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Porous Media

M.A. Diaz-Viera*,1, D.A. Lopez-Falcon1, A. Moctezuma-Berthier1, A. Ortiz-Tapia1

1

Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo

*Corresponding author: Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas # 152, 07730, Mexico, D. F., mdiazv@imp.mx

Abstract: Multiphase fluid flow models in shown its performance for a water flooding case

porous media are frequent in many important study through a sandstone core (reservoir rock

applications of Earth Sciences, such as in sample).

groundwater contamination, subsurface

remediation and reservoir modeling. The aim of 2. Multiphase Fluid Flow Model in

the present work is to implement in COMSOL Porous Media

Multiphysics a multiphase fluid flow model in

porous media, also known in the oil reservoir 2.1 The Black Oil Model

engineering literature as a black oil model, using

a standard finite element approach. In particular, A multiphase fluid flow model through

we are interested to apply this model coupled porous media, also known in the reservoir

with a multiphase, multicomponent transport engineering literature as black oil or beta model

model to study Enhanced Oil Recovery [2], can be obtained applying the systematic

processes at laboratory scale. The model is based approach for modeling continuum systems,

on the oil phase pressure and total velocity which basically consists of deriving a set of local

formulation in which the capillary pressure is balance equations for intensive properties (in this

taken in account. The numerical implementation case mass) by components and phases included

is validated comparing the results with the in the model [3].

analytical solution from the Buckley-Leverett The main assumptions considered in the

theory, and it is shown its performance for a model are: (1) there are three phases: water ( w ),

water flooding case study through a sandstone oil ( o ) and gas ( g ), (2) porous matrix and

core.

fluids are slightly compressible, (3) oil phase

consists of two components: non volatile oil and

Keywords: black oil, multiphase fluid flow,

dissolved gas, while the water and gas phases are

porous media, capillary pressure model, EOR.

pure, i.e., they are compound for only one

component respectively, (4) diffusion will be

1. Introduction neglected for all phases, (5) it is considered that

the porous medium is fully saturated, but the

The goal of this work is to implement a phases are separated in the pore space and (6) the

multiphase fluid flow model in porous media. In whole system is in local thermodynamic

particular, we are interested to apply this model equilibrium.

coupled with a multiphase, multicomponent The equation system of the black oil model

transport model, to study Enhaced Oil Recovery [2] is given by

processes at laboratory scale.

In view of the scale and resolution Sw 1

+ u w = qw (1)

requirements for the flow model, it could be t Bw Bw

acceptable to perform the implementation

making use of the standard finite element S 1

framework provided in COMSOL Multiphysics. o + u o = qo (2)

t Bo Bo

The model is based on the oil phase pressure

and total velocity formulation given by Chen Z. S R S 1 R

+ + u + u = q (3)

g so o so

[1] in which the capillary pressure, i.e., pressure

t B

g o g

B B B

difference between phases, is taken in account. g o g o

the numerical results with the analytical solution velocity, which can be expressed by the Darcy

for the Buckley-Leverett problem, and it is law as follows

kk r Since the oil is a continuous phase and

u = ( p

)

g ; = g , o, w (4) consequently its pressure is well behaved, we are

going to define the oil phase pressure po as the

Where and k denote the porosity and pressure variable p .

absolute permeability tensor of the porous After performing the corresponding notation

system, while S , , , p , u , B , k r substitution and appropriate manipulation on the

black oil model (1)-(3), the system of equations

and q are the saturation, viscosity, density, transforms in a single pressure equation

pressure, Darcy velocity, formation volume 1 1

u = B q S u

factor, relative permeability, and external source t B

= g , w,o B (6)

term, for each phase = g , o, w , respectively.

S o Rso 1

While Rso is the gas solubility and g is the Bg Rso qo + + u o Rso

Bo t Bo

gravitational, downward-pointing, constant

vector. and two saturation equations, for = w, o

As can be observed the equation system (1)- S

(3) consists of only three equations and it + u

t

contains six unknowns (p ,p ,p

o g w

, So , Sg , Sw ) ,

1 1

(7)

therefore the following three additional equations = B q S u B ;

are required for the system to be determined: t B

S g + So + Sw = 1 where, total and phase velocities are given by

pcgo ( S g ) = pg po (5)

u = k po f w pcow + f g pcgo gz f ;

pcow ( S w ) = po pw

(

)

u w = f w u + k f w o pcow ( o w ) gz

where pcgo and pcow are gas-oil and oil-water

+ k f ( ( p + p ) ( ) gz ) ;

capillary pressures, respectively.

w g cgo

(8)

cow g w

u = f u + k f ( p + ( ) gz )

o o o w cow o w

o g cgo g o

Total Velocity

u = f u + k f ( ( p + p ) ( ) gz )

g g g w cow cgo w g

g o cgo o g

is solved numerically by finite difference or

finite volume methods [4]. For numerical

implementation using a finite element method 2.3 Laboratory Scale Flow Model

the black oil model has to be reformulated in

more convenient manner. A review of such kind The system of equations given in (6)-(8)

of formulations is given in [1]. Here, we will represent a quite general multiphase fluid flow

present a particular formulation based on oil model in porous media, but as was mentioned

phase pressure and total velocity. before, we are interested to apply our flow model

to reproduce the flow behavior at laboratory

For convenience, the following notation is scale. Hence, taking into account the laboratory

conditions, we can make the following further

introduced: for = w, o, g , = k r are assumptions to the flow model:

the phase mobility functions, =

is the Due to the small variation range of the

pressure, water and oil phases can be

total mobility and f = are the fractional

considered incompressible, i.e., Bo = Bw = 1 .

flow functions. So that f = 1.

The total

The term u g (1 Bg ) can be neglected

velocity is defined as u = u .

since the pressure gradient is small ( p 1 ).

The gas dissolution in the oil phase doesnt

take place ( Rso = 0 ). S o

( k f o p ) = q o ;

The effect of gravity g can be ignored. t

The porous medium is homogeneous S w dpcow

k f w p k f w S w (14)

( = const . ) and isotropic ( k = k I ). t dS w

After including the previous simplifications = qw ;

in the equation system (6)-(8) we obtain:

Total and phase velocities

1 dBg po

(1 S o S w ) + u dp

u = k po + k f w cow S w

Bg dp t (9) dS w

= q o + q w + Bg q g dpcgo dpcgo

+k fg S w + k f g S o ;

S o dS g dS g

+ u o = qo ;

t

(10) dpcow

S w u w = k f w po + k f w S w ; (15)

+ u w = qw ; dS w

t

Where, total and phase velocities can be u o = k f o p o ;

rewritten as follows dpcgo

u = k po + k f w pcow k f g pcgo ; u g = k f g p o + k f g ( S w + So )

dS g

u w = f w u + kf w ( o + g ) pcow + kf w g pcgo ; 3. Numerical Implementation

(11)

u o = f o u kf o w pcow + kf o g pcgo ;

A brief review of the state of the art literature

u g = f g u kf g w pcow kf g ( o + w ) pcgo ; concerning the numerical implementation of

multiphasic fluid flow model reflects that the

Finally, replacing velocities in pressure and

finite difference (FD) and finite volume (FV)

saturation equations (9)-(10) by the expressions

methods are the general framework for

given in (11) and expressing the capillary

numerical simulation in very large problems [4];

pressure gradients in terms of saturation:

however, the basic mixed finite element (MFE)

dp dpcgo method [5] has shown to be superior for accurate

pcow = cow S w ; pcgo = S g ; (12)

dS w dS g flux calculation in heterogeneous media in

comparison to conventional FD and FV methods.

the equation system for the fluid flow model in On the other hand, a mixed finite element

porous media becomes: approach requires a special Raviart-Thomas

mixed space for base and weighting functions,

Pressure equation which makes more difficult its implementation.

p

(1 S o S w ) cg o In view of the scale and resolution

t requirements for our flow model, we decided

that it could be acceptable to perform the

dpcow dpcgo implementation making use of the standard finite

k po k f w + fg S w (13)

dS w dS g element framework provided in COMSOL

Multiphysics [6].

dpcgo In particular, the numerical implementation

k f g S o = qo + qw + Bg qg

of previously derived model was accomplished

dS g using the PDE mode for time dependent analysis

1 dBg in the coefficient form.

where cg = is the gas compressibility. Although the model presented in the previous

Bg dpo

section is triphasic (water, oil and gas) hereafter,

Saturation equations for simplicity and without lost of generality, we

will reduce our discussion about the numerical problems in 1-D. For defining initial and

implementation to the biphasic case (water, oil). boundary conditions in those problems the

For the biphasic case, i.e., we have only two following notations will be introduced:

phases: water ( w ) and oil ( o ). It is assumed Initial conditions

that the fluids are incompressible, and p ( t 0 ) = p0 , S w ( t 0 ) = S w 0 (20)

consequently the equation system (13)-(15) is

Boundary conditions

simplified as follows:

p in in g p

in

dp r

in

in

( k p ) + k w cow S w in

, g

dS w (16) Sw g Sw

(21)

p out out g p

out

= q w + qo ;

r out , g out

out

S w dpcow Sw g Sw

+ k w S w

t dS w (17) Where q 0 , but h depends on the type of

( k w p ) = qw ;

boundary conditions.

rewritten in matrix form as follows:

0 0 p 4.1 Buckley-Leverett Problem

0 t S

w We first will verify the implemented

k k w

dpc numerical flow model with known analytical

solutions. To this end, we solve the Buckely

dS w p

+ (18) Leverett problem in a homogenous medium with

k dp S w

k w c

different fluid properties and zero capillary

w dS w pressure [7].

We consider a 1-D horizontal homogeneous

q w + qo domain of length 300 m, initially saturated with

= oil. Water is injected with a constant flow rate at

qw one end to displace oil to the other end, where

The previous matrix representation can be the pressure is kept constant.

translated in straightforward manner to the The relative permeability constitutive

standard COMSOL notation in coefficient form: equations are given by:

k rw = S e ; k ro = (1 S e ) ;

p 0 0

(22)

u , da ,

Sw 0 where = 1 is for the linear case and = 2 is

for the quadratic case, whereas S e is the

k k w

dpcow

(19)

dS w q +q

effective or normalized saturation, which is

c , f w o defined as:

dp qw S w S rw

k w k w cow Se = (23)

dS w 1 S rw S ro

where e a ,,,,a 0 . where S rw and S ro are the residual saturations

To complete the model only remains to for water and oil, respectively.

define suitable constitutive laws for relative In relation to the general model description

permeabilities ( k rw , k ro ) and oil-water capillary given in COMSOL notation in (19), only the

matrix c and vector f are modified

pressure pcow and to prescribe proper initial and

k 0 0

boundary conditions. c ; f (24)

In the next two sections the flow model k w 0

described above will be tested for two specific

Since pcow 0 and qw , qo 0 . Note that it Table 2: Simulated cases for Buckley-Leverett

problem

was introduced a small artificial diffusion

coefficient ( ) in the saturation equation to Cases Relative Viscosity Simulation

stabilize the numerical solution, due to its permeability ratio periods

hyperbolic nature, numerical instabilities can be model ( w o ) ( tmax )

appeared. ( )

[days]

Table 1: Buckley-Leverett problem data (a) 1 2 300-900

Property Units Value (b) 1 2/3 300-900

Domain length m 300 (c) 2 2/3 300-900

(xmax)

Absolute Permeability m2 1.00E-15 4.2 Water Flooding Case Study

(k )

Porosity ( ) 0.2 The second problem is about to reproduce

the flow behavior in a water flooding experiment

Water viscosity ( w ) Pa.s 1.00E-03

through a sandstone core under laboratory

Oil viscosity ( o ) Pa.s 1.00E-03 conditions. The intention is to couple this flow

model with multiphase and multicomponent

Residual water 0

transport equations to study Enhaced Oil

saturation ( S rw ) Recovery processes [9]. Data of this problem is

Residual oil saturation 0.2 given in Table 3.

( S ro ) In this case, the relative permeability

constitutive equations are based on the Brooks-

Injection rate m.s-1 3.4722E-07 Corey model [10]:

2 + 3 2 +

Production pressure MPa 10

k rw = S e ; k ro = (1 S e )

2

1 S e ; (28)

Artificial diffusion 1.00E-6

coefficient where characterizes the pore size distribution.

While oil-water capillary pressure is defined

For this problem the initial conditions are by the Leverett J-function:

p ( t 0 ) = p0 10MPa, S w ( t 0 ) = S w 0 0 (25) ( 1 )

S w S rw

and the corresponding boundary conditions are pcow ( S w ) = pt (29)

0 in g in 0 0

in 1 S rw S ro

r in , g p ,h

in

(26) where pt is the entry or left threshold pressure

Sw 0 0 1

assumed to be proportional to ( k ) .

12

p out out 0 out 1 0

r , g 0 ,h 0 0

out

(27) Consequently, we can express the oil-water

0 capillary pressure derivative as follows:

S w 0.8 , g p 3.47E-7 m s ,

in in -1

Where dpcow

( Sw ) =

10MPa . dS w

out

p

(1+ ) (30)

The relevant data are taken from [8] and are

pt S w S rw

provided in Table 1.

The simulations were carried out for three (1 S rw S ro ) 1 S rw S ro

cases with different water-oil viscosity ratios We impose the following initial conditions

p ( t 0 ) = p0 10MPa, S w ( t0 ) = S w 0 0.2 (31)

combining two types of relative permeability

models (linear and quadratic) for seven time

periods, (see Table 2). and boundary conditions

The numerical simulation of the water

0 in g in 0 0

in

r , g p ,h

in

(32) coreflooding experiment through a sandstone

0 0 0 0 core during a time period of 24 hours is shown in

figure 5. It can be observed the formation of a water

p out out 0 out 1 0 front displacing the oil through the porous medium

, g 0 ,h 0 0

out

r (33)

0 which is recovered at the production end of the core.

The main result of the present work is the

Where g p 5.3E 07 m s , p 10MPa .

in -1 out

implementation of a biphasic (water-oil) flow

model in porous media, including capillary

Table 3: Water coreflooding experimental data pressure, which coupled to multiphase and

multicomponent transport equations could be

Property Units Value useful to study Enhaced Oil Recovery processes

at laboratory scale.

Domain length ( xmax ) m 0.25 Even more, applying a flow model coupled

Absolute Permeability with transport equations can be serve to study the

m2 8.25E-13 impact in the flow conditions due to the porosity

(k )

and permeability alterations by transport

Porosity ( ) 0.2 processes, such as adsorption of some fluent

Water viscosity ( w ) Pa.s 1.00E-03 components.

Residual water

0.2 1. Chen, Z., Formulations and numerical

saturation ( S rw )

methods of the black oil model in porous media,

Residual oil saturation SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 38, 489514 (2000)

0.15

( S ro ) 2. Aziz, K. and Settari, A., Petroleum Reservoir

Injection rate Simulation. Applied Science Publishers Ltd.,

m.s-1 5.3E-07

London UK, (1979)

Production pressure MPa 10 3. Allen, M.B., Herrera; I. and Pinder, G.F.,

Brooks-Corey Numerical modeling in science and engineering,

2

parameter ( ) John Wiley & Sons, USA (1988)

Entry threshold 4. Chen Z., Huan G., and Ma Y.,

MPa 1.00E-2 Computational Methods for Multiphase Flows in

pressure ( pt ) Porous Media, Computational Science and

Engineering, SIAM, (2006)

6. Results and Conclusions 5. Raviart, P.A. and J.M. Thomas, A mixed

finite element method for second order elliptic

In the figure 1, the numerical solutions of the problems, Lecture Notes in Math., 606, Springer,

BuckleyLeverett problem with linear relative Berlin, 292-315, (1977)

permeabilities and viscosity ratio w o = 1 for 6. COMSOL Multiphysics, Earth Science

Module, Users Guide Version 3.4, COMSOL

a time period of 300 days with different artificial AB (2007)

diffusion coefficients are shown. We can 7. Buckley S, Leverett M. Mechanism of fluid

observe that it is attained the best trade of in displacement in sands. Trans AIME, 146,18796,

terms of efficiency and accuracy for an artificial (1942)

diffusion coefficient value = 1e 7 . 8. Hoteit H., Firoozabadi A., Numerical

Figures 2-4 show a quite well qualitative modeling of two-phase flow in heterogeneous

reproduction of the analytic solution behavior for permeable media with different capillarity

the BuckleyLeverett problems for cases (a)-(c) pressures, Advances in Water Resources, 31, 56

described in table 2, respectively. These 73 (2008)

problems were numerically solved with the 9. Lopez-Falcon, D.A., Diaz-Viera, M.A. and

optimal artificial diffusion coefficient Ortiz-Tapia, A Transport, growth and decay of

value = 1e 7 previously obtained. Microorganisms and Nutrients through Porous

Media: A Simulation with COMSOL, present

conference, (2008)

10. Brooks, R. and A. Corey, Hydraulic

Properties of Porous Media, of Colorado State

University Hydrology Paper, 3, Colorado State

University, (1964).

Leverett problem for case (b) with linear relative

permeabilities and viscosity ratio w o = 2 3 for

time periods from 300 to 900 days.

Leverett problem with linear relative permeabilities

and viscosity ratio w o = 1 for a period of 300

days, varying artificial diffusion coefficient ( ).

Leverett problem for case (c) with quadratic relative

permeabilities and viscosity ratio w o = 2 3 for

time periods from 300 to 900 days.

Leverett problem for case (a) with linear relative

permeabilities and viscosity ratio w o = 2 for time

periods from 300 to 900 days.

coreflooding experiment for a time period of 24 hours.

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