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DESIGN OF A 30 STOREY OFFICE BUILDING

WITH REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN


USING STAAD.PRO STRUCTURAL
SOFTWARE DESIGN

NAME: AYODELE DINA


070402014

CEG 886: DESIGN OF TALL BUILDING.

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENTAL


ENGINEERING

COURSE LECTURER: PROF G L OYEKAN

MARCH 2014
ABSTRACT.

Tall structures have always fascinated mankind. There were buildings stretching well over 100
meters into the sky even before industrialization. But how has the history of the tallest buildings
in the world developed? Which structures have played a role in this history?

This report considers the tall and multistory structures with a case of study of a proposed 30
storey building to be located at Lekki Peninsular area of Lagos, Nigeria. The building comprises
of 30 floors with a lift shaft wall acting as a shear wall in combination of the framed concrete
system in resisting lateral forces due to wind. Consideration for seismicity was not considered in
this design as Nigeria does not fall in earthquake region.

The Proposed building was modeled, analyzed and designed using the Staad.Pro Structural
Software, a state of art structural software which is produced by Bentley a leading American
company in structural solutions, divers codes of design was factored in to the software of which
the case study was designed according to BS8110- 1997 ( Structural use of Concrete).

The structure which comprises of Shear Wall( Lift System), Beams , Column pile cap and
foundations were designed and the report obtained were included in this report. To reduce the
amount of processed data in the design using this software the slab loads were added to the beam
using the Yield Line Method of analysis of Slab and then the slab reinforcement were analyzed
using RCC spread sheet.

More so hand calculation was made for selected element in the building and were compared with
that designed in the software. Slabs, two interior beams was designed, a critical column and a
pile cap were hand checked and the values are thus:

For the slabs designed by hand calculation reinforcement provided for all slabs is Y12@300mm
c/c. Due to the amount of data generated and the memory capacity, the yield line method of
analysis was used in the application of slab loads in the Staad.Pro Software.

The design of 2 critical beams was also designed by hand calculation C (1-7), 3 (A F) method
of analysis used was the Hardy Cross method of Analysis. There were discrepancies in the
analysis by hand calculation as against the analysis from the commercial software.

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The critical reaction from the software 12,007KN as compared to that obtained for the ground
columns by hand 22,745KN. The discrepancy due to the optimization scheme of the software
and the frame/wall action of the software.

The core wall also was designed by hand and also with the Staad.Pro software and wind analysis
was also designed by hand. The lateral loading of the building was resisted by the combined
interaction of the shear wall and the frame system.

The pile used in the design of this proposed building is a 1000mm diameter bored pile having a
pile capacity of 3000KN

TABLE OF CONTENT
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LIST OF FIGURES

ABSTACT

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 TALL BUIDINGS AND EVOLUTION.

1.2 A QUICK OVERVIEW OF THE TALLEST BUIDING BETWEEN 1901 TILL PRESENT

1.3 EVOLUTION OF SKYLINE EXAMPLES.

1.3.1 THE NEW YORK SKYLINE

1.3.2 DUBAI SKYLINE.

2.0 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM.

2.1 DESIGN PARAMETERS


2.1.1 BUILDING DEFLECTION
2.1.2 ACCELERATION
2.1.3 SECOND ORDER EFFECTS
2.1.4 UPLIFT
2.1.5 BUILDING DIAPHRAGM
2.2 WIND ANALYSIS

3.0 FOUNDATION IN TALL BUILDINGS

3.1 CHALLENGES OF SKYSCRAPER FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION

4.0 THE CASE STUDY: PROPOSED 30 STOREY BUILDING AT LEKKI PENNISULAR,


LAGOS NIGERIA.

4.1 DESIGN BACKGROUND.

4.2 DESIGN AND RESULTS.

5.0 CONCLUSION

6.0. REFERENCES

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Evolution of Tall Building with Height

Figure 2: The evolution of New York Citys skyline from 1879 to 2013.

Figure 3: The evolution of Dubais skyline from 1879 to 2013.

Figure 4 Steel Structural systems

Figure 5: Grouping of Structural Systems

Figure 6: Core Systems

Figure 7: Frame Systems

Figure 9: Tube Systems

Figure 8: Bearing wall Systems

Figure 10: Type of Bracings

Figure 11: Shattering of Glass (glass storm) due to wind storm

Figure 14: overview of the staad.pro window.

Figure 16: The Rendered View Of The 30 Storey Structure Showing The Core Wall.

Figure 17: Plan View Of The Rendered Structure.

Figure18 :The Slab Loads being inserted in Staad.Pro using Yield Line Method

Figure 19: The Designed Beams Showing Green Signifying Design Okay

Figure 20: An example of a designed beam

Figure 21: Example of application of Lateral Load due to Wind as specified in BS 8110

Figure 22: Von Stresses On The Shear Wall At Post Processing Stage

Figure 23:Designed ground columns

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

It is difficult to distinguish the characteristics of a building which categorize it as tall.


The outward appearance of tallness is a relative matter. In a typical single-storey area, a five
story building will appear tall.
In large cities, a structure must pierce the sky around 70 to 100 stories if it is to appear tall in
comparison with its immediate neighbours. Tall building cannot be defined in specific terms
related to height or number of floors. There is no consensus on what constitutes a tall building or
at what magic height, number of stories, or proportion a building can be called tall.
Perhaps the dividing line should be drawn where the design of the structure moves from the field
of statics into the field of structural dynamics.
.
From the structural point of view, a building is considered as tall when its structural analyses and
design are affected by the lateral loads, particularly sway caused by such loads.
In contrast to vertical load, lateral load effects on buildings are quite variable and increase
rapidly with increase in height.
Under wind load the overturning moment at the base of a building varies in proportion to the
square of the height of the building, and lateral deflection varies as the fourth power of the height
of the building, others things being the equal.
The structure usually accounts for 20 to 30 percent of the cost of a tall building. For building
above 50 stories, the cost of a reasonable wind bracing system may work out, at most, to one
third of the structural cost.
Therefore compared to the total cost of the building, wind bracing costs, which are in the range
of 7 to 10 percent, represent far from an overwhelming portion of the total cost.
Historically, the unit weight of structural framing members in term of, say, average weight per
unit floor area appears to be progressively decreasing over the years.
For example, a survey of tall building built in the period 1950 1990 will verify that in this
period it was possible to build a 100-story building with perhaps no more than 147 kg/m2 of
steel as compared to the 205 kg/m2of steel used for the
.
The reasons for this gradual decrease are manifold, as can be seen from the following list.

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1. Innovative design concepts. Structural engineers are continually seeking better and more
efficient methods of resisting the lateral loads.
Some of the common approaches are:
i) Increase the effective width of subsystems to resist the overturning moment.
ii) Design systems such that the components interact in the most efficient manner.
iii) Use interior or exterior bracing for the full width of the building.
iv) Arrange floor framing in such a way that all or most of the gravity loading is directly carried
by the primary lateral-load-carrying components.
v) Manipulate the dispersion of materials in composite construction consisting of concrete and
structural steel in a manner such that materials are used to their best advantage.
vi) Minimize the bending induced by wind loads in the primary components.
vii) Employ truss action to eliminate bending in columns and spandrels.
viii) Use rounded plan shapes to reduce the magnitude of the wind pressure.
ix) Arrange closely spaced columns at the exterior to support most or all of the gravity loads and
all the lateral loads.
x) Suspend floors from a central core such that the total gravity load acting on the core will
induce enough hold-down forces to counteract the overturning moment.
xi) Use an interior braced core that interacts with exterior columns via belt and outrigger trusses..
xii) Use exterior steel plate curtain walls to resist lateral forces.
2. Use of high-strength low-alloy steels. Today it is a common practice to use 345 MPasteel in
most composite floor framing systems, gravity columns, and not too infrequently in lateral-load-
resisting elements.
3. Increased use of welding as compared to bolting, which effects a saving in the range of 8 to 15
percent in the weight of steel.
4. Increased use of composite construction.
5. Application of computers to both the design and the analytical processes.
6. Gradual increase in the allowable stresses in the materials based on research and successful
past performance.
7. A reduction in the weight of other construction materials, like partition and curtain walls.
In concrete construction, major factors responsible for reducing the reinforcement and concrete
quantities are:

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1. New framing techniques, such as skip joist construction in which every other joist is
eliminated, have caught on in high-rise construction with a consequent reduction in the weight of
structural frame.
2. Increased use of mechanical couplers in reinforcement for transferring both compression and
tensile forces.
3. Use of welded cage for column ties, beam stirrups, etc., which reduces the amount of
reinforcement steel.
4. Use of high strength concrete; 40 MPa is quite common, and strengths up to 70MPa are being
specified on vertical components of high-rises.
5. Use of lightweight aggregate typically reduces
50 to 100 kg/m2in the dead load of the structure, resulting in savings of approximately 10 to 15
percent in the reinforcement requirement.
6. Most codes do not require as great a thickness of slabs when structural lightweight concrete is
used. Typically a thickness of 12 mm of concrete can be taken off from floor slabs without
reducing the fire rating.
7. Use of 520 MPa steel reinforcement.
8. Use of the state-of-the-art design methods

Tall buildings have a unique appeal, even a mystery associated with their design.

Developments in the last five to seven decades have produced many slender high-rise buildings,
demanding that particular attention to be paid to their complex behaviour under lateral loads.
High-rise architecture is continuously changing, and prismatic shapes that were once very
popular have given rise to terraced, set-back and splayed elevations.

Computers have given the structural engineer of today the tools to respond to this changing
architecture with daring structural solutions. No longer does the structural engineer require that
the building be regular in plan and the interior and exterior columns line up with each other.
Ego and competition still play a part in determining the height of a building, but various other
social and economic factors, such as increase in land values in urban areas and higher density of
population, have led to a great increase in the number of tall buildings all over the world.

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In masonry structures, the percentage of area occupied by the vertical structural elements, i.e.,
columns, walls and braces, was inordinately large compared to the gross floor area.
The area occupied by the walls of the 17-story building in Chicago is 15 percent of the gross are
at ground floor with wall thicknesses of 2.1 m.
Two technological developments, the elevator and model metal frame construction, removed
the prevailing limitations on the height of the buildings, and the race for tallness was on.
Today, with the use of computers, buildings are planned and designed which have little or
nohistoric precedent.
New structural systems are conceived and applied to extremely tall buildings in a practical
demonstration of the engineers confidence in the predictive ability of the analysis, the methods
used, and the reliability of computer solutions.
The development of metal trusses made it possible to roof column-free interior spaces easily
and economically.
The configuration tries to simultaneously satisfy
(1) the requirements of site, (2) the requirements of the building program, and (3) the
requirements of appearance.
For a building to be successful, it should do the following:
1. Create a friendly and inviting image that has positive values to building owners, users, and
observers.
2. Fit the site, providing proper approaches to the plaza with a layout congenial for people to
live, work and play.
3. Be energy efficient, providing space with controllable climate for its users.
4. For office buildings, allow flexibilities in office layout with easily divisible spaces.
5. Most spaces oriented to provide best views.
6. Most of all, the building must make economic sense, without which none of the modern high-
rise development would be a reality.

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1.1 TALL BUILDING AND THEIR EVOLUTION

PHIL SING WO W PE T BUR


METR THE CHR EMP ONE
ADE ER OLW IL TR A J
OPOL TRU YSL IRE WORLD
PHIA BUIL ORT LI O IP KHA
TAN MP ER STAT TRADE
CITY DING H S N EI LIFA
LIFE BUIL BUIL E
HAL (1908 BUIL T AS 10
TOEW DIN DIN BUIL
L ) DIN CENTE O TO 1(
R G G DIN ( 201
(1901 G R W W 20
( 1909) (1930 (1930 G 0)
) ( 191 BUILDI E ER
3) NG R (1
Figure 1: Evolution of Tall Building with Height (1972) (1 99
97 8)

There are a few very early examples of architecture reaching far up into the sky. The Pyramid of
Khufu for instance, from the 4th Dynasty (2620 to 2500 B.C.), at 139 meters the world's tallest
pyramid, or the Pharos of Alexandria, which according to its legend was, at around 140 meters'
height, the tallest lighthouse ever built up until the 20th century. And not to forget the Tower of
Babel, which according to the Old Testament reached all the way up to Heaven. Since the 19th
century, however, it has not just been sacred buildings that have been touching the clouds.
Increasing numbers of high-rises with apartments, offices and hotel rooms have been built.
Skyscraper construction received its first significant impulse with the invention of the elevator
by Elisha Grave Otis in 1852. While it would, from a technical point of view, already have been
possible to build tall structures with more than six stories, one would have been unable to find
many tenants for them. The invention of steel frame construction was the next important step on
the road toward skyscraper architecture. The first building constructed in this way was the Home
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Insurance Building in Chicago, built in 1885. At a height of 55 meters and ten floors it was the
world's first high-rise and revolutionary for the development of skyscraper construction.

1.2 A QUICK OVERVIEW OF THE TALLEST BUIDING BETWEEN 1901 TILL


PRESENT

Philadelphia City Hall (1901 -1908)

From 1901 onward, Philadelphia City Hall in the American city of Philadelphia, already
substantially taller at 167 meters, reached for the skies. In fact, the architecture of this skyscraper
with a bell tower was not based on the recently-invented steel frame construction: to this day it is
considered the tallest masonry structure in the world

Singer Building(1908 1909)

For seven years, Philadelphia City Hall was the world's tallest building until it was superseded in
1908 by the Singer Building in New York City, which was 20 meters taller. This particular
skyscraper was only able to stay in pole position a short time, however. 1913, only four years
later, saw the opening of the 213-meter-tall Metropolitan Life Tower, also located in New York
City.

Metropolitan Life Tower (1909 1913)

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The skyscrapers that followed the Met Life Tower were also located in New York
City. After just four years, the Woolworth Building, built in the borough of Manhattan and 241
meters tall, forced the Met Life Tower from the top spot.

Woolworth Building(1913 1930)

Construction of the Woolworth Building was only possible thanks to the


development of reinforced foundations, technology intended to prevent the skyscraper from
leaning too heavily and toppling over in the case of earth movements. Until 1930, the Woolworth
Building was the world's tallest skyscraper.
The Trump Building (1930 1930)

The history of the skyscraper was increasingly concentrated in the decades that
followed in the one city New York City. 1930 saw the completion there, after less than a year's
construction, of The Trump Building. At a height of 283 meters, it was briefly the world's tallest
building.

Chrysler Building(1930 1931)

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The Trump Building unfortunately had to cede its title after just a few weeks to the
Chrysler Building, which, at 319 meters, exceeded it by far. The man who had it built, Walter
Chrysler, was inspired by the Eiffel Tower in Paris at that time the world's tallest structure to
want to build the world's tallest skyscraper in the Chrysler Building in New York City. To win the
race, Chrysler and his architect William van Alen came up with a sophisticated trick: Van Alen
had an additional 56-meter-long spire built, which was then delivered secretly in pieces, put
together in the elevator shaft and finally placed on the top of the building after its completion in
just 90 minutes.

Empire State Building (1931 1972)

Around a year after it opened, the Chrysler Building was superseded by the 381-
meter-tall Empire State Building. Built in a record time of 18 months, the tower was viewed as
the "Eighth Wonder of the World". The weight of its presence in the media and its use as a setting
for films such as "King Kong" or "Independence Day" have helped to make the Empire State
Building one of the best-known skyscrapers from anywhere around the world. For 41 years it
was the world's tallest building longer than any other of the record-holders.

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One World Trade Center (1972 1974)

Only in 1972 was this emblem of New York overtaken by an even-taller skyscraper in
the shape of One World Trade Center, which like so many of its predecessors as record-holder
was built in New York City. Following a construction period of seven years, the skyscraper and
its 415-meter-tall twin tower became the two tallest buildings in the world. The terrorist attacks
of September 11, 2001, however, led to the World Trade Center being completely destroyed.

Willis Tower (1974 1998)

In 1974, two years on from the completion of the World Trade Center, the towers
were overtaken by Sears Tower in Chicago. For over twenty years, the skyscraper was the
world's tallest. In 2009, Sears Tower was renamed Willis Tower after the Willis Group Holding
acquired the naming rights to the skyscraper and rented a substantial portion of the office space.

Petronas Towers1998 - 2004

In 1998, with construction of the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur, the title of the
world's tallest building passed for the first time to a skyscraper outside America. A significant
feature of the twin towers is the skybridge between the towers, which is intended to serve as an
escape route in the case of emergency. The completion of the Petronas Towers finally made it

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necessary to set up rules for measuring skyscraper heights, as the towers were only awarded the
title following a legal battle. The owner of Willis Tower in Chicago brought the action, since
inclusion of the antenna would have meant Willis Tower would have exceeded the architectural
height of the Petronas Towers. Since the judgment in favor of the Petronas Towers, television
antennas are no longer recognized as an architectural component of buildings.

Taipei 101 (2004 2007)

Until completion of Taipei 101 in Taiwan, the towers were considered the tallest
skyscrapers in the world on account of the structural height of 452 meters. Taipei 101 took on
this title in 2004 and thus became the first title-holder of the 21st century. The skyscraper
claimed several records at once: the greatest architectural height, the greatest roof height and the
highest occupied floor.

Burj Khalifa (2007 present)

Even before Taipei 101 was completed, construction work had already begun
on the next "supertall", Burj Dubai, today known under the name Burj Khalifa. In order to
complete the tower, 2,400 workers were employed, working a three-shift system. On average it
only took four days to add a new floor. The tower topped out at 828 meters in December 2008,
but the structure had already passed the height of Taipei 101 in July 2007, making Burj Khalifa
the world's tallest building which it remains to this day. It was completed in 2010.

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1.3 EVOLUTION OF SKYLINE EXAMPLES.

1.3.1 THE NEW YORK SKYLINE

Figure 2: The evolution of New York Citys skyline from 1879 to 2013.

1.3.2 DUBAI SKYLINE.

Dubai has 18 completed buildings that rise at least 300 metres !!!!!! This includes the tallest man
made structure Burj Khalifa .

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Figure 3: The evolution of Dubais skyline from 1879 to 2013.

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2.0 STRUCTURAL SYSTEM.

The structural system of a high-rise building must resist both gravity and lateral loads, due to
phenomena such as wind and earthquake. As the height of the building increases, the lateral
loads gradually dominate the structural design.

Figure 4 Steel Structural systems

Lateral loads due to wind and earthquake produce lateral accelerations. As people normally
perceive these accelerations during service conditions, stiffness rather than strength tends to
become the dominant factor in buildings of great height. The serviceability limit state can,
therefore, be more important than the ultimate limit state.

Four overall groupings of structural systems may be identified (Figure 5). They are:

a. bearing wall system

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b. core system

c. frame system

d. tube system.

Figure 5: Grouping of Structural Systems

Each system has different lateral load resisting properties and thus tends to be 'efficient' over a
different height range.

The bearing wall system due to the self weight of the structural components (usually concrete),
normally becomes inefficient for buildings above 15-30 storeys in height.

The concrete core system has the same disadvantage as the bearing wall system, namely self
weight is a limiting factor.

The efficiency of the framed system depends upon the rigidity of the connections and the amount
of bracing. Stiffening can be achieved by use of a solid core, shear walls or diagonal bracing. As
more bracing is incorporated into the spatial frame, the range of efficient height is increased. The
upper limit is in the range of 60 storeys.

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The tube system can be thought of as a spatial frame with the vertical elements positioned at the
exterior. The range of height efficiency is influenced by the type and the amount of bracing
employed in the tube. In general a tube structure is considered the most efficient form for the
tallest buildings, i.e. above 60 storeys in height.

From the four basic structural systems, six secondary systems can be derived from a combination
of the basic ones (see Figure ).

The four basic systems are assumed as the prime groups which can be associated to the levels of
the structural system hierarchy as proposed by Falconer and Beedle. These primary systems are:-

1. A bearing wall structure is comprised of planar vertical elements, which form all or part
of the exterior walls and in many instances the interior walls as well. They resist both
vertical and horizontal loads and are mainly made in concrete (see Figure ).

2. A core structure is comprised of load bearing walls arranged in a closed form where the
vertical transportation systems are usually concentrated. This arrangement allows
flexibility in the use of the building space outside the core. The core can be designed to
resist both vertical and horizontal loads. Figure 10 shows some examples of this system.
In the upper part of the figure, there is a central core from which floors are either
suspended or cantilevered. In the lower part the cores are separated and connected by the
floor structures.

3. A frame structure is usually made of columns, beams and floor slabs arranged to resist
both horizontal and vertical loads. The frame is perhaps the most adaptable structural
form with regard to material and shape, due to the many ways of combining structural
elements in order to give adequate support to the given loading. In the examples of Figure
11, steel frames are combined with concrete walls and cores, or with steel bracings and
horizontal trusses.

4. A tube structure is normally characterised by closely spaced exterior structural elements,


designed to resist lateral loads as a whole, rather than as separate elements. Alternative
schemes could include braced tubes and framed tubes (see Figure 12). Besides the simple

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tube, tube-in-tube solutions can be also used. These systems allow for more flexibility in
the use of interior space, due to the lack of interior columns.

Figure 6: Core Systems

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Figure 7: Frame Systems

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Figure 8: Bearing wall Systems

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Figure 9: Tube Systems

Wall structures as well as cores are usually made of reinforced concrete.

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Steel frames can be used together with concrete cores, and/or walls, leading to composite
structures, which may be called also 'dual structures'.

When steel frames are braced, different types of bracing can be used according to structural and
functional requirements (Figure 13).

Figure 10: Type of Bracings


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The most common are:

single or double diagonal bracing

vertical or horizontal K-bracing

Lattice bracing.

Both K- and single diagonal bracings can be 'eccentric', i.e. the diagonal members do not meet in
the nodes.

2.1 DESIGN PARAMETERS


2.1.1 BUILDING DEFLECTION
Is measured by the drift of the building.
Inter-story drift =story deflection / story height building drift = lateral sway at the top of the
building / building height
This first order drifts range from approximately 1/450 to 1/600 under a 50 year wind.
It is very important to know the drift of the building for determining how much movement the
exterior cladding and other members have to withstand.
2.1.2 ACCELERATION
The building deflection is directly associated with the perception of motion from occupants and
therefore with the building acceleration. This acceleration depend on the dynamic behaviour of
the building under wind forces. It is very difficult to determine this acceleration and there are
different kinds of testing methods used. An example is the wind tunnel testing.
2.1.3 SECOND ORDER EFFECTS
This effect causes additional lateral movement of the building due to gravity loads. If we take for
example a steel building with a first order drift of 1 500 than the second order drift is in the range
of 20-30% of the first effect.
2.1.4 UPLIFT
If a building is to stiff it causes so much overturning moments to create uplift in the foundation.
Most of the foundations have only a limited uplift capacity and therefore some extremely stiff
systems cannot be used.
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To reduce this problem it is recommendable to transfer the gravity loads from interior columns
to the exterior columns to counteract the uplift forces.
2.1.5 BUILDING DIAPHRAGM
The lateral loads should be distributed to the lateral systems by floor diaphragms. This
diaphragms should be directly connected to columns, beams and to the wind resistive elements.
The diaphragm stresses in a normal building are quite small and can be resisted by the floor
slabs. It could only be critical if there is a large opening in the diaphragm such as alarge atrium.

2.2 WIND ANALYSIS

Wind load
Strong winds may cause a variety of problems, particularly in tall buildings
Modern tall buildings are even more prone to wind action, due to their lightweight walls and
partitions, which reduce the mass and the damping
Even for high seismic areas, for buildings with more then
25-30 stories, the wind load governs the design
Attention should be paid to the following criteria:
Strength and stability
Fatigue of members and connections
Excessive lateral deformations (may cause cracking of claddings or permanent deformations
to non structural elements)
Excessive vibrations that cause discomfort to the occupants

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Figure 11: Shattering of Glass (glass storm) due to wind storm

Influence of extreme height to building frame


In addition to usual checks:
1. Dynamic effects of wind.
2. P - effect (2nd order effect).
3. Influence of member shortening.
4. Static and dynamic rigidity:
max H/500
a amax0,015 g

5. Interaction with ground (especially if H/B > 5).

Dynamic effects of wind


Generally:
analysis including vibration:
- longitudinal (in the wind direction)

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- lateral (in transversal direction): circular, elliptic shapes: "vortex shedding" rectangular shapes:
"galloping" (occurs rarely)
Vortex shedding, vortex separation (called also Karman periodic set of whirlwinds) results on
condition that:

The first frequency of a building: n 46/h Strouhal number: circle St = 0,18


Rearrangement of the building shape wind tunnel, each variation is significant.

Longitudinal dynamic wind effects

Wind loading for area


A ref according to EN 1993-1-4: - if h 100 m and b > 30m, coefficient of the structure cscd= 1;
- Otherwise use detailed method" (depends on natural frequency n, parameters of wind and
structure ...)
- Eurocode enables to determine even deflection and vibration acceleration

P - effect (2nd order effect)


Represents effect of horizontal shift on internal forces. Solution: 2ndorder theory (or
geometrically nonlinear analysis GNA),

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If SLS is fulfilled, the approximate guess of V, H (for all building or floor) gives coefficient of
2nd order m. The horizontal loadings then multiply with m:

Influence of member shortening


The shortening of member axes is covered by computer FEM analysis!

The stress in diagonals from vertical loading is, therefore, of the same order as in columns!
Measures:
- Final connection of diagonals not until assembly of all building,
- Or pressurising of diagonals to eliminate compression due to vertical loading.

Seismic load
Many of European areas are under seismic risk
Southern Europe experienced very damaging earthquakes during the last decades.
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Many existing structures have inadequate protection against strong earthquakes. The
vulnerability is very much increasing, due to the rapid grow of the construction industry.
Seismic loading requires an understanding of the structural behavior under inelastic cyclic
deformations
Behavior under such loading is fundamentally different from wind loading (and gravity
loading). It is necessary to pay more attention to type of analysis and requirements, in order to
assure acceptable seismic performance beyond the elastic range.
Some structural damage in members and connections can be expected under design ground
motion, as the majority of modern seismic codes allow inelastic energy dissipation in the
structural system

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3.0 FOUNDATION IN TALL BUILDINGS
Building construction begins at the base. In ancient times, pyramidal structures were often used
to distribute the weight of tall buildings over a large area. In modern times, the advancement of
technology and soaring land costs in cities have led engineers to consider the size of a buildings
footprint while continuing to think vertically. Creating a large amount of real estate out of a
relatively small amount of ground area is very appealing to developers in large cities.

Like the roots of a tree, a skyscrapers foundation is laid below ground to create the most
stability. To lay the most stable foundation possible, the bedrock (solid rock underneath the
grounds soil) must be reached. Accessing the bedrock, in most cases, requires significant
excavation of soils (sand, clay, etc.) overlying the bedrock. However, building the foundation
upon bedrock is necessary given the extremely large loads associated with skyscraper
construction. For instance, a typical house might weigh 70 tons; but the Empire State Building
in New York City weighs about 350,000 tons!

3.1 CHALLENGES OF SKYSCRAPER FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION

In some areas, simply accessing the bedrock can be a real challenge. One of the more notable
examples occurred during construction of the World Trade Center (WTC) towers in New York
City (completed April 4, 1973). The bedrock in this area of New York is approximately 65 feet
below the ground surface. However, the WTC construction site was located adjacent to the
Hudson River, and just a few feet below the ground surface, the soil was saturated due to the
shallow water table. This meant that simply excavating to the bedrock could not be
accomplished, as the construction site would flood when the digging began.

A novel approach was developed to counter the intrusion of water into the foundation
construction site. The construction crew used machinery to dig a 3 foot wide trench around the
perimeter of the site. While digging, a mixture of water and bentonite (expansive clay) was
piped into the trench and would expand along the sides of the trench, effectively blocking the
groundwater. Once a section of the trench was completed, the crew would lower a steel
framework into the hole and pump in concrete from the bottom of the hole. Pumping the
concrete in from the bottom would displace the water/bentonite mixture, leaving a steel-
reinforced concrete wall around the perimeter of the construction site; which measured four city
blocks by two city blocks upon completion of the wall. This perimeter wall/dam and the
31
construction site contained therein was jokingly referred to as the bathtub by the construction
crew, and formed a water tight perimeter wall for the towers foundation structure to be built.

Once the wall was in place, the construction crew could begin digging down to bedrock to lay
the buildings foundation system. However, as the soil within the construction site was removed,
the weight of the soil and water outside the walls would push the walls inward. Thus a series of
tiebacks (cables extending from the perimeter walls to the material surrounding the bathtub
were installed to provide temporary support until the crew could finish a support structure inside
the bathtub. Using this method, the foundation site could be excavated; culminating in the
removal of more than 1 million cubic yards of soil! With the bedrock exposed, the massive
foundation structure could be placed. The perimeter footing for the buildings consisted of 60
high strength, load bearing steel columns spaced closely together on each side of the buildings.

The process of foundation design is well-established, and generally involves the


following aspects:
1. A desk study and a study of the geology and hydrogeology of the area in which the
site is located.
2. A detailed investigation has to be conducted at a given site only when that site has been
chosen for the construction
3. In-situ testing are needed for determining compressibility and shear strength parameters
4. Laboratory testing to supplement the in-situ testing and to obtain more detailed
information on the behaviour of the key strata than may be possible with in-situ testing.
loadings, and the ground conditions. From this stage and beyond, close interaction with the
structural designer is an important component of successful foundation design.
8. Detailed design, in conjunction with the structural designer. As the foundation
system is modified, so too are the loads that are computed by the structural designer, and it is
generally necessary to iterate towards a compatible set of loads and foundation deformations.
9. In-situ foundation testing at or before this stage is highly desirable, if not essential, in
order to demonstrate that the actual foundation behaviour is consistent with the design
assumptions. This usually takes the form of testing of prototype or near- prototype piles. If the
behaviour deviates from that expected, then the foundation design may need to be revised to
cater for the observed foundation behaviour. Such a revision may be either positive (a
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reduction in foundation requirements) or negative (an increase in foundation requirements). In
making this decision, the foundation engineer must be aware that the foundation testing involves
only individual elements of the foundation system, and that the piles and the raft within the
system interact.
10. Monitoring of the performance of the building during and after construction. At the very
least, settlements at a number of locations around the foundation should be monitored, and
ideally, some of the piles and sections of the raft should also be monitored to measure the
sharing of load among the foundation elements. Such monitoring is becoming more
accepted as standard practice for high-rise buildings, but not always for more conventional
structures. As with any application of the observational method, if the measured behaviour
departs significantly from the design expectations, then a contingency plan should be
implemented to address such departures. It should be pointed out that departures may involve
not only settlements and differential settlements that are greater than expected, but also
those that are smaller than expected.

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4.0 THE CASE STUDY: PROPOSED 30 STOREY BUILDING AT LEKKI PENNISULAR,
LAGOS NIGERIA.

4.1 DESIGN BACKGROUND.

The design of the structure is carried out using the Staad.Pro Design Structural Software.

STAAD.Pro is a general purpose program for performing the analysis and design of a wide
variety of types of structures. The basic three activities which are to be carried out
to achieve that goal - a) model generation b) the calculations to obtain the analytical results c)
result verification - are all facilitated by tools contained in the program's graphical environment.

STAAD designs both reinforced concrete and structural steel structures the following can be
performed:
Modelling of structural components, as individual component and holistically for the entire
building frame.
Loading and analysis of the whole building structure with the resultant output obtained, i.e
bending moments, shear forces, deflections, axial forces and support reactions.
Moment releases at joints
Modelling of curved members and complex-shaped structures
Interface with AutoCAD; importing models and exporting DXF files
Load combinations and envelopes
Design of the whole structure, for preliminary and final sizing of structural members. Utility
ratios for steel members can be viewed.
Standard calculation reporting of designed members.

Applications
STAAD.Pro can be used in designing the following structures:
Storey buildings high-rise and low-rise buildings
Factory buildings, like warehouses and equipment shelters
Overhead tanks
Telecommunication masts
Bridges
Bill boards, etc.
3.) Advantages and Disadvantages of STAAD

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Advantages:
Speed of design/shortened project delivery time
Thoroughness of analysis
3D viewing ability
Holistic approach to design
Ability to illustrate results with contours and animations
Ability to generate standard detail report of designed members
Disadvantages:
Its not a substitute for the engineers interpretation and judgment
May produce lengthy reporting
Inability to perform slab detailing
It does not perform foundation designs pad and piles
Could produce confusing output if input is incorrect
4.) The sequence of carrying out structural design on STAAD is shown below:

35
Figure 14: overview of the staad.pro window.

MODELLING OF PROPOSED STRUCTURE ON STAAD.PRO

36
Figure 15: THE RENDERED VIEW OF THE STRUCTURE

Figure 16: The Rendered View Of The 30 Storey Structure Showing The Core Wall.

Figure 17: Plan View Of The Rendered Structure.

37
4.2 DESIGN AND RESULTS.

SLAB:

The thickness of the slab for this project is 150mm, which the concrete unit weight used is
24kg/m3 and the concrete strength used is 25N/mm2 strength at 28 days curing. The loadings of
the slab are calculated by hand and placed on the beam by yield line method as shown in the
figure below. The reinforcement are adequate as shown to be Y12 - @300mm c/c for the top
support and (the span) bottom reinforcements

Figure18 :The Slab Loads being inserted in Staad.Pro using Yield Line Method

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BEAMS

Figure 19: The Designed Beams Showing Green Signifying Design Okay.

Figure 20: An example of a designed beam

Beams were designed in Staad Concrete Designer Suite as shown above, the beams with
dimensions 450 x300 was used and formed as continuous members as labeled and designed.
Concrete unit weight used is 24kg/m3 and the concrete strength used is 25N/mm2 strength at 28
days curing. Colour Legend of the designed status as shown thus: Green : Passed ( design)
39
Satisfactory, Pink ( Fails in deflection), Black ( Not designed). All the beams showing green
showing they are designed and satisfactory. The reinforcement attached to this report shows that
most of the top ( support) reinforment showed 2Y 32 but optimizing the software could provide
4Y 20 the bottom reinforcement has 4Y 20 also.

SHEAR WALL/LIFT SHAFT WALL.

The lift shaft wall modeled in Staad.Pro using the plate meshing creating a finite element for the
wall system. Lateral Loads were applied as simplified method of analysis of Lateral loads as
stated in W. H Mosley, the wind pressure calculated from CP3 was multiplied by the storey
height taken from the mid of one storey to the other. The result of the stress on the shear wall are
shown below using the Von Mises method of stress analyses and the reinforcement are provided
as Y 20 @200mm c/c . However the hand calculation for a single system could not be captured
as the wind resisting system is a composition of the framed and shear wall system.

Figure 21: Example of application of Lateral Load due to Wind as specified in BS 8110

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Von Mis Top
N/ mm2
<=0.023
1.07
2.11
3.15
4.19
5.24
6.28
7.32
8.36
9.4
10.4
11.5
12.5
13.6
14.6
15.7
>=16.7

Y
Z
X
Load 4

Figure 22: Von Stresses On The Shear Wall At Post Processing Stage

COLUMNS.

The columns designed and in Staad.Pro and the result are attached in the appendix. The Concrete
unit weight used is 24kg/m3 and the concrete strength used is 25N/mm2 strength, 28 days curing,
column sizes varied between group of stories from 1000mm ( circular and rectangular) from
ground to 4th floor, 800mm( circular)and 700 x 700 (rectangular) from 4th to 13th floor, 600x600
mm from 13- 21th floor, 500 x500mm from 22 25 st floor, 450 x450mm to 26th to 28th and
300mm 29th to roof.

The ground column are shown in the figure below. The critical reaction from the software
12,007KN as compared to that obtained for the ground columns by hand 22,745KN. The
discrepancy due to the optimization scheme of the software and the frame/wall action of the
software.

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Figure 23: Designed ground columns

42
5.0 CONCLUSION

It is a stated fact that the use of software for the 21 st century has been an immeasurable help to field of
Civil and structural Engineering, however the knowledge of calculation cannot be put aside it is therefore
needed that the knowhow of structural design is well harnessed with the use of these commercial
software.

STAAD PRO has the capability to calculate the reinforcement needed for any concrete section.
The program contains a number of parameters which are designed as per BS: 8110 -1 (1997)

Beams are designed for flexure, shear and torsion. Design for Flexure: Maximum sagging
(creating tensile stress at the bottom face of the beam) and hogging (creating tensile stress at the
top face) moments are calculated for all active load cases at each of the above mentioned
sections. Each of these sections are designed to resist both of these critical sagging and hogging
moments. Where ever the rectangular section is inadequate as singly reinforced section, doubly
reinforced section is tried. Design for Shear: Shear reinforcement is calculated to resist both
shear forces and torsional moments. Shear capacity calculation at different sections without the
shear reinforcement is based on the actual tensile reinforcement provided by STAAD program.
Two-legged stirrups are provided to take care of the balance shear forces acting on these
sections. Beam Design Output: The default design output of the beam contains flexural and shear
reinforcement provided along the length of the beam.

Column Design: Columns are designed for axial forces and biaxial moments at the ends. All
active load cases are tested to calculate reinforcement. The loading which yield maximum
reinforcement is called the critical load. Column design is done for square section. Square
columns are designed with reinforcement distributed on each side equally for the sections under
biaxial moments and with reinforcement distributed equally in two faces for sections under uni-
axial moment. All major criteria for selecting longitudinal and transverse reinforcement as
stipulated by BS 8110 1- 1997 have been taken care of in the column design of STAAD

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6.0. REFERENCES

[1]Ali, Mir M. (2001), "Evolution of Concrete Skyscrapers: from Ingalls to Jin mao", Electronic Journal
of Structural Engineering 1 (1): 214, retrieved 2008-11-30

[2]Building Big. PBS. Accessed June 25, 2004. (source of lesson background information)
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/

[3] New Structural Systems for Tall Buildings and Their Scale Effects on Cities, Khan, Fazlur R.
"Tall Building Plan, Design and Construction", Symp, Proc, Vanderbilt University, Civ Eng
Program, Nashville, Tennessee, 1974.

[4] Eurocode Convention of Constructional Steelwork : "Recommendations For Steel Structures


in Seismic Zones", ECCS, Publication 54, 1988.

[5] Eurocode 8 : "Structures in Seismic Regions - Design", CEN (in preparation)

[6] Renolyds reinforced concrete Designers Handbook 11th Edition Charles E. Reynolds BSc (Eng),
CEng, FICE James C. Steedman BA, CEng, MICE, MIStructE and Anthony J. Threlfall BEng,
DIC
[7] Reinforced Concrete Design W. H. Mosley, J. H. Bungey and R Hulse.

[8] Prof. Dr. Zahid A. Siddiqi, UET, Lahore. http://www.pec.org.pk/sCourse_files/CEC5-1.pdf

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Elphinstone Place Atlanta20

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Taiwan_Taipei--101-Building

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Empire State Building

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Petronas Malayasia

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Spire_Chicago_Townhouses

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Tallest in Shangai

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