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The Act Of Teaching

CHAPTER 6: Planning Instruction

Instructional planning is the process by which teachers decide ( 1) what to teach, (2) how to
teach it, and (3) how they will determine whether students learned and were satisfied. (p. 167)

I think planning is a very slow and meticulous process, but it surely helps us with teaching our

There are four reasons why planning is beneficial for new teachers (p. 167-168)
1.) You have no teaching experience that you could rely on
2.) You may want your students to understand you, and assure yourself that the skills of teaching
are there.
3.) You dont know what students are supposed to know and do.
4.) Your teaching will be more effective and fun compared to no planning.

In conclusion, since planning instruction is considered so important, student teachers and

beginning teachers are advised to plan teaching events in considerable detail, leaving little or
nothing to chance. (p. 168)

Instructional Objectives

An instructional objective describes what learners must know and be able to do. (p. 174)

There are General objectives; and Specific objectives which are done by the teacher (p. 175)
There are Illustrative examples that could be done by the teacher (p.175):

You want students to understand that a newspaper contains a number of parts and that
each part contains different information:
Given the daily newspaper students will correctly list the main sections it contains and the
contents of each section. (p.175)

You want students to know how waste can be recycled and to have practice using the
Internet to find related information:
Given access to the Internet, students will locate at least three websites related to recycling waste
and prepare a list of at least five recycling suggestions. (p.175)

You want students to be able to appreciate that people have different values and attitudes
that affect their behavior:
Given a Harry Potter book, students will describe different attitudes and values held by three
characters, how they are alike and different, and how they affect the characters' behaviors and
interactions with other characters. (p.175)

You want students to practice their soccer dribbling skills:

Given a soccer ball, students will practice dribbling by weaving around obstacles without
hitting any of them. (p.175)

Blooms Taxonomy

Within Bloom's cognitive domain there are six levels of cognitive complexity. They are from
simplest to most complex (p.177):
1 . Knowledge. Learners have knowledge of and the ability to recall or recognize information.
Example: The learner can recite multiplication facts. (p.177)

2. Comprehension. Learners understand and can explain knowledge in their own words.
Example: The learner can explain why 6 sevens and 7 sixes are equivalent. (p.177)

3. Application. Learners apply knowledge that is they are able to use it in practical situations.
Example: The learner can calculate the cost of purchasing six envelopes costing seven cents
each. (p.177)

4. Analysis. Learners are able to break down complex concepts or information into simpler,
related parts. Example: The learner can break the numeric statement "6 X 7" into subparts or
possible combinations (for example, 3 X 2 X 7). (p.177)

5. Synthesis. Learners are able to combine elements to form a new, original entity.
Example: The learner can hypothesize that if 6 sevens are 42, 7 sevens can be determined by
adding another 7 to 42. (p.177)

6. Evaluation. Learners are able to make judgments. Example: The learner can devise a strategy
for evaluating the accuracy of solutions to multiplication problems with 7 as one integer. (p.

Preparing Lesson Plans

A lesson plan describes specifically what and how something will be learned within a brief
period, usually one or a few class hours. (p. 187)

Parts of a Lesson Plan

1.) Objectives. The challenge here is to write objectives at the lesson level that meet as many of
the criteria for good objectives as possible. Remember, the objectives should be relevant to the
curriculum; promote learning outcomes across the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective
domains; reasonably promote a range of levels of understanding (low and high) within each
domain; be written specifically enough that it is clear what each student must know and be able
to do; and be achievable by your students.(p.188)
2.) Resources. What is available to assist learners? Assemble all the available human and
material resources that might be used to help your learners gain the objectives. Many will be
noted later in the section entitled "Resources Useful When Planning." In practice, many teachers
do this step first, before they write specific objectives. In any case, the lesson plan should
specifically denote which resources you and the learners will use in order to accomplish the
specific instructional objectives. (p.188)

3. Set induction. How will learner interest be obtained? Set induction or anticipatory set are
terms used to indicate the need to start the lesson by capturing learner attention and interest.
During this part of lesson planning, we must think of ways to do so. One idea is to relate what is
to be learned to what learners are interested in and/ or have previous knowledge of. It has long
been assumed and has now been confirmed that people work harder on tasks related to their
knowledge and interests (Renninger, Hidi, & Krapp, 1992). Interest contributes to learning
because, among other things, it stimulates a personal, emotional network of associations. By
relating new learning to prior knowledge, associations, and connections also are more apparent.
Chapter 11 details how to provide set induction, while Unit 1 (Microteaching Lesson Two) in the
Practice Teaching Manual provides a practice exercise. (p. 188)

4. Methodology. How will teaching and learning proceed? Here you describe how learning will
take place. Chapters 2 and 3 on student diversity and 4 on learning should be particularly useful
in planning your methodology because they describe what is known about students and how they
learn. Chapters 7 and 8 on instructional alternatives also are very relevant. (p. 189)

In this chapter, I have learned that planning is very important and essential to the teacher
especially to me, as I am not a teacher yet, and so all the more I must be able to plan what I am
going to do in my teaching and not just do teaching on the spot. I have noticed in my country that
most of our teachers do not make lesson plans, or they just teach directly. And although some of
them could are effective in teaching with no planning, it is not an excuse, for we could be much
better/ we could be more improved if we plan out things. Even if it takes up my extra time, I
need to be able to think and plan out what I am going to do with my class in the future that I may
possibly avoid nervousness, or I may not panic, or cram when the actual teaching is there. I have
also learned how to develop a lesson plan that outlines everything to do with the success of my
teaching, and although I have identified some areas as my weaknesses, I will try to learn from it
more and prepare how to do it better the next time.

Presentations: Teaching as Telling and Showing

A presentation is an informative talk a more knowledgeable person makes to less

knowledgeable persons. (p. 204)

I personally find presentations a cool thing because you could do a lot of creative ideas
incorporated to a slideshow and it could make the class more exciting. Our teacher in High
school did a lot of presentations (mostly use blackboard as the visual tool) and it interests me to
learn more because of the interactive pictures and designs he put in his slideshow that is very
relevant in what he is teaching.

The purpose of a presentation is to inform an audience of certain facts, ideas, concepts, and
explanations. (p. 204)

A presentation must have a good presenter and good presentation. (p. 205)

Before making a presentation, you must believe that your learners can best gain particular
knowledge or skill by attending, looking, and listening to you or another presenter. (p. 206)

Persons who have thought about and studied the quality of teacher presentations tend to analyze
them according to three primary factors: preparation, delivery, and closure (Bligh, 2000; Brown,
1 987; Gage & Berliner, 1 976; Rosenshine & Stevens, 1 986). The following discussion centers
on these three characteristics. (p. 206)

Discussion: Learning through Informative Interaction

A discussion is a situation wherein students, or students and a teacher, converse to share

information, ideas, or opinions or work to resolve a problem. (p. 214)

Discussions 4 purposes:
Reviewing and extending the students learning to ensure their mastery of the subject.
Examining the students ideas and opinions. ( p.214
Table 7.3 Discussion and Recitation compared (p. 214)

Discussion Recitation
Definition When a student or When a teacher asks
students and students a
a teacher converse series of relatively
to share information, short-answer
ideas, and so forth questions
Purpose to review what To determine
students have whether what the
learned, To students remember
determine what
e n courage students
to reflection
their ideas or
opinions, explore an
issue, resolve a
problem, or improve
Conceptual Level Discussion usually Questions are
is at a higher usually lower-level,
cognitive level or cognitive domain.
may be in the
affective domain. Examples: "When
Examples: "What was America
leads to exploration discovered?"
and discovery?"
"Are exploration and "What is the sum of
discovery bad the angles of a
or good?" " If we triangle?"
find life on another
planet, s h o u l d we "What are the
try to improve it?" themes of
Fitzgerald's novels?"
Role of the teacher Facilitator Quizmaster
participant, or
observer-rec order

Since there is no research evidence on when or how teachers actually use discussions, our guess
is that teachers initiate discussions mostly when pursuing the above goals. However, we are sure
you will be guided by other things in your selection of discussion. (p. 219)

Discussions serve at least four purposes: they can review and extend knowledge, examine ideas
and opinions, solve problems, and improve oral communication skills. Most classroom
discussions serve the first purpose; that is, students review information they have previously
learned from a presentation or from reading. Even then, however, students should review the
material at the highest cognitive level. They should be prompted to analyze, synthesize, and
evaluate information rather than merely be asked to respond to lower-level, factual questions as
in a prototypical recitation. (p. 221)

Independent Study: Teaching as Giving and Guiding Seat Work and Homework

Independent study is any assignment learners complete more or less on their own.(p. 222)

Purposes of Independent Study (p. 225):

To rehearse, practice
To provide opportunity to learn how to learn
To occupy students legitimately so the teacher can undertake another task

Characteristics of Independent Study (p. 225):

Learning assignment is designated by teacher or selected by students
Teacher serves as facilitator, guide
Assignment is to be accomplished in school or at a home

The role of the teacher is to facilitate the students learning and satisfaction. Effective teachers
must be responsible to guide, lead, and moniter the progress/ work of the students. (p. 224)

When should we use Independent Study? (p.227):

When learners need to rehearse or practice information or a skill to get it into long-term
When learners need to learn how to learn independently.

Independent study is an excellent instructional alternative that serves several important

purposes. Mostly teachers use it for practice or rehearsal of information. However, it also helps
students acquire study and inquiry skills that will serve them throughout life. During independent
work, your role is to facilitate and guide learning. To do so, you must not only be available, but
also must actively monitor. When you are not available or cannot monitor, as with home
assignments, you must find someone else to fill this role. (p. 230)

Individualized or Differentiated Instruction: Tailoring Teaching

Individualized instruction means responding academically to individuals (p. 230)

Individualized instruction refers to a number of instructional maneuvers that attempt to tailor

teaching and learning to a learner's unique strengths and needs. There are many types of
individualized instruction, including the Dalton and Winnetka plans, programmed and computer-
assisted instruction, Individually Prescribed Instruction, Individually Guided Education, tutoring,
and the Project Method. In some, individuals with like abilities are grouped. (p. 251)
The teacher's role in individualized instruction is to know and care about the diversity of
students and to see that the learning tasks are varied or modified for each individual.
Good users of individualized instruction prize diversity, value individualism, know
learners' strengths and needs, know about and have the ability to implement
individualized instruction programs, and have good interpersonal skills. (p. 251)

"' Good individualized instruction programs are tailored to meet individual learners' strengths
and needs, permit considerable autonomy, result in greater equity, and have no damaging or
harmful side effects on students. (p. 251)

"' Research on individualized instruction makes it clear that its use is worth the extra time and
effort. Its major limitation is that when it is properly conducted, it is very time-consuming.

I have understood that even now in Instructional Alignment class, we have used these alternative
instructions as basis of how we could learn more in class. I did not notice it, but sometimes, the
teachers have used all 4 of these instructions in all of my classes and it helps me understand
things clearly. The one that we mostly use in Instructional Alignment class is, discussion, for the
teacher gets us into groups, and each student shares what they have learned from the readings
and the lecture. I feel that I grow more academically in that instruction, for I dont only get to
learn from others, other students also learn from me. The bond that we have as classmates,
sharing knowledge with one another broadens my perspective of looking at things and it gives
me an understanding of how other people see things. In my teaching someday, I would definitely
use this method for it is very beneficial for the student, and it builds a sense of community in the
class, but of course this is not the only method I would be introducing, for I would introduce
other instructions as well that would suit to each students needs for learning.

Cooperative Learning: Teaching learners to like and care for one another
Cooperative learning (formerly called student-team learning) is the term used to describe
instructional procedures whereby learners work together in small groups and are rewarded for
their collective accomplishments. (p. 260)

What are the key characteristics or attributes of cooperative learning systems?

How is this "all for one, one for all" purpose achieved? Such systems are generally characterized
by (p.260):
The way the groups or teams are made up
The kinds of tasks they do
The groups rules of behavior
Their motivation and reward systems
Purpose of Discovery Learning (p. 270):
To get learners to think for themselves
To help learners discover how knowledge is formulated
To promote higher-order thinking skills
Characteristics of Discovery Learning (p. 270):
Teacher sets the stage for knowledge discovery
Teacher rewards exploration and independent thought
Learners accept the challenge of finding out things for themselves; discovering
Learners operate at higher-order cognitive levels: analysis, synthesis, evaluation

Discovery learning holds promise in ensuring that your learners will be able to think for
themselves. To use this alternative effectively, you need to believe in its purposes; you must have
certain qualities such as curiosity, optimism, and confidence in students' abilities to think and
inquire; and you must have patience. (p. 277)

Discovery learning appears well-suited to certain teachers and students. It may be well-suited to
others who have had little experience or bad prior experiences with the method. As teachers, one
of our toughest jobs is to remediate bad past experiences students have had. (p. 277)

Constructivist Teaching and Learning: Problem Solving under Teacher Guidance

Constructivism is a way of teaching and learning that intends to maximize student
Understanding. (p. 278)

To make learning activities most understood and usable, constructivists have collected
a number of ideas and brought them together to form a mosaic. The ideas,
among others, include (p. 278) :
Active learning (when students are directly involved in finding something out for
themselves) is preferable to passive learning (when students are recipients of information
presented by a teacher).
Learning takes place best in communities of learners, that is, group or social situations.
Learners should engage in "authentic and situated activities, that is, the tasks they face
should be real problems versus hypothetical ones: concrete rather than abstract.
Learners should reflect or think about what is being learned.
Learners should relate new information to that which they already have (called
bridging). Rather than present information to learners, teachers facilitate its acquisition.
Teachers must provide learners with scaffolding assistance needed for them to progress
(see Chapter 4).
Students are expected to resolve what they thought they knew with new information that
may be contradictory.

Purpose of Constructivism (p. 279):

To enable students to acquire information in ways that is most readily understood and

Characteristics of Constructivism (p. 278):

Active learning
Authentic learning in groups

Understanding is the most important outcome of learning. Constructivists believe that to gain
understanding which they learn through active involvement, by doing. In the process of learning
by doing, the community of learners builds or creates new knowledge for themselves, connects
that new knowledge to knowledge they already possess, and considers any discrepancies
between the two. Learners also think about the new information they have come to understand
and how it may be applied. Constructivists believe that the role of the teacher is to facilitate
active involvement. (p. 281)

Direct Instruction: Teaching in the Most Efficient and Effective Way

Direct Instruction (DI) is a variation on the theme of teacher presentations in that

it is teacher-dominated and directed. (p. 282)
Purpose of Direct Instruction (p. 283):
To directly cause students to learn academic content or skills

Characteristics of Direct Instruction (p. 283):

Teacher provides strong direction
Orientation is very academic
Concern is for achievement; high expectation that students can/will learn
Student accountability, cooperation demanded
Students made to feel psychologically safe
Student behavior is controlled

2 Kinds of Direct Instruction (p. 293):

Research-based: Derived from observations of effective teachers (p.293)
- Basic practice
- Explicit teaching
- Active teaching
Learning-based theory: Derived from what is known about teaching (p. 293)
- Mastery teaching

Direct instruction teachers provide strong academic direction, have high expectations that
students can and will learn, make students feel psychologically safe, urge them to cooperate, hold
them accountable for their work, and closely monitor and control students' behavior. Good
leaders of direct instruction are enthusiastic, warm and accepting, humorous, supportive,
encouraging, businesslike, adaptable or flexible, and knowledgeable. (p. 296)

Good direct instruction has three phases: preparation, delivery, and closure. The preparation that
direct instruction teachers engage in is not clear. We can only assume it equates to preparing a
good presentation. In DISTAR, preparation requires being well acquainted with the teacher's
instructional manuals. Delivery requires some very major tasks including (for most variations)
collection and review of previous work, re-teaching when necessary, presentation of new
material, teacher-guided practice and, finally, independent practice until 80 percent or higher
proficiency is achieved. (p. 296)

The more instructional alternatives that we have means that there are really a lot of ways in
which we could learn. I would like to connect my learnings to what I have learned in
Intercultural Communication class that these alternatives connect to a collectivist culture,
which assures the success of the group rather than the single individual. And so the learning
alternatives that are presented in this chapter contributes to the learning of everyone, that it
ensures each student learn from one another and the experience that they gain are for their
benefit and others.

Defining Classroom Assessment Measurement and Evaluation

Assessment is the process of collecting, synthesizing, and interpreting information to aid in
decision making. (p. 304)

Measurement is assigning a numeric value to students' performances. (p. 304)

Evaluation is making judgement on students performances. (p. 304)

Factors influencing assessment quality

Sources of Information
These and other information sources help teachers find out about students' strengths and
weaknesses, likes and dislikes, and problems and successes. (p. 305)

Students work
Homework assignments, projects, worksheets, and even tests or quizzes can be designed so that
teachers can observe and analyze students' work. When teachers do this, it is important that they
give students feedback about their performance (p. 305)

Tests or projects
Both tests and projects require students to demonstrate how well they have learned targeted
concepts and skills, and they allow teachers to describe their students' performance. (p. 305)

Students with Special Needs

We should take a moment to discuss the ways in which assessment can appropriately be
modified or accommodated. (p. 308)

Types of Assessment: Formative Versus Summative

Formative assessment refers to assessment conducted during the course of instruction. Such
assessment provides feedback while it is still possible to influence the instructional and learning
process. (p. 309)
Summative assessment is the term used to describe assessment conducted after instruction is
completed. This type of assessment is used to make final judgments about a student's learning.
Its primary purpose is not to adapt instruction or to remedy learning deficiencies; rather, it
attempts to summarize a student's achievement or progress, generally in the form of a grade or
score. (p. 309)

I believe that this field, when it comes to evaluation and assessment, I am strong in that area, for
when I had my micro teaching, my seniors liked my assessment, and I could see that my
students( classmates) are responding well, and they seem to understand what I am talking about.
There are times where I would mistaken formative assessment for summative assessment, so that
it where I am supposed to grow, to really differentiate one from the other.

8 Characteristics of effective teachers (p.348):

- Enthusiastic teachers convey to students that they are confident and enjoy what they
are doing, that they trust and respect students, and that the subject they teach is
valuable. (p. 351)
- They promote interest by varying the speed, pitch, and inflection of their voices, and
they use pauses to reinforce points and add variety. (p. 351)
- Remember, you are only enthusiastic if your students perceive you to be. (p. 352)

Warm and humorous

- Positive classroom relationships are fostered when you are friendly, maintain a
positive attitude, demonstrate interest in your students as individuals, appear to be
open and willing to work thigs out with students, and work hard to help them
succeed academically. (p. 353)
- An appropriate sense of humor is one of the characteristics students frequently note
in the teachers they enjoy. ( Brophy, n.d; McDermott and Rothenberg, 2000)
- Warmth and humor are means to desirable ends, not ends in themselves. (p. 354)

- You are only credible only when your students believe you are. (p. 354)
- Credibility and trust are the result of being open , honest, and equitable in your
dealings with students, and of openly soliciting and accepting students comments or
criticisms, of defining your expectations and the relevance of the subject, of
communicating clearly, and of demonstrating interest and concern for your students.
(p. 354)

Holding high expectations for success

- A teacherss expectations from the students cause differences in learning (p. 355)
- If you hold low expectations for a particular student, not only that student but other
student but other students are likely to sense this and to adapt their prceptions and
expectations accordingly.(p. 355)

Encouraging and supportive

- Teachers who are encouraging and supportive help students feel accepted as
individuals, and they recognize effort and potential. (p. 357)
- Encouragement is particularly important when students are most likely to experience
reluctance and difficulty. (p. 358)
- These are teachers who are task-oriented and who forces students to work seriously
on boring and quiet tasks. (p. 359)
- A businesslike teacher is goal-oriented, serious, deliberate, and organized
Adaptable/ flexible
- Flexibility and adaptability in this sense requires that you be aware of the need for
change and be able to adapt to those changes. (p.360)

- Knowledge of the subjects they teach seems intuitively to be an important attribute
of effective teachers. (p.362)
- The most effective teachers combine content knowledge with knowledge of teaching
(that is, pedagogy) and with knowledge of students. (p.362)

Teachers are held accountable for their effectiveness in helping students learn the content. (p.

I personally love this chapter for I find some of my strengths and identify my weaknesses here. I
could truly attest that this components make up a great teacher, and I have a teacher who I could
never forget who has almost all these characteristics. Surely I would like to have all
characteristics, but I know that is very hard to achieve and we all have different strengths and
weaknesses, and so what I could do now is to cultivate the strength that God has given me and
learn from my weakness that I may improve on it and make my teaching more effective. There
are some areas which are very important for me to learn as a future teacher someday. Skills like
being knowledgeable in different fields is not in my strongest suit, but I must work on it for the
benefit of my students. For me, there is no area that is higher than the other. It is just a matter of
perspective, for one characteristic that belongs to one teacher might not always work for the
other, and so I wont be shocked if I could not cultivate this specific characteristic in a matter of
time. I will just be patient and wait for that area to be my strength.

This chapter focuses on the following seven teaching skills, all important in helping students
learn (p. 368):

Establishing set.
Using variety.
Optimizing instructional time.
Using questions.
Providing clear instruction.
Monitoring students' progress.
Providing feedback and reinforcement.

Establishing Set
- Students learn more when teachers begin their lessons by establishing set, that is, by
providing a context for the lesson and the instruction. (p. 368)

Using Variety
- Effective teachers use variety in virtually every aspect of their classroom behavior
including nonverbal behavior, instructional approaches, classroom organization,
questioning, types of assessment, and gestures. (p. 370)
- One way of establishing effective set in your lessons is to pique students interest by
presenting novel situations or problems. (p.370)
- In addition to introducing students to content in a variety of ways, (Grouws and
Cebulla 2000) emphasize the importance of varying the ways teachers interact with
students. (p. 372)

Optimizing Time
- Research has shown that time on task is consistently related to increased learning.
- Allocated time is the amount of mandated time intended or scheduled for academic
activities. (p. 374)
- Academic instruction time is the amount of allotted time during the teacher conducts
instructional activities (p.374)
- Instructional transitions require that teachers refocus students' attention on changes
in the direction of a discussion or lesson. (p. 376)

Using Questions
- The most effective teachers are able to conduct instruction that keeps students
actively involved in the lesson. (p. 377)
- Effective questions require students to actively process information and compose an
answer. (p. 378)
- To be effective, questions should require students to process or think about what
they are learning and to compose an answer. (p. 378)

Providing Clear Instructions

- Instructional clarity refers to the teachers ability to provide instruction that helps the
students come to a clear and accurate understanding of important concepts or ideas.
Thus, clarity is something students achieve, not something the teacher does. (p. 368)
- Clear instruction is logically organized and is conducted in a way that helps students
see the relationships between major or concepts or ideas. (p. 387)
- Teachers should provide an overview of the lesson to help students establish a
mental framework for the concepts or activities and to enable them to monitor their
own understanding. (p. 387)
- Beyond planning and organizing, clear instruction focuses students' attention on
important aspects of the instruction. (p. 387)
- It is important, however, that you monitor your use of the board to ensure that you
do not overuse it for minor or unimportant points. Students will perceive things you
write on the board as important. (p. 387)

Monitoring Students Progress

- Effective teachers are adept at monitoring students understanding, not just their
behavior (Marzano, 2002; Walberg, 2003). (p. 389)
- Monitoring is also closely tied to the effective use of instructional time and to
effective feedback, each of which has been found to influence students learning. (p.

Providing Feedback and Reinforcement

- Reinforcement is meant to improve stuudednts motivation, while feedback is
intended to inform students about the accuracy of their performance. (p. 390)
Feedback is primarily intended to:
Inform students about the quality and accuracy of their performance (p. 390)
Help them learn how to monitor and improve their own learning (p. 390)

The most useful feedback includes the standard performance was judged against, how the
student's performance compares with that standard, and specifically how the performance can be
improved. Feedback should be provided frequently, as soon after performance as possible, and
should focus on the quality of performance rather than the student's intentions or effort. (p. 395)

A problem is a goal-response interference. (p. 441)

Need designates something that is absolutely necessary for you to live your life (p. 441)
Wants are something that is nice to have, but is not really essential to your life/ well being (p.
What kinds of classroom-related problems do teachers face?
- Affiliation is defined as the teachers need to establish and maintain good
relationships with others in the school. (p. 443)
- Having the comforting acceptance, companionship, and support of others is a very
real social-psychological need. (p. 443)
When teachers are compared to an occupation that is more successful than theirs, they value 4
things (p. 441):
- Having fellow workers they like (p. 443)
- Working under pleasant conditions (p. 443)
- Having the respect of others (p. 443)
- Enjoying job certainty (p. 443)

- Control is the teacher need to have students behave well or appropriately. (p. 444)
- When teachers define appropriately, they mean students should be reasonably
quiet, orderly, courteous, and honest, and they should show respect for others and for
property. (p. 444)
5 Principles that can make control less of a problem (p. 445):
- Pursue only classroom goals that are truly important and attainable. (p. 445)
- Analyze the factors that may be affecting the problem situation. (p. 446)
- Use positive techniques for managing behavior. (p. 446)
- Use punishment sparingly and appropriately. (p. 447)
- Teach students to manage their own behavior. (p. 447)

Parent Relationships and Home conditions

- Teachers recognize the important role parents and significant others play in the lives
of students. (p. 447)
Student Success
- Student success is defined as the need teachers have to help learners achieve both
academically and socially. (p. 450)
- Problems associated with students who face special challenges include helping
children with personal problems; helping those with special physical, social,
emotional, or intellectual needs; overcoming a students frustration with self; and
getting students to feel they are succeeding. (p. 450)
4 obstacles to achieve student success (Holton 1980):
- Knowledge about teaching is at best sketchy (p.205)
- Students individual differences (p.450)
- Schools have many, often vague goals, and not all of them are consistent with
learning. (p. 205)
- Teaching is greater than the sum of its parts (p. 206)
- Lack of time represents a serious problem for teachers. (p. 451)

Presenting and resolving Classroom Problems

Some of the things we desire we truly need because our biological or socio-psychological well-
being depends upon our having them. (p. 451)

It is important both to be able to prevent problems and to be able to resolve them. (p. 457)

Surely all classrooms face this, and even now at ITC, we are experiencing conflicts/ problems
within our fellow classmates/ teachers, but the question lies at what are we going to do about it. I
surely know that I, as a teacher in the future would be facing a scenario in my classroom that
requires me to settle disputes and be a Prophet, and King; someone who prays for the
students, and have authority over them and over the problem. Some students may have problems
with regards to their academics, or whatever aspect they may require my assistance of, and so I
would be responsible to guide them and help them, as Jesus has been a shepherd to me, guiding
me back when I was astray; the same attitude I must also show to my students.
Reflection is the ongoing process of educational, social, and ethnical aspects of teaching and
schooling (Han, 1995). (p. 460)
Reflection is especially important for beginning teachers who often hold all the knowledge and
skills they will need to be effective teachers (Brookhart and Freeman, 1992). (p.460)

Characteristics of Reflective Practitioners

Reflective Practitioners have 4 characteristics (p.461):
- Reflective practitioners routinely and purposefully deliberate or reflect on teaching.
(p. 461)

- They are willing to question their own views and reactions to their teaching practices
and the school culture. (p. 461)

- Reflective practitioners take responsibility (Dewey, 1997b)

- Reflective practitioners are sincere as they closely investigate their teaching (Dewey,
1997b). (p. 462)

Benefits of reflecting on Teaching

The most important benefit of reflection as you prepare to teach is that it enhances your learning
about teaching. (p. 462)
4 things to learn from experiences (p. 462):
- You must have a concrete learning experience, such as grading homework papers for
your cooperating teacher.
- You must have an opportunity to reflect on the experience by recapturing and
evaluating it.
- You must integrate your reflections with what you already know and believe about
teaching and learning.
- You must engage in active experimentation, applying the insights you have gained to
make decisions and solve problems (Boud, Keogh, and Walker, 1985).
Being a teacher does not mean we are exempted from learning, in fact, we continue to learn as
we are teachers ourselves because we get to learn from our mistakes, and thus, we are reflecting
whatever we are doing. I must be able to criticize my teaching in the future in order for me to see
the flaws that I had done and possibly change it the next time.