteenth, sixteenth and sev-
all. 'Let them come; I am not enteenth centuries in England were
afraid r' said he. llety;een 11 and full of the most devilish belief in
12, he came to the town of Cabezas, \\"itches, as was all Europe, and no
and remembered saluting passers- one was safe from accusation, tor-
b) who spoke to him, when sud- ture, and death. Put to the torture,
denly he found himself on fine sand, \\'hich was never ended until the
and knew by the sand that he was person confessed his or her guilt,
""ithin a quarter of a league from (although perfectl}p innocent), or he
the town. Then he fclt himself or she died, a state of hvsteria was
held down and surrounded by peo- produced that so affected the minds
ple, and voices said: "Shall \\e of the whole people that a sort of
throw him in the sea, for having cataleptic state ensu~. so that those
~poken ill of us?" and others an- under torture \\"ere partially insen-
swered: UNo, let him go; he has sible to every agony, to stab and
done good to many." The voices blow, pinching and burning. t"pist-
were those of women and one man, ing and screwing, racking and tear-
and he thinks he kno\\'s the voice of ing, to \\phich they \vere subjected
one woman. Instantly he found by their loving and kind-hearted
himself in the gate of the Roman neighbors. As in hysterical cases.
Catholic cemetery in the town, and their bodies were sometimes blo\\PJl
he was able to guide himself back up like a barrel without bursting:
to the spot from whence he had then again drawn in as if they were
~m so suddenly taken: but his totally gone, and as suddenly again
donkey had not been seen, and was puffed up as with a pair of bellows.
not thn-e. So he went back to the and with the loudest noises. as if
sandy place by Cabezas, and there !'truck, moved up and down and
was the donkey lying on the then sunk and swelled again. From
ground. the different parts of the hodi~s of
One especial kind of witchcraft the "bewitch~d." all sorts of mate-
was the appearance of all kinds of rials and working implements mad~
things in all parts of the body, as th~ir way, as egg-shells, hairs, cloth.
thread and laces, worsted and Yam, )am, pins. needl~s, glass, while
potshn-ds, needles and nail!'," nay. others for long periods took no
neD living things. as lizards, toads. nourishment at all, v~t remained
and mice, worms and frogs, that fat and in full str~ngth. So has
were believed to be "conjured" in- superstition been at the root of
to the stomach. The witches cook- nine-tenths of all the mental and
ftI their own broth and prepared physical f~ars. laOOn. torture-Sf
their own butter and salve, with wickedness. and evil of this world.
BNCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

Generally in the name of God. (Eo- Roman oar the pagan nations of
nemoser, History of Magic.) northern Europe, was witchcraft
If a witch wishes to go in the deemed an offence against religioD;
shape of a cat, she says thrice: in some instances, indeed, the witch
UI shall go into one cat, was supposed to derive her powers
With SOITOW and such and a black shotl from spirits friendly to manldod,
And I shall go in the devils' name, and her profession, though feared,
Ay, until I come home again." was held in honor by her infatuat-
To get out of a cat's shape, she ed dupes. Upon the introductioo
will say: of Christianity, witchcraft assumed
"Cat, cat, God send thee a black shotJl a new form, though retaining all its
I was a eat just now, old atbibutes. Instead of ascribing
But I shall be in womana' likaleaa even the supernatural powers of the prac-
DOW."
titioner to the gods, to Odin, to
To go in the shape of a bare, she spirits of good or evil qualities, or
says: to supposed mysteries in nature, the
uI shall go into a hare, people imputed them to the great
With sorrow and such and muclde care, fallen spirit mentioned in Scripture.
And I shall go in the devils' name.
Ay, 'till I come home again." This potent being, from a wicked
desire to destroy all that was good
To get out of that shape, she will and hopeful in man's destiny, was
repeat three times: believed to enter into a compact
"Hare bare, God send thee ~I
Jl
with the aspirant witch, in which,
I am in a hares' likeness just now,
But I shall be in a womans' likeness for an irrevocable assignment of ber
even now." soul at death, he was to graot all
To ride on the wind, she takes her wishes, and assist in aU her ma-
winnowed straw or bean-stalks, sits levolent projects. These new fea-
astride of them~ and says: tures in witchcraft thoroughly
"Horse and Hattock, horse and go, changed and prodigiously extended
Horse and pellaris ho I ho I" the superstition throughout Eu-
If she wants to go through the rope. From being rather sportive
key-hole, she says: jugglery, or trick in pradic:al
''Trip in a true ting,
magic, and at most only a civil of-
Troo the key-hole I go." fence, it was recognized as a crime
of the deepest dye, meriting the
Witches are so dangerous that most severe chastisement which
you must never refuse them any the ecclesiastical and civil power
request. To determine whether a could inflict.
woman is a witch, have her sit
down, and stick a fork in the floor In his bull of 1484, Pope Inno-
under her chair while she is not cent charged inquisitors and othen
looking; if she is a witch, she win to discover and destroy all such as
not be able to move until you take were guilty of witchcraft. This
up the fork. commission was put into the hands
A belief that certain individuals of a wretch called Sprenger, with
possessed magical powers, and directions that it should be put in
could exercise a supernatural influ- force to its fullest extent. Imme-
ence over their fellow-creatures, ex- diately there followed a regular
isted in ancient Rome, and those form of process and trial for sus-
who practiced, or rather pretended pected witches, entitled "Malleus
to exercise, such arts, were punish- Maleficorum, or a Hammer for
able by the civil magistrate. It is to Witches," upon which all judges
be observed that neither among the
,were called scrupulously to act. The
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES.

edict of 1484 \\as subsequently en- minded beings, whose reason had
forced by a bull of .t\lexander VI., been distorted by brooding over the
in 1494:, of Leo X., in 1521, and of popular witchcraft code. A few ex-
Adrian VI., in 152tl, each adding tracts from the work of Dr. Hutch-
strength to its predecessor, and the inson will show the extent of these
whole serving to increase the agita- proceooings:
tion of the public mind upon the "A. D. 1485-Cumanas, an in-
subject. The results were dreadful. quisitor, burnt forty-one poor wom-
A panic fear of witchcraft took pos- en for witches, in the county of
session of society. Every one was Burlia, in one year. He caused
at the mercy of his neighbor. If them to be shaved first, that they
anyone felt an unaccountable ill- may be searched for marks. He
ness, or a peculiar pain in any part continued the prosecutions in the
of his body, or suffered any misfor- year following, and many fled out
tune in his family or affairs, or if a . of the country.
storm arose and committed any "About this time, Alciat, a fa-
damage by sea or land, or if any mous lawyer, in his Parergu, says:
cattle died suddenly, or, in short, if 'One inquisitor burnt a hundred in
any event, circumstance, or thing Piedmont, and proceeded daily to
occurred out of the ordinary rou- bum more, till the people rose
tine of daily experience, the cause against the inquisitor, and chased
of it was witchcraft. To be accused him out of the country.'
was to be doomed, for it rarely hap- "A. D. 1488-A violent tempest
pened that proof was wanting, or of thunder and lightning in Con-
that condemnation was not follow- stance destroyed the com for four
ed by execution. Armed with the leagues round. The people accus-
"Malleus Maleficorum," the judge ed one Anne ~findelin, and one
had DO difficulty in finding reasons Agnes, for being the cause of it.
for sending the most innocent to They confessed and were burnt.
the stake. "About this time, H. Institor
If the accused did not at once says, one of the inquisitors came to
confess, the)- were ordered to be a certain town, that was almost des-
shaved and closely examined for olate with plague and famine. The
the discovery of the devil's marks; report went that a certain woman,
it ~ing a tenet in the delusion that buried not long before. was eating
the devil, on inaugurating any up her winding-sheet, and that the
witch, impressed certain marks on plague would not cease till she had
~r person; and if any strange mark made an end of it. This matter be-
"as discovered, there remained no ing taken into consideration, Scul-
longer any doubt of the party's tetus, Ylith the chief magistrate of
guilL Failing this kind of evidence, the city, opened the grave, and
torture was applied, and this sel- found that she had indeed swal-
dom failed to extort the desired lowed and devoured one-half of her
confession from the unhappy vic- ,,'inding-sheet. Scultetus, mo\"~d
tim. A large proportion of the ac- \vith horror at the thing, drew out
cusOO witches. in order to avoid his sword and cut off her head. and
these preliminary horrors, confe~sed thre\v it into a ditch. and immedi-
the crime in any terms which \vere ately the plague ceased! and the in-
dictated to them, and were forth- quisition sitting upon the case, it
"ith led to execution. Other was found that she had long been a
witches, as has been said, seemed to reputed witch.
confess voluntarily, being probably "A. D. 152-l-About this time, a
either insane persons, or feeble- thousand were burned in onc ).ear,
4
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

in the diocese of Como, and a hun- Scarcely had I arrived in Roche-


dred per annum for several years fort-en-Terre, a delightful little
together." town in Brittany, when I met an
From other authorities it. is artist in search of landscapes.
learned that the devastation was as "You're looking for sorcerers?"
great in Spain, France, and north- he said. He knew my weakness for
ern Germany, as it was in the Ital- folklore and the like. "Very well,
ian states. About the year 1515, we have here what you want-Naia
five hundred witches were burned Kermadec, the Witch of Roche-
in Geneva in three months, and in fort,' who is well known all over the
France many thousands. country; only I can't be sure that
The prosecution of witches was you will be able to see her, for DO
no less severe in England and Scot- one knows exactly where she is.
land, where it began about the mid- People have met her on the same
dle of the sixteenth century. '-Bar- day at places very far from one an-
rington, in his observations on the other, and it is difficult to explain
statute of Henry VI., does not hesi- how such an old woman can travel
tate to estimate the number of those so fast over such considerable dis-
put to death in England on the tances. The good folks of Roche-
charge of witchcraft, at thirty thou- fort are convinced that there is
sand." something supernatural in this.
In the middle of the seventeenth "They will tell you that Naia
century, a class of people sprang up travels on a broom through the air
which called themselves profession- -or maybe underground-when
ally witch-finders. They made a she does not want to be seen going
business of accusing persons with on her errands; that she fears nei-
certain marks, putting them to so- ther fire nor water, disappears when
called tests, and committing them she likes, and takes any shape that
to the gallows or scaffold. For this may suit her purpose. Through
"clearing the locality of suspected her magical power, they say, she at-
persons," they received big fees tracts young people, especiaDy
those who are in love."
from the magistrates. One of these "How long has she lived here," I
noted witch-finders was a certain asked, "and where does she come
Mathew Hopkins, who lived during
from?"
the second half of the seventeenth
"Old people say they have alwa)-s
century, and is recorded to have
known her as she is DOW," returned
brought several hundred persons to
my friend; "withered and bony
death by these foul means.
through age. They remembered
The following interesting article, having heard of a family named
entitled "Naia, the Witch of Roche- De Kermadec, who had the repu-
fort," by Charles Geniaux of Paris, tation of knowing wonderful secrets
which appeared in the "Wide and were suspected of having been
World Magazine," October, 1899, in league with the spirit of dark-
demonstrated how deep-rooted the ness. Well, Naia is supposed to be
belief in witches is even in our days, the last member of that old famil)-.
and how a wily old woman, in the "I have spoken to her once,'
last year of the nineteenth century, added my informant, "and I was
manages to influence, keep in a\ve, astonished at her marvelous intel-
and almost rule the inhabitants in ligence, her knowledge, and the in-
and around Rochefort-en-Terre, in formation she seems to possess, in
Brittany, by her supposed magical spite of her retirement and isola-
and supernatural powers: tion."
FOLKLORE~ AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES.

For a fortnight I was disappoint- peted with ivy, and her cold eyes
ed in my search for Naia. To all were making a survey of my per-
my questions, the peasants invaria- son.
bly answered that they did not I felt compelled to come through
know \vhere she was living at pres- curiosity, railing inwardly at the
ent. One morning at daybreak, witch and at the stupid credulity of
however, a young boy knocked at the peasants.
mv door. 1\ow, however, I was awed by
-.. ~Iake haste, sir," he cried ; this strange creature, and seized by
"make haste-the witch has come a vague, oppressive \\'onder, which
back to the old manor. If you like, made my heart beat faster than
I will take you to the ruins," he usual.
added. "I know where to find the "Have no fear, my son, but ap-
Door of Hellt' through which Naia proach," she said, with much dig-
goes out." ity and an ironical smile, as I stood
I accepted his offer with pleasure. motionless at some distance from
Some minutes later we were pro- her.
ceeding at a brisk pace towards the There was in her deep voice an
"'itch's den. The ruins of the unaccountable charm. It was at
Chateau de Rieux are heavilv once soft and sonorous. with the
clothed with ivy, and are situated expressive inflections of people ac-
on an abrupt and rocky hill. cov- customed to speak in public.
ered \vith ancient oaks. Sometimes I told her how curious I was to
l\aia is seen coming out of crannies get acquainted with her, and I tried
in the rock, and sometimes disap- cautiouslv to induce her to talk
pearing in the crumbling towers or about her "marvelous" powers.
deep dungeons of the mediaeval She at once got up, looking very
stronghold. tall and dignified.
Suddenly my young guide ma- ..'\00 thou, my SOD, dost thou
lici~usly can away. laughing. I believe in supernatural giftsP" she
turned round hastily to call after asked.
him, and found myself in the dread- I \\'anted to be conciliatory. 10 I
ed presence of the weird inhabitant answered with prudence.
of the ruins. "It depends. I believe that cer-
There she stood in her majestic tain mysteries in nature are not yet
and withered ugliness, solemn and explained, but I am rather like St.
imposing as a pythoness of ancient Thomas. who wanted to see before
times. In silence we looked at each he believed."
other. Her eyes inspire awe; they "Town folks are such unbeliev-
are sunken, creamy in hue, and ers," retorted ~aia, with an empha-
glassy, like those of the dead. Her sis. "They know a little, and fancy
large, bony hands rest on a thorn they know all. I like peasants best.
stick, and a kind of colorless shroud I direct them in their business. and
partly covers her head and shoul- they feel the benefit of it. \Vhen
ders. falling down to her feet. Long the-priest is powerless, the husband-
locks of white hair escape in dis- men come to me, and I tell them:
order, from her hood. An indom- trust Gnami," she went on, "he is
itable will is impressed on her powerful: Gnami dares heaven; he
,,-rinkled face, with its marked ex- is stron~er than death!"
pression of intelligence, which is "Who, then, is Gnami?"
still more striking than the horrid "He is the one who obeys me--
ugliness of her features. the one who flies through air at my
1\aia was sitting in a niche car- order. Gnami is the human spirit
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

of man. I make him travel wber- Naia, in such moments, is appar-


ever I wish. I have only to think ently insensible to pain.
and he executes my commands." uI have seen her," a peasant told
"You must be very rich, Madame me, has truly as I see you, placing
Naia, with such a great power." her hands on the fire for several
"My SOD, thou speakest like a minutes and picking up red-hot
mortal," she retorted, rather sc0rn- coals, which she crushed with her
fully. "Those who can possess fingers and scattered to the winds."
everything if they choose, have She generally gives some of the
never any wish-" cinders to those who consult her,
"You have said just DOW that I with the injunction to apply them
was speaking like a mortal. Is it, to the sick, whether it be a human
then, that you consider yourself an being or an animal.
immortal being?" I asked. At Pluherlin, a small neighboring
"I do not remember ever having village, Naia saved an old man
been a child, and Gnami, who exists from a blazing fire. In vain his son
in me, cannot die, for he is a spirit." had tried to penetrate into the bum-
I could see my questions were ing house, where the father was ly-
beginning to tire her. She refused ing in bed. Overpowered by the
point-blank to answer me when 1 violence of the flames, the youth
tried to penetrate into her secrets was obliged to retreat, and, mad
and formula of incantation. Still, with grief and despair, was crying
before I left, I persuaded her to let bitterly, when suddenly Naia stood
me take her photograph, and told by him. She whispered something
her that it would be published in in his ear; he nodded assent, and
"The Wide World Magazine." She the witch, quietly entering the roar-
smiled, and gave me leave to come ing furnace, delivered the old man
another time with my camera. from a fearful death.
I wanted to acknowledge her But from that day the son chang-
kiDdness by shaking hands with ed entirely. He became a drunk-
her, but she repelled me violently ard and a reprobate. It was rumor-
with her big stick. ed that Naia had made him sell his
"Stand back," she screeched. soul to the spirit of evil, as a condi-
c'Do not touch me, for I bum I" tion for the rescue of his father I
At my own risk, .I should have Several times 1 directed my ram-
liked to try the experiment, but I blings in the COUDtry toward the
saw it was impossible. Country ruin of the Chateau de Rieux, where
people assert that they feel a violent Naia lived. The place suited her as
shock if they touch her hand. well as she suited it. It looked un-
When a peasant is uneasy about canny and weird, like the super-
his wife, or any member of his fam- natural being who had chosen it for
ily who may happen to be ill, he her home.
goes to Naia and tells her the de- The castle, built in the Middle
tails of the complaint. Whereupon Ages by the powerful Seigneurs de
she makes a fire on the ground, and Rieux-great and terrible warriors
throws on the flames a handful of -had gloomy cells and hiding-
herbs from her pocket. A thick places, underground passages and
smoke rises in the air. With di- dungeons. where mouldering bones
sheveled hair and haggard eyes, had been found among rusty fetters.
panting and breathing hard, the But to-<1ay, of all the splendor of
witch pronounces incoherent words, bygone times there remain only
curses the elements, and cans with some crumbling walls, part of a
a strong voice, "Gnami I Gnami I" tower, and a vast area covered with
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCBS.

aculptured stones, amidst an entan- smoke sometimes penetrate the


gled mass of tree trunks, branches, chaos of stones and frighten the
boughs, and ivy festoons. But the country people, who think they see
underground part and the secret an infernal fire.
rooms (known only to the De The dark passages frequented by
Rieux family) are still in existence. Naia lead to some damp, broken
Naia is evidently acquainted with stairs, descending into depths of the
them, and seeks there a shelter castle.
against the weather. This explains On the day I photographed this
an incident which dreadfully fright- entrance to Naia's den. two quaint
ened some country people one win- little Breton children were playing
ter night when they were coming in front of the dark hole, not in the
back from the fair of Malansac, in least disconcerted by its fateful and
the neighborhood. ominous renown. A large piece of
To take a short cut, they thou~ht rock almost bars the "\Vitch's
of going across the fields, and WIth threshold," which is also called
that intention went through by- "Hell's door." It is with great dif-
paths disused for a good many ficultv that one scales that rock to
years. enter"' the gloomy passage on the
Heavily laden, they were climb- other side. Nor could I find any
ing the steep hill leading to Rieux, means of exit at the end of the cor-
\,,.hen one of them, stoppin~ sud- ridor, for the thorny bushes which
denly, exclaimed "Firel Fire!" in a tore the sleeves of my jacket pre-
terrified voice. vented me from advancing any
And, sure enough, from the farther.
chinks in the ground flames and As I extricated myself from their
smoke were issuing, blackening treacherous embrace, I reflected
and burning the grass and bushes that Naia's clothes must be made of
on the surface. The peasants also very strong material indeed, to re-
said that a strong smell of sulphur sist such daily assaults.
was spreading around; but this may The justice of peace, who bas
be set do\vn as pure imagination. lived in the place for a score of
\'''hen they arrived at the farm years, told me he has always seen
bouse, the church bell was begin- Naia wearing the same clothes, and
ning to toll for the dead. On mak- never noticed any change in her
iDg inquiries, they learned that a face or appearance. The merchants
young girl ""ith a bad reputation in the town, and all about the coun-
had just died suddenly. try, affirm that "the witch" has
Summing up the incidents of that never bought anything from them,
stilTing night, the peasants attribut- that she has never been seen to eat
ed to Naia the power of going down or drink, and, as for her clothes,
to helt ""hen she liked, and of at- they simply never wear out like
tracting there the souls of people those of ordinary people.
who had died in a state of sin. All the information I gleaned
The justice of peace of Roche- confirmed me in mv belief of the
fort told me he had also seen, on old creature's extraordinary ab-
RVeral occasions. those suspicious stinence. '''''hat, then. does she live
douds of smoke rising up from upon? i\o one kno\\"s, for nobody
among the stones. The most plau- has ever given her anything in the
sible explanation is that Naia, in way of victuals.
"inter, lights a fire in the under- \Vith ~eat impatience, I waited
ground parts of the rllin~. to warm for the time of mv interview. At
berself, and naturally the flames and last the promised inoming anived.
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

A storm was threatening. Black against a wall, her bead hanging


and heavy clouds were hanging low down on her breast, and her bands
like funereal draperies. clutching her stick. She looked as
I was directing my steps toward if she were asleep.
the ruins, when a sudden shower As I looked at her, the voice
obliged me to take shelter under which had startled me before now
the vault of an old drawbridge. came from above, and seemingly
Moodily I gazed at the water, flow- from the top of an oak. More and
ing do\\-n like little cataracts on the more puzzled, I sat quite near my
pebbles and green moss, when the strange companion, watching her
water suddenly cleared up, and a closely. Her breathing was heavy
glorious sun shone out on the re- and regular. She was evidently
freshed country. sleeping, for I spoke to her and she
Rejoicing at this lucky change, did not answer.
I was preparing to resume my walk, At that moment a distant voice
when all at once a strong voice called out loudly, "Naia! Naial"
called out near me: "Do you not hear? Someone is
"Good morning, my sonl" calling you I" I cried to the Witch
Quite amazed, I turned quickly, of Rochefort.
and 101 on my right Naia was stand- All at once the voices ceased, and
ing, with her arms lifted up toward my unearthly companion opened
heaven, and her eyeballs quite white her eyes and rose up.
in the sunken depths of their sock- I must explain this strange scene.
ets. She was uttering uncouth An old doctor of the neighborhood,
words in that Bas-Breton language who had taken much interest in
which I do not understand. studying Naia and the peculiarities
, I own that, in spite of my inere- of her existence, told me that the
\dulity, I felt for a moment a kind of witch was a most clever ventrilo-
irrational fright at her sudden ap- quist. She made use of her w0n-
pearance and uncanny bearing. derful gift to impose on the creduli-
"Stay as you are, please I" said I, ty of simple folks who go to consult
having recovered myself. "I want her about their fortunes.
to photograph you in that posi- "I cannot answer thee," she says,
tion." "but Gnami, the spirit, is going to
It was prosaic, but also interest- speak for me."
ing. With good grace she granted Then "prophetic" words are
my request, muttering the whole heard dropping from heaven, or
time. We were alone, face to face, coming out of the earth; and the
she with her tan figure erect and amazed countryman cannot do oth-
her arms uplifted; I, under the cov- erwise than beiieve.
er of my camera, looking at the Naia's predictions have such ab-
weird and fantastic figure before solute influence upon the simple,
my eyes. ignorant man that he unconsciously
Suddenly I thought I heard works out their realization with all
something talking behind me. I his might, and often succeeds by
turned round, and the voice be- that means in bringing them to
came silent, but the next moment pass. "It is in vain that I tried to
it began again with great volubility. enlighten the country people in
For the second time I turned my Naia's doings," added the doctor.
head, but still saw no one as far as "They believe in witchcraft, and
my sight could reach. Very much don't heed my warnings. Her pre-
puzzled and mystified, I looked at dictions have caused a great deal
Naia. The witch had seated herself of harm sometimes, and I have a
FOLKLORE, AND THE. OCCULT SCIENCES.

personal k~wledge of a premature ed, with tearful obstinacy. 'It has


death which was the result of such been predicted by the ghost. . .'
Iforetelling.' "1 felt greatl)" inlpressed. For
"I \\as attending an old man \\"ho many years I had been in practice,
suffered from gout, and considered but never bcfore had I \",itnessed
that he might still live on for sev- anything so heartrcnding.
eral )"ears; but I ,,'as reckoning "When the church bell began to
\\"ithout Naia. That nlan had a caU the people to mass, Pieric's face
nephew, who \\"as impatient to come became convulsed, and he sobbed:
into his inheritance. He \vent to h '~1ercy, 0 Lord. mercyl
consult the ""itch, and persuaded I anl not )"ct ready to die!"
her to visit his uncle. So one night, ., .'{ou shall not die, Pieric,' I
when the quiet little to\\"O was cried, putting into the \vords all the
asleep, Naia passed unnoticed strcngth of my conviction.
through the deserted streets and .. But whcn the bells left off ring-
knocked at the door of old Pieric. ing, the old man uttered a dreadful
His nephew opened it, and, with a crv, and fell back dead on his bed.
feigned terror, pretended to go into ...y ou have been told." the doctor
a s,,"oon before the apparition that \vent on, "that the witch can put
passed over the threshold. her hands into the fire without feel-
"The witch, ,,"rapped up in a ing any pain. That is true to a cer-
shroud. and bearing a red light in tain extent. and without doubt is
each hand, came toward the old another trick of the old crone to
mans hed. impose upon country folks. It is
.. Picricl' she called out, in a proved that a certain astringent
sepulchral voice, 'attend to the sal- preparation, mixed ,,"ith a fat :,ub-
vation of th)" soul, for thou shalt die stance and spread on thc skin. act!;
,,"hen the bells ring for mass next like an isolating mcdium between
Sunda\"l' the nenous sensihilitv and the fire."
ou
.. 'I" can fancy how that trick I no\v come back to my intervie\y
frightened the poor invalid! Next \\"ith thc famou!; "\\'itch of Roche-
da\" he told me of this diabolical vis- fort." She had taken me anlon~
itation, and I could see he \\"as al- the ruins and ,,"e were seated on
most out of his mind. trunks of trees in a place carpeted
.. lIt is reall)" absurd,' I protest- \\"ith ivv, \\"hich she called her
ed; 'some \\"icked" person has been udra\\ini-room,," \\'hile I was
playing on your ignorance and cre- questioning her, a pretty girl called
dulity. I certify that )"OU have still '-""onnette, a young J,toat-keeper.
many years to live.' \\"ho livcd at a short di~tance from
.. 'You say it to conlfort me!' he the ruins. came to ask for a consul-
declared, ,,fih tears; 'but I know I tation. ..\ftrr she had ~onc, happy
am Jost-the ghost told me so!' in her heart and smiling at the
"On the Sunday morning 1 \\ent prophetess's predictions. I asked
to see him. lIe \\"as very bad and !\aia ii she ,,ould also teU me mv
good fortune.
almost delirious. I could not help
After saine minutes of medita-
getting angry. tion, the \vitch spoke like the tene-
. '\"ou arc a fool, Picric,' I cried; brous oracles of antiquity. I was
~"ou are simply killing yourself, pleased to find an allusion to my
when I affirnl that )"OU might still travcls through AI~eria. But how
li\e on for a good many ycars, if could she ha\"c knu,,"n ~ :\nd she
you kept quieL' wouldn't take the money I offered
"'1 am going to die!' he repeat- her.
Gambling, Cards, Games.

CHAPTER xx.
BASEBALL-A mascot is an on the names of the horses, aDd the
iDdispensable member of a baseball very first thought of will be a win-
club. ner.
If a baseball team meets a funeral N ever tear up your pasteboards
on the way to play, they will win at the races, or you will never pick
the game. out a winner. Keep them, they are
If a baseball team meets a load of lucky.
barrels on the way to play, they Women who bet on the races
will surely be defeated. have faith in some particular mes-
Baseball players often pull the lit- senger boy, and will not let anyone
tle finger for luck; some teams will else place their commissions. "Oh,
never permit all members to sit where is my lucky boy?" they will
down together. Many baseball cry, and if he fails to turn up, they
players consider it an ill omen if a will not bet.
dog crosses the diamond before the Should you have the good for-
first ball is pitched. tune to dream of a horse, do Dot bet
Some baseball players believe on it the first time it runs; but OD
that it is an omen of bad luck if one the second time put all the money
of the nine gets shaved on the day you can raise on it, for it will surely
the game is to be played. win.
BETIING-Sporting men have If you are betting on a card, try
a belief that if they can rub the your luck by hitting the tips of your
wool on the head of a blind negro, forefingers together without look-
they will have better luck with the ing at them, and saying: 6'Hit or
bookmaker. miss," and if at the moment you say
"hit," your fingers hit, you will wiD;
If you make a bet on the way to but if they miss, you will lose.
business, you will suffer from your
own imprudence that day. If you meet a funeral while g0-
ing to the race track, do not on any
A sportsman put his name down account pass through it, as it is the
in the Club Derby Sweep, opposite worst of Juck. Wait until it passes,
No. 68. He draws the winner. or better still, tum and go away
Next year, coming up late to town, with it.
he finds every number occupied ex-
cept 68. He puts do\vn his name One who bets on the races re-
there, and draws the winner again. sorts to many devices to foretell the
winner. If two start, he throws up
If you meet a blind man on going a dime, and names heads for one
to the track, tip him, or you will and tails for the other. If more than
DOt win that day. two start, he writes their numbers
If you are a green hand at "play- on small pieces of paper, and pl"'ess-
ing the races," just cast your eyes ing them between his hands, blows

I
.j
FOLKWRE~ AND THE OCCULT SCIBNCBS. 1471

them away; the last to leave his Bad luck follows a black jack in
hand will be the winner. cards.
BILLIARDS-To chalk the If a black deuce is turned, knock
large end of your cue, will insure it with your knuckles before anyone
success in playing billiards. else touches it, and vou will secure
four or more trumps.
\\:hen engaged in a game of bil-
liards or pool, he who keeps the It is a sign of death to have a
chalk in his hand and chalks his cue long line of black cards dealt to one
while his opponent is playing, will at cards.
lose the game every time. If you get into a passion \\'hen
playing cards, you will have more
CHAR~IS AND O~IENS RE- bad luck: for the demon of bad luck
LATING TO GA~lES AND al\\9a)s follows a passionate player.
GAMBLING-It win bring you
bad luck to shuffle your coins or 1, 2, 3, 4, played in succession at
checks. cards, kiss the dealer for luck.
A hand with four clubs will never To a gambler who passes the
bring good luck to the player. blind, ill luck will ensue.
The gambler's \\9ife wept when To play cards on the table with-
her husband won the first pOL out a tablecloth, is unlucky.
To drop the nine of spades when Card players believe that good
playing cards, is a sign that you luck is assured them, if they can lay
will quarrel with your love. their finger on the two of clubs.
To sit in a rocking chair to play lIe who lends money at play will
cards, is bad luck. lose.
The hair of a suicide worn as a He who borrows money at play
chann, will bring good luck to will win.
gamblers. Never play against a consump-
Gamblers throw pennies away, as tive person in any game of cards, as
the) think them unlucky. you will meet with poor success.
On the way to play cards, a gam- \Vhoever lends or loses money
bler considers it very unlucky to out of his pockets, will win no more
pass a beggar on the street without that \\eek.
giving him something. If a gambler finds a coin, he will
It is an old belief that it is lucky risk everything, for it is the best of
to play cards with a hat on. The luck.
devil is said to be always present If clubs are trumps, they will
at a card pme, and to wear no hat tum up on three successive deals.
would be a sign of respect to him, In playing cards, \valk straight
which would surely bring bad luck. from the table and make a round
\Vhen you pIa) cards, and )90U tum, if playing for money.
drop a red one, it is good luck: but There is a superstition at ~fonte
if you drop a black one, bad. Carlo that immediately after a sui-
Opening a ne\v deck of cards cide, all those playin~ against the
with one in it with the face turned bank will win. There is, therefore,
10 )90U, means victory in the game. a perfect rush for the tables when
In pla)ing cards, if you often hold the lugubrious news is known.
three aces in your hand, you wiD Card players believe that there
change )our residence. Dever \vas a good hand at cards
1472 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

when there was the four of clubs in Don't play at a table with a cross-
it, for that is the devil's four-post eyed man, whether he is your part-
bedstead. ner or opponent; you will lose.
- If you wish a person to win at In playing a game of cards, it is
cards, stick a crooked pin in his generally luck)r to hold a black
coal deuce.
To wear your hat backwards in In playing cards, one is apt to
any outdoor game, generally gives have bad luck under one's own
good luck. roof.
Gamblers carry a battered coin A gambler who carries a lizard
wrapped up in a tom banknote, for with two tails, can never lose, and
luck. can gain everything he plays for.
It is good luck, while playing Gamblers think it brings luck to
cards, to pull down your vest. have a friend touch their hand when
playing.
To drop a card on the floor wbeo
playing, is a bad omen. Some gamblers think it is un-
lucky to have any person standing
To sing while playing cards, is a near during play, while others think
sign that your side will lose. if a person looks on \vho never
A card between two of equal plays cards, he will bring good luck.
value, denotes the holder will be Among card players, and espe-
jailed. cially gamblers, it is considered bad
To put a needle in a man's coat luck to have any person put a hand
without his knowledge, will bring or foot on the chair on which they
him good luck at cards. are sitting.
Three aces denote change of If the first card you take up is
places; three nines, change of times; trumps, it is bad luck.
three jacks, old friends back; three If the third card you take up is
kings, money brings. trumps, it is good luck.
A piece of crimson ribbon tied To stand behind a player and
around the thumb, is believed by sneeze, is a sure sign of ill luck to
players at Monte Carlo to make the player.
them win. ~fany gamblers wear a fine cat-
If a card player tips a card table skin upon their breasts, hung &om
over, he ,viII have no luck. their necks, which they consider
gives them good luck.
To stroke a black cat's tail seven
times, will bring good luck at cards. There is an Irish belief that if a
gambler hides beneath the tendrils
It is believed that a fetish made of a briar, and invokes the aid of
of the skin of a black snake and the prince of darkness, he will suc-
worn around the wrist, will bring ceed at cards, no matter how he
good luck and fortune to gamblers plays.
and sporting characters.
If you are a card player and hap-
It is considered unlucky to gam- pen to have no table in your room,
ble in a room where there is a wom- never play on the bed: it is attended
an, unless she is gambling too. by misfortunes innumerable.
N ever lend a man money to play A "mascot" is carried for luck.
against yourself, for you will surely bv some baseball teams and other
lose. athletic associations.
FOLKLORE~ AND THE OCCULT SCIENCBS. 1473

Some gamblers carry a human stand close beside it, and do not
knee-bone for luck, and some a toe- move for an) cause except if a nlan
bone. will give ),ou ten dollars to do so."
He who has the stone out of a The tramp \vent at once, and very
bat's back, will have luck at cards. soon a man was seen to approach
the door, but as soon as he saw the
He who has an owl's heart about cross-eyed mao, he dodged away in
hinl, ,,ill have luck at cards.
a hurry. Pretty soon another man
Never lay your cigar on cards or went up to the door, but he, too,
checks, or you will have bad luck. left as if shot. Two or three times
To win at cards, place a small this was repeated, when at last
red feather in the inside of your hat. sonlebody inside noticed it, and
I t is unlucky for a dog to get un- came to the door to look for the
der the table when you are playing cause of these sudden retreats. i\S
cards. soon as he saw the tramp he order-
ed him away, but he remained im-
Gamblers and speculators wear perturbable, and said he would ~o
cat-skin for Juck. \\"hen he was paid ten dollars. The
If a gambler sees a cat, he gener- proprietor stormed, but it did no
ally stops playing for a while, to good, and as two other men had
change his luck. come and gone away in haste, the
He that has a mole's foot in his o\\ner of the place gave the tramp
bag, is said to be luck)" at cards. his ten dollars and bid him begone.
As he sauntered away, a friend of
A rabbit's foot is lucky to a gam-
the gentleman who had arranged r
bler.
the affair asked in amazement what
If, in playing cards, you are un- it could mean. "It is a gambling
decided what to do, and have two place," he replied, "and a gambler
cards of equal value but of different will not stake a cent if he sees a
suit, it is lucky to take the first cross-eyed man on his way to play.
card, not to reach over. I knew ""hat I was about, and you
If, in pla)"ing cards, you are un- see how it worked."
decided what to play, lay down
)our cards, give then) a shove, and CHESS-Pla)ing chess unex-
play the one that goes furthest. pectedly, or under unusual condi-
tions, foretells embarrassed affairs.
To find the ace of spades of a
deck of cards lying on the ground If you play chess on your birth-
by itself, is accounted ill luck, espe- day, it is a sign of loss of friends.
cially if the spade points toward If you win in playing chess with
you. It is an omen of deceit and your rival, it forebodes success in a
treacher,". If the card is face down, difficult undertaking.
it is an omen of hidden treachery.
. .\ singular trial of the "hoodoo- COU~TERS-In gambling, to
iag" power of a cross-eyed person kiss a counter will sometimes bring
\\"as recentl\" made in 1\e\\" \:P ork. good luck.
A cross-eyed tramp asked a gentle- It is unlucky to pick out counters
man for enough money to buy a for other persons.
drink. He refused, but said: hI
will tell you how to get ten dollars CRAPS-In playing craps, snap
in ten minutes, if you care to know." your fingers t\\icft, and either 7 or
"I do," said the tramp. U\'ery 11 will turn up. Snap three times
well; go over by that door and for big Joe.
1474 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

CRICKET-0ne of the latest Four spots up: Is a rather bad


developments of the use of charms omen. The finder will soon meet
in British Guiana is an oil, which is with ingratitude from a source he
rubbed on the bats of cricket play- least expects.
ers to ensure victory in a match. Five spots up: Changeableness
CROQUET-In playing cro- in domestic and family affairs, and
quet, never "hit the white horse," inconstancy in love.
if you do not want your opponent Six spots up: A very good omen.
to hit your ball. You will shortly receive money
that was unexpected, and peace and
DICE-Blowing into a dice-box prosperity is in store for you.
brings good luck.
The natives of India are fond of DOMINOES-If you are un-
playing dice; they have a goddess lucky at dominoes, take the double-
named Apsaras, who gives them six, mention the name of a promi-
fortune and good luck. nent person, make a wish, and your
luck will change.
. Carry a dice in your pocketbook,
and you will always have mouey. FARO-In faro, if backing the
(New England.) jack and it comes out the first thing,
In playing dice, rub the dice OD you had better stop at once, or you
a red-headed person, to bring you will lose all you have.
good luck. GAMBLING-It is considered
The origin of the Chinese custom bad luck to talk to a friend when
of painting the "fours" on their he is gambling.
dice red, is accounted for, accord- Good luck in gambling, bad luck
ing to the Wa Kan san sai dzu e, in the household. (French aDd
by the following story: An em- Gennan.)
peror of the Ming dynasty (A. D. A tourist fell asleep at Ventimig-
1368-1643) played at sugoroku 1ia station, dreamed of 13, hurried
with his queen. He was almost de- back to Monte Carlo, and baclced
feated by her, but had one way of 13 for the maximum. It came up
winning through the dice turning three times running, and he was
"fours." He cried and threw the "on" every time.
dice and they came as he desired,
whereupon he was exceedingly The Navajo Indians believe that
glad, and ordered that the "fours" if the SUD shines on any pla)-er
thereafter be painted red, in remem- while playing their favorite gam-
brance of his winning, red being bling game, the one on whom the
the lucky color in China. rays fall will be stricken blind.
Lucky and unlucky omens of All gamblers believe in "the fatal
finding dice lying upon the ground: hand." This hand consists of
knaves full on red sevens (in
If you find a dice with one spot poker), and is regarded as a warn-
up, you will shortly receive a letter ing of speedy death.
or document of great importance. It is said, to give your money to
Two spots up: You will take a a man who has never played cards,
long journey that will be of much and let him place it for you, \\~t11
benefit. bring good luck.
Three spots up: A great surprise A gambler does not dare to curse
is in store for you; also you will the cards, or abuse them, or bum
soon sleep in a strange bed. them, or in any wise ill treat them.
FOLKLORB, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES. 1475

Some gamblers will never play the tail of their shirt, when their
,,ithout sitting on the joker. good luck would at once return.
In Monte Carlo, a favorite super- If you are losing in cards, think
stition says that if you are lucky of the gallows in all its particulars,
enough to break the bank, cease and your luck will change.
playing at once, for such good luck
as that will surely be folloy,'ed by an If you are having a streak of bad
influx of bad luck of some kind. luck, take a small woolen rag, spit
on it and burn it, and it will change
GAMES IN GENERAL-You your luck.
are sure to win, if you will keep si-
If losing at cards, it is said to
lent while playing a game.
change the luck if you throw a pen-
HYENA-In some parts of Af- ny or some other small object of
rica, the howling of a hyena during trifling value, over the left shoulder.
a game of chance, is unlucky. If If luck in cards is against you,
counters are used, they must be take the first queen you draw and
\\ashed three times or thrown away. wish three times, and the last time
LOTIERY-If you win any name some favorable female. Your
kind of a prize, an excellent after luck win change.
will be made you. If you push a card out of the mid-
Odd numbers in a lottery are dle of the pack, it will change the
lucky. luck.
If you give a present before in- 1.len tum the front of the hat to-
\"esting in a lottery, you will win. ward the back, to get a change of
The middle and poorest classes luck in playing cards.
in ~Ialaga believe that it will be If you ~re having bad luck at
luck)' to place a lottery ticket under cards, buy a new pack, pay for it
t~ pedestal of their patron saint. yourself, and you will have good
If }'OU start out to buy a lottery luck.
ticket, have some one throw an old If a gambler is having bad luck,
shoe after you, and you can secure the luck will change if he will
a prize. change his talisman from one pock-
LUCK CHARMS-If you wear et to the other. If the bad luck
a penny which has been given to should stilt continue, he must pile it
)ou. in your stocking, you will win up with his poker chips.
at caJ"ds. ~IARBLES-It is always good
~Ioney carried for thr~ da)"s in luck to use a cinder or glassy for a
a man's shoe or a woman's stock- shooter, when playing a game of
ing, can be invested in any gam- marbles.
bling game with absolute surety of
its winning powers. In playing marbles, two persons
playing togeth~ must not shoot
LeCK-CHANGING-If steam- from opposite sides of the ring, as
hoat negroes. playing cards, have it is unlucky.
bad luck. they will get up and tum In marble games, it is in luck to
around three -times and sit down on pass in front of the players. If the
a quarter. marble splits when you shoot it.
If gamblers were unsuccessful, stop playing at once. It is an ill
they would retire and tie a knot in omen.
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

PARCHESI-In parchesi, tum Lucky and unlucky omens of


the dice-box three times around. finding cards lying upon the
It will prevent a third double ground:
throw. Ace of Hearts-Face up, good
news; down, pleasure mixed with
PLAYING CARDS - Playing trouble.
cards unexpectedly, or under un- King of Hearts-Face up, a per-
usual conditions, foretells a pleasant son in higher position than yourself
and profitable discovery. is trying to assist you; face down,
It is unlucky to sit opposite the his endeavors will prove futile.
"jimmers" (hinges) of a table, when Queen of Hearts-Face up, a
playing cards. woman of good reputation and
It is unlucky to play cards in bed. honor desires to assist you; face
down, if you are unmarried, you
If you have a pack of cards stolen will meet with an unexpected ob-
from you, you will have bad luck stacle in the way of marriage; fam-
for some time. ily dissensions if married.
To slap cards down in a game Jack of Hearts-Face up, a man
with a "don't-care" manner, will of light complexion seeks to favor
give you bad luck. you; face down, approaching mis-
It is unlucky to cut an honor for fortune and discontenL
a trump card. Ten of Hearts-Face up, gain,
success and happiness; face down,
To give away a pack of worn-out joy of short duration.
cards, will bring you bad luck. Nine of Hearts-Face up, good
To give away a pack of bran-new omen, joy, good management, aod
cards, will bring you good luck. harmony; face down, sorrows and
Cards will not lie. What falls to quarrels of short duration.
the floor will come to the door. Eight of Hearts-Face up, lucky
omen; if married, your chiklren will
The nine of diamonds is called be honest, virtuous, and beloved bv
the "curse of Scotland," because all; if unmarried, you will be suc-
their last queen taxed heavily all cessful in your undertakings. Face
persons to pay for nine jewels; and down, there is trouble in store for
every ninth king was wicked. you; if you marry, your partner
Card players believe that if you will be fickle and cause you much
bum a pack of cards, they will sorrow.
never give you any more luck, and Seven of Hearts-Face up, your
will mock you to the last; you will life will be one of quietness, and
have as many unlucky days as there pure love will exist between your
are even spots on the cards. partner and yourself; face down, an
To place a pack of cards on the isolated life, with much sadness.
bed, is said to bring a curse on the Ace of Clubs-Face up, )"oU WIll
bouse, or tv foretell a death. shortly hear news of an inheritance.
and you will accumulate worldly
When you have a pack of cards goods rapidly; face down, joy, mix-
that have seen its best days, do not ed with tears.
give them away, but burn them King of Clubs-Face up, a man
with salt and pepper. who is just and upright will seek
It is said to be very lucky to find to protect you from slander; face
a playing card of either hearts or down, you will encounter great dif-
diamonds. ficulties.
FOU:LORE, AI-olD THE OCCULT SCIENCBS. 1477

Queen of Oubs-Face up, an in- will not believe at first, but which
telligent and distinguished lady wiD will nevertheless be true.
take a great interest in your welfare; Ten of Diamonds-Face up, a
face down, hatred, jealousy, and profitless journey; face down, a dis-
cruelty from some of your friends. agreeable omen.
Jack of Clubs-Face up, if un- Nine of Diamonds-Face up or
married, make your preparations to down, a bad card. Much opposition
get married, for you will soon have in the near future, and if engaged,
a proposal; face down, you will ex- your match will be broken off. It
pect to be married, but not to the portends misunderstandings and
one )"Ou expect. quarrels. If you see it, don't touch
Ten of Clubs--Face up, success it.
in all your undertakings; face down, Eight of Diamonds - Another
your success will only be partly bad card, full of anxiety and morti-
complete. fication, whether face up or down.
Nine of Clubs-Face up, you will Seven of Diamonds-Face up or
have doings with the law that will down, slight sorrows and small vex-
prove eminently successful; face ations.
down, beware of those who would Ace of Spades-Face up, death;
draw you into lawsuits, for you will face down, death of someone not
Dot win. very dear to you.
Eight of Clubs-Face up, a beau- King of Spades-Face up, a
tiful woman or a handsome man ad- hypocrite, a man of religious pre-
mires your qualities; face down, tensions, or a sanctimonious lawyer,
some of your intimate friends will is trying to do you an ill turn; face
bear watching. down, those that seek to do you ill
will not succeed.
Seven of Clubs-Face up, your
Queen of Spades-Face up, some
life will be one of economy and hon-
woman will put obstacles in the way
est gain; face down, a slight delay
of your wishes being fulfilled; face
in your business transactions in the
down, she will be foiled in her at-
Dear future.
tempts.
Ace of Diamonds-Face up, a Jack of Spades-A worthless and
package or a present of good value; ill-bred man with a dissolute dispo-
face down, disappointment in the sition t,ill meet you: he may be fas-
delay of an expected article. cinating, but is likely to prove dan-
King of Diamonds-Face up, gerous. Face down. one or more
you will shortly meet a quarrelsome persons of the male sex will under-
man, whom you should avoid, as he mine you if they can.
is liable to do you some injury; face Ten of Spades-Face up. nothing
down, an approaching danger which more than small difficulties will
will be difficult for you to escape. trouble you; face down. you will
Queen of Diamonds-Face up, soon overcome an enemy.
a light-haired woman with a wicked Nine of Spades-To find this
disposition win scandalize vou: face card in any position on the earth.
down, al1 the falsehoods and slan- for~tel1s misfortune and trouble.
ders she can utter will not harm Eight of Spades-Face up, dan-
you. ger of d~th to the finder, to a rela-
Jack of Diamonds-Face up, one tive, or to a dear friend; face down,
of your trusted friends is a faithl~ss you win feel much hurt and be ag-
traitor to you; face down, bad news grieved.
from or by a deceitful man, that you Seven of Spades-Face up, par-
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

tends quarrels with your wife or you can get luck by dealing from
husband; if unmarried, anger aDd right to left, instead of from left to
unpleasantness between you and a right. The people will not object.
lover. Face down, sadness, follow- as they will call it a piece of super-
ed by great joy. stition; but you will win, all the
The small cards do not signify same.
anything. An old poker superstition is to
POKER-If you hold three of a the effect that the same man will
kind three times in succession, you beat the same man and lose to the
are bound to be "broken." same man during the game.
To kiss a chip before putting it in PUZZLE-If you work a puzzle,
the pot, will cause it to come back you will receive an important letter.
and bring the rest of the pot with it.
QUOITS-To pitch quoits, is an
In playing poker, it is good luck unlucky game; it will always caD
to draw to a red or a black eight vexations of some sort, delay in
spot, as you will always better them. business, etc.
If you are playing poker and are
losing, exchange a large chip for SEVEN-UP-It is bad luck to
some small ones from a lucky play- give away a turned knave in playing
er, and your luck will soon change. "seven-up."
Jacks and sevens are called the SHUFFLING, CUTIING
"dead man's hand." In a poker AND DEALING-To have the
game, it is very unlucky to hold deuce of trumps cut, is good luck
them and win the pot. for the dealer.
When playing poker, keep a cop- It is bad luck to look' at one's
per penny lying on the table, and cards until they all have been dealt
they can never "break" you. To blow through a pack of canis
To hold a diamond flush and when shuffling, will bring you good
have it beaten, stop playing, for you luck.
cannot possibly win. If you "stick" You will never have luck at a
after that, you will have to borrow game of cards, if the first band dealt
money to buy your breakfast. you contains the four of clubs.
It is unlucky to win the first game To cut the cards to the left, is a
at poker. sign of heavy loss to the dealer.
Among those who play poker, it Faced cards in the deck are un-
is considered that when you hold lucky for the dealer.
a very good hand and all pass out,
you should play on, or you will be In playing cards, do DOt take
very unlucky ever after in cards. them up when they are dealt to you,
until everyone else around the table
When playing poker, if you hold has taken up his, and you will be
two red jacks, a red queen, and the lucky.
ace and deuce ot diamonds, it is a
sign that you will not live to play An even cut is unlucky for the
the game out' dealer.
When playing poker, should you A "slobbery" cut is good for the
hold a jack full on red sevens, it dealer.
means death, and is caned "a dead WHIST-To cut an honor for
man's hand." tromp: "When quality opens the
In playing a little game of draw, door, then poverty follows behind."
Times and Seasons.

CHAPTER XXI.
ADVENT-At Old Shop, near to make offerings of affection at her
New Harbor, Newfoundland, exists tomb, beheld a vision of angels.
the old belief that "The cock does amidst which stood their daughter,
not crow during Advent." with a snow-white lamb by her side,
Advent, signifying the coming of hence the custom of bringing snow-
Jesus Christ as Saviour, is the first white lambs covered with fleece,
season of the ecclesiastical year, in- and laying them upon the altar on
cluding the four Sundays immedi- St. Agnes' day at Rome. The
ately preceding Christmas. fleeces of these lambs are often
shorn, and afterwards converted in-
The Advent season has been to palls, which are highly believed
much \vritten about. In Normandy, as amulets. The legend of St. Ag-
it was formerly the custom for the nes', whose lamb is probably
farmers to fix upon some day in founded on the resemblance of the
Advent for the purpose of exorcis- name Agnes to Agnus, which is the
ing such animals as prove injurious Latin word for lamb. Throughout
to the crops. Armed with a lighted the Christian world, and in England
flambeau the children used to run as nluch as elsewhere, it was cus-
over the fields, flourishing their tomary for girls, on St. Agnes' eve,
torches in the branches of the trees, to endeavor to divine who shall be
burning the straw placed under- their husbands. This was called
Death, and crying out: "Fasting St. Agnes' Fast:' The
"Mice, caterpillars and moles, proper rite was to take a ro\v of
Get out, get out of my field; pins, and pull on~ out after another,
I will burn you beard and bones. saying a pater noster, and sticking
Trees and shrubs,
Giye me bushels of apples." one pin in the sleeve. Then, going
to rest, without food, their dreams
(ST.) AGNES' DAY - (J a D. were expected to present the image
11It.)-John Keats relates to St. of their future husbands. Keats, as
Agues' eve charms in the following author of The Eve of St. Agnes,"
y~s: the custom is thus alluded to:
-rile, told her bow upon Sl Agnes' "They told her how upon SL Arnes'
ne, eve,
Young yirgins might have visions of Young virgins might bave visions of
delight delight.
As supperle5s to bed they must retire And soft adorninp from their loves
tior look behind nor sidewa,s." ~eive,
Upon the honied middle of the night,
St. Agnes' day is a festival of the If ceremon ies due they did aright;
church of Rome, in honor of St. As, supperles5 to bed they must mire
Apes, who was a very young and And couch supine their beauties, lily-
lpOtless maid, who suffered martyr- white,
dom under Diocletian, in the year Nor look behind, nor sidewaJl, but re-
qui~
306. Legends tell us that a few days Of hea,oen with uRward eyes for all that
after her death her parents, going they desire. '
1480 ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

ALL FOOLS' DAY - (April world. That time is the spring and
1st.)- In the Tyrol, a bundle of summer season, while in fall the
straw Is buried on the first of April, daughter of the goddess of fertility
to insure good crops the coming has to retire to the dark regi~
season. thus symbolizing the process of
For a Persian not to extinguish vegetation.
the domestic fire on April 1st, and A current belief connects April-
rekindle it from the temple fire, was Fools' Day with the "mistake" that
to court ill luck for the year. Noah made in sending out his first
All Fools' day is the first of April dove, before the waters bad abated.
Those who fall an easy victim to This occurred, according to He-
tricks played them on that day by brew legend, on the first day of the
others, are called April fools; in old Hebrew month that corresponds
to our April. In memory thereof,
Scotland, they are called gawks
(cuckoo), from the saying, "hunting forgetful or careless people were
the gowk" ; in France, "Poisson sent upon some sleeveless ernmd,
d'Avril," meaning the April fish similar to that ineffectual message
mackerel, from which we have upon which the dove was sent by
adopted the saying: "You sill~ Noah.
mackerel" Our terms "gudgeon' A plausible conjecture ascribes
and "sucker," are analogous, refer- the origin of the custom to France.
ring to the young fish early in the The French had been the first to
fishing season, which is easily commence the New Year OD Janu-
caught. Some explain the origin ary 1st, instead of March 25th. Be-
of this day's customs by the uncer- fore that change was made. the
tainty of the weather; others, by the m~ culmiDated on the 0c-
mockery trial of our Redeemer, tave -of the least, April 1st, wIleD
who was sent hither and thither, or visits were paid and gifts bestowed.
as they say in Germany, "from Pon- When the change was macte. in
tius to Pilate." The latter especial- 1564, many people who bad forgot-
ly is, however, improbable, as simi- ten or overlooked it, were made
lar tricks are played in Hindustan fools of by paying them mock cere-
at the Huli festival on the 31st of monial visits and presenting them
March. Roman mythology tells the with pretended gifts. This custom
following fable in connection with was kept up in ilfter years, and help-
the "Cerealia," a festival held at the ed to continue by a trait of human
beginning of April, as an allegory nature, which is to be found in all
of seed-time. Proserpina was play- peoples and in all ages, that of hu-
ing in the Elysian fields when Pluto mor and mockery.
suddenly seized her and carried her
with him to the lower regions, ALL-HALLOWS DAY - It
where he made her his \\'ife. Her was supposed that on All-Hallows'
mother Ceres heard the echo of her eve, a disembodied spirit was seated
screams and went in search of the on every stile and every crossroad.
voice; but it was mockery, and all (Wales.)
searching in vain. At last, Ceres It is evil to eat blackberries after
learned what had become of her Hallowe'en night, for on that night
daughter, and by persistent entrea- the spirit, called plica, comes oat
ties to the father of the gods, ob- and defiles them.
tained the permission for Proserpina
to spend one-half of the year with In Scotland, the red end of a fiery
her mother in the light of the upper stick is waved around in mystic fig-
FOLKLORE. AND THE. OCCULT SCIBNCBS.

urea on Hallowe'en, to secure good the morning, blindfolded, pick out


luck. as many letters as there are in your
In the Western Isles, it is consid- own name, and if you can make a
ered bad luck to go out of doors on name out of the letters, that will be
Hallowe'en. the name of your future husband.
(Trinity and Catalina Bays, New-
On All-Hallow eve, the fisher- foundland.)
men of the Orkney Islands sprin-
kled what was called uforespoken These glowing nuts are emblems true
Of what in human life we view;
water" over their boats when they The ill-matched coaple fret and fume,
had not been successful. They also And thus in strife themselves con.sume;
made a cross on their boats with tar, Or from each other wildly start,
for luck. And with a noise forever pan.
But see the happy, happy pair,
All Saints' Day was observed by Of lenuine love and truth sincere;
the Norman fishermen with great With mutual fondness, while theJ bum.
solemnity, even to a late period. Still to each other kindly turn;
Seamen who ventured out to sea on And as the vital sparks decay,
Together gently sink away:
this day were said to have the "dou- Till life's fieree ordeal being past,
ble sight," that is, each one beheld Their mingled ashes rest at last.
a living likeness of himself seated in Nuts-Burninl, All Halloweve,
dose contact, and if he was engaged by Charles Graydon_
in any work, the phantom was do- Nutcrack night, as Hallowe'eu
ing the same. was often called, was the most pop-
Two hazel-nutl I tbrew into tbe flame, ular in all the year among the youth
ADd to each nut I pvc a Iwectheart'. of the "North Countrie" of Britain.
Dame; Nuts were distributed with lavish
This with tbe loudelt bounce me sore
ama2d, hand, and cracked and eaten in
That in a flame of brightest color abundance, besides being made to
blazed; decide the fate of many a lad aDd
AI blued the DUt, 10 may thy PUSiOD lassie. In the words of Burns:
grow.
Por 'twu thT aut that did 10 briptlT "The auld guidewife's weeJ-hoordit nits
claw. Are round and round divided.
The Spell, by Gay. And mony lads' and lassies' fates
Are there that night decided:
Jeu llips in twa wi' tentie ee, Some kindle, couthie, side bJ lide,
Wha twu she wadna tell And bum thegither trimly;
Bat this is Jock and this it me. Some start a",-a' wi' saucy pride,
She I&ys into hersel'; And jump out-o,,re the chimly
He bleezed owre her, and she owre him, Fu' high that night_"
AI they wad ne'er mair part, The nuts were placed in the hot
Till luff! he Itaned up the lum, ashes or along the bar of a grate,
ADd Jean had e'en a sair heart
To Ke't that nighL and when they burned peacefully
-Halloween, by Bums_ side by side, the happy fate of the
On Hallowe'en, take a pure white couple \vas assured; should one or
bowl that no lips have touched save both of them crack and jump away
those of a newborn infant. Fill the the thoughts of a successful court-
bowl ,,-ith water, and drop in the ship might as well be abandoned.
letters of the alphabet. At midnight, Not satisfied ,,ith nut-cracking,
repeat: the pulling of the kail was also a
"Kind fortune tett me wheft he is, part of the evening's sport. With
Who my future lord shall be: closed eyes, the young people made
From this bowl all that I claim a raid on the goodman's kail stalks,
II to know my IOftr's name." that perhaps had been allowed to
Lock the bowl away carefully. In stand for this very purpose. Upon
1482 ENCYCWPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

the nature of the stalk pulled de- Nae doubt but ye ma, get a sightl
pended the appearance and disposi- Great cause ye have to fear it;
tion of the mate for life. Should a For many a ane has gotten a fright.
ADd lived and died deleerit
stalk be well formed and straight, On sic a nighL"
the finder was considered fortunate,
especially if a quantity of earth "No doubt "wee Jenny" was
clung to the roots, which indicated frightened from seeking to cast her
that a goodly amount of earthly fortune for that night, but by the
goods was to accompany the union. space of another year she would be
If, however, the stalk was crooked more bold and anxious.
and runty, the finder was mortified Presumably it was the same
at the thought of being mated for "Uncle ]ohnny"-a bachelor of
life with a "crooked stick"; and was long standing-that presented the
doubly mortified should the pith of looking-glass to Jenny, who tried
the kail taste bitter instead of sweet, that night in vain to change his fate
as that was a sure indication of a by endeavoring with closed eyes to
disagreeable disposition. stick his finger in the dish contain-
Other spells more weird by far ing clear water, or eVeD in the dish
were tried that.night. Why should of colored water, but who for the
they not be, when that was the night third time picked the empty dish,
of all the year that spirits walked thus indicating that neither maid
abroad and fairies were most bold? nor widow was to fall to his IOL The
Not only did disembodied spirits result is comically set forth by
make free with the rights of earth, Bums:
but well-regulated spirits still occu- "In order~ on the clean hearth-staDe,
pying human tenements of cia v, The luggies three were ranged.
And eyery time great care was m'ca
manifested a disposition to leave To see them duly changed:
~heir habitation for the space of time Auld Uncle John, who wedlock's jOfS
It would take to appear to their fu- Sin Mar's year did desire,
ture mate, whose Hallowe'en spells Because he gat the toom dish thrice,
called them forth. He heaved them on the fire
Dire were the consequences at- In wrath that DigJlt."
~endi~g ~ome of these spells. The Younger men, more bold than
Imagtnatlon or a practical joke Uncle Johnny, tried channs that
sometimes caused the "speirer" of took more courage. Sowing hemp-
fortune a shock that was lifelong in seed and harrowing it in with what-
its effect. Among these spells was ever utensil came handiest, was
that of eating an apple at midnight done alone by the brave. While
before a looking-glass, which was harrowing it in, be repeated the
practiced by some maidens with the words:
e~pectation of seeing the appear- uH~mp-seed, I saw thee, hemp-seed.
ance of the future husband looking I saw thee,
over their shoulder in the glass. And her that is to be my true love
Burns writes: Come aftu me and draw thee."
''Wee Jenny to her granny says On looking over his left shoul-
'Will ye go wi' me, granny? ' der, he saw the appearance of the
I'll eat the apple at the glass one he was to marry in the attitude
I gat frae Uncle Johnny.' " of pulling hemp
. Her granny indignantly puffs her Burns says "Fighting Jamie
pIpe and responds: Fleck" swore by his conscience-
"Ye little skelpie-limner's race! "That he could see the hemp-seed b,
I daur ye try sic sportin', the peck;"
As seek the foul thief ony pla.
For him to spae your fortune: -accordingly-
FOLKLORE, AND THE OCCULT SCIENCES.

"The auld guideman raught down a practical jokes, and Hallowe'en


po~, came to mean merely a license to
And out a handia' gied him."
destroy property and annoy peace-
This hhandfu'" Fighting Jamie able citizens.
took, and stole away unseen to the In some places, dipping for ap-
bam, where he procured a fork with ples, burning nuts, and pulling cab-
which to harrow it in. He bravely bage stalks are still observed, but
commenced to sow the hemp-seed the Nutcrack Night of Bums's time
and harrow it in, repeating the usual has disappeared forever. (Self Cul-
words, and- ture ~lagazine, Nov., 1899.)
..Although his hair began to arch:'
he kept on and- Have you ever beard the legend of the
"Whistled up Lord Lenox' march gates of Hallowe'en,
To keep his courage cheerie." \Vhy on lawns and trees and road,,'ay.
on that night thcy're al\\'ays seen?
Almost before the charm had Many )'ears ago it happeM<1, when the
time to work, he hears a "squeak" witches still held sway
and ugruntle" that causes him to And on Hallowe'en kept revel from the
dusk to break of day.
peep over his shoulder, the effect On a lonely hill they gathered, far away
being that- from farm or town,
H~ roared a horrid murder-shout \Vhere they hurried on their broom-
In dreadfu' desperation I sticks, hundreds of them sweep-
And young and auld cam rinnin' out ing down,
And bear the sad narration: Till the hill was dark with figures, and
He swore 'twas haltin' Jean M'Craw, the woods for miles around
Or crook-backed ~ferran Humphie, Shook with terror as they echoed every

.'-
Till, stop-sbe trotted through them
And wha was it but Grumphie
Asteer that neght!"
wild, unearthly sound.
But one year a hardy farmer, moving
far and farther out,
Found that hill, and by the autumn had
it tightly fenced about
Fighting Jamie was fain to hide \Vith a fence of toughened cedar, and
his head at home after the sad joke that he need never "'ait
pla~ed on him by the innocent pig. To take down the bars, he also made
a high and heavy gate.
F ~w carried to a successful issue It was tall and fine and handsome,
their Hallowe'en spells. The maid- strong with iron bars and locks,
en who was brave enough to steal Ready to withstand all dangers, from a
out to the kiln and throw in a skein spell to ~rthquake shocks,
of \'am, a loo~ thread of which she Not a witch had thought of danger, and
on Ilallowe'en they came,
r~tained in her hand and wound Ready with new pranks and eag~r for
o\'er an old skein, was sure to drop each wild and magic game.
the yam and fly with all speed to From tMir broomsticks they dis-
th~ house if. when she neared the mounted at the bottom of the hill
end of the skein, it was caught and And in laughing groups moved upward,
unaware of danger still.
held, as she hoped and expected it But the foremost quickly halted, gave
,,'ould be. She should have held to shriek of wild dismay,
the \~m and asked, "Who holds?" For a gate, all barred and heavy, stood
when an answer y:ould have come there right across tMir way.
from the depths of the kiln Riving "Open for us," loud th~y shouted, but
the gate was true and tried.
the full name of her future hushand. Xor for witch~s nor for broom~tjckl
The observance of All-Hallow- would it fling its portals wide.
e'en is dying out in Great Britain. Long th~y beat at it and shouted, but
It n~\u was observed properly in the gate held firm and fast,
th~ 19 nited States. As belief in su-
And 'twas only spells and magic s~rved
to get them up at last.
perstitions died out, the spells that For though many tried to climb it. all
had been praC'tictd gave place to their broomsticks stubborn g~w,
ENCYCWPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.

And the fence, so bold and haughty, which has been marked, into it. In
Quite refused to let them through. the morning a search is made for
Then they met in angry council, and them, and if one is missing, the one
theJ placed on every gate
Such a curse that since that autumn who threw it will never see another
year by year they rue their fate Hallowe'en.
Not a one can rest untroubled in its
place on Witches' Night, On HaDowe'en, name two nuts
Every one must leave its hinges, though for sweetheart and swain, and burn
its locks be firm and tight. them; if they bum quietly, the two
That's the story. And the moral? Oh, will marry; but if either or both
if any's to be seen, jump, the couple will quarrel.
Go and ask your gate about it, on the
night or Hallowe'en. On Hallowe'en, three saUGers are
(Mary A Dickerson. in the Cleveland placed on a table. One is filled with
Plaindealer, Oct. 28, 1899.) sand, one with water, and one is left
If you eat a large apple under an empty. A young man or woman
apple tree at midnight on Hallow- is blindfolded and led to the table.
e'en, wearing only a bed-sheet, you If the hand is placed in the empty
wiD never take cold. saucer, it is a sign that the person
It is a sign that to whatever quar- will never marry; if placed in the
ter a bull faces as he lies on Hallow- water, the future partner will be
e'en, thence the wind will blow the young; if in the sand, a widow or
greater part of the winter. widower.
Take a wash-basin of water and "Tum your shoes toward the street.
Tie your garters OD your feet.
put a dark cloth over it on Hallow- Place your stockings undu the bed,
e'en; turn off the gas and go to bed. And you will dream of the one you will
Take the cloth off the basin quick- wed"
ly, and you will see the face of your The future can be told on Hal-
future husband. lowe'en by the following: Go into
On Hallowe'en, run up and down the garden and pull up a cabbage
the lane three times with a hand by the roots. If it is a close white
mirror, and you will see your love cabbage ready to eat, you will have
therein. an old, bald-headed husband; but
Children born on St. John's night, if it is green and open, you will have
Hallowe'en, have power to see spir- a young man. If much dirt sticks
its and converse with fairies. to the roots, you will be rich, but if
it pulls up clean, poor.
If you weave your hair in a weav-
er's braid of many strands, on the If a youth and a maid go into a
eve of Hallowe'en, you will that garden on Hallowe'en and kneel
evening meet your future husband. on a spoon and say:
\ \ind a ball of yarn, throw it out ..All hail to th~e, moon all hail to thee,
I pray thee good moon DOW show to
of the window on Hallowe'en, and me
say: "I draw, who pulls?" and the The one who my future spouse shall
man you will marry will come and be,"
pull it away from you. the individual will appear.
In the Western Isles, in Hallow- If a youth or maid go into the
e'en time, a distaff is put under the garden on Hallowe'en and pull up
head of a young man to make him a cabbage, their future partner will
c..lream of the one he will marry. be indicated by its being straight or
In \Vales, a great fire is built on crooked, fresh or old, with dirt
IIallowe'en, and each member of clinging to the roots or not. If the
ihe family throws a \"hite stone latter is the case, the future hus-
FOLKLORE, ~D THE. OCCULT SCIENCES.
band will be rich according to the f'Seelenspitze." In Belgium, poor
amount of dirt that clings to the children place tables with candles
root. and pictures of the Madonna, in
Lead melted and dropped in wa- front of their houses, and receive
ter, "pill take curious forms, and by money from the passers-by, to buy
these one can foretell the occupa- "cakes for the poor souls in purga-
tion of one's future mate" tory."
~"or Hallowe'en festivities, a cake The night before AlI- Hallows'
is baked with several articles in it. Day is Hallowe'en, particularly in
,,'hich have the following significa- Scotland, as well as in England and
tion to the finder: America, the time of all times when
A ring as a sign of marriage supernatural influences are suppos-
within a year. ed to prevail. The many supersti-
A penny as the sign of future tions and customs connected with
wealth. liallowe'en originate more or less
A thimble as the sign of no mar- in the old Druidical festivities of
riage. that night. Reddall gives the fol-
A key as a sign of a journey. lowing description in his handbook
,..\ button as the sign that the of U!"act, F'ancy, and Fable":
finder will be a sweetheart forlorn. "The Druids for leagues round
gathered in snow-white robes at the
The "sark sleeve" is a weird Hal- altar of stones on some hill. Here
lo\\'e'en custom in Scotland. You rested an emblem of the luminary
must go alone to a south-running they worshipped, and on the altar
streanl where three lairds' land was the sacred fire which had been
meets, and dip )pour shirt sleeve in carefully kept alive during the past
the ,,"atcr. tio to bed in sight of a year. 'fhe Druids grouped them-
fire, and hang your sleeve to dry. selves around it, and at a given sig-
The apparition 01 your partner will nal quenched it, amid absolute si-
appear and turn the sleeve. lence on the part of the assembled
All-Hallows' Day, or AU Saints' people. Then a new fire was kin-
Da)", is the first of t'ovember, orig- dled on the cairn, the multitude
inal!)" a ROlnan Catholic holiday, raised a mighty shout, and from
introduced because of the impossi- ever)' eminence for miles around,
bilit)" to keep a separate holiday for other fires blazed into view. The
every saint. This day \,Pas probably same night the fire was put out in
chosen because it was one of the ever)' cabin and farm-house, only to
great heathen holida)'s of the North, be rekindled with embers from the
the ancient festival and the begin- sacred fire of the priests, which was
ning of winter, it having always believed to protect each homestead
been a polic)' of the Christian from peril so long as it remained
church to supplant heathen holidays hurning. In those da)'S, faith in the
bv Christian. In Southern lier- l'xistcnce of fairies and goblins,
mny, the first and the second of witches and spirits, was very strong;
!\o\'cntber r"All Saints' ,. and ",,~ll and as the Druidic faith faded be-
Souls ..) arc devoted to the memory fore the advance of Christianity, the
of the dead, by decorating the heathen festivals lost much of their
gra\'es. In sante countries. special old grandeur and fornlt.-r signiti-
cakes and s\\'cet biscuits are bakt..-d cance, and took on a 10"'er charac-
00 this da)'; in T.)"rol, for instance, ter. So, on the night of October
such in the shape of hares or horses: 31, the sinlplc country folk believed
in Bavaria, they are tong cakl'c;. the fairies canle out ui their grottoes.
pointl~t on both ends and called witches and goblins gathered in for-
BNC}~CWPAEDIA OF SUPERSTITIONS.
-
est glades, or plotted against man- nuts are placed in the fire, having
kind in the shadows of ruinous been previously named for the par-
castles and keeps. By a very nat- ticular lad and lass about to try
ural transition, the Hallowe'en fire their fortune. Accordingly, as they
came to be looked on as a charm burn quietly side by side, or crack
against these sprites. So late as the and sputter and break apart, will be
seventeenth century, it was custom- the result of the wooing. Says
ary for farmers to make the circuit Burns:
of their fields with a lighted torch "The auld gudewife's weel hoarded nits
in hand, to protect them from harm Are round and round divided,
during the year, chanting or sing- And monie lads' and lasses' fates
ing a doggerel rhyme the while. Are there that night decided.
Some kindle, couthie, side by side,
For the reason that these unseen And bum thegitber trimly;
magic powers were deemed to be so Some start awa' with saucy pride,
near at this season, Hallowe'en was And jump out owre the chimlie."
thought to be the night of all nights When nuts lie still and bum to-
on which to pry into the secrets of gether when put in the fire on
the future, and thus arose all those Hallowe'en, it prognosticates a
simple ceremonies by which it was happy marriage or a hopeful love.
claimed that one's fate might be If on the contrary they bounce and
learned. Of course, no sensible fly asunder, the sign is unpropitious.
person DOW believes that by crack- "These glowing oats are emblems true,
ing DUts, ducking one's head in a Of what in human life we view;
tub of water for apples, dropping The ill-matched couples fret and fame,
melted lead in a goblet, pulling ADd thus in strife themselves consume;
Or from each other wildly start.
kale, or eating an apple before a And with a noise forever part.
mirror, anything supernatural or Bat see the happy, happy pair,
ghostly will be seen or heard. But Of genuine love and truth sincere;
. tke pleasant fireside revelries sur- With mutual fRedom while tbe7 ban.
vive, though they have lost much of Still to each other kindly turD;
And as the vital sparks decaT.
their superstitious significance. Together gently sink a"7.
Great bonfires are still kindled in Till life's fierce ordeal being past,
many places, around which the vil- Their willing ashes rest at last."
lagers join hands in a merry dance. In England, the following charm
Then, as the flames subside into a is frequently tried: Three dishes
pile of glowing embers, the real fun are taken; one is empty, one is filled
begins. The first ceremony in Scot- with clear water, and the third with
land consists in "pulling the kale." dirty water. A boy is blindfolded
Kale is a sort of cabbage. Lads and and led to the hearth, where the
lassies go out in couples, hand in dishes are set in a row. Then he
hand, with eyes shut, and pull the dips the left hand in one of the
first head of kale they touch. The dishes-if in the clean water, she
fact of its being crooked or straight, will be a widow; if in the empty
large or small, is said to be emblem- dish, he \vill remain "a horrid old
atic of the height and figure of the bachelor." The trial should be
coming husband or wife. If any nlade three times, the dishes being
earth clings to the roots, that means shifted about meanwhile.
money; while the s\\'eet or bitter In the country districts of Scot-
taste of the heart of the kale denotes land, nluch faith is reposed in this
the disposition of the prospective formula: Go to a south-running
life-partner. stream, and dip your sleeve in it at
Burning the nuts is another a spot where the lands of three
equally famous charm. T\\o hazel lairJs come together. Then go
FOLKLORE~ A.ND THB OCCULT SCIBN(;SS. 1487
home, hang the wet garment before A small stick about two feet long
the fire, and go to bed in full vie\v was suspended from the center by a
of it. Keep awake, and some time string from the ceiling. At one end
near midnight you will be rewarded was a lighted candle, and at the 'lth-
by seeing an apparition, bearing an er an apple. It was hung about the
exact likeness to the future hus- height of your mouth, and spun
band or wife, come and tum the quickly around. Then, with your
sleeve, "as if to dry the other side hands tied behind your back, you
of it." had to take a bite of the apple in
There is a mirth-provoking ~e passing.
played in England on Hallowe en- Hallowe'en was called the
perhaps in this country, too, for "Witches' Night," "the Devil's
aught the writer knows to the con- Sunday," when his Satanic majesty
trary. A hoop from a flour-barrel was supposed to have full charge of
is taken, and around it are fastened all mundane things. He assembled
alternately, at regular intervals, ap- all the witches together. To these
ples, cakes, candies, and candle- assemblies he rode on a goat, with
ends. The hoop is then suspended black human countenance. Before
from the ceiling and set to revolv- going to this place, the witch~s
ing. The players gather in a circle anointed themselves with a prepara-
round it, and each in turn tries to tion of the fat of murdered unbap-
bite one of the edibles. The boy or tized infants. Then riding on a cat
girl who is so unfortunate as to or broomstick, they flew up the
seize one of the candles, pays for- chimney and rode to the place of
feiL meeting. At the feast, they ate no
There was a very popular way of bread nor salt, drank out of horses' .
trying one's luck on Hallowe'en by skulls, and danced back to back.
putting in a pot of mashed potatoes The devil supplied the music from
a ring, a thimble, and a sixpence. a bagpipe-the bag, a hen's skull,
All got a spoon and supped the po- and cats' tails for a chanter. After
tatoes out of the pot. Whoever ~ot indescribable orgies, they returned
the ring was sure to be marne<! home as they came. To keep their
within the )ear; the thimble signi- husbands in ignorance of their ab-
fied an old maid, and the sixpence, sence, a stic