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Detailing Corner

Detailing Corner
RFIs 09-3, 09-4,
and 09-5
Alternate joint details to transfer large moments,
the 0 in. dimension, and lap splicing hooks

The material published in the last Detailing Corner diagonal bars are intended to resist the opening (prying)
(V. 31, No. 9, Sept. 2009, pp. 43-45) spawned requests for moment, which causes tension and potential cracking in
information from our readers. This months Detailing the inside corner of the joint. Figure RFI 09-3.1 illustrates
Corner provides responses as well as additional information. the addition of the diagonal bars. These bars would be
We thank those who contacted us and encourage all detailed at every horizontal bar elevation in the wall.
readers to participate. Because the maximum moment occurs in the inside
corner projected along a diagonal line (potential crack
RFI 09-3: In the September 2009 Detailing Corner, a plane), these bars are then developed beyond this point
number of wall corner joints were illustrated with preferred
means of detailing reinforcement to accommodate pretied
curtains of wall reinforcement. Most of the details
appeared to be reinforced for low or minimal horizontal
moment transfer at the joint. Could you please comment
on alternate joint details that can better transfer large

Response: Yes, you are correct that the corner

reinforcement illustrations in the September 2009 DETAILING CORNER
Detailing Corner were intended for low levels of moment Joint ACI-CRSI Committee 315-B,
capacity in the wall. When we define low moment Details of Concrete Reinforcement-
capacity, we are considering a wall with a low percentage Constructibility, has developed forums
of horizontal flexural reinforcement, likely conforming to dealing with constructibility issues for
minimum temperature and shrinkage requirements. A buried reinforced concrete. To assist the
tank would be one example; two perpendicular shear Committee with disseminating this
walls joined together at their intersection with negligible information, staff at the Concrete Reinforcing Steel
corner moment transfer would be another example. Institute (CRSI) are presenting these topics in a
For large horizontal moments at a corner joint, the regular series of articles. If you have a detailing
loading would likely be applied by a liquid or granular question you would like to see covered in a future
material in a tank structure. In this instance, frame joint article, please send an e-mail to Neal Anderson, CRSIs
detailing concepts become applicable. Research has Vice President of Engineering, at
shown that the addition of diagonal bars in the corner with the subject line Detailing Corner.
significantly enhances the flexural capacity.1,2 The

Concrete international / november 2009 55

of maximum moment by extending
them into the compression zone in
each wall.
For a T-joint in a tank or retaining
wall structure, corner moment
capacity can be enhanced in two
b) c) fashions. Where moment reversal at
the joint is possible, the detail shown
Fig. RFI 09-3.1: Diagonal bars (red) provide increased flexural resistance against in Fig. 2(g) of the September 2009
opening of joints
Detailing Corner can be improved
by increasing the extensions on the
two 90-degree bent bars and placing
the hooks so the extensions cross
through the joint, as in Fig. RFI 09-3.2(a).
At the T-joint shown, the bars should be
spliced in the discontinuous wall, but
standard hooks should be acceptable in
the continuous wall. Figure RFI
09-3.2(b) shows a further enhance-
ment of the T-joint with the addition
a) b)
of two series of diagonal bars. This
Fig. RFI 09-3.2: The detail shown in Fig. 2(g) of the September 2009 Detailing Corner figure is similar to Fig. 15 of the ACI
can be improved by: (a) increasing the extensions on the hook bars and overlapping 315 Detailing Manual.3
the extension at the joint; (b) adding two diagonal bars (red)
If only moment in one direction
can occur at the T-joint, only one
series of diagonal bars need be
detailed. Figure RFI 09-3.3 illustrates
an example of this detail for a T-joint
on a retaining wall from Chapter 14 of
the CRSI Design Handbook.4

RFI 09-4: Often when checking

reinforcement placing drawings, I come
Fig. RFI 09-3.3: Example of the across the dimension 0 in. indicating
diagonal D bar at the base of a
retaining wall to enhance the some bar spacing. Coincidentally,
flexural capacity of the T-joint this was also shown in the September
(Fig. 14-1, CRSI Design Handbook, 2009 Detailing Column in Fig. 1. Can
you provide an interpretation of this
dimension, as I have had some
disagreements with contractors and
inspectors in years past?

Response: The 0 in. dimension is

commonly used on a two-dimensional
(2-D) drawing for reinforcing bars to
indicate the presence of two bars
that are in the same plane. If shown
in true drafting convention, the
second bar would be hidden and
consequently not visible or clearly

56 november 2009 / Concrete international

Fig. RFI 09-4.1: Example of
a 0 in. dimension, here
indicating that hook
extensions on the stirrup
bars are lapped in the
horizontal plane: (a)
section through beam at
stirrup; (b) elevation view
of a beam section with a
stirrup; and (c) isometric
view of the beam section
and stirrup

a) b)

evident on the 2-D drawing. Without concrete structures in Fig. 3. For the
showing the bars with a 0 in. detail in Fig. 3(b), the article notes c)
dimension, the risk is that it would the 90-degree hook only needs a
be missed or misplaced if provided. 12-bar diameter (12db ) dimension.
In Fig. 1(c) of the September 2009 Shouldnt the bars be long enough to
Detailing Corner, the 90-degree bent develop the tension lap splice rather References
bar shown in the sectional plan was than just hooked? 1. Swan, R.A., Flexural Strength of
intended to be located above or below Corners of Reinforced Concrete Portal
the horizontal bars, and in contact Response: The length of the Frames, Technical Report TRA434, Cement
with the horizontal bars. Thus, the bars extensions shown in Fig. 3(b) must and Concrete Association, London, UK, Nov.
would be located in the same vertical be at least the distance required for a 1969, 14 pp.
plane. This is what the 0 in. dimension tension lap splice, with a minimum 2. Nilsson, I.H.E., and Losberg, A.,
refers to in this illustrationthese length of 12 in. (305 mm). The 12db Reinforced Concrete Corners and Joints
two bars are in the same plane. length referred to in the article is the Subjected to Bending Moment, Journal of
To illustrate the point further, length of the minimum extension for the Structural Division, ASCE, V. 102, No. ST6,
consider the beam in Fig. RFI 09-4.1(a), a 90-degree hook, as required in 1976, pp. 1229-1254.
with a 0 in. dimension shown at the Section 7.1.2 of the ACI 318-08 3. ACI Committee 315, Details and
top of the stirrup. As shown in Building Code.5 Assuming there will Detailing of Concrete Reinforcement (ACI
elevation view in Fig. RFI 09-4.1(b) or be horizontal moment at the corner, 315-99), American Concrete Institute,
in the 3-D view of Fig. RFI 09-4.1(c), the hook extension length must also Farmington Hills, MI, 1999, 44 pp.
the two bars are located in the same be long enough to provide a full lap 4. CRSI Design Handbook, Concrete
horizontal plane, one behind the splice length and the necessary Reinforcing Steel Institute, Schaumburg, IL,
other. The note does not indicate adjustability. The fourth sentence in 2008, 790 pp.
that two bars are stacked on top of the second full paragraph on page 45 5. ACI Committee 318, Building Code
one another with a 0 in. spacing should have read: Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI
between them. This incorrect Note that the length of the 318-08) and Commentary, American
placement would likely violate the extensions on the 90-degree hooks Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI,
clear cover requirements or (because shown in Fig. 3(b) must be long 2008, 473 pp.
the stirrup bars are hooked at each enough to not only meet the 12db
end) require shifting the longitudinal requirement of Section 7.1.2 of the Thanks to Joint ACI-CRSI Committee 315
bar toward the beam centerline. Code, but must also provide the Chair Dennis Hunter and H.V. Nawlin of
length required for a full tension lap Gerdau Ameristeel, in Tampa, FL, for the
RFI 09-5: The September 2009 splice (but not less than 12 in.), plus Fig. RFI 09-4.1 illustrations.
Detailing Corner showed some an allowance to provide adjustability
reinforcement details for small to meet tolerances. Selected for reader interest by the editors.

Concrete international / november 2009 57