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48784

JANUARY
1989

10-MHz Frequency Counter


Build a useful addition to your workbench!

The Audio Coupler


Add an audio input
to your cassette deck!
ocket Strobe
Find that model rocket, even at
night or in tall weeds!

ersotouc al Pockt
Keep in
Paqer
work, or play wim our
at home,
build -it- urself transmitter/receiver pair!

Build e Speedi -Watt


It's a light dimmer, a motor
controller, and more!
01
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$2.50 U.S.
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CIRCLE 10 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD


INCLUDING
12 -PAGE gl'Tun
Volume 6, No. 1 JANUARY 1989
tYlYNlh'F'l NR/l

Fpu1ar Electronics
CONSTRUCTION
29 Rocket Strobe -find that model rocket even at night or in tall weeds
34 Subcarrier Adapter-connects to your FM tuner to uncover hidden FM
transmissions
39 Personal Pocket Pager -keep in touch at home or work with this personal Personal Pocket Pager-page 39
paging system
44 Build the Speedi -Watt -apower controller for almost anything electronic
59 Build a 10 -MHz Frequency Counter -for those times when multimeter
readings just won't do
65 Build the Audio Coupler-add an audio input to any cassette deck
without modifying the unit
66 Sound -Activated Kaleidoscope-makes patterns that seem to dance to Sp>edrWatt -page 44
the music

FEATURES
62 GRAPHER.BAS -turns abstract equations into tangible graphs
69 Salvaging An Autotransformer-they're just as useful today as they were
yesterday
74 E -Z Math-getting acquainted with Boolean algebra
3IZMO-page 47

HANDS -ON REPORTS


80 TSM Vegas Kit -for Christmas and all year 'round

SPECIAL COLUMNS
24 Think Tank -SCR projects
82 Antique Radio-cabinet refinishing Autolransformers-page 69
84 Circuit Circus-unusual uses for transducers
86 Computer Bits -an electronic Rosetta stone
88 DX Listening-glasnost and DX'ing
92 Ham Radio -myths and misinterpretations
93 Scanner Scene -new frequencies?

DEPARTMENTS
2 Editorial -adieu Herb Friedman
4 Letters -the readers speak out Ant que Radio -page 82
8 Electronics Library -prepare today for tomorrow's tasks
16 New Products -what's new in the electronics market
37 FactCards -the fingertip electronics library
47 GIZMO Special Section -for the grown -up kid
71 Free Information Card -get the complete lowdown
106 Advertising Index-find the products and services you need

/
Scanner Scene -page 93 1
Pp
o ular Electronics
Popular
Adieu Herb Friedman.. .

Herb Friedman has passed away. Herb was the colum- began in 1968 and was ready for the CB boom he
nist for our computer column. predicted in the early seventies. Herb made it a practice
to test products for magazine reviews only; manufac-
I first met Herb 30 years ago when we both were new to
turers made offers for his service but he turned them
magazine publishing. was on the job only a week or two
I

down for fear of compromising his reputation for being


when this huge man filled the frame of my office door. At
impartial.
first he startled me, but spotted the smile on his face
I

and a project that he held in his hands. smiled, and that


I For many years Herb was in the radio and television
began a friendship that was never shaken, never en- industry. He started out as the technician who lit the fuse
cumbered. to ignite a pyrotechnic device in an ascending rocket for
the Captain Midnight show in the early fifties. He then
I'll never know how many magazines Herb wrote for, but
went to Station WNYE at Brooklyn Technical High
I can name a few: Popular Elec-
School where he spent most of his time at the FM station
tronics, Radio -Electronics, Elec-
as an engineer. Herb enjoyed the inquisitive mind of the
tronics Illustrated, Radio -TV News,
students at the high school, and thus began his free-
Electronics World, Elementary lance writing career so that he could reach out to the
Electronics, Popular Mechanics,
many others who shared the hunger for electronics
Popular Science, Mechanics Illus-
project building ideas. When he retired from the radio
trated, Science and Electronics,
station, Herb went to work for Radio -Electronics, our
Photography, Hi -Fi Stereo Review,
sister publication, as an associate editor. He was more
Hi -Fi Stereo Buyers Guide, and
than what his title indicated: Herb was an inspiration to
many computer magazines. I
the entire company, especially to the editors of both
doubt that anyone has had more HERB FRIEDMAN
magazines. He set up our photographic studio so that
freelance articles purchased and
project and product photos would be of the quality re-
published than Herb.
quired for our publications.
One of Herb's greatest loves was to sit at his workbench
Herb leaves behind a magnificent family. Nancy, his
and produce one- and two- transistor projects that any-
wife, is a beautiful person, whose comments from time
one can build in a single evening. As the state of the art
to time contributed to the contents of his articles and this
advanced, Herb would build single -chip projects as a
magazine. She is blessed with an uncanny hearing
concession to current trends, but he kept the projects
ability that assisted Herb in rating high -fidelity head-
simple. Herb always envisioned a "kid" (as he would call
phones for many years. Celia, his eldest child in an
a teenager) building one of his projects. Thus he was
accomplished author. Her science -fiction book is a win-
concerned that the cost was low, the parts were easily
ner. Larry is first entering the business world after an
obtainable, and that the circuit was not critical -the
outstanding college career. He is a superb computer
project had to work when powered up.
programmer and has had articles published in several
consumer magazines.
Herb acquired test equipment to build an extensive
will miss Herb. The entire staff will miss Herb. Our
consumer -electronics testing laboratory. He did consid-
I

readers, especially the emerging experimenters, will


erable product testing in the seventies and became well
miss Herb.
known to U.S.. European, and Japanese audio man-
ufacturers. Many years ago when it was popular to quote Adieu, Herb Friedman.
extremely small intermodulation figures, Herb ceased
doing so because he knew once the numbers fell below
a few percent, they were meaningless. The audio indus-
try followed suit a year later.
His private testing laboratory was the first to be capable
of testing citizen -band radios for magazine reviews. He Julian S. Martin

2
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3
rectly, the "AND" rounding -off works like this:
"F" merely gives you answers without any
rounding off, up to 12 digits; "5/4" should give
rounded -off answers; and "cuT" should en-
able you to select how many digits you want
behind the decimal point -it
shouldn't just Volume 6, No. 1
limit the user to two, as stated in the article.
S.G. January 1989
Caseyville, IL

Letters
Larry Steckler, El-4F, CET
Editor -In -Chief & Publisher
ANTIQUE RADIO REVAMP Art Kleiman, editorial director
enjoy reading your column "Ellis on Antique
I
Julian S. Martin, KA2GUN, editor
Radio." Last year, I came across an old table - Carl Laron, WB2SLR, managing editor
model Emerson 149. The unit was in good Robert A. Young, associate editor
condition, and contained tubes-6A7, 6D6, Herb Friedman, W2ZLF, associate editor
GIVING CREDIT
607, 25L6, and 25Z5 -and a ballast tube John J. Yacono, associate editor
As many readers know, the authors of the in a metal case. After cleaning it up, switched Brian C. Fenton, associate editor
I

majority of the articles that appear in Popu- it on. The tubes lit up and there was a low Byron G. Wels, K2AVB, associate editor
lar Electronics /Hands -on Electronics are hum coming from the electromagnetic Teri Scaduto, assistant editor
not employees of the magazine. Instead, they Kathryn Campbell, editorial assistant
speaker.
are freelance authors who do the work on When I replaced the can filters with two Ruby M. Yee, production director
a contractual basis. As part of that contract, Karen S. Tucker, production manager
47 -RF, 150 -volt tubular capacitors, the hum
the author warrantees that the work is origi- Robert A. W. Lowndes, editorial
disappeared; tuning across the band, got I

nal, and that nothing contained in the article associate


violates copyright laws, or any rights of third
parties.
-
loud whistles. I replaced the screen and AGC-
bypass caps and joy!-at half volume the
radio came alive with stations. With the tun-
Marcella Amoroso, production assistant
Andre Duzant, technical illustrator
The point of all of that is that in August, Injae Lee, assistant illustrator
ing at 620 kHz, adjusted the IF can trim-
I

1988 we published an article "50 Years of mers, and the antenna trimmer on the tuning
Jacqueline P. Cheeseboro, circulation director
Car Antennas" bylined by Edward Janicki. condenser at 1400 kHz.
Nancy Estrada, manager, HOE Bookstore
Mr. Janicki signed our standard contract,
At that point, the radio was just about per-
therefore promising that the work was origi- fect. There was a slight distortion that I

nal, and accepted payment for the article. BUSINESS AND EDITORIAL OFFICES
checked with a VOM; found + 12.5 volts
I

We have since received word from SAE, Gernsback Publications, Inc.


on pin 5, the control grid of the 25L6. Chang- 500-B Bi- County Boulevard
The Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.,
that the article was taken nearly verbatim
ing the coupling capacitor -a
.022F unit that Farmingdale, NY 11735.
was also leaking-cured that fault, and the 516/293 -3000
from an SAE paper written by Carlos Altgelt, B + voltage went up by 10 volts. President: Larry Steckler
Ken Duffy, and Clem Rowan of the Ford Vice- president: Cathy Steckler
Now I'm picking up stations from all over
Motor Company. The paper was presented the place with a 9-foot antenna. My advice
at the SAE International Congress and Ex- to fellow restorers is to change all the paper
position, and was part of an SAE publica- and electrolytic capacitors-they always dry Cover photography by
tion titled "Audio Systems for the Automo- Diversified Photo
out, leak, or short out. Services
bile." The book and paper were published Can anyone tell me just how old my radio
and copyrighted on February 29, 1988. is? Were they making consumer goods too Composition by
We regret that the rightful authors of that Mates Graphics
good in those days?
excellent article were denied the credit they H.L.G.
deserved, and deeply apologize to them and Advertising Sales Offices listed on page 106.
-
e
Palm Bay, FL
to the SAE for this unfortunate incident.
Editor
SNIFFING AROUND 3
SORRY, WRONG NUMBER I would like to thank you for providing a great
11R
We have learned that the toll -free number magazine geared toward the hobbyist. I par- Handson Electronics including Popular Electronics, (ISSN
given in the review of the "Digital Voice Re- ticularly enjoyed building the "RF Sniffer" in 0743-2968) wished monthly by Gernsback Publications. Inc
500 -e Br- County Boulevard. Farmingdale. NY 11735 Second -
.

cord/Playback Module" in the October 1988 the August issue. However, there are some Class postage paid at Farmingdale. NY and al additional mailing
offices One -year. t eNe issues. subscnptnn rate U S and posses-
issue was incorrect. The correct number for errors in it. LED should be labeled as LED
1 sions S21 95. Canada $26 95. all ocher counlnes S29 45 Subscnp-
tan orders payable in U S funds only. International Postal Money
the kit's distributor, the Tapto Corporation, 2, and vice versa; L2 is correctly stated in Order or check drawn on a U S bank. U S segle copy pace S2 50
1988 by Gernsback Pudnatnns, Inc M rghls reserved. Hands -
is 1 -800- 876 -8001.-Editor the parts list to be a 2 -mH choke, but the on Electronics and Glary trademarks are reentered on U S and
Canada by Gernsback Publications. Inc Popular Electronics
schematic shows it as a 2 -RH choke. trademark is registered in U S and Canada by Eleclronres Tech.
nology Today 'rd is licensed to Gernsback Publications Punted in
Speaking of RF chokes, I would like to USA
CASIO CLARIFICATION Postmaster Please send address charges to Hands-On Elec-
see some information on how to read the tronics, including Popular Electronics, Subscnptan Dept P o .

Boa 338. Mount Morns. IL 61054 -9932


In the September 1988 installment of "Gizmo," molded kind. Are they color coded and read
A stamped self addressed envelope must accompany all sublndted
the review of the Casio JE -3 desk -top calcu- the same as resistors? They seem to have manuscnpts and or arhrork or photographs it their return is dewed
should they be rejected We disclaim any responsibility for the loss
lator contains some terms-"AND," "F," "54," more color bands than resistors do. Are they or damage d manuscrpts and or artwork or photographs while in
our possession Of otherwise
and "cuT"-which were foreign to me at first. read as microhenry or millihenry?
Harrison Electronics including Popular
As a service to readers.
Casio is my favorite manufacturer, and I wish Incidently, to make the "RF Sniffer" more Electronics publishes available plans or information relating to
newsworthy products. techrkees and scientific and technological
I still had my old FX-21 with the blue nixie - sensitive, replace the telescoping antenna; developments Because of possibly vanances in the quality and
condtnn of malenals and workmanship used by readers. Hands -
tube display. I'll buy the batteries rather than cut an 8-inch length of 75 -ohm coax; and on Electronics rncludng Popular Electronics disc-laws any re-
sponsibility lo" the sale and proper lunctnrwg d reader buy proj-
strain my eyes on most LCD displays. remove the vinyl sleeve, the outer braid, and ects based upon or from plans or mlormalnn published in this
magazine
In any case, if I understand Casio cor- the center conductor wire so that all that is

4
left is the dielectric material. Wind the entire Ihave a Dumont handheld FM radio receiver: MC14515." That is far from the truth. To make
length with No.26 wire, close wound, and it is atype DH300, Model N33H, from Ham - the data complete and true, it should include
solder it to a male pin connector attached marlund Mfg. Co., Inc. in Marshill, NC. I've the 4515. That is because, according to
on one end. Cover the length with heat - written to that company, but didn't get an I specs, when the chip is selected the output
shrink tubing. You now have a flexible an- answer. Can anyone help me find a sche- of the 4514 goes HIGH and when the 4515
tenna that is much more sensitive than matic diagram and any other information on is selected the output goes LOW. Its some-
the telescoping kind. Attach the female that receiver? thing like saying that they are the same breed.
pin connector to the case, and it becomes Ernest Wurfer but different sexes.
removable. 741 San Diego Ave. C.R.D.
M.B. Sunnyvale, CA 94086 Aurora, CO
Van Nuys, CA

Perhaps you can help me. just recently got


I

my hands on a Lewytt RC77 GRC9 U.S. Army A SIZABLE MISTAKE


Molded chokes do share their color -code Corps Field Radio with no manual. It's a trans-
scheme with resistors, although there are While building the "Speech Processor" from
ceiver tube-type radio: I'm not sure how old
some differences in the way the two are read. the October 1988 issue of Hands -on Elec-
it is. I'm looking for the correct operating volt-
For exact information on how to read molded tronics, discovered that the board size is
I

age, and, of course, a manual for it.


chokes, see the ARRL Handbook's chapter wrong. First. made a transparent copy at
I

Andrew Bowlby
on Construction Practices and Data Tables; 53 4- inches as the article said. Following the
4700 Highland Ave.
if you don't own a copy of the Handbook, parts -placement diagram, aligned each chip
I

Downers Grove, IL 60515


one is available at most local libraries. Also, over the corresponding chip diagrams. But
a FactCard on inductors, including RF my copy-that complied with the directions
chokes, is planned for later in the year. in the article -was too big! reduced the size
I

CHECK YOUR FACTS from 53 4- inches to 45 8- inches, and every-


thing lined up correctly.
Having just purchased my first copy of Popu-
S.P.
lar Electronics, can truthfully say that it
I

HAVES AND NEEDS Chicago, IL


seems to be a good publication for anyone
Irecently purchased a used Bearcat 300 scan- who enjoys working or playing in electronics.
ner. The instruction manual was missing. Can I'm writing to point out some information You are correct. Due to a reproduction er-
anyone advise me on where to find one ?. that is inaccurate due to the omission of some ror, the board that was prepared for publi-
Ron Fite data. "FactCard 85," concerning the 4514 cation, and measured for the article, was
1205 East 25th St. IC, states in "Features" that the 4514 is a roughly 20% oversized. The proper dimen-
San Bernardino, CA 92404 "Plug -in replacement for MC14514, sion is indeed 45/8 inches.

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Local -513- 222-0173
1
1- 800 -338 -0531 customers, please call for shipping estimate on
orders exceeding Slbs.
- FREE
CATALOG
FAX 513 222 -4644

CIRCLE 16 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 5


413 JDR Microdevices 30 DAY MONEY BACK GUARANTEE
COMPLETE CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
1 YEAR WARRANTY ON ALL PRODUCTS
SUPERIOR SERVICE
TOLL -FREE TECHNICAL SUPPORT
FRIENDLY, KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF

STATIC RAMS DYNAMIC RAMS EPROMS CO- PROCESSORS


PART SIZE SPEED PRICE DART SIZE SPEED PRICE PART SIZE SPEED Vpp PRICE 8087 5 MHz 99.95
2112 256x4 450ns 219 4116 -200 163840 200115 89 2708 1024:8 45005 25V 415 8087.2 8 MHz 159 95
2114 1024x4 450ns 99 4116 -150 16384 x1 150115 99 2716 204828 45005 25V 3.49 80871 10 MHz 229 95
21141,2 1024x4 200ns 1.49 MK4332 327680 200ns 6.95 2716 -1 2048.8 350ns 25V 3.95 80287 6 MHz 179 95
TC5516 2048x8 250ns 3.95 4164-150 6553601 150ns 2 89 2732 4096E8 450ns 25V 3.95 80287 -8 8 MHz 249 95
1M142016-200 2048x8 200ns 3.25 4164-120 65536:1 12005 3 19 2732A 4096:8 2500s 21V 3.95 80287 -10 10 MHz 309 95
1MM2016.150 204818 150ns 3.29 4164 -100 65536:1 100ns 3.95 27C64 8192:8 2500s 12.5V 4.95 80387-16 16 MHz 499 95
1MM2016- 100 2048x8 100ns 4.29 1554164 655360 15005 2.89 2764 819208 450ns 123V 349 80387-20 20 MHz 799 95
HM6116-4 2048x8 200ns 4.95 TMS4416 16384:4 150ns 8.95 2764-250 8192:8 25Ons 12.5V 3.69 80387 -25 25 MHz 999 95
HM6116.3 2048x8 150ns 5.95 41128 -150 131072x1 150ns 5.95 2764-200 819218 20000 12.5V 4.25
HM6116-2
HM6116LP-4
HM6116LP-3
2048x8
2048x8
2048x8
120ns
200ns
150ns
645
5.95
6.45
TMS4464.15
TMS4464 -12
41256 -150
65536E4
655360
262144x1
150ns
120115
15005
10 95
11.95
12.45
MCM68766
27128
8192x8
1638403
271288-200 16384x8
35000
250ns
20005
21V 15.95
12.5V 4.95
12.53/ 5.95
intel
11M6116LP-2 2048:8 120ns 6.95 41256 -120 2621440 120ns 715
HM6264LP-15
HM6264LP-12
8192x8
8192:8
150ns
120ns
9.95
1095
41256-100
41256 -80
262144/1 10005
12.95
13.45
27C256
27256
32768x8
32768x8
25000
250ns
123V
125V 515 5
262144x1 80ns 13.95 27256-200 32768x8 20005 12.5V 7.95
HM43256LP-15 32768:8 150ns 12.95 HM51258.100 262144,1 10005 13.95 27512 655360 25005 125V 11.95 YEAR
HM43256LP-12 32768E8 120.5 14.95 MB -120 1048576x1 12005 34.95 27C512 65536:8 2500$ 12.5V 12.95 WARRANTY
HM43256LP-10 32768x8 1000s 1995 MB -100 10485760 1000s 37.95 27C101.20 13107208 200115 12.5V 34.95
INCLUDES MANUAL 8 SOFTWARE GUIDE
CALL TO CONFIRM CURRENT PRICES
L.
CALL TO CONFIRM CURRENT PRICES CALL TO CONFIRM CURRENT PRICES S
A
CALL FOR VOLUME QUOTES NIGH-TECH 30 OAY MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE
ORDER TOLL FREE SP i TLICI' T TOLL -FREE TECHNICAL SUPPORT

r MICROPROCE550R5
SCSI HOST ADAPTOR
A LOW POWER. SHORT SLOT CARD FOR PC COMPATIBLES
THAT CAN CONTROL UP TO SEVEN SCSI DEVICES THIS
l49.95 741,500 TTL LOGIC
6500 8000 8200 POPULAR STANDARD OFFERS SPEED. EXPANDABILITY AND
THE ADVANTAGES OF USING A DEVICE INDEPENDENT BUS
INCLUDES CABLES
74LS00
74LS01
74LS02
16
18
.17
74LS112
74LS1 22
74LS123
29
45
49
74LS241
74LS242
74L5243
69
69
69
6502 2 25 8031 3 95 8253-5 1.95
275
6502A 2.69 8035 149 8254 2.79
MCT -SCSI 74L503 .18 74LS1 24 74L5244 69
74LSO4 16 74LS125 39 74L5245 79
6502B 4.25 8039 195 8255 149 74LS05 74LS126
.18 39 74LS251 49
65CO2' 7.95 805289 8255 -5 1.S9
74LS172
V-20
74L508 39
6520 1.65 BASIC 34 95 8256 15.95 r SERIES 74LS09
18
18 74L5133 49
74L S253
74L5257
49
39
6522 2 95 8080 249 8259 195 74LS10 74LS136
16 39 74L5258 49
6522A 5 95 8085 1 95 8259-5 2.29
SPEED UP YOUR PC BY 10 TO 40% 74L511 74L5138
22 39 74LS2S9 129
6526 13.95 8085A -2 375 8272 439 741.512 74LS139
HIGH SPEED ADDRESS CALCULATION IN HARDWARE 22 39 74LS260 49
6532 5.95 8086 6.49 8274 4.95
PIN COMPATIBLE WITH 8088 74LS13 26 74LS145 99 7ALS266 39
65454 3 95 8088 599 8275 16.95
74LS14 74LS147
SUPERSET OF 8088 INSTRUCTION SET 39 99 74LS273 79
6551 2.95 8088-1 1295 8279 249 74LS15 741.5148
LOW POWER CMOS 26 99 74L5279 39
6551A 6 95 8088-2 7.95 8279-5 2.95 74L S20
V20' 5 MHz 895 V20' 8 MHz 10 95 17 74LS151 39 74LS280 98
'CMOS 8155 2.49 8282 3.95 V20' 10 MHz 1295 V30 8 MHz 13.95 74LS21 22 74LS153 39 7415283 59
8156 2.95 8283 395 74L522 74LS154
.22 49 74L5290 89
8155 -2 395 8284 2 25
74LS27 74LS155
23 59 74LS293 89
8741
8742 29 95
995 8286
8287
395
3 95
VOLTAGE PALS 74LS28 26 74LS156 49 74LS299 1 49
7 95 8288 4 95 REGL/LATORS 16L8 2.95 74LS30 .17 74LS157 35 74LS322 3.95
6800 8749
8755
9 95
14 95
78057
7808T
49
49
7812K
7905K
139
1 69
1698
1696
2
2.95
95 74LS32
74LS33
.18
.28
74LS156
74LS160
29
29
74LS323
74LS365
249
39
6800 1.95 7812T 49 7912K 49 1684 2.95 74LS37 .26 74LS161 39 74LS367 39
80286 79 95
Z-80
1

6802 295 7815T 09 78L05 49 74L538 .26 74L5162 49 74L5368 39


80286.8 249 95
701.542 74LS163
6803 39 39 74L5373 79
6809
3.95
2.95 Z80-CPU 1.25
7905T
79087
59
59
78L12
79L05 69
49 UARTS 74LS47 .75 74LS164 49 74L5374 79
68809
6809E
599
2.95
8200 21304-CPU
7808-CPU
1.29
275
79121
7915T
59
59
79L12
LM323K
1 49
3 49
AYS-1013
AY3-1015
TR1602
3.95
895
3.95
74LS48
74L551
85
.17
74LS165
74LS166
74LS169
65
95
74L5375
74LS377
95
79
68809E 5.49 8205 329 Z80ACTC 1.69 1 59 LM338K 4 49A 74LS73 .29 95 741.5390 1 19
6810 95 8212 49 280B-CTC 4.25 7805K 2651 4.95 74L574 24 741.5173 49 74LS393 79

r
1

6820 2.95 8216 1 49 2804-DART S.95 IM6402 315 74L575 29 74LS1 74 39 74L 5541 1 49
6821 1.25 8224 2.25 2808-DART 6.95 MISCELLANEOUS IM6403 9.95 74L576 29 741.5175 39 74L5624 1 95
68821 1 85 8228 2.25 7130A DMA 5.95 ADC0804 2.99 9334 175 11458250 615 74LS83 49 74LS191 49 74L5640 99
6840 3.95 8237 3.95 280A-PIO I 89 ADC0809 3.85 9368 2.85 NS16450 1015 74LS85 49 74LS192 69 74LS645 99
6845 2.75 8237-5 475 Z80B-P10 425 DAC0800 3.29 9602 69 74LS86 22 74LS193 69 74LS670 89
495 74LS90 39 74LS194 74LS682 320
68845
6847 4.75
8238
8243
4.49
95
Z80A-SIO
2808-SIO
0
0
5.95
12.95
DAC0808
DAC1022
1.95
5.95
ULN2003
MAX232 7.95
79
INTERSIL 74LS92 49 74LS195
69
69 74LS688 2.40
1
ICL7107 1095 74L593 39 74LS196 74L5783
6850 195 8250 6.95 Z80A-SIO 5.95 MC 1408L8 I 95 MC3470 1 95 59 22.95
1
ICL7660 1.99
74LS95 49 74LS197
68850 1 75 8251 1.29 Z80A-5102 595 8128 1 29 MC3487 295 ICL8038 3.85
59 25LS2521 2.80
2295 8251A 1.69 2808-SIO 2 12 95 8T97 59 455.3600 74L5107 34 74LS221 59 26LS31 1.95
ICM7207A 5.95
68000 9 95 8253 59 Z8671BASIC 995 6...P8304 2 29 PRO 11 95' ICM7208 15 95
74LS109 36 74LS240 69 26LS32 195

LINEAR COMPONENTS r HIGH SPEED CMOS LOGIC


TL071 69 LM380 89 XR2206 3 95 74HCD0 21 74HC244 85 7AHCT138 .35 J4no 74121 29 74E240 1 29
TL072 1.09 LM383 195 XR2211 2.95 74HC04 25 74HC245 85 74MCT139 .55 7400 19 74123 49 74500 29
T1074 1.95 LM386 89 LM2917 1.95 74HC08 25 74HC273 69 74HCT157 .59 7402 19 74125 45 74502 29
T1081 .59 LM393 45 CA3046 89 74MC14 35 74HC367 69 7AHCT161 79 7404 19 74150 1 35 74504 29
TL082 .99 LM394H 595 CA3146 1 29 74HC32 35 74HC373 69 74HCT240 89 7406 29 74151 55 74508 35
TL084 1.49 LM399H 5 95 MC3373 1 29 74HC74 35 74HC390 79 74HCT244 .89 7407 29 74153 55 74510 .29
LM301 .34 TL494 4 20 MC3470 1 95 74HC138 as 74MC374 69 74MCT245 .99 7408 .24 74154 149 74532 35
LM309K 1.25 TL497 325 MC3480 895 74HC 139 45 74HC4040 .89 74HCT273 .99 7410 .19 74157 55 74574 49
LM310 1.75 NE555 29 MC3487 295 7/HC154 1 09 74HCT00 25 74HCT373 99 7411 25 74159 1.65 74586 .35
134311 .59 NE556 49 LM3900 49 7AHC157 55 74HCT04 27 74MCT374 99 7414 .49 74161 69 745112 50
LM311H .89 NE558 79 LM3909 98 74HC161 65 74HCTOB 25 74HCT393 99 7416 .25 74164 85 745124 275
LM31IK 3.49 NE564 95 LM3911 2 25 70HC164 65 7aHCT32 27 74HCT4040 99 7417 .25 74166 1 00 745138 79
LM3129 1.75 LM565 95 LM3914 1 89 L.74HC175 59 74HCT74 OS 74HCT4060 1.49A 7420 19 74175 89 745153 79
LM317T .69 LM566 491 LM3915 1 89 7430 19 74367 65 745157 79
LM318
LM319
1.49
1.25
LM567
NE570
79
2.95
MC4024
MC4044 3
349
99 STANDARD CMOS LOGIC 1 7432
7438
29
29 J4FiJ4 S
745158
745163
95
29
LM323K 349 NE590 2.50 RC4136 125 4001 19 4028 65 4069 .19 7442 49 >4F00 35 745175 79
LM324 34 NE592 98 RC4558 69 4011 19 4040 69 4070 29 7445 69 74F02 35 745195 49
LM331 395 LM723 49 LMI 360 491 4013 35 4042 59 4081 .22 7447 89 74E04 35 745240 49
LM334 1.19 LM733 98 75107 49 4015 29 4044 69 4093 49 7473 34 74E08 35 745241 49
LM335 1 79 LM741 29 75108 491 4016 29 4046 69 14411 9.95 7474 33 74E10 35 745244 49
LM336 1 75 LM747 69 75110 95 4017 49 4047 69 14433 14.95 7475 45 74E32 35 745280 95
LM338K 4.49 MC1330 1 69 75150 1 95 4018 69 4049 29 14497 6.95 7476 .35 74E64 55 745287 69
LM339 59 MC1350 119 75154 1.95 4020 59 4050 29 4503 49 7483 .50 74E74 39 745288 69
LF347 219 LM1458 35 75188 1.25 4021 69 4051 69 4511 69 7485 .59 74E86 55 745299 2.95
LF353 59 LM1488 49 75189 25 4023 25 4052 69 4518 85 7586 .35 70138 .79 745373 1 69
LF356 99 LM1489 49 75451 39 4024 49 4053 69 4528 79 7489 2.15 74F139 .79 745374 1.69
1F357 99 LM1496 85 75452 39 4025 25 4060 69 4538 95 7490 .39 74E253 89 745471 495
LM358 59 ULN2003 79 75477 1 29 4027 39 4066 29 4702 9.95, 7493 35 74E157 89 745571 295

JDR MICRODEVICES AND THE JDR MICRODEVICES LOGO ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF JOR MICRODEVICES. 18M, AT. PS/2 ARE TRADEMARKS OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES.

6 CIRCLE 12 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD


CRYSTALS DISCRETE SOLDER STATION WIREWRAP
32.768 KHz
1.0 MH:
.95
2.95
16751
165402
49
25
264403
266045 1
25
75
uI APPROVED PROTOTYPE CARDS
1.8432 2.95 944004 101.00 MPS -A13 40 R ADJUSTABLE HEAT SETTING
TIP TEMPERATURE READOUT
FR 4 EPDXY GLASS LAMINATE WITH GOLD PLATED EDGE
2.0 1.95 164148 251.00 TIP31 .49 CARD FINGERS AND SILK SCREENED LEGENDS
2.4576 1.95 KBP02 .55 4626 .69 R REPLACEMENT TIPS
3.579545 1.95 PN2222 .10 4627 69 AVAILABLE 02.95
4.0 1.95 2N2222 10 4N28 .69 1 68-2C
5 0 1.95 2N2907 25 4N33 .89
5.0688 1.95 2N3055 79 4N37 1.10
6.0 1.95 263904 10 MCT-2 .59
6144 1.95 263906 10 MCT-6 1.29
8.0 1.95 264401 25 71L-111 99
10.0 1.95
10.738635 1.95 FOR PS 2
12.0 1.95 69.95
CAPACITORS JDR -PR32 32 BIT PROTOTYPE CARD
14.31818
16.0
1.95
1.95
TANTALUM ELECTROLYTIC
FULL 1 YEAR JDR -PR16 16 BIT WITH O DECODING LAYOUT
I

JDR- PR16PK PARIS KIT FOR JOR -PR16 ABOVE


49.95
15.95
18.0
18.432
20.0
1.95
1.95
1.95
1.0y
6.8
15V
15V 42
12 RADIAL
1,4 50V 14
WARRANTY ON JDR -PR16V 16 BIT FOR VIDEO APPLICATIONS
FOR AT
39.95

22.1184
OSCIE LA LORS
1.95 10
22
15V
15V
.45
.99
47
10
50V
50V
11
11
EVERY PRODUCT! JDR -PR10 16BIT WITH
JDR-PR1OPK PARTS KIT
I O DECODING LAYOUT
FOR JDR PR10 ABOVE
FOR XT
34.95
12.95

1.0MH: 1.Opf 35V 45 47 35V 13


5.95
19 100 16V 15
IBM -PR1 WITH 5V AND GROUND PLANE 27.95
1.8432 5.95 2.2 35V
18M -PR2 AS ABOVE WITH 110 DECODING LAYOUT 29.95
2.0 5.95 4.7 35V 39 100 50V .23
2.4576 5.95 10 35V 69 220 35V 20
2.5 5.95 470 25V 30
4.0 4.95 DISC 2200 16V .70 POWER SUPPLIES GENGER CHANGERS
5.0 4.95 4700 25V 1.45
5 0688 4.95
lOpf 50V 05 APPLE TYPE SUPPLY 75 WATT SUPPLY
22 50V 05 AXIAL A, Ill APPROVED GENDER -FF FEMALE - FEMALE 7.95
6.0 4.95 GENDER -MM MALE-MALE
6 144 4.95 33 50V 05 I f 50V .14 5V @ ;A .12V @ 3A 7.95
47 50V .05 10 16V .14 GENDER -MF MALE -FEMALE 7.95
80 4.95
100 50V 05
5V @ 300MA 12V @ 250MA
GENDER -NM NULL MODEM 8.95
10.0 4.95 10 50V .16 PS-A Sag 95 PS-1558
220 50V .05 .14
534.95 GENDERJB JUMPER BOX 8.95
12.0 4.95 22 16V
001yf 50V .05 47 50V .19 FLOPPY DRIVE SUPPLY MICRO SUPPLY GENDER -MT MINITESTER 14.95
14 31818 1.95
15.0 1.95 005
01
50V
50V
.05
.07
100
470
35V
50V
.19
.29
R . !H 25A I.. Ill APPROVED 144 WATT
Jt
16.0 4.95 (V I A -5V @ 18A .12V @ 4A
18432 05 50V 07 1000 16V .29
4.95 . .11 5A IF .12 501 2V @ 500MA
1 12V .10 2200 16V 70
20.0 4.95 PS-1554 529.95
4.95 1 50V 12 4700 16V 1.25
24.0 PS-ASTEC 524.95

BIT RATE REPASS CAPACITORS


DISK CONTROLLERS "SNAPABLE" RS -232
GENERATORS 0155
.0155
CERAMIC DISC
MONOLITHIC
100 5.00
100 10.00
HEADERS BREAKOUT BOX
1771 4.95 2797 29 95
CAN BE SNAPPED APART
MC 14411 9.95 1 a5 CERAMIC DISC 100 6.50 1791 9.95 8272 4.39
4.95 TO MAKE ANY SIZE HEADER, FOR TROUBLESHOOTING
BR 1941 1 a5 MONOLITHIC 100 12.50 1793 9.95 UPD765 4 39
4702 9.95 ALL WITH .1" CENTERS SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS
1795 12.95 MB8876 1295
COM5016 1695 CLOCACIRCL/IT9 1797 12.95 MB8877 12.95
COM8116 895 1540 STRAIGHT LEAD OPEN CLOSE INDIVIDUAL CIRCUITS
MC146818 5.95 MM58174 995 2791 19.95 1691 6.95 1540 RIGHT ANGLE LEAD 20 JUMPERS CROSS -CONNECT ANY
MM5307 495 .49
MM58167 9.95 MSM5832 2 95
2793 19.95 2143 6.95 2540 2 STRAIGHT LEADS TWO CIRCUITS
2.49
2540 2 RIGHT ANGLE LEADS 2.99 10 LEDS SHOW CIRCUIT ACTIVITY
GENDER -BO 534.95
IDO CONNECTORS /RIBBON CABLE
5ESCRIPTION ORDER BY CONTACTS
10 . 2820 34 .40 . . 50
SLIDER HEADER IDHaaS .82 1.29. 1.68. 2.20. 2.58 3.24
RIGHT ANGLE SOLDER HEADER IDHYYSR .85 1.35. 1.76. 2.31. 2.72
. 3.39
WIFEWRAP HEADER IDHXaW 1.86 .298 .3.84. 4.50. 5.28 6.63
RIGHT ANG _E WIREWRAP HEADER IDH55WR 2.05 3.28 .4.22 4.45. 4.80 7.30
RIBBO4 HEADER SOCKET IDSXa .63 .89 .95. 1.29. 1.49 1.69
JOYSTICK
. .

RI IBON HEADER IDMu - 5.50 6.25 7.00 7.50 8.50 EPROM ERASERS
RIBBON EDGE CARD IDE55 85 1.25 1.35 1.75 2.05 2.45
SPECTRONICSCORPOR4TION SET X V AXIS FOR AUTO CENTER
10' PLASTIC RIBBON CABLE RC. 1.60 3.20 4.10 5.40 6.40 7.50
OR FREE MOVEMENT
Timer 01 !intensity Unit FIRE BUTTON FOR USE WITH GAME
FOR ORDERING INSTRUCTIONS. SEE DSUBMINIATURE CONNECTORS BELOW Model
Chips (uW Cm') Cost SOFTWARE
PE -140 NO 9 8.000 0 89 COMPATIBLE WITH IBM, APPLE II.
III. IIC, ATARI 8 VIC 20,64
D-SUBMINIATURE CONNECTORS PE -140T YES 9 8.000 0139
GC-10

CE SCRIPT ION ORDER BY


CONTACTS
PE -240T YES 12 9.600 $189
.1995
9 15 19 25 37 50
SOLDE CUP
MALE DBnP 45 59 69 .69 1.35 1.85
FEMALE DB55S .49 .69 .75 .75 1.39 2.29
RIGHT INGLE MALE DBxPR OATARASE 34.95
PC SOLDER FEMALE DBaSR
ERASES 2 EPROMS IN 10 MINUTES
WIREWRAP MALE DBaSPWW 1.69 296 3.89 5.60 -
VERY COMPACT NO DRAWER
FEMALE DB555WW 2.76 4.27 - 6.84 9.95 -
METAL SHUTTER PREVENTS
IDC RIBBON CABLE MALE IDBSaP 1.39 1.99 2.25 4.25 -
UV LIGHT FROM ESCAPING
FEMALE IDBSaS 1.45 205 2.35 4.49 -

HOODS METAL MHOODaS 1.05 1.15 1.25 1.25 -- -


PLASTIC HOODaS .39 .39 -- .39 .69 .75
ORDERING IP.WTRUCTIONS:
INSERT THE A.UMBER OF CONTACTS IN THE POSITION MARKED -a. " OF THE -ORDER BY"
PART NUMBEd LISTED EXAMPLE A 15 PIN RIGHT ANGLE MALE PC SOLDER WOULD BE
DBISPR
MOUNTING HARDWARE 591

C SOCKETS /GIP CONNECTORS LITHIUM BATTERIES


CONTACTS
DESCROTION ORDER BY COMPUTERS
6 8V FOR 286 386
8 14 16 18 20 22 24 28 40 MOTHERBOARC CONNECTOR
SOLDER'/ IL SOCKETS, ssST .11 11 12 .15 .18 .15 .20 .22 30 ADHESIVE VELCRO STRIP FOR
WIREWRA ' SOCKETS asWW .59 69 69 .99 1.09 1.39 1 49 1.69199 EASY MOUNTING
ZIF SOCKETS 21F1 - 4.95 4.95 -- 5.95 - 5.95 6.95 9 95 LITHIUM 6.8V 511.95
TOOLED SOCKETS AUGATsST .62 79 89 1.09 1.29 1.39 1.49 1.692
TOOLED WW SOCKETS AUGAT55WW 1.30 1.80 2.10 2.40 2.50 2.90 3.15 3.70540
COMPONENT CARRIERS' ICCax .49 . 99 .99 .99 99 1.091 49
DIP PLUGO (IDC) IDPXX .95 .49. .59.1.29.1.49 - .85 1.49'1 59 LITHIUM-3V 3V COIN TYPE LITHIUM BATTERY 11.95
FOR ORDERING INSTRUCTIONS SEE D SUBMINIATURE CONNECTORS ABOVE 3V -MHW BATTERY HOLDER 51.49

TERMS MINIMUM ORDER 510 00 FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING INCLUDE 02 50 FOR UPS
GROUND AND 53.50 UPS AIR ORDERS OVER I LB AND FOREIGN ORDERS MAY REOUIRE
JDR MICRODEVICES, 110 KNOWLES DRIVE. LOS GATOS, CA 95030 ADDITIONAL SHIPPING CHARGES -PLEASE CONTACT THE SALES DEPARTMENT FOR THE
AMOUNT CA RESIDENTS MUST INCLUDE APPLICABLE SALES TAX PRICES ARE SUBJECT
LOCA.. (408) 866 -6200 FAX (408) 378-8927 TELEX 171 -110 TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE WE ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR TYPOGRAPHICAL
MaSIeC4eC ERRORS WE RESERVE THE RIGHT TO LIMIT QUANTITIES AND TO SUBSTITUTE
RETAL STORE: 1256 SOUTH BASCOM AVE., SAN JOSE, CA (408) 947-8881 MANUFACTURER. ALL MERCHANDISE SUBJECT TO PRIOR SALE A FULL COPY OF OUR
TERMS IS AVAILABLE UPON REQUEST ITEMS PICTURED MAY ONLY BE REPRESENTATIVE
HOUNS: M -F 9 -7 SAT. 9 -5 SUN. 12 -4

ORDER TOLL FREE 800-538-5000


COPYFIGHT 1988 JDR MICRODEVICES CONTINENTAL U.S. AND CANADA

CIRCLE 13 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 7


The book's methodical approach offers designed to build the user's confidence
the reader a "profile" that can be used to with each concept that is mastered. Each
analyze a port on a device and determine session concisely explains a fundamental
its compatibility with other devices. The concept, and gives examples, illustrations,
reader can easily and quickly connect any and hands -on exercises as well. There
number of different devices together by sim- is also a chapter summary and a glossary
ply filling out the "port profiles" for those of any new terms that have been pre-
devices and following the straightforward sented. Finally, the book offers a compre-
Electronics Librare steps and tools provided in the book.
Pinouts for over 300 serial computers
hensive command -reference section with
definitions of functions accompanied by
To obtain tub mono/ in /or/nation on the hanks and peripherals, supplied by the vendors, specific examples.
and pub/se/moos covered in this .croon front are included in one appendix. Cable dia-
Using MS -DOS is available for $22.95 from
the publisher. please circle the Ilenh's code num- grams for serial connectors, printer- and
Osborne McGraw -Hill, 2600 Tenth Street,
ber on the Free Information Card terminal- escape sequences, connection
Berkeley, CA 94710.
symptoms and solutions, steps for connec-
tion, rules for cable design, and intelligent CIRCLE 96 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
modem commands are included in some
AUTOLISP IN PLAIN ENGLISH: of the other useful appendices.
A Practical Guide for Non -Programmers THE COMPLETE COMMUNICATIONS
HANDBOOK
by George O. Head
by John C. Sans Jr.
This book introduces readers to the funda-
mentals of AutoLISP, AutoCAD's powerful Telecommunications is the fastest -growing
internal programming language. A basic area of personal computing today. It gives
knowledge of AutoCAD is assumed. The the user access to world -wide information
book is designed as a learning tool, to be at his fingertips, in his home. It all but re-
read and used in front of a computer. After moves the "information float" -the time it
reading it, even beginners should be able takes for information to travel from source
to create simple AutoLISP programs to mod- to end -user; stock -market quotes, for ex-
ify AutoCAD drawing commands, access ample, can be obtained immediately via tele-
and revise drawing entities, create simple communications.
geometric constructions, and curtail repeti- This guide to telecommunications shows
tive drawing tasks. readers how to use their computers, mo-
Essential AutoLISP commands. func- dems, and telephones for at -home shop-
tions, and programs are taught. and tips ping and research; and to get up- to -the-
and tricks for basic programming, testing, Complete Guide to RS232 and Parallel Con- minute financial, travel, and entertainment
and debugging are presented. Readers nections is available for $27.95 in softcover, information. It traces the development of
learn to use AutoLISP effectively, to solve or $42.00 in hardcover, from Prentice - telecommunications from the telegraph to
everyday drawing problems. AutoLISP pro- Hall, Inc., College Division, Englewood
grams. accompanied by line -by -line expla- Cliffs, NJ 07632.
nations of each command, are featured
throughout the book, and illustrate the les-
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afia .
sons taught in the text. The last chapter
contains 12 routines designed to dramati-
raltarN b '

cally increase productivity when using the


AutoLISP language. Those routines are also USING MS-DOS Cj qN1UNICATIONS.
available on an optional diskette. by Kris Jamsa
AutoL /SP in Plain English: A Practical Time is a limited and valuable commodity

.d
Guide for Non- Programmers is available these days. With that in mind, this guide
for $27.95 from Ventana Press, P.O. Box to MS -DOS aims to quickly teach the most
2468, Chapel Hill, NC 27514. effective -thus, time -saving-use of comput-
CIRCLE 80 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD ers. Rather than getting bogged down with M7Of.il.
long words in even -longer chapters, the
JOHN C. SANS JR.
book is arranged in individual lesson plans
that can be easily completed in 15 minutes
COMPLETE GUIDE TO RS232 at the computer. the high speed digital equipment in use
AND PARALLEL CONNECTIONS That is not to say that the complexities today. Communications technology, includ-
of MS -DOS are neglected. However, by the ing micro-to- mainframe links, local -area net-
by Martin D. Seyer
time the reader reaches the advanced ses- works, multi -user systems, telephone -
This guide presents a unique approach to sions-covering such topics as DOS I/O switching techniques, and error detection
connecting computers and peripherals. It redirection, customizing the system, and and correction, is explained in clear text
uses tutorial "modules" that are designed using advanced system commands -he will and with numerous illustrations. The book
to illustrate virtually any possible connec- have enough background knowledge of the details the basic components comprising
tion using serial and parallel interfaces. The basics-DOS commands, Edlin, file manage- personal- computer communications sys-
reader learns to connect scores of devices ment, batch processing. and backup -to tems-terminals, modems, serial- interface
together; computers, modems, terminals, grasp the concepts presented. cables, and telephones.
and printers are covered. That step -by -step learning process is (Continued on page 12)

8
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11
Electronics Library'
(Continued from page 8) a good "packeteer." Finally, the author looks Professional Publishing. Englewood Cliffs,
ahead to the future of packet radio, includ- NJ 07632.
ing digital audio and video. and the evolu-
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This practical guide shows readers what tion of the amateur -satellite program.
to look for in communications software and
Mastering Packet Radio: The Hands -on
hardware. It includes prices, special fea-
Guide costs $12.95, and is available at UNDERSTANDING MAGNETISM:
tures, and the names and addresses of
bookstores, computer stores, electronics Magnets, Electromagnets, and
manufacturers of each product. It also gives
distributors, or from Howard W. Sams & Superconducting Magnets
all the necessary information for accessing
Company. 4300 West 62nd St., Indianapo-
on -line information services such as bulletin - by Robert Wood
lis, IN 46268; Tel. 800 -428 -SAMS.
board systems, information utilities includ-
ing CompuServe and The Source. and CIRCLE 95 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD While scientists try to decipher its myster-
many electronic -mail services. ies. people are using magnetism every day,
unaware of the scope of its influence on
The Complete Communications Handbook their lives. That invisible force of attraction
BOB MIDDLETON'S HANDBOOK OF
is available for S12.95 from W rdware Pub- is one of the fundamental forces in the uni-
ELECTRONIC TIME -SAVERS AND
lishing. Inc., 1506 Capital Avenue. Plano. verse. This book examines magnetic phe-
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nomena, and the relationship between mag-
CIRCLE 81 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD by Robert G. Middleton netism and electricity.
The history of magnetism-from the dis-
Packed with dozens of little -known tricks
covery of the loadstone, to scientific pio-
of the trade. new testing techniques, and
neers ranging from Hyppolyte Pixii through
time -saving shortcuts, this 378 -page hand-
MASTERING PACKET RADIO: Joseph Henry. Wilhelm Weber. James Clerk
book will make it easier to troubleshoot tele-
The Hands -on Guide
vision, radio, CB. tape- recorder. intercom.
Maxwell. and Nikola Tesla -is
covered. The
book defines magnetism and geomagne-
by Dave Ingram, K4TWJ audio. CCTV. telephone, and digitally con-
tism. It explains natural magnetic phenom-
trolled equipment.
Packet radio -the technique of breaking ena such as the Northern Lights and mag-
The book explains how DC voltages can
down information into small pieces ( "pack- netic effects op the weather. It covers fer-
be added or subtracted with a voltmeter,
ets") and transmitting them over amateur romagnetic, paramagnetic, and diamagnetic
how a digital -voltmeter temperature probe
radio-is a rapidly expanding field. This
can be especially useful in analyzing digital -
materials, and how they are used.
easy -to- understand guide to packeting is IC temperature "signatures." and how a DC
intended to put amateur -radio enthusiasts
voltmeter can be converted into a high -
on the cutting edge of the digital- communi-
cations revolution.
performance dynamic ohmmeter that
automatically measures the internal resis-
iaM] f1SM
11,167l5,
i/
fl}X.11t0YA0675
The book examines packet -radio tech-
tance of "live circuits. It describes how to SOPF7ll,lNiANG MAXIS
nology and capabilities. from simple con- use a DC voltage monitor as a DC current
cepts to more technical subjects. It offers monitor, make a sensitive test for amplifier
precise explanations of what packet is. how
distortion with a DC voltmeter, and meas-
it works. why it is used, and the hardware
ure DC voltages in very -high impedance
involved. Readers will learn about the roles
circuitry using a two-DVM method that
of home computers and data- communica-
draws no current from the circuitry under
tions terminals, and how to set up their own test.
packet stations. There are instructions for building a sim-
ple voltage -controlled audio oscillator that
permits the use of a tape recorder as a
The book also describes the ways mag-
DC voltage monitor. automatic internal -
netism is used in homes and industry. It
resistance ohmmeters, and modified -emit-
ter followers with zero- insertion loss. The
illustrates DC circuits and introduces basic
semiconductors, coils, and electromagnets:
book discusses controlled- timbre tests and
basic AC circuits and transformers are cov-
digital -logic troubleshooting ground rules.
ered as well. The book discusses how mag-
with examples of oscilloscope applications.
netism is used in everything from doorbells
It describes a simple arrangement for us-
to particle accelerators.
ing a tape recorder as a digital data -
memory storage unit. and cites the causes Some simple experiments will underscore
the principles learned from the text. Those
of circuit loading when a meter is applied
include a compass, an electromagnetic re-
in a comparatively high- resistance circuit.
lay, a galvanometer, a transformer. and an
With step -by -step instructions and de-
electric lock. The projects presented -an
tailed illustrations, the handbook is easy
electric motor, a steam engine, and an elec-
to use It presents quick tests and testing
tromagnetic- repulsion coil -are fully illus-
tips, professional advice on how to get the
most from new electronic test equipment. trated and contain complete parts lists.
and new ways to use conventional test equip- Understanding Magnetism: Magnets, Elec-
Information is included on packet net-
ment. Many new servicing techniques were tromagnets and Superconducting Magnets
works. bulletin boards. HF-linking concepts.
specially developed for this book. is available for $10.95 from Tab Books Inc.,
Oscar satellites, and electronic mail. There
Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17294 -0850; Tel.
is a survey of amateur equipment for packet Bob Middleton's Handbook of Electronic
1- 800 -233 -1128.
radio, and tips for newcomers and veteran Time -Savers and Shortcuts is available for
amateur -radio enthusiasts alike on being $16.95 from Prentice Hall, Business and CIRCLE 98 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

12
HANDBOOK OF VIDEO CAMERA
SERVICING AND TROUBLESHOOTING
TECHNIQUES
CABLE -TV
by Frank Heverly
By the end of this book, readers will be
expert in the repair and alignment of to-
day's single -tube video cameras, and in how
to build a profitable TV-camera service busi-
ness. Complete operational data details the
inner workings of video cameras. The step -
by -step techniques needed to troubleshoot
and service a wide range of video cameras
are accompanied by over 400 charts, dia-
grams. illustrations and photographs.
The handbook shows how video cam-
eras work; how to accurately pinpoint the
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trouble when they malfunction; how to re-


move, re- install. align. and adjust the pick-
up tube; and how to deal with customers.
Beginning with a basic description of every
type of design of today's video cameras
and how they work, the book goes on to
describe, in full detail. the individual parts,
circuits, and components that comprise
video cameras. There are hundreds of short-
cuts for troubleshooting, repair, and align-
ment. Also included are listings of sources
for test equipment, special tools, and addi-
tional reference material, as well as a glos-
sary of terms and abbreviations.
Handbook of Video Camera Servicing and
Troubleshooting Techniques is available for
'CALL FOR AVAILABILITY
$16.95 from Prentice -Hall, Inc., Business
and Professional Division, Englewood Cliffs,
Output Price TOTAL
NJ 07632. Quantity Item
Channel Each PRICE
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While aimed at newcomers to higher authorization from local officials or cable company officials in accordance with all applicable federal and
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13
Electronics Library AutoCAD as more than just an electronic Beginning, intermediate. and advanced
drawing board -and increase their personal
the history of the theories presented. A
discussion of the essence of higher mathe-
satisfaction, job security, and productivity
in the process.
users learn how to tailor AutoCAD to their
specific design needs. The tutorial section
aimed mainly at novices and intermediate
-
matics and its possible applications in phys- The AutoCAD Productivity Book helps users -gives step -by -step directions on us-
ics and engineering is followed by exam- ing macros and the powerful AutoLISP pro -
ples involving specific physical problems gram. creating and modifying screen and
within those disciplines. tablet menus. and automating drawings.
The 560 page book contains an exten-

classicalWD SecandEaaan This second edition contains two added chap-

,
sve section on two mathematical trends ters on how to customize AutoCAD Re-
that expand and generalize the lease 9's new pop -up menus. and on tips
differential and integral calculus -complex and tricks that boost speed and drawing
numbers and functions of a complex vari-
PrOCACaiVitY
able, and generalized functions. Finally.
there is a discussion of scientific trends that
--
op,IJR
CJ power.
In addition. many sophisticated AutoLISP
routines have been included in the
use higher mathematics. intended to arouse "AutoCAD Productivity Library' section. The
the reader's curiosity and to encourage fur- 70 carefully selected AutoLISP routines and
ther study. time -saving macros that are presented in
Higher Math for Beginners is available for / that section illustrate the features and power
$51.00 from Prentice -Hall, Inc., College Di- / of customization, giving users more insight
vision, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632. into AutoCAD's powerful programming lan-
guage. Novices are strongly advised to read
CIRCLE 99 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
the tutorial section thoroughly before delv-
professionals tap the subtleties beneath ing too deeply into the "AutoCAD Produc-
THE AUTOCAD PRODUCTIVITY BOOK the surface of AutoCAD that can make tivity Library."
(Second Edition) it a powerful new tool with more speed,
The AutoCAD Productivity Book: Second
power, and performance. It also details
by A. Ted Schaefer Edition is available for $39.95 from Ven-
how to achieve company wide linkage. and
and James L. Brittain integration of AutoCAD with engineering, tana Press, P.O. Box 2468, Chapel Hill,
"Productivity" is the key word here. Read- sales, purchasing, manufacturing, and desk- NC 27515.
ers learn to "work smarter" by using top publishing. CIRCLE 80 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

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14 CIRCLE 5 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Official 1934
USING THE MODELS 50 & 60 The projects, which include all the infor-
mation needed to construct the basic build-
SHORT WAVE
by Herbert Schildt ing blocks of any personal robot, are geared RADIO MANUAL
This guide to IBM's new machines in the to novice and intermediate robotics enthusi-
Personal System/2 series contains all the asts. Included are various modules for the
information necessary to handle the Mod- body and frame, power and locomotion, ap-
els 50 and 60 effectively. pendages, "facial" features, navigation, and
The book's first section, though intended electronic control. The reader can combine
primarily for beginners, contains some in-
teresting facts about the history of those
various modules into different configurations
to create rolling, walking, or talking robots
robots that can serve drinks, vacuum the
-
machines. It goes on to discuss their ba-
sic components, define several fundamen- floor, protect the family against fire or theft,
tal computer terms, and to explain how to or teach the children.
start the computer and use the Reference The book suggests alternate approaches
Diskette. and sources of electronic and mechanical
components. Most of the circuits use dis-
Build
count- priced, surplus ICs that are easy on simple. high
performance old -
the builder's budget. Along with illustrations, time shortwave radi
schematics, diagrams, and parts lists for All of the secrets are
each module, the book provides a listing here: the circuit diagrams.
of necessary tools and equipment, a guide parts layout. coil specifications. con-
for matching up TTLs and ICs, and drill-bit
struction details. operation hints. and
much more!
and bolt chart, and computer programs that This is a compilation of shortwave
are useful in robotics. construction articles from "Short Wave
Craft" magazines published in the 20's &
The Robot Builder's Bonanza: 99 Inex- 30's. It's wall -to -wall "how-to."
pensive Robotics Projects costs $14.95. Included are circuit diagrams. photo-
It is available from Tab Books Inc., Blue graphs. and design secrets of all short-
Ridge Summit, PA 17294 -0850; Tel. 1 -800-
wave receivers being manufactured in
1934 including some of the most fa-
233 -1128. mous: SW-3, the SW-5 "Thrill Box ", the
CIRCLE 98 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
deForest KR -1, the Hammurland
Users of the Models 50 and 60 have a "Comet Pro and many more.
choice of operating systems, and this book Also included is a new chapter show-
contains extensive sections on both the cur- ing how you can use transistors to re-
rent standard, DOS, and the powerful new
62 HOME REMOTE CONTROL AND place hard -to -find vacuum tubes. You'll
AUTOMATION PROJECTS even see the circuit that was lashed
OS /2. There is a brief discussion of their together on a table top one night using
similarities and differences, and the advan- by Delton T. Horn Junk box parts. a hair curler and alliga-
tages and disadvantages of each. The DOS tor clips. Attached to an an-
section has an introduction to its basic fea- Even readers with no previous electronics tenna strung across the base-
tures, and proceeds to commands, system experience will find useful projects that they ment ceiling and a 9 volt bat-
can build and put to use at home. The de- tery. signals started popping
configuration, and advanced DOS features. in like crazy. In a couple of
For the OS /2 user, the book explores multi- vices in this book were designed to make minutes an urgent message
tasking, the program selector, and other life safer, more convenient, and more fun. from a ship's captain off Se-
OS/2 features. A wide array of door and window con- attle over 1500 miles away
trollers, stereo and TV projects, timers, elec- was heard asking for a naviga-
Hardware specifics are also covered in tor to help him through shallow water!
tronic- switching units, wireless controllers,
detail, with the emphasis on how things These small regenerative receivers
work. Memory, 80286 specifics, interrupts, telephone -related projects, and a computer are extremely simple, but do they ever
disk drives, keyboard, video, and printers controller with programming information are perform! This is a must book for the
are described. presented. Specific projects include an auto- experimenter, the survivalist who is
matic guest -greeter, sensors to keep heat concerned about basic communication,
Using the Models 50 & 60 costs $21.95. and air-conditioning at ideal levels, a remote-
shortwave listeners, ham radio opera-
tors who collect old receivers. and just
It is available from Osborne McGraw -Hill, controlled "commercial killer" for the TV, about anyone interested in old -time
2600 Tenth Street, Berkeley, CA 94710. and voice -activated transmitters and relays. radio.
Before getting into project- building, there Great book! Fun to read! One of the
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is a simple, but thorough introduction to
best old -time radio books to turn up in
years. Heavily illustrated! Order a cop%'
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THE ROBOT BUILDER'S BONANZA: cautions, finding parts, substitution of com-
99 INEXPENSIVE ROBOTICS PROJECTS ponents, and techniques for customization rLindsay Publications,
by Gordon McComb
is also presented in the first few chapters. Box 12 -WF3, Bradley IL 60915
Then, for each device, the author supplies a copy of Short Wave Radio
This educational, yet fun, book takes a modu- complete instructions, wiring diagrams, and D Send
Manual Enclosed is $15.70.
lar "cookbook" approach to robot building. illustrations. Chk. MC. Visa. Send a free cata-
It offers a unique collection of fully tested
log of other books.
62 Home Remote Control and Automation
project modules that can be mixed and Name
Projects is available for $12.95 from Tab z
matched in countless combinations. The
Books Inc., Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17294-
reader's imagination is the other ingredient Address
0850; Tel. 1- 800 -233 -1128.
required for the creation of highly intelli-
gent, one -of -a -kind, working robots. CIRCLE 98 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
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15
ing of sensors. There is an instant panic use. The adjustable double- headband sys-
alarm for emergencies. tem combines strength and rigidity with even
The Dicon 9000's digital signal- coding weight distribution. Mesh-covered foam ear -
system and sensors are made with surface -
mount components resulting in compact
pads- mounted with a dual -swivel system
allow adjustments for individual head shape.
-
size. and improved quality and reliability. and provide good performance with the great-
It is designed so that even close neighbors est degree of comfort. Strain-relief pieces
can use it without interfering with each at the earpads and plug assure durability

New Products
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verbally instructs the user on how to pro- switches and indoor sirens, and a weather- and is designed to make WordPerfect easy
gram and test the system. It also vocally proof outdoor siren-are available. Tem- to learn and use. When used with WordPer-
reports which sensor has triggered an perature sensors and propane natural gas fect versions 4.1. 4.2. or 5.0, the system
alarm. verifies that transmitters are within detectors will be available in late 1988. of more than 375 simple -to -call. pre -
receiving range. and reports when trans- The Dicon 9000 package. including all coded macros allows users to greatly re-
mitter or console- backup batteries require hardware and installation materials and an duce the number of key strokes needed
replacement. operator's manual with diagrams of sug- for even the most complex -and seldom
Easily installed by consumers. the sys- gested sensor placement. costs $494.00. mastered-WordPerfect functions. The pack-
tem fully integrates security. fire. medical, For additional information. contact Dicon age also includes 50 pre- formatted page -
and other emergency monitoring. using a Systems Inc.. 631 Executive Drive, Willow- style setups and a guide to WordPerfect's
variety of sensing devices with miniature brook. IL 60521: 1- 800 -387 -2868. keystrokes.
transmitters. The central console is about CIRCLE 69 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD The system offers mnemonic key strokes
the size of a telephone- answering machine. that are named for every WordPerfect Com-
It has a built -in automatic telephone dialer mand ("P" for print. "BOX" for box line draw-
that is capable of calling eight local or long - ings, etc.), allowing even novices to ad-
distance numbers and relaying an emer- MOVING -COIL HEADPHONES vance quickly through word -processing com-
gency message in the user's own voice. mands without constantly referring to the
Signet's EP400 is a moving -coil design ste-
manual. More than half of the macros fea-
reo headphone that delivers peak -free re-
ture pop -up tips. prompts. and instructions.
sponse and accurate reproduction at both
ends of the spectrum. A high -flux Samar-
ium cobalt magnet and oxygen -free silver
copper wire are used for the voice -coil wind-
V ing. Oxygen -free copper is used in the 10-
foot audio cord to provide maximum con-
ductivity and minimal signal loss. and to
yield extended dynamics and distortion-
f ree sound. Its frequency range is from 20
Hz to 22,000 Hz.
If an emergency occurs. the console de- The headband and earpads are com-
termines whether a security, fire, or medi- fortable even during extended periods of
cal alarm has been triggered. It will auto-
matically place an emergency call to the
appropriate pre -programmed number or num- PerfectPal version 5.0 commands include
bers. An electronic voice announces to the moving copying text in two key strokes, one -
answering party: Medical Emergency' or stroke tab sets, pre -set sorts and fonts. easy
Fire Emergency as appropriate. then de- merge. and simplified math and desk -top
livers the user's own message. Each mes- publishing. All those, and more. are accom-
sage is repeated three times before the plished in one or two keystrokes instead
console hangs up and dials the next emer- of struggling through layers of menus. Other
gency number. complex tasks -including columns. cross -
Codes. rather than conventional keys. references, and lists -are also pre- coded.
are used to arm and disarm the software - Pop -up instructions help the user master
based system. (Authorized visitors can be setting up tables of contents, indexes. book
provided with a temporary "visitor code.') chapters. and graphic images.
Different monitoring and alarm modes are PerfectPal can automatically map the key-
used when the occupants are at home or board with special science or math signs,
away. Up to four separate security zones or foreign -language characters. With one
can be created, allowing selective monitor- macro, it can change the keyboard to Span-

16
ish, for example, and back to English again and scratch and crack resistance. The files The Curtis 5' a-inch and 3' 2 -inch disk files
with another macro. Specific routines for offer maximum protection for delicate floppy have adjustable dividers with color -coded
the legal profession are also included. disks. labels, carrying handles, and anti -skid feet
The PerfectPal package -including two to anchor them securely to any desk top.
system disks, two 3- by 18 -inch plastic - They hold 50 and 40 disks, respectively.
coated templates displaying commands. Snap -lock models and units featuring an
and a user's manual -costs $79.00. For all -steel security lock with two keys are avail-
more information, contact PC Template. able in each size. Every disk file has an
P.O. Box 9273, Glendale. CA 91206: Tel. outside shelf designed to hold two or three
1- 800 -451 -6086. working diskettes.
CIRCLE 71 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
The Curtis 3' 2- and 5' 4 -inch disk files
cost $12.95 each with security lock, and

DESOLDERING GUN

Xuron's WickGun desoldering system re-


moves solder from PC boards and other
electronic devices 3 to 5 times faster than
the conventional use of braid. The tool makes
the dispensing, positioning, and cutting of
desoldering braid a one -handed operation.
The WickGun accurately dispenses the
* CABLE TV
SPECIALS
CONVERTERS
desired length of desoldering braid. When
heat is added with a soldering iron the
melted solder is drawn up into the exposed JRX -3 DIC -36 Channel Corded Remote. 5129.95
braid. The solder- impregnated braid is eas- RCA 58 -3 58 channel set top with
ily cut off by squeezing the trigger. The Jerrold Descrambler 599.95
desoldered area is left clean and free of
contaminants such as finger oils. That im-
SB -3 - 'The Real Thing'
SB -3- Taiwan Copy
5109.95
589.95
proves future solderability. The WickGun
also acts as a heat shield to prevent burned DRZ- 3D1C -68 Channel Wireless
fingers. 5199.95
with Descrambler
ZENITH: Z -TAC Cable Add -On 5169.95

VIEW STAR: MXC 2001 -65 Channel Wireless


with Parental Lockout
- 589.95
MXC 2001 A -B -Same as above with
A -B Switch 5109.95
MXC 2501 -65 Channel Wireless
with Volume 5119.95
Universal V7472 -72 Channel Wireless Remote
MTS Stereo Converter -Full
Feature Descrambler
Compatible 5129.95
The unit is made of static -dissipative ma- MISCELLANEOUS
terials. in keeping with current ESD- control
practices. Easy -loading replacement -braid
cartridges are available in 15 -foot lengths OAK: ECONO -3V Mini -Code 589.95
in sizes 1 through 4. The cutting blades ECONO -3V Mini -Code Vari -Sync S89.95
are also replaceable.
ECONO-3V Mini -Code Vari -Sync Plus
The WickGun has a suggested list price
of $39.95. The replacement -braid cartridges Auto On -Ott 5119.95
cost $4.95 each for sizes through 3, and
1 OAK: Sine -wave Anti -Jammer Kit 539.95
$5.25 for size 4. For more information. con- 400 & 450 Handheld Transmitters 529.95
JERROLD:
tact Xuron Corporation, Saco Industrial
HAMLIN: MLD -1200 Channels 2 or 3 599.95
Park, 60 Industrial Park Road. Saco. ME
04072. NEW ITEMS: Scientific Atlanta SA -3 5129.95
CIRCLE 72 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD GENERAL
INSTRUMENTS: VCU Amplified Video Switch

FLOPPY -DISK FILES Signal Amplifier 559.95


z
Curtis' line of floppy -disk files are made >
of CTE acrylic copolymer -a new plastic UNITED ELECTRONIC SUPPLY
featuring high levels of durability, resilience.
P.O.BOX 1206H ELGIN, ILLINOIS 60121 312 -697 -0600

CIRCLE 15 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 17


New Products PORTABLE OSCILLOSCOPE

Tektronix' Model 2247A portable oscillo-


$9.95 each with snap lock. For more infor- scope, aimed at the digital- design and field -
mation, contact Curtis Manufacturing Com- service markets, features a counter timer,
pany Inc.. 30 Fitzgerald Drive. Jaffrey, NH automatic rise fall -time and propagation -
03452. delay measurements, and other extended
CIRCLE 73 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD measurement capabilities. The 100 -MHz,
4- channel scope provides auto setup, on-
screen cursors, and up to 20 pre -pro-
grammed measurements.
TWO-WAY PORTABLE RADIOS
The unit features 11 automatic voltage
The Regency Plus HH Series of die -cast and time measurements. In addition to rise' the delayed sweep; by simply positioning
two -way portable radios are durable and fall -time and propagation -delay measure- the scope's cursors on the expanded wave-
dependable, yet lightweight. With die -cast ments, the 2246A's built-in counter,timer pro- form. the numeric value appears on screen.
metal mainframes, the portables are rug- vides delta time, gated- counter measure- Operator prompts and on- screen error
ged under working conditions. ments, and frequency-ratio measurements. messages guide users through the proper
The HH Series is available in three The oscilloscope offers several gated meas- setup and measurement procedures.
bands. In UHF, the HH 464 D2 and HH urements that allow the user to choose por- There are prompts for proper AC or DC
464 D4 have four watts of power and two - tions of the waveform for closer analysis. settings, and for proper control settings,
or four -channel capability. In VHF High Users can also make measurements on (Continued on page 22)
Band, the HH 154 and the HH 156 feature
4 or 6 watts of power. switchable to watt.
1

and up to six -channel capability. The se-


ries is rounded out by the HH 505. with 5 NOTHING
watts of power and four channels in Low
Band. COMES
EASY By Jack Schmidt

When I said that we are dealing Kith


'limited memory'. I Kas not talking about
the computer, I Kas talking about sou!"

"M'Lord, l can't pick up not a thing on


my stereo headphones in here."

LJL
"Oh Mr. Communicator. I don't think
you're putting out enough power!"
The crystal -controlled radios are adapt-
able to radio common carrier and to sys-
tems with all standard -EIA subaudible
(CTCSS) tones, two-tone sequential. and
various other signalling formats. All mod-
els carry a 2 -year limited warranty.
The suggested retail prices for models
HH 464 D2 and HH 464 D4, are $569.00
and $615.00. respectively. Models HH 154
and HH 156 cost $459.00 and $550.00.
respectively. Model HH 505 sells for -
$549.00. For further information, contact
Regency Land Mobile. Inc.. 7707 Records "Byron. the computer company sent the
"Melvin, is it true you bought an e.cercise
St.. Indianapolis. IN 46226. retrofit instructions ou a floppy disk."
bike Jar your robot''"
CIRCLE 74 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
NOW' Training includes XT-compatible computer
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Now you can get the skills in demand for the new jobs in industry
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Its no secret. Industry is being transformed
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locomotives now being produced with the
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automation have come jobs ... thousands of know
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You get structural members, motors, gear
experiment with your NRI Discovery Lab
Now, unlike any other school, NRI offers drives, sensors, scanners, potentiometers,
and professional digital multimeter.
you training that prepares you to take plus a special Robotics Interface that links
advantage of these new opportunities ... the robots you build to your computer. Rapidly, theory becomes understanding as
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hum a production line You Wad this sorting system, thin model you construct. Once you Technology, plus training in computer elec-
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blocks, and more them to to comet storage bins.
mentallyy put the robot through a segrnnce of operatans. it wnl
-nMMmbe/' theta steps are perlpm them whenever ar ed tronics, TV /video /audio servicing, electronic
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the job or start a new career as a robotics and automation systems, programmed by you to other growing high-tech career fields.
industrial control technician. do the types of operations and tasks per- If the coupon is missing, write to: NRI School
formed in today's industrial environments. of Electronics, McGraw -Hill Continuing Educa-
The powerful XT-compatible computer Tasks such as plotting polar coordinates to tion Center, 3939 Wisconsin Avenue,
you build becomes central control for the create graphic displays of numeric data ... Washington, DC 20016.
robotic systems you construct sorting different size objects and routing
these objects to separate containers ... even
As an integral part of your NRI hands-on performing a preprogrammed sequence of
training, you build a fully IBM XT-com- McGraw -Hill Continuing Education Center
operations again and again just as robots 3939 Wisconsin Avenue
patible computer from the keyboard up. now do on manufacturing lines. Washington, ne 20016 For career courses
You assemble the power supply, install the Nothing is left out, nothing is left to chance.
approved under 01 Bill
check for details
51/4" floppy disk drive, and attach the high -
You get everything you need-the skills, the con- Check one catalog only
resolution monitor. Most important of all, by fidence, and the equipment -to feel completely Robotics T'rhnokagy TVAIdeoo Audio Servicing
performing meaningful tests and demon- at home with today's robotics technology.
Computers .uni
Micripria
processors
'rmtmunicationu Electronics
Telephone Servicingg
strations at each stage of assembly, you Security Flecvaixs Data Communications
come to a full understanding and apprecia- F7rctromic Music s
Basic Electronics
Step by step, you get the training you Digital Electronics
tion of the microprocessor technology that need to move into robotics fast Servicing
makes today's robotics applications possible.
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City State Zip
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Robotic Discovery Kits. the ground up ... First gaining a working Accredited by the National Home Study Council I fi-019

21
r ,
New Products
tery" light indicates when to change the
(Continued from page 18)
9 -volt battery.
The WSC -110 Wrist Strap Checker costs
such as triggering and sensitivity levels. The $85.00. For more information, contact
scope features smooth, menu -driven op- Wescorp, 144 South Whisman Rd., Moun-
eration; automatic. one -button front -panel tain View, CA 94041; Tel. 800 -537-7828
setups; and the ability to store and recall (415- 969 -7717 in California).
as many as 20 setups. SmartCursors track
CIRCLE 76 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
changes in the voltage. trigger, and ground
level of the displayed waveform, shorten-
ing the setup time for single -shot triggering
DIAMOND- SCRIBING TOOL
and peak -voltage, DC. and other measure-
CHEMICAL ments. Minitool's #PV -078 Pin Vise Handle has
The 2247A portable oscilloscope, with tiny -0.5mm (.020 -inch), and 0.25mm (.010 -
SOLUTIONS a 3 -year warranty on labor and parts (in- inch) -tip sizes. It can be used for repair-
FREE CHEMTRONICS CATALOG! cluding CRT), has a suggested list price ing thin film circuits, micro circuits. and fine -
Comprehensive new source for over of $2795.00. For further information, write line PC boards and integrated circuits. Other
200 products used in electronic man- on company letterhead to Tektronix, Port- applications include scribing under a mi-
ufacturing and field service. Precision able Test Instruments Division, P.O. Box croscope, and precision scribing.
cleaning agents. flux removers, bulk 1700. Beaverton, OR 97077; or call -800-
1
solvents. circuit refrigerants. precision
426 -2200.
dusters, non -residual wipers. foam
swabs. premoistened pads swabs. CIRCLE 75 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
antistatic compounds, conformal coat-
ings, lubricants, adhesives, desolder-
ing braids, rosin core solder and solder
masking agents. Complete with tech- WRIST -STRAP CHECKER
nical specifications and application
guide. Wrist straps often fail to provide a constant
path from the wearer to ground. Such fail-
&Chemtronics Inc. ures can be caused by a loose strap. oil
681 Old wints, i',,.,
Hauppauge. N Y 11788
or creams on the skin, open resistors in

L 516-5823322

CIRCLE 20 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD


the molded cord, poor contact of snaps from
the band to the cord, or poor grounding
The high-precision pin -vise handle in-
of the strap to an earth ground.
cludes a collet adapter for use with those
Wescorp's WSC -110 Wrist Strap
diamond -scribe tips. It also comes with a
Checker is designed to assure the wrist -
standard collet for use with knives and spe-
strap wearer of continuity, from the banana
cial tools from 1.5mm to 2.3mm in size.
plug at one end to the wearer's hand at
The non -roll handle offers a precision draw-
the other. To check for continuity, the wearer
bar, ridged finger grip. and low- friction
bronze bushing.
The #PV -078 Pin Vise Handle costs
$14.95. The .5mm tip. #PV- 078 -U, costs
$9.95. and the .25mm tip. #PV- 078 -U2,
costs $14.45. For more information, con-
tact Minitool, Inc., 1334 F Dell Avenue,
Campbell. CA 95008.
CIRCLE 77 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

TWO -PORT RS -422 INTERFACE

MetraByte's DUAL -422 two-channel RS-


422 interface board provides high speed
communications capability for IBM PC XT
AT and compatible computers. It allows data
transfers at speeds of up to 57.6 Kilobaud
over distances as large as 4000 feet. The
baud rate can be selected over a wide range
of values between 120 baud and 57.6 Kilo -
simply plugs it in at the banana jack, or baud. Through simple BASIC programming,
clips it on the post or snap provided with the 9600 -baud limitation of most DOS and
the unit, and touches the contact bar on BASIC communication routines can be over-
the face of the instrument. A series of indi- come. Applications include interfacing the
cators include a high- reading light (over 10 microcomputer to printers, plotters. mo-
megohms series resistance). a low -read- dems. networks, and instrumentation; and
ing light (under 1.0 megohms resistance) communicating with signal- conditioning and
and a "pass" light plus audible signal to control systems.
indicate satisfactory operation. A low bat- The board has two independent RS-

22 CIRCLE 6 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD


422A communications ports, each with its $260.00; the 9 -pin D" connector costs unit. which produces 10- watts -per -channel
own base address- and interrupt -selection $12.00, and RS -422 cable costs $25.00. into four ohms. also has a loudness con-
codes. Either channel can be set as COM For further information, contact MetraByte trol, pre -amp outputs. auto- reverse. and a
1:, COM 2:. or any other desired base ad- Corp.. 440 Myles Standish Blvd.. Taunton. power- antenna lead. The SJS 7000 fea-
dress interrupt level combination. MA 02780. tures "Flex Fader" that allows the fader to
be used even with outboard amplifiers.
CIRCLE 78 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Model SJS 8000. a 3 -hole universal -
mount unit. allows the radio to be heard
while a tape is rewinding or advancing. It
has tape search. "Ultra Bias- tape head.
CAR STEREOS
"Flex Fader ". and a CD input. The unit pro-
Jensen's three top -of- the -line autosound re- duces 30- watts -per -channel of output into
ceivers feature sleek styling and upgraded four ohms. It also features scan tuning,
electronics. Dolby B noise -reduction circuitry. auto-
Model SJS 7000. a full- featured mini chas- reverse. 24 station presets, and separate
sis, has a backlit LCD display. 24 station bass and treble controls.
presets (12 AM;12 FM). and separate bass The top -of- the -line Model SJS 9000 is
and treble controls. For improved perform- designed for theft prevention. The user can
ance, it offers "Ultra Bias" tape head. "In- easily pull it out of the dashboard when
The DUAL -422's design is based around
staloc" automatic program -control tuner. leaving the car. In addition, it offers all the
the INS 16450 UART. giving it compatibil-
and Dolby B noise -reduction circuitry. The features of the SJS 8000. including 30- watts-
ity with both the INTEL 8250 UART and
per- channel of output into four ohms.
IBM asynchronous card. Communications
parameters-such as 5.6. 7. or 8 data bits -
and even -, odd -, or no- parity check modes
Models SJS 7000, SJS 8000. and SJS
9000 carry suggested retail prices of
$239.95. $269.95. and $320.95. respec-
are software selectable by the user.
tively. For more information, contact Inter-
The board plugs directly into any unused
national Jensen, 4136 North United Park-
half -or full -size IBM PC XT AT expansion -
way. Schiller Park, IL 60176; Tel. 800 -323-
board slot. It is connected to external serial
0707.
busses through the board's two 9 -pin "D"
connectors.
The DUAL -422 Interface Board costs CIRCLE 79 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

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CIRCLE 11 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD


table that if he'd get a burglar alarm

Think
for his store, he could cut down on the
cost of his insurance premiums. Being
an electronics hobbyist, offered to I

build him one. got a "That's a good


I

Tank boy," look and the maffer was dis-


missed.
I worked up the enclosed circuit
(See Fig. 2) but dad was too busy to go
over it with me, so built it and installed
I

By Byron G. Wels
it in the store. He didn't have time for it
until he heard the bell go off, and sud-
SCR PROJECTS
denly he became interested.
figured that any crook would come
I

Back in the early days, if you want- "on" and "off" operation of the SCR. through the front door, one way or an-
ed to control a motor's speed, you If R1 is of a higher value, about other, so put a switch mat under the
I

had a "brute force" rheostat with a 50,000 ohms, you can place a meter carpeting just inside the front door The
control wheel the size of a small car's at G to show the gate current (IG). A alarm circuit is connected to the SCR
steering wheel on it. It usually took an small gate current flows that rises as anode and gate. Pressure on the mat
ape of a guy with two hands on the you reduce the value of R1. At some closes the contacts of the mat switch,
wheel to slow down or speed up the given value of IG, the SCR begins to which applies current to the SCR gate,
motor. Then solid state came along, conduct and the lamp lights. Using a causing it to conduct.
and voltages were dropped to the standard 3 -amp, 50 -volt SCR, con-
point where you could actually touch
a contact and not draw an arc. And
duction begins at an
about 0.5 mA.
I
of perhaps
With the SCR conducting, a path to
ground is provided through BZ1 (a 6- to
12 -volt bell) and SCR1, causing BZ1 to
the steering -wheel sized rheostat gave sound. The bell continues to sound,
way to a small knob that you could +12v even if the crook steps off the mat. To
operate with two fingers. n turn the alarm off, you have to man-
To a large extent, that was due to a 12V 6W ually throw switch S1 to break the cir-
R1
device called a silicon controlled rec- 27012 -50K A cuit. During the day, when customers
tifier. Essentially, it was a diode with an (SEE TEXT) SCR
are going in and out, simply open the
UNDER
added terminal that was used as (and TEST switch and the alarm is disabled until
was called) a gate. Thanks to the SCR, you throw the switch on again, to arm
small voltages could control large G
the circuit.
voltages, and not through relays that
had only two steady states. You could I. The SCR Tester -which provides a
F,,>'. CONTACT
now control a full range of voltages. As visual indication -is simply a to/ta,t'e MAT
time (and science) progressed, new source, an indicator lamp, and a resistor
applications were discovered for that through which ,Gate current is supplied.
versatile device, and we're glad to of- +12V
fer a range of them here. Youcan make an additional test by BZ1
1N4001
supplying the current from an adjusta- BELL

SCR Tester. This handy little unit will ble voltage source, enabling you to R1 SCR
give you a visual indication, is a one - determine the SCR's turn -off point. 1K C10681
evening project, and is easy to throw Close K then temporarily close G. Re-
together. Once you've got it, you can duce the anode -to- cathode supply to
check the operation of all those possi- about 2.0 volts, return to 12 volts, and
ble duds in your junkbox, and maybe note that the lamp remains lit. Further s1
throw some of them into the scrap reduce the supply to about 1.0 volt and
heap. repeat the check. You'll find a point, Fig. 2. This Burglar-Alarm circuit con-
Figure shows a 3 -amp, 50 -volt SCR
1 where if the supply is reduced under sists of a mat switch, which when stepped
and a test circuit. A fixed resistor can the holding level, the SCR won't con- on, triggers SCRI.
be used for R1. Points G (gate) and K duct when full voltage is returned. It
(cathode) are temporary connections has reverted to the "off" condition. I used diode D1 to protect the SCR
so that they can easily be opened. If R1 -Brian Conklin, Enid, OK from back voltage from the bell wind-
is a fixed resistor of a few -hundred ing. As the vibrating contacts of the
Thanks Brian. That's a nice piece of
ohms, when K is closed, the lamp bell open, the circuit opens. Resistor R3
work, and know that you're going to
doesn't light. When G is also closed, I

maintains a steady current through the


the lamp lights to its full intensity. The enjoy the Fips book. It's on the way!
SCR, keeping it from going back to the
lamp remains lit even if G is opened off state.
again. But when K is opened, even mo- Simple Burglar Alarm. Parents usu- You really don't need R2 if leakage
mentarily, the lamp does not light ally don't have a lot of respect for the in the alarm circuit isn't there. Such
again when K is closed. It does so abilities of their kids. I'm in high school, leakage might offer sufficient current
when G is closed. That illustrates the and heard dad saying at the dinner to trigger the SCR, but R2 sees to it that
24
such leakage would have to be heavy R2 provides sufficient current to keep the joining surfaces, connected a wire
for that to occur. When the mat is SCR1 conducting. You can also use the to each, and thence to a battery and
stepped on, R2 is just across the supply circuit to operate a sump pump when bell. He put an aspirin tablet between
and has no effect. Supplies of any water reaches a given level by con- the tacks and accomplished just
other voltage can also be used. necting a sensitive relay to the circuit in about the same thing. "After all," he
Now that the system works (and dad place of the buzzer. With the same explained, "aspirin manufacturers all
is convinced), I'm adding additional technique, you could hook it to a boast about how fast their tablets dis-
mats at the back door and the rear motor and use it for anything from clos- solve!"
window. ing windows automatically if it rains, to -John McFee, Denver, CO
I suggest that the bell be mounted raising a convertible top on a car. Okay John, one (and only one) Fips
high over the front door, out of reach, My young son, (a real smart- aleck) book. Your son will just have to read
where neighbors and the police can got a wooden spring -type clothespin yours!
easily locate it. also used warning
I and put a metal thumb tack at each of (Continued on page 26)
stickers generously, and foil -taped all
the glass.
-Barry Sherman, Seattle, WA
I'll bet your dad is looking at you a
little differently these days! Also, you
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V -21

39
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n : []1B

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CIRCLE 22 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
.so as to Ir7rm interweaving (hut electrically
separate) trure.c, is used us a Rain Detec-
tor sensor. 11hicdl when bridged by water
dr'oplet.s, causes 137/ to sound.
25
of SCR1is reduced as voltage rises. You level so the SCR stops conducting and
THINK TANK
can put a limiting resistor, meter, or fuse the cycle is repeated. Resistor R2 lets
Battery Charger. Its a cold one out
at R2. the gate potential across 01 to be ad-
there. You get into your car, and you -Frank Zabo, Palo Alto, CA justed, which changes the frequency
can't wait to warm the old bus up and or tone.
Great idea Frank, many a snowy
get the heater working. You pump the morning I've needed just such a R1
47K
gas peddle a couple of times, turn on charger for my own car. Hey! Does it +9/15V
the ignition key, and the most you get is really snow in Palo Alto? Keep an eye Si
CRI
a "click." The battery is as dead as a out for your copy of the Fips book. It's CG5511 (SEE
TEXT)
doornail. on the way.
Figure 4 is a trickle charger whose R2
output falls as the battery voltage rises. Code- Practice Oscillator. I'm really 470K
Nice, huh? As the charge on the bat- not a monster, and really got a boot
I

tery approaches the maximum, the out of it when my son expressed an


charging rate is automatically re- interest in amateur radio. While was I HEADPHONES Cl
22
duced. Connect it up, and go back pleased, told my wife that "any-
I
8S2

inside where it's nice and warm and thing -even a code -practice os-
have another cup of coffee. cillator would be better than blasting
The line transformer, T1; the full -wave rock 'n' roll." It seems that today's kids
rectifier; a bridge circuit; and SCR1 are really don't need a volume control on
rated for the maximum current and their amplifiers. They blast 'em 'till the Fig. S. Shown here is the Code-Practice
voltage needed. Use a 12.6 -volt trans- windows rattle. Osrillator, which consists of only live
former, capable of delivering three to But my wife didn't like the constant components. feeding R-ohm headphones.
five amps. During maximum charge, "beep- beep- beeping," as she called
resistor R1 and diode D1 triggers SCR1 so it, and she often caught the kid prac- Use a pair of eight -ohm earphones.
the full rate is there. The voltage across ticing and grinning at her at the same The telegraph key goes right into the
R6 and R3 is relatively low, so D2 time, and wished she knew what he B a nine -volt battery.
+ line,
doesn't conduct; that keeps SCR2 off. was saying! This circuit, simple as it is, quiet around the house now.
All is
The voltage at which SCR2 conducts is solved the problem. Building this oscillator for my son has
set by potentiometer R6. In Fig. 5, Capacitor C1 charges demonstrated that I'm a doting father,
When D2 starts passing gate current through resistor R1, and when the gate my wife now greets me at the door with
to SCR2, the SCR turns on, moving di- level established by potentiometer R2 a kiss instead of a scowl, and I'm sav-
ode D1 negative. The voltage for D1,
drawn through R1, drops almost to zero.
That keeps SCR1 from triggering. The
is high enough, the SCR is triggered.
Current flows through the SCR and ear-
phones, discharging 01. The anode
-
ing a fortune on aspirin.
Thomas Dickinson, Sioux Falls, SD

effect is slow and the triggering angle Okay Tom. You're also saving a for-
voltage and current drop to a low
tune (a small one) on your free copy of
TO AC OUTLET
the Fips book. Hope you enjoy it.

Automatic Lights. My family has


HOTT NEUTRAL been planning a week's vacation for
several months, and didn't want to tip
our being away to any unwanted vis-
Si itors. We planned to stop newspaper
SCR1 R1
) NTE5402 131
1N5400
i 22052
and mail deliveries, and did all the
u right things. Still, the house would be
completely dark at night. One of my
R2
03 5
T1 neighbors had installed a series of
2202 12.6V timers that would automatically turn
5A 117V
SCR2 lights on and off at night, and one eve-
NTE5402
02 R4 D4
ning, he invited me over to check out
1N4739 22052 the system. We stood across the street
R6
2.5K
N
9.1V
w 03 -D6
(SEE TEXT) and watched as lights blinked on and
off inside his home at random, making
o the place look like a pinball machine.
BATTERY Ididn't want that, so built this circuit
I

o R3 + _ C1 R5
2.2K ` 100
i
2.2K (See Fig. 6), which is controlled by a
light- dependent resistor, LDR (R3), that
turns on one living -room lamp when
the room is dark. Period. It's enough to
GND make a would -be burglar suspect that
somebody is in the house. When the
Fig. 4. This Battery Charger provides a heavy change to depleted batteries. which sun comes up, the light goes out. It's just
diminishes as the battery advances toward full charge. enough-but not too much.
26
Since potentiometer R1 acts as a You get the current for the lamp from
SINGERS!
REMOVE VOCALS
sensitivity control, almost any LDR is an SCR. When low -level audio is pres- FROM RECORDS AND CDs!
suitable for the task. The one we chose ent across T1, SCR1 is not triggered into
has a resistance of about megohm in
1 conduction. A louder signal, however,
the dark. When light falls on it, the resis- triggers the SCR so that the lamp lights
tance drops to a mere few-hundred and follows the sounds. Since SCR1 is
ohms. operated by an alternating current,
the rectifier moves out of the ava-
R2
5.6K

A
LOAD

SCR1
o- +6V
lanche condition when gate current is
low.
If you scale the circuit down to use 12
fie '1N '', 11
K
EC05401
50V 1A
volts, or any other lower voltage, cur-
rent has to come from a line trans- '`'.'.''t
former. A DC supply can't be used, or
SCR1 continues to conduct once it is SING WITH THE WORLD'S BEST BANDS!
A virtually Unlimited supply of Backgrounds!
triggered to the on condition. Variable
The Thompson Vocal Eliminator can
resistor R3 lets you adjust the power remove most or virtually all of a lead vocal from a
Sl
reaching transformer Ti so that with standard stereo record or CD and leave most of
fig. 6. The Automatic-Light circuit i.c
normal operating volume, SCR1 trig- the background untouched! Record with your
gers again and again, except during voice or perform live with the backgrounds. Used
controlled bv an !.!)R. which has a high
in Professional Performance yet connects easily
resistance in darkness, and a low re- quiet passages.
to a home component stereo. Not an equalizer!
Ni.ctemce when exposed 10 light. When building such a circuit, safety We can prove it works over the phone.
must be kept in mind. A breakdown in
This unique product is manufactured and
When light reaches the LDR, the SCR T1 could slap the line voltage into your
sold exclusively by LT Sound and is not available
is cutoff at the gate. But when the light audio system; and with many of the through dealers. Call or write for Free Brochure
level striking the LDR drops, the SCR amplifier circuits, you just cannot and Demo Record.
conducts, and the circuit is com- ground T1. A low rated fuse should be LT Sound, Dept. PE -9, 7980 LT Parkway
pleted. We recommend that since the included in the live half of the line con- Lithonia, GA 30058 (404) 482 -4724
SCR is going to be controlling a lamp, nector. A safer way to do things is with For 24 hour Phone Demo Call
(Continued on page 106) (404) 482 -2485
it would be a good idea to use a relay
Manufactured and Sold Exclusively by LT Sound.
to operate the lamp, rather than at-
tempt to operate it directly from the
SCR. Potentiometer R1 sets the sen-
sitivity of the circuit.
Anyway, hope this submission rates
I

a copy of the Fips book. Thanks.


-Mark Salchow, Brooklyn, NY
Great idea, Mark. Hope you like the
book too.
Employers
Wdhng workers available
Every Home a Disco. Sure, music is
nice, but by the addition of the simple
now at as little as V2
your usual cost. 0as e0o
circuit shown in Fig. 7, you can add a
This is your chance
to get help you've
0O 0
0o
great deal of interest. In these days of needed, but thought you 0 0
couldn't afford.
TV, people want something to look at
No business too large
as well as listen to! The light modulator or too small. Call your
can be single channel, two channel private industry council
or write National
(for treble and bass), or three channel, Alliance of Business,
if you prefer. It will take your audio out- PO. Box 7207.
Washington, D.C. 20044
put and modulate it so that the lights
seem to dance in time with the music.
You can use any combination of col-
ored lights as well, to make things even
more interesting.
RAJA
The;
Sows oI
RO4aeon
A

NO MASTER NO CAMERA NO FILM NO DEVELOPER


17tA
Line -voltage lamps of about 40 to
DIRECT ETCH dry transfers make quality circuit boards fast
100 watts do nicely. And there's no rea- without formal artwork. A new Master Assortment includes over
son why you can't use lower voltage 4000 donuts from .050" to .250" and 118 trace lines from .014" to
lamps if you prefer. The required au- .125 ". It also contains all sizes of through hole and surface mount
devices including DIP. TO, DIN, D and edge card connectors.
dio- driving power isn't large, and you SO. SOL. PLCC. flatpacks. SOT's, 2 terminal tubular and flat
can get it from a tape or record player, SM D's. The Master Assortment has 69 cut apart dry transfer sheets
or an FM radio. You simply attach the with complete instructions. Works with all common etchants.
DE -973 Master Assortment (69 pattern sheets) $34.95
speaker output through a 1:1 audio (Add $2.00 shipping. NJ and CA residents also add sales tax)
transformer. DATAK Corp. 3117 Paterson Plank Rd. N. Bergen, NJ 07047
CIRCLE 19 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD 27
AllIwant is There is a way to get better prices
on programming. The American Home
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QRB
ROCKET STROBE
BY ANTHONY CHARLTON Now you can launch
u model rocket on the
Ishot an arrow in the air, it fell to darkest night, and find
earth know not where. When Long-
I

fellow penned those words in the it in a,flash


1800's, he must have been thinking
about my model rocketry career! The
no matter
bane of a model rocket hobbyist is where it lands!
losing a carefully constructed and
painstakingly finished model in shrub-
bery or trees. But those days are over. the capacitor has enough charge on
Our Rocket Strobe sends out a highly it, the gas fully conducts. Light output
visible S.O.S. for up to 2 hours, providing begins after conduction, and con-
ample time to locate and recover the tinues until the charge on the capaci-
model. It also makes dramatic night tor drops to about 50 volts. The lamp
launches a reality, with the blue -white shuts itself off at that point, to renew the
flash of the Strobe visible throughout cycle after the voltage builds up
the flight sequence. again.
Last, we need a Xenon flash lamp:
Seeing the Light. Invented in 1932 by one is available from the supplier
Dr. Harold E. Edgerton, a Xenon flash given in the Parts List. There are several
lamp is the light- producing device for different shapes and designs of flash
our Strobe. Flash lamps produce a lamps. We shall use a small, straight
short- duration, high- intensity pulse of typein our Strobe.
light by converting energy stored in a
capacitor to visible light. Each flash of Size and Weight. In order to be suc-
the Strobe lasts about 500 microse- cessfully lofted, our Strobe needs to be
conds. For that brief instant, the flash is small, efficient, and light. Weight and
as bright as a 4000 -watt lamp! size saving is accomplished by mini-
aturizing the power supply. Surplus
that produces long -range visibility
yet, the Strobe requires very little ener-
-
It's the high intensity of the light pulse
electronics suppliers often have cam-
era electronic flash boards left over
gy input. from manufacturing overruns. Those
boards contain tiny transformers that
Basic Strobe Circuit. A strobe circuit are capable of producing hundreds
has four basic parts. (See Fig.1). The first of volts from a battery- powered driver
is the power supply, which must be ca- circuit. Suitable transformers are also
pable of producing about 300 volts available from the supplier given in
from a 9 -volt battery. That high voltage the Parts List.
is required to sustain the arc within the
To drive them with maximum effi-

lamp after triggering. ciency, we use a hex FET, and a


Second, we need a capacitor to pulse -width modulator (PWM) cir-
store energy. The luminescence pro- cuit. That combination results in
vided by the Strobe is directly related maximum power output from the
to the value of the capacitor, or to smallest size and weight unit,
the amount of energy that the ca- while providing an adjustable
pacitor can store. flash rate.
Third, we need a triggering cir-
cuit to produce a very high volt- Strobe -Circuit Description.
age pulse to ignite the lamp. A Referring to Fig. 2, gate U1 -a
typical ignition pulse has an am- (one -sixth of a CD4584 CMOS Schmitt
plitude of 4000 volts, and is sev- trigger) is configured as an oscillator.
eral microseconds in duration. With the values shown, the oscillator
The trigger pulse is capacitively operates at 6 kHz. You may need to
coupled to the Xenon gas inside experiment with different frequencies
the lamp. When enough atoms by using the different values of Cl and
R1 to obtain maximum output if you use
are ionized by the pulse, and if
29
our circuit will produce about Y3 of the
maximum attainable light level while
4,747 CAPACITOR
OUTPUT INPUT
providing a rate of nearly one flash per
second at R4's maximum setting. That
TRIGGERING rate would be better suited to night
POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT
INPUT
INPUT: 9 VDC INPUT: 300 V OUTPUT photography of the flight sequence. A
OUTPUT 300 VDC OUTPUT: 4kV XENON slower, brighter flash is ideal for re-
+1 TRIGGERING FLASH LAMP
covering the rocket in the daytime,
PULSES
when visibility of the flash is at its worst.
+9V BATTERY
A long battery life (at a slow flash
rate) is possible by setting R4 to mini-
T 1 COMMON mum. We strongly recommend the use
1
of a 9 -volt nickel- cadmium (Ni -Cad)
Fig. I. Here is a block diagram of the basic strobe circuit, which consists ol'a power rechargeable battery, to save on bat-
supply, storage de rice (the capacitor), triggering circuit, and a Xenon flash lamp. tery costs. An alkaline battery can also
be used. Regular carbon batteries
work poorly because of their inability
a transformer other than the one spec- simple power indicator from a NE -2 to supply the current needed for the
ified in the Parts List. neon lamp and a 220,000 -ohm, half - Strobe circuit. The average current
Gate U1 -b squares up the output of watt resistor connected in series. Con- consumption of the Strobe at 9 volts
U1 -a and feeds a squarewave to C2, nect the lamp to the cathode of D2; was measured at 230 mA at the max-
C3, R2, R3, D1, and R4. Trimmer potenti- and the lamp will glow much more imum flash rate setting, and 45 mA at
ometer R4 controls the duty cycle of brightly when the right combination of the minimum setting. Nickel- cadmium
the resulting pulse. When R4 is set to its winding polarity is connected. batteries give a slower maximum flash
maximum resistance, the maximum rate because of their lower voltage.
pulse -width and power is' available The Flash -Lamp Circuit. Previously, The triggering circuit uses an inter-
from the circuit. we mentioned that there is a rela- esting trick. (See Fig. 4). A small trans-
The remaining gates (U1 -c, U1 -d, U1- tionship between lamp luminance former, T2, is grounded via an SCR
e, and U1 -f) serve to amplify and invert and the size of the main capacitor. A connected to its primary. When SCR1
the output of the PWM (pulse -width unit rated at 33 F will provide 2 watt/ switches on, the charge on C6 quickly
modulated) part of the circuit. The am- seconds (W /S) of light output. With our travels through T2's primary and the
plified pulse is fed to the IRF -Z20 hex circuit, the flash rate is adjustable from SCR to ground. That induces a high -
FET, whose super low on -state resis- one every 30 seconds to one every 4 voltage pulse in T1's secondary wind-
tance of only 0.07 ohm switches the seconds using R4. You may want to ing, which ignites FL1. A simple and
primary of T1 with great force. Pull - experiment with different capacitor inexpensive trigger circuit kicks on
down resistor R5 keeps the IRF -Z20 to- values to obtain the desired light out- SCR1 when the charge on C7 is high
tally off during the logic -0 state of put at the desired flash rate. enough to sustain the arc inside FL1. A
gates U1 -c to U1 -f. The output is rectified For instance, a 10 -F capacitor in voltage divider, consisting of R6 and
by D2, and is used to power the
Strobe's flash -lamp circuit. +300V
TO
A word is needed about miniature HIGH -VOLTAGE
F LASH LAMP
transformers. Most units have an ac- CIRCUIT
cessory winding used in self-oscillating
circuits powered by bipolar transistors. +9V
+9V C4
That winding is not needed, since we 330
have our own on -board PWM os-
R1 R3
1-)1+
cillator circuit. A simple test with an 6.8K 820SZ
D2
1N4007
ohmmeter will reveal that low- resis- -:::
tance feedback winding. Do not con- R4
1/6 CD4584
1K
fuse it with the low resistance, heavy
gauge primary winding. Typical trans-
former configurations are shown for
you in Fig. 3.
1/6 CD4584

4 C2
2200pF
v -
D1
1N4148
9 8

1/6 CD4584
T1
(SEE
TEXT)

1/6 11 10
Another consideration is that lots of CD4584 R2 TC3
Cl 10K 330pF 01
transformers are connected for Euro- .022 1/6 CD4584
IRF-Z20
pean and Oriental active -negative D
113 12 G
circuits. (Akin to driving on the wrong
side of the road to us!) That confusion is 1/6CD4584 R5 S

easily overcome by identifying the .1F 1K


DENOTES
start of the primary and secondary START OF
windings. Connect the start of each WINDING
winding as indicated in Fig. 2. Fig. 2. Shown here is the .schematic diagram ()I'M(' PWM power .supply for the Rocket
When in doubt, you may make a Strobe, which produces 3(X) rolts.from a 9 -rolt batten..

30
18 12
needed for the nose- coneielectronics
mm mm package. The nose cone must with-
stand considerable force at the apex
of flight when the rocket engine acti-
vates its ejection charge. There is
nothing gentle about the hefty charge
of black powder that pops off the nose
12.5
mm
cone and deploys the parachute! Fig-
ure 5 shows the parts of a rocket en-
gine, and their function. Be sure to use
enough silicone for good strength.
Weight must be minimized to allow
your bird to lift off, and attain maximum
A c height. Soft grades of balsa wood are
the lightest, and weight savings may
1 be gained by careful assembly of the
PRI. electronics on a small board, using a
(USE) minimum of solder. All told, our Strobe
2
SEC.
CONNECT added 31/2 ounces to the rocket's
SECONDARY
3 (USE) HERE
weight. You may also save weight by
FEED.
not painting the model with too many
coats of finish if it's to fly a Strobe.
If the electronics are ahead of the
model's center of gravity (CG), the
rocket should fly fine with the added
IGNORE THIS
weight. If, for some reason, you locate
NINOING the electronics or battery behind the
rocket's CG, a counterbalancing
D
B
weight must be added to the nose to
Fig. 3. If
you use u miniature transformer salvaged from an old flash unit. it will bring the CG back to its normal posi-
be necessary to figure out theproper windings and/or connections. Shown here are tion. A rocket's CG is determined by its
nro ttpical miniature trans(onner configurations. balance point with an unused engine
installed. (See Fig. 6.)
R7, ensures that roughly 300 volts is as well as providing an anchor point A flash lamp may be attached to
stored in C7 before the neon lamp, NE1, for the parachute, and shock-absorb- the rocket's nose, body, or fins. Be
fires. Neon lamps are designed to fire ing rubber cord leading to the rocket's aware that the delicate flash lamp
at different voltages. The common body. needs breakage protection. A rigid,
NE -2 lamp used in our circuit fires at Strong assembly techniques are clear piece of plastic tubing placed
about 120 -volts DC. When NEI fires, it +300V
dumps the charge stored in C5 to the (FROM PWM
gate of SCR1. That in turn, produces a POWER SUPPLY)
o
trigger pulse that is applied to flash -
lamp FL1, causing it to ignite, which
allows you to find your rocket in a flash!
Speaking of flashes, let's look at dif-
ferent ways to attach a flash lamp to FL 1

ANODE
your rocket, rocket stability, what type S R6 R8 ONE TURN
1MEG
of engines can loft your "bird," and a 4.7 MEG AROUND
CENTER
few suggestions for multiple strobes to a
increase visibility.
In our prototype, the flash lamp is NE1 T2 .4kV
TRIGGER TRANSFORMER
attached to the end of the rocket's
TRIGGER
nose cone with silicone glue. The elec- C7
(SEE TEXT)
tronics are handily located in the nose, PRI. E SEC.
and the baffery is held by a snap-in C6
II
.047
holder designed to withstand the
shock and vibration of parachute de- R7
3.3 MEG
C5
.033
CATHODE
ployment without losing the baffery.
The author used a combination 9 -volt SCR1
T1106D1
battery snap connector and holder
assembly (see Parts List for source). 4110
A balsa -wood plug is held securely
in place by silicone, which also seals Fig. 4. The triggering circuit uses a small vintage translimmer that is grou tiled via a
the components inside the nose cone, SCR which, when triggered, induces the high-voltage pulse that ignites the flash lamp.
If you need to use more than one
PARTS LIST FOR ROCKET STROBE chute, attach each chute's shroud
SEMICONDUCTORS E2333 or equivalent) lines to a snap swivel (which can be
QI -IRF Z20 hex FET (Digi -Key IRF- C6- .047 -11,F, 400-WVDC (Digi -Key found at tackle shops). Those handy
Z20-ND) E4473 or equivalent) little gizmos reduce the chance of the
DI- IN4148 or equivalent general- C7-33 -F (or value to suit, see text) line tangling (which can lead to disas-
purpose diode 350-WVDC miniature electroytic ter) and enables you to clip on or re-
D2- IN4007, I -A 1000-PI V, general- ADDITIONAL PARTS AND MATERIALS move chutes in a jiffy. More than one
purpose rectifier diode parachute means you will have to
FLI -Xenon flash lamp
Ul-CD4584 hex Schmitt trigger,
integrated circuit NEI -NE-2 120 -volt neon lamp pack each carefully. Try not to wind the
SCRI-TI106DI, CI06D1, ECG5457 (or TI- See text lines too tightly around the chutes, and
equivalent) 400 -volt. 4 -amp, sensitive T2-4kV trigger transformer use plenty of flame -proof recovery
gate silicon controlled rectifier Printed circuit or perfboard materials, 9- wadding between the chutes and en-
volt nickel- cadmium battery, snap-in gine. Dusting the chutes with plain tal-
RESISTORS battery holder (part number 16064,
(All fixed resistors are 1/4-watt, 5% units, cum powder lets them slide out freely
from Sintec Electronics, 28 8th St.
unless otherwise noted.) during the engine's ejection phase,
Box 410, Frenchtown, NJ 08825 or
RI-6800-ohm equivalent), wire, solder, hardware, and they unroll quicker when in the air.
R2-10,000-ohm etc. The finished model's weight is an im-
R3- 820-ohm portant consideration in engine selec-
R4 -1000 -ohm, trimmer potentiometer Note: The following parts are available
tion. To launch successfully, the model
R5 -I000-ohm from Allegro Electronic Systems, 3
must be less than the maximum lift
R6- 4.7-megohm Mine Mountain Road, Cornwall
Bridge, CT 06754. A kit containing weight (MLW) of the engine type se-
R7-3.3- megohm lected. Weight can really creep up on
R8-l-megohm TI, T2, and FLI with data sheets is
available for $5.75 postpaid. you (as all dieter's know!). Our model,
CAPACITORS Connecticut residents, please add called the Phoenix, weighed 11.6
CI- 0.022-pF 10% stable appropriate sales tax. ounces, with the engine and Strobe
temperature coefficient (Digi -Key Free technical assistance is available installed. After it was painted, the paint
P1016 or equivalent) by writing Allegro Electronic Systems added 1.9 ounces! That put total
C2- 2200-pF 2% stable temperature at above address or calling (203) weight at 13.5 ounces., very close to
coefficient (Digi -Key P3222 or 672 -0123 weekdays from 9 AM to I the MLW of the engine we used.
equivalent) PM in the afternoon.
C3-330-pF ceramic disc (Digi -Key Table is a listing of some rocket/
1
Model Rockets are available from
P4106 or equivalent) local hobby shops, or by mail -order in engine combinations that will lift off
C4-330 to 680-AF, 16 -WVDC kit form from Estes Industries, PO with the Strobe onboard. Each model
miniature electolytic Box 227, 1295 H Street, Penrose, CO was selected to provide a reasonable
C5- 0.033 -RF, 250 -WVDC (Digi-Key 81240. Catalog: $1. weight margin, and a body size large
enough to hold a 9 -volt battery. The
weight margin is what's left over for the
Strobe, paint, battery, and so forth. The
TABLE 1- ROCKET/ENGINE COMBINATIONS rockets are sold in kit form, and man-
Engine
Model Name
ufactured by Estes Industries. Other de-
Type Weight w/Engine MLW Weight Margin
signs may work, provided that you use
Phoenix'" D12 -3 8.1 14 5.9 lightweight batteries, and build the
Mercury Redstone" C5 -3 3.9 8 4.1 rocket and Strobe using minimal -
Jupiter C'" C5 -3 3.9 8 4.1 weight methods.
Black Brant II" D12-5 3.8 10 6.2
Pathfinder'" D12 -5 4.7 10 5.3
Multiple strobes add a very interest-
Mega Sizz" D12 -5 4.7 10 5.3 ing touch. We used up to six flash
Ranger " D12 -5 3.1 10 6.9 lamps, strung in parallel, all operating
Der V-3" D12-3 5.9 14 8.1 from the same power supply. The light
Der V-3" D12 -5 5.9 10 4.1
Eggspress'" output appears to be equally divided
C5 -3 3.4 8 4.6
D.A.R.T.'" C5 -3 2.7 8 4.6 among multiple lamps if they are all of
Transtar Carrier" C5-3 2.8 8 5.2 the same type. To get the same bright-
Note: All weights are given in ounces. ness per lamp, you'll have to increase
Courtesy of Estes Industries. Material used by permission. the value of C7 (see Fig. 4). For in-
trin. stance, with 3 lamps, C7 would need
to be three times larger to provide
around the lamp affords additional weight: 40 square inches of parachute each lamp with a high brightness, but
breakage protection. Plug the open area per ounce of weight is recom- the total light output would be tripled.
end with a tapered balsa or plastic mended. All told, our rocket weighed Increase C6 to 0.1 F when using more
plug to preserve the rocket's aero- 13.5 ounces, so 540 square inches of than one lamp in parallel. The higher
dynamic sleekness. Use of a short, stur- chute area was needed. We replaced capacitance causes a greater
dy flash lamp, cushioned in Silicone, the 18 -inch chute that came with the charge to be dumped across T1's pri-
may work fine, as it did with our model. model with two 24 -inch ones. That mary (and hence, a larger secondary
The parachute's size must be in- gave about 900 square inches, which current), which guarantees the ignition
creased to compensate for the added gently delivers the model to Earth. of all lamps.
32
Construction. Well, by now you are DEPLOYMENT
an expert on power supplies, strobes, OF RECOVERY
SYSTEM
rockets, and aerodynamics; so let's roll
up our sleeves, and get to work!
You may make a PC board, or wire EJECTION
CHARGE
the electronics on perfboard (which
we did). A universal printed- circuit
board worked fine. As you assemble CLAY
RETAINER
the circuit, be mindful of the need to TRACKING CAP
SMOKE
minimize weight. Use just enough sol-
der to make a good joint. Trim away
excess space on your mounting
COAST PHASE CARDBOARD
board. CASING
Wherever possible, use miniature v CLAY
components. A Ni -Cad battery will HIGH
NOZZLE

save you quite a bit of weight (1.25 THRUST


ENGINE
PROPELLANT
ounces vs. almost 2 ounces for an al- FOR LIFT
CUTAWAY
kaline unit). The Ni -Cad gives a good 'OFF AND
15 minutes of flashing at high rate, and ACCELERATION

over 1 hour on slow.


TOUCH
The power- supply layout is not crit-
DOWN
ical, but you must pay attention to the oi) AND
high -voltage output of the trigger SAFE
RECOVERY
transformer. That little guy puts out over
4,000 volts, and while it does not look
too dangerous it packs quite a nasty
wallop!
Dress the secondary leads away ROCKET
from other components; a half inch is IGNITION
AND
recommended. The wires leading to LIFTOFF
capacitor C7 and the trigger trans-
former should be short, and if on the
outside of the rocket, glued flat to
avoid excess air drag. If you run the
wires inside the body, make sure that
they won't become tangled in the re- Fig. S. Here is the flight sequence of the rocket along with a cutaK+ay showing its
covery system! Also, the ejection engine components and their function.
gases will quickly rot the insulation on
wires; if they are in an exposed area, IF STROBE MOVES CG BACKWARD OF ORIGINAL IF STROBE MOVES CG FORWARD OF ORIGINAL SPOT,
jacket and seal them in heatshrink tub- SPOT, ADD COUNTERBALANCING WEIGHT TO ROCKET WILL FLY FINE - NO CORRECTIONS NEEDED
NOSE, OR MOVE PROBE FORWARD
ing or the kind of plastic tubing sold for
aquarium air lines. BADI NO PROBLEM

Wire size is not critical; we had fine CENTER OF GRAVITY OF ROCKET WITH ENGINE
luck with #26 stranded hook -up wire. AND RECOVERY SYSTEM INSTALLED
BEFORE INSTALLATION OF STROBE
Make sure flash -lamp polarity is ob-
served. The end with the large round CG

electrode is the cathode, which is al-


ways connected to ground. Some
flash lamps have a trigger wire al-
ready attached to one end, but on
those that don't, one wrap of bare wire
ODEL ROCKET ENGINE:
NAR SAFETY CERTIFIE
e
around the lamp's center will do the
trick. Secure the wire with a tiny dab of
epoxy or Crazy glue to the glass.
Make sure that the leads to the lamp
are well insulated at the splices. A con-
nector is handy to have in the circuit
leading to the lamp. That way, the f
Fig. 6. If the electronics are forward c the model's center c f gravity. the rocket
electronics can be quickly discon- shouldfly fine with the added weight.
nected for testing or adjustment. Even-
tually, the lamp burns out and will have around 20,000 flashes. That's over 20 sary to keep C4 close to 671 (see Fig. 2).
to be replaced, but only after many hours continuous at a high flash rate, That ensures a "reservoir" of current to
flashes. The author calculates the and represents many rocket flights. draw from as Q1 switches. Usually, 671
lamp listed in the Parts List will last To get the best efficiency, it's neces- (Continued on page 96)
BY JOHN CLARKE AND
LEO SIMPSON

This simple
adapter circuit fits
in your FM tuner and
lets you tap into hidden
FM transmissions

Although new to sorge countries, all ex'sting FM radios, whether stereo or But while all FM radios are presently
subcarrier transmissions on FM mono. In fact, unknown to the great unaffected, they are capable of pick-
broadcasts have been made for mass of FM lis'eners, such transmissions ing up the subcarrier transmissions.
years. They are referred to as have been gong on for some time. With the addition of an adapter such
SLbsidiary Communications Author- as the one we'll describe here, they will
ized transmissions or SC?,. They are 67kHt'NPUT be able to detect the hidden audio
based on a 67 -kHz subc orrier that is FROM FM
signals.
DEMODULATOR
placed on a station's ma n FM carrier. The SCA Adapter prototype was
It's even possible to have multiple sub - built on a compact printed- circuit
carriers, some carrying digital data board accommodating three low -
6 7k -It
and others carrying audio BANDPASS 'LL cosT op -amps, a phase -locked loop
EMODU
So you can receive s _ch broad- FIL -ER IC, a 3- terminal regulator, and a hand-
casts, we present the SCA Adapter' ful of resistors and capacitors.
that can be hooked into most FM tun-
ers with a minimum of fuss. Low in cost, How it Works. Figure shows a block
1

it uses just a few readily available inte-


grated circuits.
Before we describe the Adapter cir-
--
1BdBiOCTAVE
6kHt LOW PASS
FILTER
CAIN -1
i 12dBiOCTAVE
6kHt LOW PASS
FILTER
GAIN -10
diagram of our circuit. The 67 -kHz sig-
nal present at the output of the FM
detecter (in the radio to be modified)
cuit, let's briefly talk about FM- subcar- is first fed to a 67 -kHz bandpass filter,
rier transmissions. They have no effect and then to a phase - locked loop (de-
on standard FM mono and stereo radi- AUDIO noted PLL), which recovers the audio
OUTPUT
os. Also, they are fully cor-'patible with on the 67 -kHz subcarrier.
Fig. I. This block diagram shows the four The audio output of the PLL is then
*This story first appeared !n Silicon Chip, circuit functions of the SCA Adapter. The passed through a low -pass filter, which
Australia (January 1988); reprinted here corresponding fonctions we also marked affenuates frequencies above 6 kHz at
with permission. on the circuit diagram in Fig. 2. the rate of 18 dBoctave. Another 12-
34
+15V -30V
MODULATED FROM
FM INPUT RECEIVER

C19
SC 220p F

tR3
10K
TWIN -TEE FILTER

R19
R11 R12 R18
* C2
5K
1.1K 1.1K 10K
M2.2
-)I C11
)1--
C12 R15
R1
20K
.0022 .0022 tR4 1K
10K 10
2 R16 IC18
6
56052 C16
R6 R7 RB
560pF R ^C17
PLL .001 .001
C13 tR13 3 2 10K 10K 10K
R9
18K
GEMO 2
1.1K
+6V OUT 1.8K
i4Nc C5
S VCO P RE
1.0022
C14
.0022
R14
1.1K C1
AR4S41417

560 52 VCO
OUT COM P. 0.22
C9
C8
.022
; R10
1.8K
4 5
.0068 C10
R5 .0056
C15 C7
10K .033 7C
M.001

67kHz BAND -PASS FILTER vzr


PLL DEMODULATOR 18d /OCTAVE LOW PASS FILTER 12dB/OCTAVE 6kHz
GAIN= -1 LOW PASS FILTER C 22
GAIN= -10
o o
GND AUDIO
FROM OUTPUT
RECEIVER

Fit;. 2. The circuit for the SCA Adapter is basically a PLI. with input and output filter stages.

dB /octave low -pass filter stage com- That gives some gain at 67 kHz and kHz center frequency. Resistor R18 sets
pletes the conditioning of the signal heavy attenuation for frequencies the gain of the bandpass- filter stage.
before it is passed to an external audio above and below that frequency. Integrated- circuit U2 is a National
amplifier. An additional passive filter at the in- LM565 phase -locked loop that de-
Figure 2 shows the complete circuit. put to the twin-T network (containing a modulates the 67 -kHz frequency -mod-
Op -amp U1 and its associated com- 220 -pF capacitor and a 10,000 -ohm ulated (FM) signal from U1. The LM565
ponents comprise the 67 -kHz band - resistor) provides some additional roll - PLL consists of a voltage -controlled os-

pass filter. A twin -T network, comprised off for frequencies below 67 kHz. cillator (VCO) set to 67 kHz, and a
of four 1100-ohm resistors and four In practice, the bandpass- filter ac- comparator that compares the in-
0.0022 -F capacitors, is connected in tion covers a frequency range of coming frequency-modulated 67 -kHz
the feedback network of the op -amp. about 10 kHz above and below the 67- signal at pin 2 with the VCO signal fed
into pin 5.
The output of the comparator repre-
PARTS LIST FOR THE SCA ADAPTER sents the phase difference between
the incoming signal and the VCO sig-
SEMICONDUCTORS C18-560 -pF polystyrene nal, andis therefore the audio modu-
UI, U3, U4 -TL07I FET op -amp, CI9- 220 -pF ceramic
integrated circuit lated by the subcarrier. Treble de-
U2 -LM565 phase -locked loop. RESISTORS emphasis of 150 s is provided by a
integrated circuit (All resistors are %a -watt, 5% precision .033 -1.LF capacitor (at pin 7).
U5-7812 3- terminal 12 -volt regulator, units unless otherwise noted.) The free -running VCO frequency is
integrated circuit R1- 20,000 -ohm, 2% precision determined by the .001 3LF capacitor
R2-18,000 -ohm at pin 9, and the resistance between
CAPACITORS R3 R8-10.000 -ohm
t C1-4.7 -F, I6-WVDC, electrolytic
C2-2.2 F 16 -WVDC, electrolytic
R9, R10 -1800-ohm
R11 R14 -1100-ohm, 2% precision
the positive rail and pin 8 (100 ohms in
series with R19). Variable- resistor R19
C3 -1
-F 16-WVDC, electrolytic R15-1000-ohm adjusts the oscillator frequency (also
35WVDC, electrolytic R17- 560-ohm
R16, known as the "center frequency ") so
C5, C6-O.22 -F, metallized polyester R18- 10,000-ohm, miniature vertical that the incoming signal is within the
C7- .033 -p.F, metallized polyester trimmer potentiometer lock range of the PLL.
C8- .022 -p F, metallized polyester R19-5,000 -ohm, miniature vertical To minimize noise in the demodu-
C9- .0068 -F, metallized polyester trimmer potentiometer lated output, it is important to reduce
C10- .0056 -11ft metallized polyester the lock range of the PLL to a minimum.
CII C14- .0022 -F, metallized ADDITIONAL PARTS AND MATERIA
That is achieved by shorting pins 6 and
polyester Printed -circuit board. hookup wire,
C15 C17- .001 -F, metallized polyester audio leads, solder, etc. 7 together. To a lesser extent, the lock
range-and therefore the noise out-
put- becomes smaller for lower input
35
signals, so we keep the input signal as
low as possible without affecting the
operation.
PLL's
Following U2 is the 18 -dB /octave fil-
ter containing U3, which has a gain of
one for the desired signal frequencies.
The filter is followed by the final stage,
U4, which has a gain of 10.
The adapter is ideally powered from
the tuner or receiver it is built into, so we
had to make its input -voltage require-
ments non -critical. The solution is to use
a 12 -volt, 3- terminal regulator that en-
ables the circuit to be powered from
any + 15- to + 30 -volt supply.
The three op-amp IC's and the PLL
are all biased to half the supply volt- Fig. 3. Full-size PC artwork for the SCA Adapter. Its use is recommended.
age by a voltage divider consisting of POWER
two 10,000 -ohm resistors, which is de- A
coupled by a 4.7 -11F capacitor. The GNO +15 - 30 VOLTS

center of the voltage divider is con-


nected to pin 3 of each op -amp and
the PLL.
INPUT
PCB Assembly. The printed- circuit GND

board for the project (see Fig. 3) mea-


sures just 3 -s/s x 2 -%4-inch and will help
INPUT
ease assembly if made. Point -to -point
assembly can be used but will be a bit
difficult to perform accurately.
No special points need to be watch-
ed when installing the parts on the AUDIO
board except that component polar- GND

ities must be correct (see Fig. 4). Note


also that U1 has a different orientation
to U2, U3, and U4.
When assembly and soldering are r
finished, check your work carefully Fig. 4. Ticke care when assembling the board; Ul is oriented di%'rentis from U3 and (14.
and then connect a DC supply of be-
tween 15 and 30 volts. Now check the If everything is okay, you are ready to pick off the 67 -kHz signal is at the input
voltage at the output of the 3- terminal install the Adapter in your FM tuner or to the MPX decoder.
regulator, at pin 7 of the TL071 op- stereo receiver.
amps, and at pin 10 of the PLL. In each Setting Up. Having found the signal
case, the reading should be close to Finding the Signal. Here comes the and made the necessary connections
12- volts. The voltage at pins 3 and 6 of tricky part. Ideally, you need access to from the Adapter to your tuner, the set-
each op -amp, and pin 3 of the PLL, the circuit diagram of your tuner or re- up procedure is relatively simple. First,
should be close to 6 -volts DC. ceiver. Next, you need to identify a make sure that R18 is set so that its
positive DC- supply rail of between wiper is turned toward the LM565. That
+ 15 and + 30 volts. Then, you need to will provide maximum signal. Now ad-
find the output of the FM demodulator just R19 so that there is an audio signal.
of your receiver or tuner. Find the extreme settings of R19 where
In a stereo tuner, that comes before the audio signal drops out, then set R19
the multiplex decoder and treble de- between the two extremes.
emphasis networks. In a mono tuner, Resistor R18 is used to minimize noise
you must identify the demodulator out- from the audio signal when the FM-
ptit before de-emphasis. After de -em- signal level is poor. Adjust the trimmer
phasis, the 67 -kHz signal will be non- until the sound becomes distorted and
existent. then back off the adjustment until the
Most medium -priced tuners use two distortion is no longer audible. If you
The photo shows the SCA Adapter
installed in an older AMI/ M stereo IC's to do most FM- signal processing. have a strong FM signal, adjustment of
re(('1ver. the Harman Kardon HK5701. They are the IF amp and detector IC, R18 will have no effect on the noise
Two brackets were used to suspend the followed by a multiplex (MPX) de- level, and so it should be left at its max-
Adapter above the tuner board. coder IC. The most convenient point to imum- resistance setting.
36
94 Ppular
Electronics FactCard MM58250: Infrared Transmitter
INFRARED TRANSMITTER
5
4 SINGLE CONTACT
8 CERAMIC R2
KEYPAD RESONATOR 3.9ft
Here are 11 10

naCSI
RES

466A
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1000F

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111
IRD1
Cl
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120 pF

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rr
R 02

FactCards! R3
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120pF,xCSOB
01
R5
AM. 2N6114
R6
Introducing Popular Elec- 8
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tronics" FactCards. 12
13
co
Each issue, Popular 14
C1
C2
Electronics* will present 3 15
C3
B1
new FactCards, each deal- 9
+9V

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T
electronics topics. Some 16

will deal with electronics


basics, some will deal with
discrete components, some
Nlular
will deal with IC's, and
95 Electronics
FactCard Regulator Applications
some will deal with circuits
and applications. SIMPLE 12V BATTERY CHARGER
CURRENT LIMITED BV CHARGER
All will contain the type of O
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information electronics hob- 9V TO 30V
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Clip your 'RS -SETS OUTPUT IMPEDANCE OF CHARGER ZOUT ` RS (I +R1)


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0.352
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save them, INPUT TRANSIENTS.

and start 96
Popular
FactCard MM58274: patible Real
Microprocessor Com-
Time Clock
Elcctmnics
building 1 I1 1 1 1 1
GENERAL DESCRIPTION

TA The MM58274 is fabricated using low threshold metal gate

your Do
OUT CMOS technology and is designed to operate in bus ori-
ented microprocessor systems where a real time clock and
calendar function are required. The on -chip 32 768 kHz
crystal controlled oscillator will maintain timekeeping down

FactCards to 2.2V to allow low power standby battery operation.

ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS

library
B3 082. -0.3V to Voo +0.3V
DC input or Output Voltage
I1 12 1 DC Input or Output Diode Current 5.0mA t
13 18
Storage Temperature, TsT0 -65C to + 150 C
Supply Voltage, Vo 6.5V
FEATURES
today! Same pin -out as MM58174A
Timekeeping from tenths of seconds to tens of years in
Power Dissipation, Po
Lead Temperature (Soldering, 10 seconds)
500 mW
260C

Independently accessible registers OPERATING CONDITIONS


Leap year register Min Max Units
Hours counter programmable for 12 or 24 -hour operation 4.5 5.5 V
Buffered crystal frequency output in test mode for easy Operating Supply Voltage
Standby Mode Supply
&WE oscillator setting
Data -changed flag allows simple testing for the time
rollover
Independent interrupting timer with open drain output
Voltage
DC Input or Output Voltage
Operating Temperature
2.2
0
55
Voo
V
V

Range 40 85 C
Electronics
-
Fully TTL compatible
1pular
94 Electronics
FactCard MM58250: Infrared Transmitter
ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS For new
CONDMONS

Supply Current (Active) 5 mA


ideas in
Oscillator Frequency' 455 kHz
Output Voltage Logic "0"
Logic '1"
150 I+A Sink
10mA Sourd
0.6 V
V
electronics
Output Current Vdd -1.4V -20 mA
Input Levels Logic "0"
Logic "1"
MS -0, 4.54Voo<5.5
Direct Mode
0.5 V
V
read
Input Current MS =0, 4.5VVooc5.5V
Ro -Re, MS
R,
OV4V cV00
Vv, =_
1.0
0.8
VA
mA Radio-
Input Current MS =1, 3.OVcV,c 10V

M8
R,,
R, V -0.4V
OV4Vvy4V00
1.8
1
mA
104 Electronics
Output Current Logic `1" Source MS -1 RA
"1" Source Voo =3V, V -V -1V A
LOpiC

k `
""iSnk
0 V=3V
oo V=
ouTR
0.
8 =0, 4.5VcVooc5.5V
-1V
PA During
-0.4V A the next
12
95 kElect roncs
AC VOLTAGE REGULATOR

U1
LM317

ADJ
o
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VIN. Ir
Regulator Applications
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ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS

p_ Units
v Low Level I
1111111PIIIMMIlatcpt
XT ) (WA, R)
1+A

Low Level Input Voltage V Low Level Input Current V%, = Vsa
(except XTAL IN) (CS)
Htgh Level Output lo _ - 20 NA V Output High Level %iota = V00
Voltage (DBO D83) Ip, _ 1.8 mA V Lea ge Current (INT) NEW IDEAS AND
Output
UZLevel I = - 20 A V Average Supply Current VD =22V 4 A INNOVATIONS IN
Voltage (INT) (Test Mode) (Standby Mode) mAii ELECTRONICS
Low Level Out V=5.0V
-3,
Voltage (DBO b8 INT) la = 1 mA V
Alva Mode) III
Input Capacitance The newest ideas and
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While working outdoors or in your
garage, often it would be help-
ful for those indoors to have a conve-
nient way to alert you if you are
needed. Or perhaps your children are
playing outdoors and you would like
PERSONAL
an easy way to call them in. This article
describes a wireless transmitter /re-
ceiver combination -called the
Personal Pocket Pager-that allows
1' POCKET
you to page (beep) someone from a
distance of up to about 100 feet.
When activated, the transmitter
sends out an amplitude modulated
PAGER
(AM) 49,890 -MHz RF carrier. The re-
ceiver detects, amplifies, and de-
codes the RF signal, which, in turn, This local -area paging
activates a piezo beeper (buzzer). The
receiver is small enough to carry in a ji system can help keep
pocket or sit on your workbench. The
VOU in touch with
transmitter is also small and fits easily
into a pocket for quick access.
Illllou!II;IUIIIINIIIIIIIIII)
.f friends,
u nlly,
The Transmitter. Figure shows a 1 and co-workers.
schematic diagram of the transmitter
circuit. A 7555 CMOS oscillator timer,
U1. generates a 490 -Hz squarewave.
Resistors R1 -R3, and capacitor C3 de-
termine the squarewave's frequency.
Capacitor C2 and L3 prevent RF cur-
rents from reaching the trigger input,
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIiihim
pin 2 of U1; at the same time, 490 -Hz
signals pass unattenuated. The 490 -Hz
By Dan Becker
output of U1 at pin 3 is used to drive a
crystal -oscillator circuit built around
Ql, which generates the 49,890 -MHz
RF- carrier signal. C6, C7, and Q1's collector-base ca- The primary and secondary currents
Capacitor C5 bypasses RF current pacitance to a resonant frequency of of T1 are 180 -degrees out of phase,
to ground, placing transistor Q1 in a 49,890 MHz. RF transformer T1 matches providing positive feedback. Capaci-
common -base configuration. Resistors the low impedance of the whip anten- tor C6 tunes T1 to resonance at 49,890
R4-R6 set Q1's quiescent DC emitter na to the 780 -ohm load resistance re- MHz. Capacitor C6 and transformer T1
current to about 7 milliamperes (mA). quired by the oscillator. The antenna - make the circuit into a Hartley RF os-
Inductor L1 is used to tune capacitors loading coil, L2, tunes out the capaci- cillator. Capacitor C4 is non -critical,
tive reactance exhibited by the elec- but it does improve performance by
S1 L4
trically short whip antenna changing providing an RF current path around
the antenna into a resistive load. Ca- transistor Q1 for the discharge from the
pacitors Cl, C4, and C8 filter the V + Tl /C6 tank circuit.
(power supply) bus. Capacitor Cl couples the antenna
With switch S1 closed, the square - to the primary of T1. From there, the
wave signal from U1 periodically received signals are used to drive the
grounds the pin 3 end of resistor R6. base of Q1 through T1's secondary and
With R6 grounded, Q1 is supplied a DC capacitor C2 (which affects Q1's DC
current that, in turn, allows Ql to gener- bias rate). Because of that, the circuit
ate an RF carrier. In that way, U1 switch- oscillates at two frequencies simulta-
es Q1 on and off at a frequency of 490 neously: 49,890 MHz, and 450 kHz. Dur-
Hz to generate an amplitude -modu- ing each 49,890 -MHz cycle, before RF
lated RF envelope. oscillation begins, Q1 acts like a high
gain RF amplifier, greatly magnifying
LI U1 CI L3
The RF Receiver. Figure 2 shows the the antenna's signal.
schematic diagram of the RF receiver. Once amplified, the signal causes
Shown here is the Pocket Pager's complete- an increase in the average DC emitter
Transistor Q1 and its components corn -
ly assembled transmitter, which should
prise a super- regenerative receiver. current of Q1; and that, in turn, in-
give you some idea of its actual .size. Be-
cause of tight spacing. the resistors have Resistors R1 -R4 bias Q1 for a quiescent - creases the voltage drop across re-
been vertically mounted. emitter current of about mA.1 sistor R4. So, amplitude variations in the

39
1-METER less than 100 Hz. Pull -up resistor R19
WHIP ANTENNA
keeps output pin 8 high until a signal is
CI decoded, at which time pin 8 goes
10
L2 low. Upon going low, pin 8 grounds the
0.06
R1
NH <
cathode of LEDI through current- limit-
10K
106 ing resistor R20, causing it to light.
27pF
1 g
T1 Capacitor C15 couples a high -to-
O1
R4
MPSH11 low trigger pulse from U2 to U3 (a 7555
2 U1 7 6.2K
7555 oscillator timer). After triggering, pin 3
{ IN
3 OSC./ 6 R2 of U3 goes high, turning transistor Q2
TIMER S 53.6K XTAL1
on. When Q2 conducts, the negative
OI
4 5
R5 49.89MHz
' 3.3K - lead of the piezo buzzer (BZ1) is
R3
grounded, causing BZ1 to sound. Re-
20K C5 R6 sistor R22 and capacitor C16 fix the
Too
.001 ' 220 S2
time interval during which BZ1 sounds
C2
200pF
L3
50uH
C3

L1
0.47pH I
ir
1 I

I
^ C7
180pF
to about one second.
Pushbutton S1 allows you to transmit
a signal by connecting power to the
= I022C4
.001
LJ SHIELD
circuit. A low power voltage regulator,
U4, provides a constant 5 -volts source,
which is used to operate the circuit.
Capacitors C3, C8, CI3, C17, and C18,
O and RF choke L3 bypass RF and the
TP2
111 490 -Hz signals to ground, filtering the
L4 S1 TO V + bus.
C8 50uH 6 -15 VOLTS DC
.001
Construction. Because both units in-
50v
L5
H
clude RF circuitry, printed- circuit
boards are recommended. Full-sized
Fig. I. The transmitter is built around a 7555 C -MOS oscillatoritimer, (Ii- w /ro.se irec(uen- templates of the printed -circuit boards
c y is dependent upon the values of resistors RI -R3 and capacitor C3-and is designed
for Personal Pocket Pager's transmitter
to generate a 490-H: squarewave output.
and receiver (respectively) are shown
antenna's signal result in voltage varia- is signal frequency when applied to its in Figs. 3 and 4. You can etch your own,
tions across R4. Capacitor C7 couples input at pin 3. Resistors R17 and R18, or you can purchase etched and
the demodulated RF signal that ap- and capacitor C14 set the detection drilled boards from the source given in
pears at R4 to op -amp U1. frequency to 490 Hz. Capacitors Cl 1 the Parts List.
Op -amp U1 -a provides 10 dB of gain and C12 fix the circuits bandwidth to You may want to power the receiver
to the 490 -Hz signal from R4. Op -amp
U1 -b further amplifies and shapes the

490 -Hz signal into squarewave pulses.


To do that, resistors R5 and R6 set the
voltage gain of U1 -a to 40 dB (100
times). Resistors R7 -R9, R12, and R13 fix
the quiescent DC- output voltage at
pins 1 and 7 to 2.5- volts. Resistor R10
allows a test probe to sample the 490 -
Hz tone at pin 1. A ferrite bead (con-
nected in series with R10 and located
at TP1) and C9 block any RF current
that may be present. Another ferrite
bead (connected across the opposite
end of C9) keeps RF current from
reaching any test probes connected
to circuit ground. Capacitor C10 cou-
ples the 490-Hz signal, from pin 7 of UI-
b, to pin 3 of U2 (an LM567 PLL tone
decoder). Resistor R16 divides pin 7's
output voltage, decreasing the trans-
mitter's range, but increasing the re-
ceiver's immunity to interference from
Si LED1 U4 U3 T1
other transmitters using the 49 -MHz Here is what the receiver's printed -circuit hoard looks like with all the compo-
U2 U1

band. nents installed. The receiver is somewhat larger than its counterpart. the trans -
Integrated- circuit U2 contains cir- mitter. If used as a stationary unit, it can he powered (ruin a call- mounted
cuits that can be set to detect a specif- power .supply, or a /tome -brew power supply circuit.
40
R4 TP1 GND
2K Q o
'1211
5pF

C6
18pF
T1

-r-
R6
470K
--40441
FERRITE

t
BEAD

R10
56K
K
C9
.01
0 FERRITE
BEAD

Q1 C7 R5
MPSH11 .039 1/2LM358
4.7K
LC4 H1H
24pF 1

C2 U1
3
.002

- _.
8
4( R9
R1
10K
...- C5
.002
L C8
10
6.2K R12
47K

2.2K
R2 R3
47dt R7 RB _ R13 R14
10MEG
100K
W
100K 33K
W

R15 C10
6.8K 0.1
LED1`
R16
R19
130St
20K R22
(OPTIONAL) R20 :R21
1K 1* 10K 100K

BZ1
2
1C2
7 C
C15
LM5f7
^ 4.7
4 5

2 U3 7
C12 7555

-
10K
0.47

C13 R17
3
4
CMOS
OSC./TIMER 5 6

N/C R11
i 100 5K 10K
02
2 N 3904

C14 C16
0.1 10

0
TP2

TO 6-16VDC
+
S1

0-+-
C17
=10
U4
78105 - C18
01
L1
50N H
o

C3
N-

.01

X
i
Fig. 2. The RE receiver is built around an LM35/ dual op -amp (UI). an LM567 PLL tone
decoder (U2). and u 555 oscillator (113). ing an enclosure that is large enough
to hold a battery -almost any re-
TO chargeable battery, in the 6- to 12-volt
range, work's fine. Before assembling,
use the receiver's printed -circuit board
as a template to mark mounting holes
in the enclosure. Drill the holes, using a
3/32 -inch bit, for the mounting hard-

Om OD
ware. In addition, drill a hole for the
antenna, a Ye -inch hole for the wire
Fig. 3. .Shown here Ls u full -.seed tem- from the wall transformer (if applica-
plate of the transmitter's printed -cir- ble), and mounting holes for the piezo
cuit board. buzzer, on -off switch 31, and LEDI.
from an AC -to -DC wall transformer. If < INCHES
For the transmitter, select an en-
2 -1/4

so, the receiver will fit into an enclosure closure with enough room for the
about 21/2 by 3 inches. Alternatively, Fig. 4. Here is u full-sized template of printed-circuit board, a whip antenna,
make the receiver portable by select- the receiver's printed- circuit hoard. and a 9 -volt battery. Before assem-
41
bling the circuit board, use it as a tem- 1-METER On the transmitter circuit, solder one
plate to mark the enclosure for WHIP ANTENNA
lead of the antenna loading coil, L2, to
mounting holes. Drill the mounting the printed -circuit board, and attach
holes with a 3/32 -inch bit. Finally, drill the other lead to the base of the whip
appropriately sized mounting holes for antenna.
pushbutton- switch S1, and a hole for
the whip antenna. Tuning. The following alignment pro-
Following Figs. 5 and 6, assemble cedure uses a frequency counter and
the transmitter and the receiver (re- an amplifier /speaker with an auxiliary-
spectively) printed -circuit boards. Ob- or microphone -input jack. All test
serve the proper polarity of the points are referenced to the circuit -
electrolytic capacitors, the IC's, and board ground.
the diodes. Temporarily, remove U2 (receiver)
+v
Mount the capacitors and resistors. S1 from its socket. Apply power to the
The capacitors are mount flush against transmitter and receiver circuits. Adjust
the board to minimize lead lengths; Fig. 5. Following this latout diagram, as trimmer potentiometer R18 for 490 Hz
that's especially important in the RF .semble the transmitter, bein,t mindful that while measuring the frequency at TP2
and tone decoder circuits. Note that the resistors are vertically mounted on (receiver). Similarly, adjust R3 for490 Hz
all resistors vertically mounted. the hoard due to tight spacing. while measuring the frequency at TP1
Dont forget the test points. Figure 7
shows the construction of the test point LECH
BZ1
terminals. Test point TP1 on the transmit- It
ter board (see Fig. 5 for its location,
+v
PARTS LIST FOR THE RF
TRANSMITTER
SEMICONDUCTORS
UI -7555. CMOS oscillator tuner S1

integrated circuit
QI -- MPSHII. ECG229. 1('(224. ut
SK3246r229. NPN RE- transistor
RESISTORS
\II ie"i'tor. are %i -watt. 5'4. unless
thcrss Ise noted.) FERRITE'
BEAD
RI-- 10.0110-ohm TP
K2 -- 53.6(10-ohn1. l' S GND
R3--20.000-ohm. trimmer potentiometer
R4-- -62(M) -ohm
R5-33(K)-ohm
R6---220-ohm
CAPACITORS 'SEE TEXT
(All capacitors must he rated at for least I
Fig. 6. Assemble the receiver printed- circuit hoard. using titis layout diagram as a guide.
wvlx'. Note the locutions o the two ferrite heads, and be sure not to leave them out.
('I- 10-F, electrolytic
('2- 2(K)-pE ceramic disc and Fig. 7A for construction details) is (transmitter). Remove the frequency
C3-0.0224).F. metaliced lilm made by bending a 1/4 inch, 180 -de- counter and attach an audio ampli-
C4. ('5. C8-0.0011/1% ceramic disc gree loop in one lead of resistor R6. fier/speaker to TP1 (receiver).
('b -27 -pF ceramic disc Install and solder the resistor onto the Using a small screwdriver, adjust the
('7- ISO -pF. ceramic disc printed -circuit board so that the loop is core of T1 (receiver), and the core of LI
INDUCTORS accessible with a test probe. (transmitter) until the top of each core
1.1 ().47 -01. KF inductor. 1OKOI Similarly make two test points on re- is even with the top of its housing. A
7KSM series ceiver's printed -circuit board (see Fig. rushing noise, and possibly the 490 -Hz
I '-- -0.6 -p.H. antenna loading coil 6 for their locations). Test point TP1 (see tone, should be heard. Alternately, ad-
1.3 L5- 50-11. miniature RF choke Fig. 7B) is made by inserting a ferrite just L1 and T1 for the strongest reception
l'I - RF tran.tormrr sec heluss
I
bead over one lead of resistor R10. of the 490 -Hz tone. Next, place the
ADDITIONAL PARTS AND COMPONENTS Make a ring in the lead so that the transmitter at the fringe of its range
'I -- Single -pole single -throw. momenta!) bead stays in place, and then solder and tune Ti (receiver) for the best re-
contact pushbutton switch the lead to the board. Install a second ception. Disconnect all test equipment
crystal
I-
VIAL 39.{(N) -MI 1, series resonant ferrite bead over a Y2-inch length of and power, and reinsert U2.
hookup wire to form TP2. Bend the end A second harmonic of the transmit-
hinted- circuit hoard. antenna (one -meter of the lead into a ring to secure the ter's signal may be detected on an FM
whip or. a one -meter length or #22 ferrite bead in place, and connected receiver tuned to about 100 MHz. If so,
hookup wire). enclosure. 8-pin 1)Il' the other end (with the ferrite bead minimize that signal by carefully ad-
socket. w ire. solder. etc.
installed) on the printed -circuit board. justing LI.

4z
PARTS LIST FOR THE RF RECEIVER /ALERT BEEPER
SEMICONDUCTORS R4-2000-ohm C6- l8-pF,ceramic disc
Ul -LM358 dual op-amp integrated R5-4700-ohm C7-0.039 -F, metallized film
circuit R6-470,000-ohm C8, C16, CI7- 10-F, electrolytic
U2-LM567 tone decoder, integrated R7, R8, R22-100,000-ohm C3, C9, CI8-0.01 -F, ceramic disc
circuit R9-6200-ohm CIO, C14- 0.1 -p.F, metallized film
U3 -7555 CMOS oscillator /timer R10-56,000-ohm C11- 4.7 -F, electrolytic
integrated circuit R12-47.000-ohm C12-0.47 -R electrolytic
U4 -78L05 low power + 5 -volt regulator, R13-33,000-ohm C13-I00-p,F electrolytic
integrated circuit R14-20 megohms CI5- 1.0 -F, electrolytic
QI-MPSHII, ECG229, TCG229. or R 15-6800-ohm
ADDITIONAL PARTS AND COMPONENTS
SK3246/229, NPN RF silicon transistor
Q2-2N3904 general- purpose NPN
R16-1300-ohm
R 17-15,000-ohnl
LI- -0,
50 RE choke
TI -RF transformer
silicon transistor RI8-10,000 ohm. 20-turn, trimmer SI- Single -pole, single -throw toggle
LEDI- Light -emitting diode (any color) potentiometer
switch
R19-20,000-oh m Printed -circuit board (see below) or
RESISTORS
R20-1000-ohm perfboard. VHF ferrite beads, antenna
(All resistors are 1/4-watt, 5 %, units unless
otherwise noted.) CAPACITORS (two feet of #22 hookup wire). 8 -pin
Rl, RII, R21- 10,000 -ohm CI -5
-pF, ceramic disc DIP sockets, plastic enclosure. piezo
R2-2200 -ohm C2, C5- -0.002 -F, ceramic disc buzzer, hookup wire, solder; hardware.
R3-47 -ohm C4-24-pF ceramic disc etc.

ORDERING INFORMATION

Note: The following components for the resistors, capacitors. one DIP socket. DIP sockets) is available for $27.95.
project are available from Time $26.95. Antenna, switch, and enclosure Enclosure and battery not included.
Space Scientific, 101 Highland Dr., not included.
Add $4.50 for shipping and handling (a
Chapel Hill, NC 27514:
RECIEVER COMPONENTS one time charge covering all items
TRANSMITTER TS3310, transformer TI. $7.95; TS2 ordered). NC residents must add sales
TS3 printed -circuit board, $9.95; TR6 -I printed -circuit board, $8.95; complete tax. For technical information write to
inductor kit includes TI and LI -L5 receiver kit RC2 -I (including all Time Space Scientific at the above
only, $10.95; complete transmitter kit semiconductors, resistors, capacitors, address, and include a self addressed
TR6 -2 (including all semiconductors, ferrite beads. LI, TI. antenna wire, and stamped envelope.

TEST POINT 0

1/4 INCH -10

PC BOARD -20

A -30

TEST POINT

-40

FERRITE BEAD -.
-50
RESISTOR -a. PC BOARD

-60
-5kHz /DIV. fC +5kHz/DIV.
49.890M Hz
B

Fig. 7. Shown here are construction details Fig. 8. This diagram illustrates the RF of the transmitter. as seen on a spectrum analy :er.
of the test point terminals. As Required by FCC regulations. Part IS. the bandwidth is less than +1-10 W:.

FCC Rules. The Personal Pocket Pag- munications Commission. However, it is Figure 8 shows the signal of the RF
er is designed to comply with part 15 of recommended that you read part 15, transmitter, as seen on a spectrum
the FCC rules and regulations. It can sections 15.133, 15.118 and 15.119 of analyzer. As required by FCC regula-
be built without having to obtain spe- the Federal rules and regulations tions, Part 15, the bandwidth is less than
cial permission from the Federal Corn- which are available at most libraries. 10 kHz.

43
BUILD THE
SPEEDI -WATT
Here's an eash -to -build circuit that can be used as an
electronic speed control for electric drills or fans, as a
power controller for electric blankets or soldering irons,
or as a lamp dimmer, and for much, much more.
ook around your home and you In effect, an SCR is a bipolar switch The device used to generate the
L. will probably find a number of AC- that can operate at AC frequencies trigger pulses is the Diac (D1), also de-
powered appliances that could pro- up to 400 Hz. Like a silicon controlled veloped by General Electric at the
vide improved service to you and your rectifier, it is non -conducting until it re- same time as the Triac. A Diac is re-
family with the use a speed or power ceives a trigger voltage between its ferred to as a breakdown diode be-
controller. We've put an electronic gate and the anode electrode (MT1). cause it is non -conducting at all
controller together that we call When that happens it switches into voltages up to its breakover point.
Speedi -Watt* that is ideal for that pur- conduction and remains that way until When the breakover point is reached,
pose. Speedi -Waft is cheap to build, the voltage reverses in polarity or the it "breaks down" to the conducting
compact in size, and, best of all, it is current dies away to zero. state. It remains in that state until the
very easy to put together. As a bonus, The difference between a Triac and voltage reverses in polarity or the cur-
Speedi -Watt incorporates elec- an SCR is that while an SCR will only rent dies away to zero.
tromagnetic- interference (EMI) sup- work with one voltage polarity, the Tri- The Diac is used in conjunction with
pression circuitry. That means that you ac will work with both. It can conduct a capacitor to deliver a pulse of cur-
will not be plagued by those her- on both half-cycles of an AC wave- rent to the gate of a Triac.
ringbone TV patterns that more elec- form. It can be made to control the AC Now look at the complete circuit of
trically-noisy units produce. power fed to a load merely by being Fig.1. Note that the Speedi -Watt circuit
The Speedi -Watt is an easy-to -make made to conduct early or late in each works at 117-volt AC power -line poten-
circuit module to which you will need successive AC half -cycle. tial. In other words, the whole thing is
to add a knob, a three-wire power Such a method of power control is inherently lethal if you touch any part
cord, a three -terminal AC plug and referred to as phase control, because of the circuit while it is connected to
matching AC socket, and a suitable the timing of the gate trigger pulses is the AC power line. Don't worry,
plastic case. The whole project should varied with respect to the phase of the though -when it is correctly as-
go together in about one evening. AC waveform. sembled it is completely safe.
The resulting dimmer and speed
control is suitable for lamps, fans, or PLI Si,
S1
cn
universal motor loads up to 500 watts HOT
I

(or approximately 4 amperes at 17- 1


TR1
Ff volts AC). By universal motors, we R1
C106e1 MT2
2.2K R5
w mean AC motors with brushes such as 1K

w those used in electric drills, food mix-


__I ers, and sewing machines. R2
500K
R3
2MEG R4
D1
HT-32 A C4
.01
a Circuit Details. Speedi -Watt's sche- ..v
...
10K
_ C3
`.033
matic diagram is essentially a typical - cl C2
`.047 C.047 LI
o dimmer circuit that uses a phase-con- 50H

trolled Triac (TRI) as the power- control 00


HOT

element. A Triac is a high -power


switching device developed by Gen - NEUTRAL
w 00
w eral Electric about 25 years ago. It is
S01
similar in function to a silicon con - GROUND
trolled rectifier (SCR) or thyristor.
Fig. I. The circuit fur Speedi -Watt is a standard light dimmer with components
for RR
I
Q 'This story first appeared in Silicon Chip, Australia
(December, 1987): reprinted here with permission.
suppression and u snubber network. The later consists ul resistor R5
und capacitor C3 which reduce the counter-EMF caused by dcc loud ut SOI.

44
CONTROLLER
-WATT POWER
SPEEDI

BY LEO SIMPSON

The hot lead of the AC line connects ment; it feeds current to capacitor Cl Wiring It Up. You could use a printed -
to a single -pole switch (Si) and then to and to a second changing network circuit board as the author did, but for
resistor RI, which feeds two potentiom- consisting of resistor R4 and capacitor you to make just one etched board
eters (R2 and R3) which are both wired C2. would be time consuming. All that is
as variable resistors in parallel. Potenti- When the voltage across C2 rises needed is a perfboard and point -to-
ometer R2 is Speedi -Watt's control ele- above about 30 volts (either polarity), point wiring to interconnect and mount
the Diac (DI) breaks over and delivers the components.
a trigger pulse to the gate of the Triac Should you plan to make several
PARTS LIST FOR SPEEDI -WATT (TRI). That causes the Triac to turn on
and apply the full power -line voltage
to the external load connected to SOI.
RESISTORS
2200 -ohm, 1/4-watt, fixed resistor
Varying the setting of potentiometer
k
R2 alters the phase (timing) of the trig-
I

k2 -500,000-ohm potentiometer. PC-


mount optional (includes switch SI) ger pulses fed to the Triac and so alters
R3- 2- megohm, trimmer potentiometer. the average power level fed to the
PC mount load.
R4- I0,000 -ohm, 1/4-watt. fixed resistor Resistor R5 and capacitor C3 form a
R5 -1000-ohm, I/4 -watt, fixed resistor snubber network across the Triac to
CAPACITATORS protect it from back -EMF voltages
CI- .047 -F, 400-WVDC Mylar or generated by inductive loads each
ceramic capacitor
C2- .047 -F, 100- to 400 -WVDC
Mylar or ceramic capacitor
C3- .033 -F, 200 -WVDC Mylar or
time the Triac turns off.
Inductor LI, a 50 -H choke, and ca-
pacitor C4 form an interference-sup -
pression filter. Some of those essential
2 INCHES ---{
Fig. 2. The same-six foil pattern is
ceramic capacitor components are often not incorpo- shown here for those who oi.s /t to use
C4- .01 -11F, 200-WVDC Mylar or rated in usual domestic light- dimmer a printed -circuit board. A pert boa rd
ceramic capacitor circuit would operate just as well.
circuits.
ADDITIONAL PARTS AND MATERIALS
DI -Diac, 27 -37 -volt (30 -volt nominal).
50 -mA (Teccor HT-32 or equivalent)
LI -50 -1.H choke, 4 amps (see text)
PLI -Plug, 3- terminal. AG-power type
QI -Triac, 200 -volts AC, 4 amps (GE
type C106B1 or better)
SI -SPST switch (part of potentiometer
R2)
SOI -Jack, 3- terminal. AC -power type
Plastic utility box, with plastic lid, (51/4
x 21/4 x 13/4 in.), plastic knob, 3-6
feet of 3 -wire, rubber-covered AC
power cord, 2 power-cord grip
grommets. l two -way insulated
terminal block, solder, wire,
The circuit board e,as mounted in a plastic ease to make a /rands speed control
hardware, decals, epoxy, etc.
The pascer cords are anchored with cord-grip grommets. A larger plastic casse i.s
t'equired to mount an AC' outlet .socket on the ease instead of the power cord.

45
units, printed- circuit board con- INPUT OUTPUT
struction is the way to go. The single - POWER CORD PLASTIC CASE POWER CORD

sided copper -clad board is small,


measuring onlyl3/4 x 2 inches. You can
make several from the standard -size
sheets available at most electronics
stores. Use the same -size foil pattern
shown in Fig. 2 and mount parts on it
using Fig. 3 as a guide.
Since the circuit is electrically hot, a TO CIRCUIT L
plastic -shaft unit is recommended for PLi BOARD
potentiometer R2 to minimize the pos-
siblility of shock. If you cannot locate a
plastic -shaft potentiometer, use epoxy
to secure the knob to the potentiome-
ter shaft; do not use the set screw. r
Note that the board is designed to
accommodate the special potenti-
CLAMP
I
CLAMP
ometer/switch unit that the author used GROMMET GROMMET
in the original prototype. That unit may
be difficult to find in this country. It is Fig. 4. Wiring the Speedi -Watt is no problem ut all once the printed-circuit board is
perfectly acceptable to mount any completed. Connect the AC potiner cords to the plug and socket.
500K potentiometer/switch combina-
tion on the case instead of the board
and use leads to connect the parts. fiaia sPEECFWATT POWER CONTROLLER

Suitable units are available from


Mouser Electronics (2401 Highway 287
North, Mansfield, TX 76063), and many
i
other distributors.

-C2- -R4- -R1 This is what Speedi -Watt looks like when it's finished. The neat all- plastic construction
ensures against possible shock ha:ard.
Di NC t.T.
TRI O R2

G C1 L 01 wires from the two power cords. The


MT1
S1 r terminal block should not be an-
MT2 chored to the case with metallic hard-
HOT
R3 i
IN
ware, but secured with a dab of epoxy
TR
o 1

or some super glue. The idea is to


R5 -C4- avoid having any exposed metal work
-C3- L1 HOT
OUT
R3
on the surface of the plastic case.
When you have completed the wir-
Fig. 3. The completed printed -circuit ing, switch your multimeter to the low -
board with all the parts in place is shown ohms range and check the continuity
here. You may have trouble finding the of the ground and neutral wires from
brass screw terminals, so solder leads the AC plug to the AC socket. Check
directly to the hoard from the power also that there is no resistance be-
cords. The bottom terminal tiras not used. The circuit hoard looks like this when tween hot, neutral, and ground for
the potentiometer und the brass terminals both the AC -line socket and plug. If all
Choke L1 can be fabricated by are fitted. The original design allowed fin - isok, your Speedi -Watt dimmer is
winding 35 -50 turns of No. 18 -20 connecting the wire from the middle to ready for set up and use.
enameled wire on a -inch O.D. (out-
1
the bottom terminal when an external
side diameter) toroidal core. If you power switch is used to control the circuit.
Test and Adjustment. Now connect
wish, you can also use a J. W. Miller a table lamp and plug the dimmer
M5248 heavy-duty hash choke (avail- cord and a three-pin AC plug to an- into a wall AC outlet. You should be
able from Mouser and others); that is a other length of three -wire power cord. able to smoothly control the lamp
68 -0, 5 -amp unit, but will work fine for Both of those power cords had the in- brightness over the potentiometer's
this application. sulation stripped back at one end and whole range.
Use a plastic case and use a knob then they were fed into opposite ends With that accomplished, you can, if
that completely covers the shaft and of the case and anchored with cord - you wish, set the minimum brightness of
mounting hardware. A good size plas- grip grommets. the lamp by adjusting trim potentiom-
tic case for Speedi-Waff should mea- Speedi -Watt is connected as shown eter R3. That is a trial -and -error process
sure about 5'/4 x 25/8 x 13/4 inches. The in Figs. and 4. Note the optional two -
1 though and you should not make any
author fitted a 3- terminal AC line sock- way insulation terminal block used to adjustments to the circuit while the AC
et to a short length of three -wire power terminate the ground and the neutral voltage is applied.

46
JANUARY 1989
GI
Toshiba Facsimile Machine
Swisstel Responds
Parsec Indoor FM Antenna
Video Cut Update
A

pg.

pg. 2

pg. 3

pg. 3
1
Zo
CHRONICLE OF CONSUMER ELECTRONICS VOLUME 2, NUMBER 1

Smith Corona Electronic


Typewriter pg. 4

GE Action AM FM Headset
Radio pg. 5
Kenwood Automatic Turntable pg. 6

Sports Time Diver's Watch pg. 7

GIZMO BYTES
Electronic Cooking Timer pg. 8

Murata Personal Fax Machine pg. 8

Olympia Electronic Typewriter pg. 8

Videocassette Organizer pg. 8

Satellite -TV Receiver Decoder pg. 8

Canon Checkbook Recorder pg. 9


Integrated 35mm Camera pg. 9

Sharp CD Player pg. 9


CIRCLE 63 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
S- VHS -Compatible Monitor pg. 9
Integrated Answering System.. pg. 10
Portable Computer pg. 10
Fax to the Max ing their reliability and bringing down
their cost. Then. in 1981, the International
Telegraph and Telephone Consultative
Quartz Halogen Video Light pg. 10
TOSHIBA FACSIMILE MACHINE Committee adopted a set of standards that
Videocassette Labeling (3300). Manufactured by: Toshiba made it possible for most units. regardless
System pg. 10 America. Inc.. Telecommunication of manufacturer or counts of origin. to
Systems Division. 9740 Irvine Blvd, communicate with each other. Suddenly.
Wireless Headphones pg. 10 Irvine, CA 92718. Price: $1.995.95. the tax machine was the hot new business
In the world of consumer electronics. and communications tool. Today there are
A V Receiver pg. 11
the I980's might carry the designation about all manufacturers of the units and
Electronic Reminding Calender pg. 11 "decade of the facsimile machine." Since some I(N1 models on the market.
1981 the use of facsimile transmission de- The u.dtibu Fur.dmile Machine 3 3111)1
1

Phone Call Accounting vices has increased dramatically. By some is a representative example of the units that
System pg. 11
estimates. there are about two- and -a -half are gaining favor with all kinds of busi-
Squelch Telephone Accessory . pg. 11 million of those devices currently in use nesses. institutions and professionals.
around the globe. In the U.S. alone. an (:1ZMO's encounter with the 3300 makes
AM FM Stereo Receiver pg. 12 estimated one- and -a -half million ma- clear the reasons for the explosive growth
chines will he in use by 1990. in fax use. Once the simple protocol of
Decorator Ultrasonic
A decades -old technology. facsimile usage is understood. that machine is extra-
Humidifier pg. 12
transmission took off as a result of a cou- ordinarily easy to operate. It a person can
Dynamic Stereophone pg. 12 ple of tac ors. In the early part of this use a telephone and a copying machine, he
decade, digital microprocessors replaced or she can use a far.
Prenatal Soundshare System pg. 12 Outfitted with a telephone handset than
mechanical parts in the machines. increas-

GIZMO Page 1 47
includes a keypad, the 3300 also incorpo- The LCD display guides the user 3300's delay-send function even allows the
rates a second phone keypad and can through each setup step: Selecting dialing user to set the machine to take advantage
memorize 30 fax numbers (dedicated fac- mode: time and date setting (each docu- of lower telephone rates that are in effect
simile- transmission phone lines) and an- ment sent carries this information as well during certain hours of the night.
other 30 non -fax numbers. Other as the name of the sending party, business Fax owners are also finding out that, just
telephone features include last- number re- or company); facsimile resolution and as with standard mail and telephones.
dial, speed-dialing from memory, handset contrast; LCD contrast; ring delay; auto - there's a certain tendency toward frivolous
volume control, on -hook dialing, tone -/ receive mode; elapsed -time alarm (a sig- or unwanted fax use. In some parts of the
pulse- dialing selection. adjustable ringer, nal goes off every three minutes to help country, unsolicited sales -promotion liter-
and even a "digitized music -on -hold se- keep track of time, especially for long - ature is transmitted to unsuspecting fac-
lection." A back -up battery system pro- distance transmissions or calls); and a simile owners whose fax numbers have
tects the memory function against power function called "auto journal." That last turned up on lists circulating among sales
failures. feature enables the 3300 to print out a personnel in the area.
At the front of the 3300, a roll of ther- record of the last 20 facsimile transmis- But the fax revolution is undoubtedly
mal paper is inserted into a covered com- sions. here to stay. When (and if) prices ever
partment. Received transmissions are During fax transmission, the LCD con- come way down, the era of electronic mail
printed on that paper; when the unit is used tinues to offer step -by-step guidance. on a massive scale will finally arrive. (We
as a low- volume copying machine, the When a number is dialed, the display wonder will happen to the Post Office in
thermal paper is also used for reproduc- shows it. Once fax -to -fax connection is that event ?) What shape that era might take
tions. To use as a copier, the original docu- established, the LCD shows "on- line," remains to be seen, but judging from the
ment is inserted into a slot in the rear top of and indicates what class of facsimile ma- Toshiba 3300, the technology is alread .it
the unit and the start button is engaged, chine is on the other end (G -3 or G -2; the hand.
just as if the document was to be transmit- 3300 is compatible with both). Finally,
ted. However, when the 3300 is not com- during transmission the display will indi-
municating with another fax, the unit cate success -"pg. I okay" or a similar
copies the inserted document onto the ther- message-or point out problems -"paper
mal paper. It can even make enlargements. jam" or "send again" (indicating fouled -
The 3300 wasn't the most efficient or fast- up transmission).
est copier we'd ever used -but sitting A second source of information is the
right there on the desk, it was extremely recording paper itself. As the manual ex-
handy. plains, "trouble codes are printed on the
A "manual /automatic" control allows recording paper when operational prob-
that fax machine to be used both as a corn - lems have prevented normal communica-
hination telephone /fax- transmission unit tions." If the display shows "NG" (for
or for unattended receiving of documents. "no good ") a two -digit number will ap-
Set to manual, telephone calls can be re- pear on the paper, signaling such maladies
ceived in the usual way. If the high -pitched as a paper jam or overheating.
tone that signals facsimile transmission is Being new to the wonderful world of
heard when the receiver is picked up, a fax, it took us a few false starts to get the
press of the start button will put the 3300 hang of it, but soon we were sending docu-
into the fax mode (during which no con- ments across town and across the country.
versations can be carried out via the hand- One problem we had was that the more
set). When sending, the start button slowly the transmitted document went
activates the fax- signal tone. through the fax, the larger its transmitted
Even in the auto -receive mode, a "voice version was. That was caused by having
monitor" function allows the sender to the paper -jam bar in the wrong position.
talk to the 3300 user before sending the The Toshiba instruction manual isn't al-
facsimile message. In that mode, the send-
er's voice is heard over the unit's monitor
together clear about the positioning of the
bar; it took a call to the company's toll -free
Swisstel Retell
speaker. service number to discover what we were
Setup requires connection to the phone doing wrong. The following is a response to
line (with a modular jack) and connection According to Toshiba, facsimile trans- (:I %TIO's report on the Swisstel
to either a three -prong electrical outlet or mission via telephone lines works like Telephone (October 1988) from Pe-
to a standard outlet with an adapter. The this: The originating fax scans the docu- ter Buckles. president of Swisstel,
machine is readied for use with a function ment and converts the information into a Inc. (300 -1 (c), Route 17, Lodi, NJ
keypad located under the 3300's LCD dis- data stream representing the black -and- 07644).
play. (The LCD display, by the way, can be white elements of the original. That is sent The test report on the Swisstel Tele-
set to show information in either English via the phone line to a receiver in the phone which appeared in GIZMO bears
or French using the function keypad.) A receiving facsimile unit that records the only a passing resemblance to the actual
reset button and a paper-jam bar complete image line-by -line, creating an exact du- Swisstel telephone, which since its market
the unit's top- mounted controls. At the plicate, or "picture," of the transmitted introduction in May. 1987 has been well
back of the machine, a volume dial adjusts document. received by many satisfied consumers.
the loudness of the monitor speaker. However it works, fax is faster and often Instead of enumerating the often er-
Gizmo is published by Gernsback Publica- cheaper than other hard -copy communica- roneous statements in the article, we want
tions, Inc., 500 -B Bi- County Blvd., Farm- tions methods. For an obvious example, to outline the overall technological
ingdale, NY 11735. Senior Writer: George it's a good deal cheaper to make a four qualities of the instrument. Though it is a
Arthur. Copyright 1989 by Gernsback minute long-distance call to fax some doc- corded telephone, it has virtually no inte-
Publications. Gizmo is a registered trade- uments than to send the same information rior wires; instead, it has "Surface
mark. All rights reserved. via an overnight express service. The Mounted Design" (SMD) circuitry, pro-

48 Page 2,GIZMO
duced by state -of-the -art robotic produc- ers a five -year warranty, one of the longest one to visit our facility in New Jersey and
tion technology. While countless tele- in the telecommunications industry. test as many Swisstels as they would like.
phones contain a jungle of interior wires, We have tested thousands of individual We are convinced that once you test a
Swisstel's interior is as clean, sleek, and Swisstel instruments and each one offers Swisstel (fairly and accurately), you ill
well designed as the telephone itself. In- superb audio quality. Swisstel uses the love the phone. -Peter Buckles
deed, its SMD circuitry permits Swisstel finest audio components available. It has
to market a telephone that is a mere half- received glowing reviews from Associated
inch thick and weighs only 3.5 ounces.
Though we are proud of Swisstel's sin-
Press, United Press International, Busi-
ness Week, the New York Daily News, and
VIDEO CUT
gular design features, we are even prouder
of its quality-a direct result of its robotic
Newsweek, among others.
Swisstel is one of the most successful
UPDATE
production technology. That technology new phones introduced in the United
has eliminated all potential problems States in the past quarter century. It is Our October report on the Video Cut JO
caused by human error during the instru- selling briskly in department stores and neglected to mention that the Dot Line
ments' manufacture. (Such problems specialty shops. where many of our pur- Corp. (11916 Valerio St., N. Hollywood
plague other telephone manufacturers. chasers are women, ages 18 through 46. CA 91605), as well as Photo Systems,
who rely on individual workers to solder Available in ten attractive colors and Inc., distributes the product in the United
wires into place correctly time after te- with 5 colorful accessories, Swisstel Tele- States. The Video Cut 20, a companion
dious time. With one mistake an entire phones are technologically advanced de- product to the Video Cut 10, has a sug-
unit can malfunction.) Thanks to Swisstel signer telephones of the very highest gested retail price of $2,349.50, not
technology and design. we offer consum- quality. To prove our point, we invite any- $2,200 as GIZMO reported.

Tower of Power conditions than on anything within the lis-


tener's power to improve.
Set on its base, the LS-4 is an om-
PARSEC INDOOR FM ANTENNA nidirectional antenna. Parsec also advises
(LS -4). Manufactured by: Parsec of that the higher the location of the antenna.
Delaware. Ltd.. 400 W. 9th St.. the better the results. In a horizontal posi-
Wilmington, DE 19801. Price:$59.95. tion, however, it becomes "highly direc-
New York. where GIZMO does its test- tional," useful in receiving weak signals
ing. can be an FM listener's nightmare. in some cases -namely, those in which
There are few problems associated with the signal location of the desired station is
receiving the big, powerful signals at the known or (more limiting still) when the
center of the dial. But the various non- weaker signal isn't broadcast from a tower
profit, educational, ethnic, and low -power or structure shared with more powerful
stations-mostly at the lower end of the stations.
dial -are like ghost radio stations. They Horizontal use didn't have much effect
exist, they offer unique programming. but when the LS -4 was used with our older
often they're more heard about than heard. receiver. But connected to the Onkyo
At certain locations and times of the day TX -850, the same positioning did bring in
the stations may come in clearly, but it stations otherwise unavailable. Assisted
seldom lasts. Most often they disappear in by the amp's computer-controlled "auto-
a burst of static, to be replaced by some matic precision reception system," weak
higher powered neighboring signal. signals were at least clean and unwavering,
Or at least that's been our experience if slightly less robust than easily received
(and not just in New York), when depend- stations. It was useful to reposition the
ing on the standard wall-mounted simple horizontal LS-4 occasionally while listen-
dipole antenna for FM reception. ing; although, in at least one case, the
Parsec of Delanure, Ltd., a company up takes just a little more time than tuning station eventually disappeared under the
that specializes in FM antennas, manufac- in a hard -to- receive FM station. assault of a bigger adjacent noise.
tures three different units that promise to We used the LS -4 with both a six -year- That was our experience. What Parsec
deliver superior performance: The Beam old stereo receiver and a brand -new Onkyo says makes it all possible is a "noise figure
Booster. an FM Dish, and the LS-4 Indoor quartz synthesized tuner amplifier less than 1.5 dB," adjacent -band rejection
FM Antenna, which GIZMO tested. Both (TX -850). While results were short of mi- of "better than 26 dB," intermodulation of
the dish and the LS -4 use what's described raculous, the improvement in reception "less than 0.08 percent at 100 mV," and
as a "Gallium Arsenide Field Effect Tran- was noticeable in both units. Across the an amplification gain of "32 dB, mini-
sistor" for "higher gain and lower noise spectrum. reception was crisper and better mum." Our ears tell us that the Parsec
levels to FM signals than traditional metal- modulated: that was particularly evident LS -4 is no panacea when it comes to un-
lic silicon transistors." with the older receiver. The antenna's gain satisfactory FM reception, but that it does
The LS -4 is 171/4-inch tall obelisk (think control was a useful secondary adjustment work better (and looks a lot more attrac-
of the Washington Monument) with a that seldom failed to tighten and brighten a tive) than a dipole antenna fastened to the
small green power-indicator light and a station's sound. wall. Looking and generally sounding bet-
gain -adjustment knob mounted on one The LS -4 didn't seem particularly ter add up to two reasons why that indoor
side. The unit. which plugs into a wall effective at drawing in hard -to- receive FM FM antenna is worth an examination.
outlet with an AC adapter, is supplied With signals. Lower-powered stations con- Parsec's FM Dish, introduced to the
three types of receiver connectors -F- tinued to elude tuning. their reception ap- market last August, uses a "three -step am-
plug. screw, and "pushbutton" style. Set- parently depending more on atmospheric (Continued on page 6)

GIZMO /Page 3 49
inch Elite); and automatic centering and
return are all set or engaged by pressing
the code key located on the bottom of the
keyboard and one of the top row of keys.
each clearly designated by a guide printed
just above the keyboard. Enhanced fea-
tures that are engaged in the same manner
are page -end signal (another beep) and
subscript and superscript (clearly a feature
borrowed from word -processing pro-
grams). One drawback is that spacing must
be reset each time the typewriter is turned
on-an easy- enough adjustment, but one
that the novice XL 2500 user is likely to
forget, at least at first.
One design aspect that we didn't like
was the placement of the code and margin -
set keys to the left of the space bar. The left
margin is selected by moving the print
element to the desired margin location and
pressing the margin -set key. The right mar-
gin is set in the same manner, except that
it's necessary to depress the code key.
ture doesn't supply the correct spelling. When first using the XL 2500, occasion-
Letter Quality Instead, once the typist has erased the mis-
spelled word and typed in a correction, the
ally a finger would slip as it stretched to
engage the code key or hit the space bar -
function checks the new letter combina- and we found ourselves with a new left
SMITH CORONA ELECTRONIC tion. Presumably, with really difficult -to- margin when the print element moved to
TYPEWRITER (XL 2500). Manufac- spell words and in the absence of a con- the next line.
tured by: Smith Corona Corp., 65 ventional dictionary, this signal- erase- We also had some minor problems with
Locust Ave.. New Canaan, CT new- spelling sequence could continue for the tab set. Although a beep is supposed to
06840. Price: $229. quite some time. Errors the electronic dic- confirm each setting, our test model had a
Word processing, laser printing. letter- tionary can identify include misspellings, balky key which didn't always register the
quality computer printers...what many of transposition of letters, repeating the same desired tabulation setting. Pressing hard or
us learned in high -school typing courses letters, unintended space between letters, repeatedly brought a confusing two beeps
often seems as outmoded today as some and character omissions. and only occasionally set the tab.
skill learned in the past century. But, to In using the XL 2500 we found it The lift -off correction system, however,
borrow Mark Twain's well -known quote. slightly disconcerting that proper names, worked smoothly and cleanly. The "cor-
reports of the death of the typewriter are in particular, would set off the misspelling rect" key, to the right of the space bar, lifts
greatly exaggerated. signal. Smith -Corona apparently antici- off a single character. The "WordEraser"
In fact, contemporary electronic type- pated that reaction; the Spell -Right func- key lifts off an entire word with a single
writers have borrowed a great deal from tion can be disengaged by pressing the keystroke. Continuous pressure on the cor-
both word processors and computers. And code key and the "D" key, marked with a rect key will erase up to an entire line.
as any but the most dedicated computerist book symbol designating the electronic Even when erasing bold -face words
will admit, there are times when sitting dictionary feature. (which the XL 2500 creates by repeating
down to a typewriter keyboard makes a lot The XL 2500's redundancy check can and blackening the letters typed after the
more sense than firing up the PC- printer help eliminate a typing mistake especially bold -face function is engaged), the re-
combo. common in transcription and retyping moval was clean and complete.
If the typewriter is on its last legs, no- from manuscript -the typing of the same Another new feature of this machine is
body's told Smith Corona, which intro- word twice in a row. The beep sounds Smith Corona's "Right Ribbon System."
duced a new "executive line" of five type- when the same word is repeated. Finally, If the "wrong combination of ribbon and
writers in three different categories earlier "Wordfind" will reposition the type- correction cassette is inserted," a flashing
this year. The XL 2500 is the top of the writer's print wheel under the incorrect green light (mounted in the shift -lock key)
Smith Corona line of electronic type- word if the user has keyed in letters faster indicates "mismatched ribbons and cas-
writers and a fairly convincing argument than the XL 2500 can print them. Al- settes." The company says that the correc-
for the continuing utility of that century- though we're not particularly fast typists, tion cassette for the XL 2500 and
old communications tool. we regularly outran the machine's printing companion models is "the first drop-in
The XL 2500 offers a number of auto- speed when the automatic return was en- correction cassette for a portable elec-
matic correction features. Perhaps the gaged. There's a limitation to that too, tronic typewriter."
most impressive is Smith Corona's trade- however. As the owner's manual explains, The shift -lock light, in addition to indi-
marked "Spell- Right" electronic diction- "changing pitch in the middle of a line or cating that upper -case letters are engaged,
ary. That built -in lexicon offers 50,000 using the half space feature deletes correc- "flashes when the typewriter cover is not
words and, on those new models, will tion memory." closed properly or the typewriter has re-
catch word redundancies and beginning - Standard -typewriter features have been ceived an incorrect command." That fea-
of- sentence capitalization mistakes. When streamlined and expanded with the XL ture's powers of interpretation, however,
an incorrectly spelled word is typed, an 2500. Spacing between lines (the user can are fairly limited. Perhaps it was merely
audio signal is heard. select single. double, or one -and -a -half our brief experience with the typewriter,
Perhaps unfortunately for users who spacing); pitch selection (ten-characters- but the light seemed to flash at least once
aren't good spellers, the Spell -Right fea- per-inch Pica or twelve -characters-per- every time we used the machine for rea-

50 Page 4 /GIZMO
sons we that couldn't discern. The manual of music listeners of the 1990's" (making it In a variety of situations, the Action
merely says that the cover should be prop- a product only slightly ahead of its time). radio's reception. both AM and FM. was
erly closed or the space bar touched to The diminutive receiver is sturdily de- impressively clear and unwavering. Lis-
"stop flashing light." signed, with headphone jack and battery tening in the office (thanks to its headset)
Once we knew our way around it, the compartment (for the 7- 1990's single the small radio's sound was as well -modu-
keyboard was comfortable to use and had a "AAA- cell" power source) protected by lated and clear as the same FM station
fairly firm touch. And the finished prod- flexible vinyl covers. Its trio of controls. in heard through GIZMO's rather ancient
uct, the typed page, could stand com- yellow. lies flat against the case. office stereo receiver. Besides a built -in
parison with pages issuing from type- Anyone who has struggled with mini - automatic frequency-control system, "to
writers costing hundreds of dollars more. radio tuning will appreciate one refine- reduce station drift," the 7 -1990 uses an
Whether this lightweight machine, which ment in this unit. The AM /FM dial is AM antenna built into the radio and an FM
makes extensive use of plastic parts, among the most easily read we've seen on antenna that is combined with the headset
would give the years of use expected from a midget radio. The two broadcast bands cord.
more expensive typewriters is an open are clearly separated horizontally and a This being the real world, reception
question. Even today. plastic has its du- vertical thin red line makes the visual as- isn't, of course, perfect. Walking down an
rability limitations. pect of tuning in a station precise and easy urban street. with signals bouncing oft
Equipped with a snap -in -place cover for anyone with normal vision. The buildings and each other. stations would
and a bottom- mounted carrying handle, notched, nickel -sized, station -selection cut in and out and static could build to
the XL 2500's cord wraps neatly around a thumb wheel is easily manipulated. If our unbearable levels. But blaming the 7 -199()
built -in rack at the back of the machine. experience is any guide, users of the Ac- for that is akin to blaming the messenger
Plastic construction shows its positive as- tion radio won't have to worry much about for bad news. Within the given limitations,
pect in that this really is a portable ma- the slightly smaller volume wheel. the radio is a satisfactory personal-size
chine, as much so as a briefcase or book With a new battery. even at the lowest receiver.
bag. An exceptionally good machine for audio setting, the 7 -1990 delivered plenty In one respect. this mighty mite for the
student use, or for the use of someone who of decibels. Besides the simple directions. '90s represents little advance over its por-
types regularly if not all the time, the XL the radio's package includes a booklet table -radio ancestors. Portability is depen-
2500 is easy to get used to and loaded with warning against listening through the dent upon a vinyl -like fabric case, through
features that reveal their utility with use. headset at excessive volume and including which a strap passes. allowing the radio to
It's a well- thought -out hybrid of word -pro- guidelines for "traffic safety." That advice be worn on arm, waist, or even as a head-
cessing functions and traditional type- is summed up with the slogan, "use your band. The carrying -case openings for the
writer features. head when you use your headset." (Continued on page 7)

Radio
Lilliputian
ACTION AM FM HEADSET RADIO
(7- 1990). Manufactured by: General
Electric Co., Audio Communica-
tions Products, -455, P.O. Box 1976.
I

Indianapolis, IN 46026. Price:


$ 26.95.
The continuing miniaturization of con-
sumer-electronic products has its market-
ing roots in the introduction three decades
ago of the transistor radio. Hailed at the
time for both its portability and its small
size, the battery- powered, cigar -box -sized
radios were a first step on the road that has
led to complete music systems small
enough to slip into a coat pocket.
While our attention these days is
focused on other, more glamorous, prod-
ucts the garden -variety portable radio is
still shrinking. The recently introduced
Action AM /FM Headset Radio (7 -1990)
from General Electric is a bright blue -
and- yellow palm -size package. But within
its 1/2-inch thick, 31/4- by 11/4-inch case is an
AM/FM radio worthy of the name. Clear
reception produces impressive listening on
a headset that delivers more than merely
adequate sound.
According to GE, this is an "action"
radio -weather-resistant and sturdy
enough to withstand "the active lifestyles

GIZMO/Page 5 51
gery. The music -search system also turned
CIRCLE 65 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
out to be something more than window
dressing. But we wish that the department
that designed the turntable's cover had got-
ten together with the designers of the man-
ual -search system. The semi -translucent
cover makes it impossible to visually cue
up a cut. While we experimented with
shining a flashlight beam onto the LP, we
finally deferred to reality and opened the
cover when we wanted to skip a selection.
At least the search operation can be oper-
ated with one hand.
Selecting record size each time the
power goes on seemed less than handy. We
also mourn the passing of manual "pitch
control." Some of our favorite tunes sound
better speeded up just a tad. This turntable
lacks that option.
But one indisputable advantage emer-
ged after our use of the unit. Records

rrorCanwtrr t> picked up significantly less dust and visi-


ble residue than on our usual turntable.
Like tens of thousands of other audio slobs
who listen to music in less than climate -
controlled conditions, we've gotten used
Linear Thinking Nine controls and two indicator lights
are grouped across the front panel of the
to picking little mats of fuzzy lint off the
stylus before and after each record. With
unit. The streamlined but standard turn- this Kenwood linear drive turntable, that
KENWOOD FULL AUTOMATIC table adjustments are power, a repeat func- became a hygienic ritual of the past.
TURNTABLE (KD -67F). Manufac- tion, and selection between long -play and "Win a few, lose a few" would seem to
tured by: Kenwood U.S.A Corp.. single (30- and I7 -inch) records. The size be the lesson of GIZMO's tests. While we
2201 E. Dominguez. Long Beach. selection in turn cues a speed selection could have done without the turntable's
CA 90810. Price: $209. (unless the user independently selects sensitivity in picking up skips on some
OK. everyone's agreed-the age of vi- rpm). A manual -search function. two con- older records, we were delighted by the
nyl is drawing to a close and the anointed trols that move the tone arm forward and end of discernible surface noise and the
successor, the compact disc (aided and back, and a two -way cuing control add disappearance of stylus lint. Music search
abetted by audio tape). is turning the LP some "full automatic" flexibility to the worked well, but linear tracking doesn't
record out to audio -reproduction pasture. LP- listening experience. accommodate the flexibility embodied in
But there still remain many millions of Underneath the hinged cover, a light- manual pitch adjustment.
vinyl records (with new ones pressed every weight linear-tracking tone arm, made of Maybe the best guide to making a deci-
day) that still have a few more millions of plastic, moves with a minimum of friction sion about linear tracking is the condition
miles to go around the turntable spindle and contact across the record. Powered by of the potential buyer's record collection.
hefore being trashed. Kenwood's advanced motor, the 67F's Is the consumer considering jettisoning
With the music industry wholeheart- quiet operation is immediately apparent to the entire vinyl library for new copies? At
edly supporting the CD revolution. con- ears accustomed to the rumble and surface that point (to our way of thinking) the
sumers owe companies like Kenwood noise that standard turntables often seem switch to CD would be on the agenda. If
U.S.A. Corp. a vote of thanks for actually to pick up. compact -disc proponents are right, con-
marketing new turntables. (Don't they After a few weeks of using the 67F we sumers won't be faced with those kinds of
know the vinyl record is doomed ?) Last wouldn't go as far as the Kenwood product quandaries for very much longer. Until
year, Kenwood introduced two linear - news release, which describes the KD -67F then, the KD -67F clearly rates as an op-
tracking units, the deluxe KD-77FC and as eliminating "all tracking errors." That tion worth having.
the turntable GIZMO had an opportunity leaves the record's condition out of the
to use, the KD -67F. Minus the listening equation and, unfortunately, the
KD- 77FC's seven - program random -ac- turntable doesn't treat banged up or often - PARSEC ANTENNA
cess -memory function, the KD -67F seems played LPs with any more tenderness than (Continued from page 3)
a good example of what a basic turntable is the standard traveling tone arm. Some of
like in this electronic age of feature-laden our more beloved albums revealed skips plification process" according to the com-
components. previously undiscovered and unheard. pany. Besides the Gallum Arsenide Field
Not that this slick unit is just any platter- When the "tracking error" belongs to the Effect Transistor, the unit features eleL
and- tone -arm generic turntable. Like its record, no amount of precision engineer- Ironic tuning and a circular element that
higher-priced sibling, the 67F mimics the ing will help. can be aimed to "focus clearly on one FM
music -selection methods associated with Although we're sometimes inclined to signal, thereby increasing signal strength
both tape and CD players. But (undoubt- wonder if automatic operation is all that another 3 dB and eliminating multipath
edly to some consumers' relief) it does so labor- saving, the KD -67F's simple -to-use distortion." It's a serious FM antenna of-
in a simpler manner. The table's smoked - primary controls won us over. After a fered at the equally serious suggested re-
finish clear cover is designed to stay closed while, the prospect of lifting a tone arm off tail price of $219.95. For consumers this
at just about all times except when the its stand and putting it on the edge of a side of fanatical regarding FM reception.
record is being flipped or replaced. record seemed like time -consuming drud- the LS-4 may be just the ticket.

52 Page 6 ! GIZMO
Budget Time
NDQ SPORTS TIME ALARM CHRO-
NOGRAPH (SMWS8). Distributed
by: NDQ Marketing, Subsidiary of
Hattori -Seiko, 989 Sixth Ave., 7th
FI., New York, NY 10018. Price: $9.95.
It was the news release that attracted our
attention to the NDQ Sports Time Alarm
Chronograph. "NDQ Marketing Intro-
duces Diver's Watch With Alarm & Chro-
nograph," it was headed. It went on to
describe the SMWS8 as "a rugged diver's
watch...ideal for scuba diving. snorkel-
ing...".
Having a passing acquaintance with
some of the truly extraordinary aquatic
timepieces available, we thought a diver's
watch at less than $20 was a major market-
ing achievement. But somewhere between
the publicity and the product, the SMWS8
"diver's watch" became "water resistant
to 150 feet."
All things considered, however, the
NDQ Sports Alarm Chronograph is some-
thing of a marketing marvel, although of
the sort consumers have become jaded
about. Like the last century's "dollar the years we've formulated the informal tasks -a
terribly imprecise and non -tech-
watches," the contemporary micro-chip rule of thumb: The more simple the micro- nological factor to depend upon. When we
watch has put accurate time- keeping with- chip watch, the more complicated it is to asked him what he'd done. he wasn't able
in reach of millions at a very affordable set. This timepiece is not an exception to to say.
price. The "laser quartz" SMWS8 may the rule. Patience would seem to be the key. The
not be a "rugged diver's watch," but hold- We're not really sure what the problem second SMWS8 NDQ Marketing sent to
ing it under a running faucet or keeping it was (although the directions printed on the us followed the sequence outlined on the
in a container of water overnight didn't watch packaging may be at the root), but package's instructions to the letter. Instead
seem to affect its functioning during the the first SMWS8 we tried to set refused to of the half hour of ineffectual poking and
week or so that we used it. follow the sequence outlined. A trio of pressing we'd gone through with the first
What almost capsized our test of the case- mounted buttons control all of the watch, the second was set and keeping
SMWS8, however, came at the start. Over watch's functions. Because of the need for time, and showing correct date and day,
a reasonably waterproof casing. the but- within IO minutes of breaking it out of the
tons are a trifle difficult to manipulate. The package. However, as we discovered inad-
rigid plastic casing appears to be a single vertently later that same day, we'd man-
GE RADIO piece that includes the wrist strap, into aged to unknowingly set the timepiece's
(Continued frum page 5) which the timepiece is placed and sealed alarm function.
beneath the plastic "crystal." We finally Perhaps the least likable aspect of this
radio's tuning knob. volume control, and used the eraser end of a pencil and pushed budget -priced watch was its so- called
FM /AM and power switches partially hard. Otherwise, the casing successfully "one year warranty." A close reading of
obscures each. The highly readable dial resisted finger pressure. the tiny type outlining the offer revealed
was no longer visible, and sliding the radio The directions are straightforward and that it would cost $3.95 -to offset "the
into the case inevitably meant that volume. step -by-step: unfortunately the SMWS8 cost of handling "-to send it to the "NDQ
station, or band selection had to be read- acted as if it hadn't read the instructions. Service Center."
justed. When we pressed button "C" to set the In any event. repairs wouldn't be on the
Despite its generally sturdy design. the time (or, in the nomenclature of the direc- agenda. Instead. a replacement watch, not
Action AM /FM radio is by no means rug- tions, to "enter the desired mode ") and necessarily the same model but "of equal
ged. It may be "weather resistant," but the then pressed "B," the seconds did not value and similar appearance." will be
directions note that the headphones aren't.
and that the radio itself is vulnerable to
"salt water or salt spray."
begin flashing. Instead, the watch ap-
peared to go into the stopwatch function
not our "desired mode." At that point, we
- sent to the warranty holder. A $4 charge to
replace a $9.95 watch would seem to be
poor marketing arithmetic.
But in our exposure to the 7 -1990, its felt completely lost. Directions for these But a warranty and repairs aren't really
price -performance ratio seemed a positive watches always assume the user will go the point with today's extraordinarily low -
one. If we found ourselves in need of a through the outlined sequence with com- priced electronic timepieces. Those are
radio, say on a trip or during a general plete success. There never seems to be any really disposable watches -timepieces the
power outage, this GE model would fill the guidance on how to abort a maneuver and consumer can wear without worry and dis-
bill nicely. A small marvel of technology return to the starting point with a clean card with impunity. Time may be money,
of the kind we've come to take for granted. slate. but keeping track of it has seldom been so
this receiver is a worthy successor to the The watch finally was set by an associ- cheap, especially not at 150 feet under
tiny portables of decades past. ate who seems to have a knack for such water.

GIZMO/Page 7 53
Gizmo/Bytes
Satellite -TV Receiver Decoder
If you're considering getting into satellite-TV reception but aren't interested in
investing in a deluxe system initially, you aren't alone, according to R.L. Drake
Co. (P.O. Box 112. Miamisburg, OH 45342). In response to consumer demand
that company has introduced a new Integrated Receiver Decoder (ESRI024), an
"entry-level satellite TV receiver." In addition to a VideoCipher I1 decoder, the
system includes "priority view," a capability allowing the owner to pre- program
up to 30 channels, and a lock -out feature to restrict access to selected signals. An
infrared remote control offers simplified programming and the IRD allows recep-
Satellite -TV Receiver Decoder tion of digital stereo from subscription channels. The ESR1024 decoder is de-
signed to make later upgrading or expansion of the system possible. Price
(approximately): $900.
CIRCLE 57 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

Video Library File


In the videocassette -storage field, the search for a "better mousetrap" con-
tinues. Among the newest entries is a ten -cassette capacity Video Library Case/
Organizer, available in both VHS and Beta sizes. From Certron Corp. (1651 S.
State College Blvd., Anaheim, CA 92806). the unit stores cassettes in individual
plastic compartments for "extra protection from image-degrading dust and dirt."
Each compartment has a separate cover that when opened, "provides a lever-
action response...for easy, fingertip access" to each cassette. Price: $19.99.
CIRCLE 48 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Videocassetta Organizer
Personal Facsimile
the manufacturer is calling it "the industry's lowest- priced, fully featured
personal facsimile." The Personal Facsimile (MI200) from Murata Business
Systems (4801 Spring Valley Rd.. Dallas, TX 75244) incorporates the functions of
a telephone, facsimile machine, and a copier into a unit weighing less than ten
pounds. Its telephone features a keypad offering all standard phone features and
the MI200's automatic /manual receive lets the fax operate either manually or
automatically, eliminating the need for a dedicated phone line. In transmission.
the machine offers normal- and fine- print resolutions and is compatible with both
group 3 and group 2 fax machines. Murata calls the M1200 an affordable
alternative to comparable equipment "for first -time and low -volume users."
Price: $899.95.
CIRCLE 46 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Murata Personal Fax Machine

Electronic Cooking Timer


Experienced cooks know that a big part of meal preparation is timing
specifically, getting everything onto the table at the proper time. Hammacher
-
Schlemmer (147 E. 57th St., New York, NY 10022) distributes the Time- after-
Time Electronic Cooking Timer that the firm calls, "the only five -course" culin-
ary timer on the market. The device uses five individual timers to synchronize the
preparation of up to five different parts of a meal. After entering the cooking time
of each food, the unit's electronic processor calculates a schedule: an alarm and
LED signal alert the cook to begin c :Acing each of the items. After all foods have
been cooked, an alarm sounds and the meal is ready to be served. The Time- after-
Time operates on two AA -size batteries (included) and can be mounted on stove or
refrigerator with a built -in magnet. As with all the products it distributes. Ham -
Electronic Cooking Timer
macher Schlemmer offers an "unconditional guarantee.' Price: $37.5(1.
CIRCLE 51 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

Electronic Typewriter
A long -established manufacturer in the contemporary types Fiter industry.
Olympia, has a new moniker and a new line of "personal" typewriters. Now
called AEG Olympia, Inc. (3140 Rt. 22, Box 22. Somerville. NJ 08876), the
company has rolled out the "500 series," including the XL 505 Electronic
Typewriter. The 505 offers a 5,000- character editing memory, a 50,000 -word
spell -check feature. automatic lift -off correction memory, and automatic word
delete, plus automatic centering. carriage return, underlining, paragraph indent,
and decimal tabulation. The typewriter can use a variety of Olympia printwheels.
Price: $289.
CIRCLE 47 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Olympia Electronic Typewriter

54 Page 8 GIZMC
Integrated, Single -Step 35mm Camera
At its market introduction in September, the new Mirai Integrated. Single -Step
Gizmo/Bytes
35mm Camera was dubbed "the world's most advanced camera" incorporating
the broadest range of photographic capabilities currently available in any single
camera." Although technology moves fast nowadays, the Mirai from Ricoh
Consumer Products Group (155 Passaic Ave., Fairfield, NJ 07009) is still on the
utting edge of photographic development. The camera. which even looks dit=
lirent from conventional 35mm units. includes a computer -controlled autofocus
lens, built -in motor drive and flash units, automatic- exposure capabilities.
motorized manual and macro focusing, and a super high speed shutter. The flash
system alerts the user to underexposure before the picture is taken. The Mirai lens
is a variable -focus type, rather than a conventional zoom lens. Among its advan-
tages, when combined with the camera's constant automatic refocusing ca-
pabilities, is an unusually long focal range (rated by Ricoh at 4:1). An exclusive
programmed "automatic backlight control" metering system allows the camera to
automatically increase or decrease the exposure in variable amounts to handle
extreme contrast. Another special feature of the Mirai is a "special sensor film
transport system" using a double infrared system to "read" the film's perfora-
tions, with a choice between continuous advance at two frames- per-second or
single -shot advance. The entire unit weights 33 ounces. Price: $795.
CIRCLE 43 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
Integrated 35mm Camera

Checkbook Recorder
A big trend in consumer electronics is "getting personal" with the customers.
A recent example is the "Personal Money Manger" Checkbook Recorder from
Canon U.S.A., Inc. (One Canon Plaza, Lake Success, NY I1042). The calculator
provides balancing calculations with transaction- history storage function for
checking accounts and charge accounts. The Checkbook Recorder can keep track
of every transaction with its description items, dates, and amounts once the user
enters the data. A trio of search functions provide easy verification of transactions
and a security function provides financial confidentiality. The unit features a two -
line, twelve-digit display, including AM /PM designations. and month and day
display. Up to 90 separate transactions can be stored in its three memory banks and
up to a dozen description items (like house rent, car loan, utilities, telephone.
food, etc.) can be stored. Power comes from a single lithium battery and the
recorder conies equipped with a case and pen. Price: $32.95.
CIRCLE 53 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

Canon Checkbook Recorder


S -VHS Compatible TV Monitor Receiver
Super -VHS users are in luck. Yamaha Electronics Corp.. U.S.A. (6660 Or-
angethorpe Ave.. Buena Park. CA 90620) has introduced a 27 -inch S -VHS
Compatible Television Monitor/Receiver (YM- 270S). in addition to the two S-
VHS monitor /receivers already offered by the company. The new YM -270S
features a flat, square, picture tube; automatic color correction; 142- channel PLL-
synthesized tuning; MTS; on -screen channel display; a stereo amplifier; two video
inputs; and monitor and TV outputs. Other features include a clock, last channel
memory, seven -day memory retention, black -level retention, and peak -white
suppressor. and "stereo- wide" circuitry that is said to "expand the stereo image
beyond the screen and cabinet when the YM- 270S's own speakers are used."
Price: $899.
CIRCLE 45 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

Compact Disc Player


In its announcement of new CD players, Sharp Electronics Corp. (Sharp Plaza,
Mahwah, NJ 07430) asserts that the new models are for "digital purists." But for S- VHS -Compatible Monitor
many consumers, the most interesting feature of the new DX-05000 Compact
Disc Player will probably be its six -disc changer. The player can store up to 32
songs in memory, controlled via the front panel or by wireless remote. A digital
display indicates the disc, track, and program number being played. The DX-
05000 also offers continuous and repeat play. and a memory back -up that stores an
entire CD magazine's memory programs even while changing functions. The
purists. we imagine, will be interested in the system's "double over-sampling
digital filters." Price: $399.95.
CIRCLE 56 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD Sharp CD Player

GIZMO Page9 55
Gizmo/Bytes Wireless Headphones
Wireless listening is a technology that remains controversial; some consumers
like existing wireless systems while others wouldn't touch them with a ten -foot
speaker-connection cord. Databt ve, Inc. (19611 Ventura Blvd. 2nd A., Tarzana.
CA 91356) is hoping its new Private Waves Wireless Headphones (WH -100) can
please both groups. The company says that the Private Waves system relies on
radio frequency transmission rather than infrared technology. In contrast to "other
so- called wireless headphones," Private Waves offers "range and sound quality
both "more sophisticated and flexible," to a distance of 75 feet. A compact
transmitter is connected to the audio -out or headphone jack of a TV, VCR, stereo.
or CD player. The lightweight receiver (three -and -a -half ounces) clips to the
listener's belt, shirt pocket. or "other item of clothing." Miniature headphones
plug into the mini -receiver, and are powered by two AAA -size alkaline batteries
(good for about 50 hours). Price: $99.95.
CIRCLE 58 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

Wireless Feacphones Videocassette Labeling System


Drowning in a sea of uncertainly identified video tapes? To transform your
cassette collection into a file instead of a pile, Discmisher, Inc. (4310 Transworld
Rd., Schiller Park, IL 60176) has introduced its Professional Video Cassette
Labeling System. Labels are inserted into see- through plastic label sleeves that
adhere to the spine of the cassette. Discwasher thinks the system will put an end to
the video heartbreak of "label build -up," which the company calls "a sticky
problem." The basic Video Cassette Labeling System includes 15 double -sided
paper labels and five label sleeves for both VHS and Beta tape cases. Price: $3.99.
CIRCLE 41 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

Integrated Answering System


Yet another product deemed "ideal for the first-time buyer" -this one offered
by Northwestern Bell Phones (9394 W. Dodge Rd., Suite 100, Omaha NF;
68114) -is the "Favorite Messenger" Integrated Answering System, with voice -
activated recording, beeperless -remote operation, ten -number memory. last -
Integrated Answering System number redial, automatic toll saver, and lighted keypad. Desk- or wall -mountable,
the Favorite Messenger is sold with a one -year warranty' and is hearing -aid
compatible. Price: $149.99.
CIRCLE 55 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

Quartz Halogen Video Light


"Let there be lighl remains a useful adage, even in the world of low -light
camcorders. Arkon (I 1627 Clark St., Suite 101, Arcadia. CA 91006) is marketing
a compact, lightweight Cam -Cool Quart: Halogen Video Light (CL-500) that
makes it possible for camcorders to "produce professional -looking results under
low lighting conditions." Fabricated of aircraft alloy aluminum and weighing five
ounces, the Cam -Cool will run continuously for 45 minutes with power from a
standard 6.5- amp/hour, 12 -volt battery. There's also an eight -foot power cord
equipped with a car-lighter (DC) adapter. The Cam -Cool also features a 180 -
Quartz Halogen Video Light degree self-locking bracket for what Arkon calls "precise 'bounce' lighting."
Price: $69.95.
CIRCLE 54 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

Portable Computer
If you've been looking for a personal computer that takes "advantage of the best
desktop and portable computers have to offer," a new model from Scantech
Computer Systems, Inc. (12981 Ramona Blvd., Unit l&H. Irwindale. CA
91706 -3797) merits some attention. The LCD -286 Portable Computer weighs just
22 pounds, but includes an Intel 80286 microprocessor; 20- megabyte hard -disk
drive: 51/4-inch floppy -disk drive (1.2- megabyte capacity); an adjustable and
tiltable 80-column by 25 -row, 9 -inch LCD screen; and one megabyte of "fast zero
wait -state RAM." All that and "100 percent IBM PC/AT compatibility." too. By
not "relying on specially- manufactured accessories," Scantech says. "the
LCD -286 will never become obsolete." Price: $3.495
Portable Ccmputer CIRCLE 44 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

56 PagelO GIZMO
Computerized Telephone Accounting System
Businesses often fret about use and abuse of their telephones by employees. A
Gizmo/Bytes
"unique, self contained" Computerized Telephone Accounting System (TA -1008)
aims to do something about reducing that worry. From Camcorp (61 N. Plains
Industrial Rd., Wallingford, CN 06492), the product "doesn't require the aid of a
computer or PBX system." When the unit is connected to a telephone or fax
machine, it records every call made by phone number, date, time of call, and
minutes per call. The system can log up to 1,600 calls and furnish a summary of
calls by phone or account number or give an itemized accounting of all calls. The
unit measures approximately 5- x 6- x 3- inches. Power is supplied via an A('
adapter. In addition, Camcorp offers a one -year parts and labor warranty as well as
a free update of the "'call cost chip' in the event that phone rates change." The
company says the TA-100B was designed specifically for small businesses and
self-employed individuals, but we know some parents of teenagers who might he
more than a little interested in the device. Price: $449.
CIRCLE 52 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD
PhDne Call Accourting System

Squelch Telephone Accessory


A news release Irons LJjertirr Solutions (14902 Preston Rd., Suite 212 -310,
Dallas, TX 75240) announces that the firm's Squelch Telephone Accessory was
granted a U.S. patent last year and that they "are the only company manufacturing
this product under the patent." The product in question is described as "an easy-
to -use accessory which provides automatic control of extension telephones." By
plugging in an extension phone via the accessory, the user is assured that the
second instrument will not interfere with calls on a directly connected phone. If
ou use a modem or facsimile, Effective Solutions says, "the Squelch allows the
extension to be used when the fax or modem is off, but automatically protects a
transmission in progress." Connecting an answering machine via the device
assures that the phone's answerer "automatically takes priority over the machine
when a directly connected phone is picked up." A pair of LEDs provide verifica-
tion of correct installation. Price: $9.95 -$15.
CIRCLE 42 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

Squelch Telephone Accessory


Electronic Reminding Calendar
Not necessarily a nee% product. hut one that's proved its staying power, ilk.
JANUARY 1955
Electronic Reminding Calendar from Hammacher Schlemmer (147 E. 57th St..
New York, NY 10022) can be programmed to signal special dates, annual events,
or important deadlines. The reminder is delivered with flashing LED lights which
can be set for up to three days before the important date. What the catalog calls "it,
patented 60 -year memory" can store as many as 2000 different dates. Thy
calender also shows time and date and allows the review of all events entered into
s Y1 O e
memory. Two AA-size batteries provide memory backup; the calendar itself plugs 4r. p A D
into a standard wall outlet. Price: $79.95.
a a s its w _
CIRCLE 40 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD .01.1

.. = 0
..01.1
m 1 0 - _-
A V Receiver
Does anyone own just a TV, stereo, and VCR anymore? Our impression is that
American consumers have moved on to the more elaborate home audio /video
entertainment center. A new, top-of-the -line A/V Receiver (SA -R530) from Tech I

nies (One Panasonic Way, Secaucus, NJ 07094) is geared to that development. I

with features designed to further integrate home electronic entertainment. The


unit includes a remote control with learning capability that can serve as a "central
command unit over other infrared remote-control video equipment." The 103- Electronic Reminding Calendar
function remote can learn the major commands of most VCRs, TVs, and wireless
infrared cable -control boxes. A major audio feature is a built -in digital Dolby
surround system through which "the audio signal is converted to a digital signal
and processed for sound effects." Then the system converts the signal back to
clean, clear analog. That feature creates "theater -like sound" (with the addition of
a rear speaker system) and the user can select any of six surround modes: Theater,
hall, club, concert hall, studio, or stereoplex. The SA -R530 features separate rear-
111
fc rP Mind I i l 1 i C
speaker amplification, a power rating of 100- watts -per-channel, and a seven -band
o . I.
F-T : ...
dMA ars+t..w
. -
--
.s
r-,.
e
.

electronic graphic equalizer that "stores ten EQ curves in memory for instant,
push- button recall." Price: $850.
CIRCLE 50 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD A V Receive

GIZMO Page 11 57
Gizmo/Bytes
Decorator Ultrasonic Humidifier
It's about time some manufacturer offered "decorator" line of home humidi-
fiers. which is why the new Ultrasonic Humidifier (1844) from Soundesign Corp.
(Harborside Financial Center, 400 Plaza Two, Jersey City, NJ 07311) didn't
surprise us. According to the product release, the 1844 is aimed at "consumers
who want the benefits of an ultrasonic humidifier without sacrificing on style."
Soundesign gave it a "white, European -styled exterior," and says that as a result
it's "attractive enough to be used anywhere in the home." The unit can vaporize
the contents of its two -gallon tank in as little as twenty hours and broadcasts cool
water-vapor mist via a 360 -degree rotation nozzle. Both mist intensity and the
humidity level can be adjusted. Once the desired humidity level is reached, the
1844 shuts off automatically. The unit also turns off if it tips over or whenever the
water level is low. An LED indicator tells the user when a tank refill is needed:
there's also an audible signal that can be used when desired. Price: $89.95.
Decorator Ultrasonic Humidifier CIRCLE 59 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

Prenatal Soundshare System


this may he the product that makes born electronic consumers out of the next
generation of babies. From Infant Technology, Inc. (P.O. Box U, Stanford, CA
Prenatal 94309), the Listen Baby Prenatal Soundshare System is described in a company
Soundshare Sv brochure as consisting of a stereo speaker pack, hand -held microphone, and
it for the Fain "heart- shaped dual listening adapter. " The theory seems to be that mom. dad, and
siblings can not only listen in on, but also bill and coo to, the unborn child. Infant
Technology supplies what it dubs "Infant Age Music," but points out that
expectant parents can "make their own tapes " -at least suggesting that the child
will recognize mom's voice. The booklet's two -page list of "additional reading
and clinical references," bolsters the case for Listen Baby. In our limited experi-
ence. the kid will be hearing and (making) lots of noise later on-without tapping
into his or her nine months of guaranteed peace and quiet. Price: $60.
CIRCLE 61 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

Prenatal Sou idshare System

AM/FM Stereo Receiver


Moderation is usually considered a virtue, but in stereo-component design that
value seems to have fallen by the wayside. Yamaha Electronics Corp.. USA (6660
Orangethorpe Ave., Buena Park, CA 90620), however, is offering a new AM/FM
stereo receiver described as "delivering moderate power with high dynamic
power/low impedance drive capability." The RX-500U Stereo Receiver with
remote control is rated at 50- watts -RMS- per-channel and features circuitry de-
AM FM Ste,eo Peceiver signed to assure that the unit "will reproduce digital sources with full fidelity and
(that it l can be used with multiple speaker systems." The RX-500U features direct
PLL IF -count digital -synthesis tuning with sixteen- station random -access pre-
sets, auto seek, and manual up /down tuning. The receiver's infrared remote
permits input -source and station selection, and volume control. Dual tape -
monitor inputs and an independent "record out" selector are also features of the
new model. Price: $379.
CIRCLE 62 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

Moving Coil Dynamic Stereophone


Stereo headsets are fairly mundane products, but a new model introduced by
Signet (4701 Hudson Dr., Stow, OH 44224), as described in a new product release,
sounds downright exotic. The Moving Coil Dynamic Stereophone (EP400) is said
to use "a high -flux Samarium Cobalt magnet and oxygen -free silver/copper wire
for the voice coil winding." The same oxygen-free copper is used in the ten -foot
audio cord for "maximum conductivity and minimal signal loss," yielding
"extended dynamics and distortion -free sound." Audio engineering aside, the
EP400's adjustable double- headband system combines strength and rigidity even
as it evenly distributes the weight of the unit. Mesh -covered foam earpads are
mounted with a dual -swivel system so that they can be adjusted to individual head
shapes while providing the best possible performance and the greatest degree of
comfort. Price: $100.
Dynamic S.ereophone CIRCLE 60 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

58 Page 12 /GIZMO
Build a
10 -MHz
Frequency
Counter
A nyone interested in electronics high for one second, which prevents
sooner or later (usually sooner) additional input signals from entering
needs some sort of test equipment. Al- U'. That causes the count latched in U1's
most every electronics hobbyist has a internal counters to be transferred to
d gital or analog multimeter, but there the display.
are times when simple voltage, cur- Integrated circuit U2 pin 13 then
rent, and resi stance measurements just goes low for one second, allowing a
won't do. Sometimes, such as when new count to be entered into the seven
working with digital circuits, a frequen- f decade counters of U1. That cycle is
cy measurement is needed. That's the repeated, continuously updating the
time when you need an oscilloscope new display every two seconds.
or frequency counter. When U2 pin 11 is taken to the
Unfortunately, a low -end oscillo- positive supply rail ( + 5V), the "store"
1 Hz-IOMHs
scope or a frequency counter will cost and "reset" pulses occur at 0.2- second
E

$ 200 to $ 300, or more; that's more than FREQ CTR intervals, resulting in a 0.1- second cou-
many beginning hobbyists want to nt period. Ten input pulses must be
spend. Unless, of course, it is a Popular counted in order for a '1" to appear on
Electronics 10 -MHz Frequency Coun- 1111111M111111 the first digit, D1, so the frequency
ter! Built around three integrated cir- being measured is obviously ten times
cuits, that useful instrument can toe put larger than the frequency that is shown
together for about $ 40 by anyone who Pwa s ee on the display.
is reasonably adept at soldering. In that mode, the decimal points are
driven by R1 and visually indicate that
Circuit Operation. Figure shows the
1 the 0.1- second count period is being
schematic diagram of the 10 -MHz Fre- Need a frequency used.
quency Counter. The circuit consists of
an ICM7208 seven-decade counter counter that won't Display. The display must have at
(U1), an ICM7207A oscillator controller least seven 7- segment common -cath-
(U2), ana a CA3130 biFET op -amp
cost a mine? ode multiplexed LED digits. Any com-
(U3). Integrated circuit Ui counts input This hobbyist -grade mon- cathode seven -segment display
signals, decodes them to 7- segment may be used, so no particular display
format, and outputs signals that are instrument is is specified. If the display chosen has
used to drive a 7 -digit display. more than seven digits, the extras are
Integrated circuit U2 provides the
just the ticket rot used. For example, the display
timing for U1, while U3 conditions the for budding techs on a used in the author's prototype, which
input signal to provide a suitable was salvaged from an old calulator,
waveform for input to Ui. The 5.24288 - tight budget! has nine digits, only seven of which are
MHz crystal frequency is divided by U2 used in this project.
to produce a 1280-MHz multiplexing PAUL AMAN Don't be put off by the term "multi-
signal at pin 12 of U2. That signal is plexed." Multiplexed simply means
input to U` at pin 16 and is used to scan duce a short "store" pulse at pin 2 of that all like segments of all digits are
the display digits in sequence. L2, followec (after about 0.4 millise- connected by a single conductor, and
The cathodes of each digit are conds) by a short "reset" pulse at pin 14 that the cathodes of all segments of
taken to ground several times each of U2. The frequency of the pulses is any one digit are connected to a
second, activating any segments of determined by the state of U2 pin 11. common terminal. That's accom-
the digits whose anodes are high as When pin 11 of U2 is taken to ground plished by a printed circuit within the
the result of decod ng by U1. The crystal through S1, the pulses occur every 2 display and limits the number of wires
frequency Is further divided to pro- seconds and cause U2 pin 13 to go or traces needed to operate the dis-

59
+5V
source ground to each of the other
dp R2 TEMP. pins in sequence. If any segment lights,
o 7.10K jY JUMPER the pin at the resistor is the anode for all
o 0 o (SEE TEXT)
R1
like segments in all digits and the pin at
10 23 27
4. 500e
1 7
ground is the common cathode for the
OSCOUT .1 SEC
+V
`-v ---' a
28
17o digit with the lighted segment.
RAPID b
XTAL1 R3 Soo- TEST 15o Repeat that procedure to identify all
RANGE
5.24288 MHz- 10MEG
segments and cathodes by moving
6
1SECy d ?o MUX
OSCIN
a
SEGMENTS the resistor to the other pins. Make a
Cl C2 STO STORE 26o record similar to that shown in Fig. 1-b
XISEE TEXT) 22pF
MUX 12 16
18o for use as a reference during circuit
MUX3
OUT
assembly. If no segments light, but do
+5V 13 13 COUNT 21
GATE D1 light when the source leads are re-
J1 C3 22
R4 ENABLE
14 14 02
IN .22
33K RST 24 versed, the unit is a common -anode
W RESET 03

+5V t R6
1MEG
U2
7207A
+5V 9 OISP. EN.
U1
D4
05
-0
s-0
5
COMMON
CATHODES
type and is not suitable for use in the
counter. Do not discard the display;
OSCILLATOR 7200 06 make a record and save the display
R5 R7 CONTROLLER 7 DECADE
10
3.3K 4.7K
D7 for some other project.
COUNTER
VW Wf
R9
2.2K - ."' C4 R8
470K
id52 IN
12 4
Power Supply. When all digits are lit,
the circuit draws about 160 milliamps.
A 5 -volt bench supply that is rated at
more than ampere may be used,
1
Fig. I. The IO -MHz Frequent_' Counter consists of Ul, an ICM7208
seven- decade counter: U2, an ICM7207 oscillator controller: and U3, a CA3/ 30
however, a heavy -duty 6 -volt battery
biFET op -amp. The display for the circuit can be any seven -digit, seven -segment with a 1- ampere diode connected in
common -cathode multiplexed unit. series with one of the leads will work,
and makes the unit portable.
play. Such units may be salvaged from used to illustrate the multiplexing con- Space is available on the circuit
an appropriate old calculator or pur- cept, there are two common -cathode board (at the top) to mount a 5 -volt
chased from electronic surplus stores. terminals, pins 3 and 14; since the two regulator and capacitors, if desired. If
A multiplexed display can also be pins are internally connected, only a regulator is used, a 6- to 9 -volt AC
fabricated from discrete seven -seg- one of those terminals need be con- adaptor may be used to supply the
ment display modules as shown in Fig. nected to the circuit in order for the basic DC voltage. To preclude
2. More display modules can be add- display to function properly, although damaging the integrated circuits, U1
ed as needed. Duplicating the display connecting both would not cause any and U2 must be powered up before or
shown in Fig. 2 is easy; simply connect problems. While the pinouts may vary simultaneously with the application of
all like pins in parallel as shown. For from one display type to another, the input signals to U3. The entire circuit is
example, pin 1 of the first seven -seg- concept remains the same. designed to be powered by one com-
ment unit-which, for this particular If you opt to go with a salvaged dis- mon supply.
display, is segment "a " -is connected play unit, it will be necessary to deter-
to pin of all the other modules. Pin 3 is
1 mine the pinout and configuration; Assembly. See Fig. 3. The author's
the common -cathode connection -it common cathode or common anode. prototype of the 10 -MHz Frequency
is not connected to the other pin 3 ter- To test a salvaged display when the Counter was built on a universal
minals in the set-which is used as the pinout is not known, temporarily con- printed- circuit board (Radio Shack
digit- driver (D1-D7) input. nect a 1000 -ohm resistor from a 5- to 9- catalog number 276 -170). Note that
Note that for the display modules volt source to pin 1, then touch the the horizontal holes in Fig 3 are la-
e te
dp o oodp
f0
ao oa
I
La 2,
CC
14 14
L 14 14
3 2 13 2 13 2 13
TO
ADDITIONAL o-sc'f
f3 a b
11
o3 f b o3 O71 fob TO
DISPLAY 'bo 111 11
11 > SEGMENT
eiol 10 e c 10 10 el lc
MODULES
- 6
7
dp a
d
c
BNC
6
7
d
8 NC
6
7
NC 6
7
d
10
NC
DRIVERS

do 1 1 1 1 od
co oc
00
Ob
o o O
D4 03
V
TO DIGIT DRIVERS
Fig. 2. A multiplexed display can he fabricated from discrete seven -segment display
modules by connecting all like pins in parallel. For example, pin I of the first seven -
segment unit connects to pin I all the otter modules.

60
04
1 SEC
003 02 D1
O O O

+5V

-Jer-r rr

} U2

--
U1

J J
_.-
3
IJ
-R4-+
C3
--
r-R7
I

--
f T
R9 C4
GND c IJ

J1
d e 06 05 07
Fig. 3. Here is the parts -placement diagram, for the author's prototype of the 10 -MH= and S2), and the display on the front
Frequency Counter. It was assembled on a to rirer.cal printed -circuit board. Note that the panel of the case. The circuit board
display is trot shown in tlw la)'ouct. However: by f iocring the connection scheme outlined in
may be trimmed to about 5- inches
Fig. 2. almost any common- cathode display can be used with the circuit.
long to keep case size at a minimum.
beled A through J and that the vertical Use a nibbling tool to cut an open-
holes are number through 47. Col-
1
PARTS LIST FOR THE ing for the display, but do not secure
10 -MHZ FREQUENCY COUNTER the display to the case until wires from
umns of holes designated X and Y are
the 4 5V and ground buses, respec- the board have been connected. If a
SEMICONDUCTORS
tively. trimmer capacitor is used for C1, as will
U1- 1CM7208 seven -decade counter,
Carefully locate the positions of the integrated circuit be discussed later, drill a hole at the
IC's and mark the pin 1 holes with a felt - U2- ICM7207A oscillator controller. proper location to allow for any adjust-
tipped pen. For example, pins 1 of U1, integrated circuit ments without removing the front pan-
U2, and U3 are located in holes 19G, U3- CA3I30 biFET op -amp, integrated el of the enclosure.
10F, and 37F, respectively. It's a good circuit
idea to use sockets (as the author did) RESISTORS Testing. To rapid -test the circuit with a
for the IC's; aside from making IC re- (All resistors are %a watts, 5% units. frequency that is less than 100 Hz, use a
placement easier, doing so also pre- unless otherwise noted.) temporary jumper to take U1 pin 7, 23,
vents possible damage to those parts RI-500-ohm or 27 to + 5V as indicated by the
during soldering. R2- 10.000 -ohm dashed line shown in Fig. 1. Integrated
After the sockets have been R3- 10- megohm circuit U1 then applies the count to all
mounted in the proper locations, install R4- 33.000 -ohm digits higher than D2.
the jumper connections (designated R5-3300 -ohm Data for U2 indicates that C1 may be
R6-I- megohm a trimmer, however, a 22 -pF fixed -disc
J) guided by Fig. 3. The horizontal jum-
R7-4700-ohm
pers may be bare wire, all others R8-470,000 -ohm capacitor is satisfactory for most ap-
should be insulated to prevent shorts. R9 -2200 -ohm plications, and provides accuracy to
Next begin installing the support com- .005 %. If a closer tolerance is required,
CAPACITORS use a 6-50 -pF trimmer capacitor (such
ponents, starting with the resistors, then
CI -See text
the capacitors, and finally the crystal as a Radio Shack 272 -1340). Set the
C2- 22 -pF, ceramic disc
range switch to second, apply the
(XTAL1). C3-0.22 -1F. ceramic disc 1

Solder extra -long color -coded wires 50 -WVDC, subminiature multiplexing frequency from U2 pin 12
to the board for the off -board compo- electrolytic to the input of U3, and adjust the trim-
nents. Then, as the positions of the off - mer for a readout of 1280 Hz.
ADDITIONAL PARTS AND MATERIALS
board components are established
with respect to the case, cut the wires
il-
SI-
Miniature closed- circuit phono jack
Single -pole, double -throw toggle
Frequency Counting. When S1 is in
to the proper length and solder them switch the 1- second position, the count range
to the components. If you suspect that S2-Single -pole, single -throw is Hz toi MHz and can be read directly
1

the wires will interfere with IC installa- momentary-contact pushbutton switch from the display. When S1 is in the 0.1-
tion, insert the IC's before soldering the XTALI- 5.24288 -MHz crystal second position, the count range is 10
wires to the off-board components. Universal printed -circuit board; seven - Hz to 10 MHz. The number then appear-
digit. seven :segment, common - ing on the display is''Vio the frequency
cathode, multiplexed. LED display being measured. (1 kHz appears as
Enclosure. Any suitable case may be
(see text); enclosure; IC sockets; 100).
drafted to house the finished circuit. power source (see text): wire; solder:
Mount the power- supply terminals or When a new frequency is being
hardware; etc.
jack, the input jack, the switches (S1 (Continued on page 103)
it Use this handy BASIC
1000 'GRAPHER.BAS PROGRAM. FOR THE
LISTING 1- GRAPHER.BAS

program to transform 1010 '


F'

1020 CLEAR SCREEN 0,0,0,0


: COLOR 10,0,0 :

abstract equations into 1030


1040
WIDTH 80 CLS
:

PI = 3.14159265
KEY OFF :

1050
tangible graphs!
'

1060 PRINT "*********************************** * * * * * * * * * * * ** * * * ** *** *** * * ** **"


1070 PRINT "* *"
1080 PRINT "* GRAPHER.BAS *"

I
1090 PRINT "* *"
BY JAMES E. TARCHINSKI 1100 PRINT "* (c) 1988 by James E. Tarchinski *"
1110 PRINT "* *"
1120 PRINT "*********************************** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *"
1130 COLOR 11
1140 PRINT
1150 PRINT " This program is a plotting utility that allows users to"
ver the years "A picture is worth a 1160 PRINT "plot mathematical functions. If you wish to print out these"
41 thousand words" has become just 1170 PRINT "graphs, you may do so by using the 'SHIFT -PrtSC' function"
1180 PRINT "of the computer."
another trite cliche. But in the world of 1190 PRINT
1200 PRINT " Before this program is run, however, you must modify the"
electronics, it certainly is the truth. 1210 PRINT "print values in Lines 7000 - 7160. You must also define the"
As an example of how valuable pic- 1220 PRINT "two functions that you wish to plot, which may be entered as"
1230 PRINT "subroutines starting at Lines 8000 and 9000."
tures can be in electronics, consider 1240 PRINT "
for a moment the schematic diagram. 1250 PRINT " If you have not yet made these modifications, press the"
1260 PRINT "'E' key to exit the program...."
A schematic is nothing more than a 1270 PRINT "
pictoral representation of an elec- 1280
1290
LOCATE 23,1
'
COLOR 7: PRINT "Press any key ('E' to break)... ";
:

tronic circuit. Without such diagrams, 1300 IN$= INKEYS:IF INS<> "" THEN GOTO 1300
1310 IN$= INKEYS:IF INS= "" THEN GOTO 1310
we would be forced to describe even 1320 CLS :IF INS = "E" OR INS = "e" THEN END
the simplest of networks by using 1330
1340
'

'

pages and pages of text: "A Ya -watt, 1350 ' INITIALIZE VARIABLES 6 SCREEN ***** ***** **
1360
330 -ohm resistor is connected be- 1370
'

SCREEN 2 CLS: 'enter graphics mode


tween the output buffer of the 555 timer 1380 LINE (76,12) -(76,172)
1390 LINE -(636,172)
and the positive 5 -volt terminal of the 1400 '

main power supply..." 1410 FOR I =76 TO 636 STEP 56 : LINE (I,170)- (I,174) NEXT : I
1420 FOR I =12 TO 172 STEP 16 : LINE (74,I)- (78,I) NEXT I :

1430 '

1440 GOSUB 7000 'get graph values


The Graph. Schematics aren't the 1450 '

only pictures that aid the electronic 1460 IF LEN(T1S)>60 THEN T1S= LEFTS(T1S,60) 'limit to 60 characters
1470 IF LEN(T2$)>60 THEN T2$= LEFTS(T2S,60)
hobbyist; there are also graphs. 1480 IF LEN(XS)>60 THEN XS= LEFTS(X$,601
Graphs are excellent for conveying 1490 C= 44- INT(LEN(T1$) /2) LOCATE 1,C PRINT T1S;
: :

1500 C= 44- INT(LEN(T2S) /2) LOCATE 2,C PRINT T2$;


: :

the relationship between two or more 1510 C= 44- INT(LEN(X$) /2) LOCATE 24,C PRINT XS:
: :

1520
variables, such as how a voltage 1530
'

L= LEN(YS) : IF L>18 THEN L =18


changes with respect to time in an AC 1540 FOR I =1 TO L
1550 LOCATE I.2,1 : PRINT MIDS(YS,I,1); 'print y -axis lable
network. Essentially, graphs transform 1560 NEXT I
1570
very abstract mathematical equa- 1580
'

DY= (YMAX -YMIN) /10


tions into a visual pattern that our 1590 FOR I =0 TO 10 ' lable y -axis loop
1600 J= YMIN +I *DY
minds can easily process and corn - 1610 LOCATE (22 -2 *I PRINT USING ". # # # #, #I
prehend.
While graphs are generally very
easy to interpret and understand, they Grapher is BASIC -language pro - gram and typing in RUN and RETURN, you
are not always so easy to create. Start- gram for PC's that plots one or two should see a page of text appear on
ing with a blank sheet of paper, you .mathematical functions on a high res- the screen. In it are instructions on how
must first draw the two axis and divide olution screen. There are no scales to to use the program. For testing pur-
each of them into an appropriate calculate, no points to plot by hand, poses, disregard the warning about
scale. Next you plot anywhere from and no curves to draw. All you need to making modifications and press the
five to fifty, or more, points, depending do to get high -quality graphs is to space bar to continue.
on exactly what it is that you are trying modify several constants in the pro- If you have entered the program
to graph. Lastly, you connect the points gram, enter the mathematical equa- correctly, you should see the text page
with a smooth curve and hope that the tions to be plotted, and then run the replaced with a graph carrying the
end result is worth the time it took to program -Grapher will do the rest. very technical sounding title: "THIS IS
draw. Sometimes it's worth the effort THE FIRST TITLE LINE OF THE
and you are pleased with the results. ;king Grapher. To use Grapher, load GRAPH," followed by another title line.
Other times, however, you end up start- BASIC into your computer, enter Listing The title lines are a good example of
ing the process over and thinking that and immediately save the program the program's frills. When using the pro-
there has to be a better way. Well, now to disk to protect yourself in case of a gram, you will replace those lines with
there is a better way: GrapherBas! system crash. After loading the pro- the title of your particular graph. You

62
screen. In lines 7070 and 7080, XMIN
LISTING 1 (continued) and XMAX are defined in the same
manner for use with the graph's X -axis.
1620 NEXT I
1630 '
Simply modify the values (before you
1640 JS =STRS(XMAX) : LOCATE 23,81 -LEN(JS) : PRINT JS; run the program) to accommodate
1650 DX- (XMAX- XMIN) /10
1660 FOR I =0 TO 8 STEP 2 ' lable x -axis loop the range of the variable you wish to
1670 J =XMIN +I *DX
1680 LOCATE 23,7 +I *7 : PRINT USING " +#$*.* ";J plot.
1690 NEXT I Although any values for XMIN and
1700
1710 ** ****** ** MAIN PLOTTING SECTION XMAX will generally work, sometimes
1720
1730
'

(XMAX XMIN) 560


you may select values of YMIN and
SX = - /
1740 ' YMAX such that the points Grapher
1750 FOR ML =1 TO 2
1760 FOR X = XMIN TO XMAX STEP SX
needs to plot are outside of the range
1770 IF ML =1 THEN GOSUB 8000 ELSE GOSUB 9000 displayed on the screen. The result of
1780 IF Y<YMIN OR Y>YMAX THEN 1820 'out of range, next value
1790 PY = 172 - (Y -YMIN) * 160 / (YMAX - YMIN) that is that no points will appear on the
1800 PX = 76 + (X -XMIN) * 560 / (XMAX - XMIN) screen when the program is run. That
1810 IF X =XMIN THEN LINE (PX,PY) -(PX,PY) ELSE LINE -(PX,PY)
1820 NEXT X would be the first place to look for mis-
1830 NEXT ML AMP'
1840 '
takes if your graphs do not appear as
1850 INS =INKEYS:IF INS< > "" THEN GOTO 1850 you expect them to.
1860 IN$= INKEYS:IF IN$= "" THEN GOTO 1860
1870 IF INS<> "E" AND INS< > "e" THEN 1850 'push E to exit loop The variable Y$ in line 7050 is assign-
1880
1890
END ed a value to be used as the title of the
graph's Y -axis, and the variable XS of
'

1900 '

7000 == PLACE CONSTANT VALUES HERE


7010
'

'
=
line 7100 is used for the title of the X-
7020 YMIN = -1.5 'minimum y value axis. Similarly, the program has two
7030 YMAX = 1.5 'maximum y value
7040 'place y -axis title below (18 characters, max.) lines associated with the main title
7050 YS = "THIS IS THE Y- AXIS" (7130 and 7140), and those lines assign
7060
values to variables T1$ and T2S.
'

7070 XMIN = -360 'minimum x value


7080 XMAX = 360 'maximum x value To modify the four labels to fit your
7090 'place x -axis lable below (60 characters, max.)
7100 X$ = "THIS IS THE GRAPH'S X- AXIS" own graphs, merely change the string
7110
7120
'

'place two title lines below (60 characters, max.) values to whatever text you would like
7130 T1S = "THIS IS THE FIRST TITLE LINE OF THE GRAPH" to see on the graph. Because the pro-
7140 T2S = "(And this is the second title line)"
7150 '
gram automatically centers the title
7160
7170
RETURN
'
and axis labels, there is no need to
7180 ' "pad" the strings with extra spaces.
8000 == ____ PLACE FUNCTION #1 BELOW =___
When entering the variables, be care-
8010 '

8020 Y = SIN(X *(PI /180)) ful not to exceed the maximum al-
8030
lowable lengths; the Y -axis label can
'

8040 RETURN
8050
8060
'

'
be up to 18 characters long, while the
9000 ' --- -- PLACE FUNCTION #2 BELOW other three strings can be up to 60
9010
9020 Y
'

= 1.2 *SIN(X *(PI /180) +30 *(PI /180)) characters in length.


9030 '
The last thing you must do before
9040 RETURN
Grapher can plot your functions is to
type into the program the functions
you want to plot. To do that, you need
will also change other labels shown on editor (with the "OK" prompt dis- to enter each function as a subroutine,
the screen. We'll describe how to played). one starting at line 8000 and one at
make those modifications a little later. 9000. Your subroutines should always
A moment or two after the title ap- The Program. Having looked at an return a value in the variable Y for
pears, if you've entered the program example of the type of chart Grapher every value of X that is used by the
correctly, a graph similar to the one is capable of producing, let's discuss routine; that is, every value of X that is
shown in Fig. should materialize on 1 how you can modify the program to between XMIN and XMAX.
your screen. The graph is a plot of two graph the functions that you'd like to In Listing 1, Function is a simple sine -
1

sinewaves having the some frequen- see displayed. wave with an amplitude of one and a
cy, but different magnitudes and Let's analyze lines 7000 -7140 of the phase angle of zero. Function 2 is also
phase ongles. program, looking at the sample graph a sinewave, but with an amplitude of
When the plotting process is com- shown in Fig. 1. Notice first of all that the 1.2 and a 30" phase angle. Please
plete, the program begins running a variables YMIN and YMAX of the pro- keep in mind that BASIC assumes all
loop that is constantly looking for a gram, which are defined by lines 7020 angles are in radians. Because the
press of the E key. Once E has been and 7030, are used to specify the mini- variable X is in degrees, the ratio
pressed, the program halts execution mum and maximum values of the Y 'r /180 is used to convert degrees into
and returns you to the BASIC language variable that will be displayed on the radians.
63
located, is punishable by a simple er-
THIS IS THE FIRST TITLE LINE OF THE GRAPH ror message, the halting of program
+1.58 (And this is the second title line)
execution, or the plotting of an incor-
T
H +1.28
rect graph.

S +8.99 Program Description. From Listing 1,


it can be seen that Grapher is com-
+8.68 posed of three main sections of code
S
and three "support" areas. The code
+8.38
T
sections are: 1) program initialization;
H +8.98 2) screen and variable initialization; 3)
E
1 the main plotting section. The three
-8.38 support areas, which have already
7 been discussed, are: 1) the constant
-8.68
values section; 2) Function definition
1
A
X -8.98
area; 3) Function 2 definition area.
1
A general description of each of the
S -1.20 six segments of the program follows.
For those readers who are more inter-
-1.58 I 1
ested in a line -by-line description of
-368.8 -216.8 + -72.8 +72.8 +216.8 368 how Grapher works, please refer to Ta-
THIS IS THE GRAPH'S X -AXIS
ble 1, which contains such a descrip-
Fig. 1. The two sinenoves shown here are the "dcftule' functions. To display your con tion.
functions and label the axis modify graphes as described in the text. Program initialization takes place in
lines 1000 -1340. This section starts by
clearing the program's variables and
EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS displaying one screen of instructions.
+18.88 (For the second example) Then, in lines 1280 -1320, the user is al-
V
lowed to gracefully exit the program if
0 +9.00
L
they have not modified the print values
1 +8.88 in lines 7000 -7160, or if they have not
A entered the functions they wish to plot
G +7.88 as subroutines starting at lines 8000
E and 9000.
+6.88 In the next section of the program,
from line 1350 to line 1700, both the
+5.88
V
program variables and the screen are
o +4.89 initialized. This section takes care of
1 drawing and labeling the graph's
t +3.88 axes, displaying the titles of the axes,
s and displaying the title of the graph as
+2.99
a whole.
The last section of code, the part
+1,88
that handles the actual graphing of
+8,88Y the functions, is contained in lines
+8.8 +1.8 +2,8 +3.8 +4.8 5 1710 -1900. An outer FOR -NEXT loop,
TINE (in seconds) which begins on line 1750, is used to
Fig. 2. This is another example of the Grapher program's output. Lines 7000-9040 of step through each of the two functions
Grapher were modified as shown in Listing 2 on page 100 to allow the program to produce the in turn. An inner FOR -NEXT loop begins
graph shown in this illustration.
on line 1760 and its purpose is to step
through each pixel (or "dot ") on the X-
As an example of how to modify the listed below could be used to plot a 2- axis from the minimum X value (XMIN)
program to use other functions, Fig. 2 volt sinewave that has been clipped to to the maximum value (XMAX).
shows another set of plots generated + 1.75 volts.
by Grapher: the rising and falling ex- More Words. Grapher's charts do not
8020 Y= 2 *SIN (X *(PI /80))
ponential functions. Listing 2 shows the fill the entire PC screen, but rather use
8024 IF Y> I.75 THEN Y = 1.75
modifications necessary to to gener- an area that is 160-pixels high by 560 -
8028 IF Y< -1.75 THEN Y = -1.75
ate that graph. pixels long, for a total of:
Keep in mind that the functions de- 8040 RETURN
160 x 560 = 89,6000 pixels
scribed by the subroutines don't have Another important point to re-
to be just one line long, they just have member is that subroutines must al- Because the PC uses a method of dis-
to return a single value of Y for every ways end with a RETURN statement. playing graphics known as bit -map-
value of X in the range from XMIN to Failure to include that statement, de- ing (every pixel is represented by a
XMAX. For example, the subroutine pending on where it is supposed to be (Continued on page 100)
64
What modern semiconductor you won't need the tape itself. (I found
technology has done to mini- cassette tapes at three for a dollar at
aturize electronic devices in recent the local discount store.)
years is quite amazing. Take small To begin, the metal tab will be used
handheld scanners and ham trans- to mount the coil. Next, take the car-
ceivers for instance. Handheld units will tridge apart and throw out the tape
do most everything that the larger ta- and little rollers, etc. If there is a small
ble models will do. But, there is one
area where they are lacking, at least
for some applications.
Build flat metal plate behind the metal tab,
throw it away too. Next, remove the
small metal tab that the foam pad is
I recently bought a handheld two-
meter ham transceiver, which decid-
I

ed to use as a mobile rig. It has one


The glued to, and wrap one layer of mask-
ing tape, or any thin adhesive -type
tape, around the foam or felt pad. The
drawback though: The audio output
and the tiny little speaker work just fine
in a relatively quiet environment; but
AUDIO purpose of that is to cover the sharp
edges of the attached metal piece.
Next, wind between 200 and 400 turns
there is nowhere near enough sound
coming out of the little rig to overcome
vehicle noise and road noise
COUPL of no. 36 or no. 40 enameled wire
around the tab and pad. It takes
about about -Y2 feet of wire.
1

for mobile applications. What That wire is very fine and very
could do?I easy to break, so be careful.
The first thought to come You can salvage some out
to mind was to build a of an old speaker, ear-
small amplifier and phone, a small toy motor,
speaker unit to be or even a small audio
mounted somewhere in transformer. It may not
my small automobile. be necessary to use wire
Bad idea, the car is too as small as I used. Larger
cramped already. Then wire may require more
another thought struck: turns though, and there is
simply mount some kind of switch and Add an audio input to any not a whole lot of room for the coil if it is
jumpers in the existing radioitape- too large. After the coil is wound, ap-
player so could use the audio ampli-
I
cassette deck without ply a small amount of quick -drying ep-
fier and speakers already in the car;
altering the unit oxy cement to hold the coil in its place.
that was another bad idea. The car's Next prepare a length of two -lead
radio/tape-player is miniaturized, and in any way wire or shielded cable by connecting
permanently mounted. Putting a a phone plug on one end and tinning
switch and input wiring into the unit BY GREGORY R. MCINTIRE the leads on the other. With a small file,
would be a big job. Finally arrived at
I saw, or hot knife, cut a small notch in
the perfect solution: Simply input the the cassette cartridge in a spot where
handheld's audio into the existing tape (SEE TEXT)
the wire can enteriexit the cartridge
FROM 1.1
player at the same place that a cas- DEVICE
R1
1012
without interference from the tape
sette tape does-via the tape head! player. Also, it should be located so
All that is required, is to place a
Fig. I. The terminals to the unit should that when the tape cartridge is
small coil of wire in an audio cassette - he connected to the appropriate plug for plugged into the tape player, the ca-
tape body. The small coil must be the device you wish to amplify. ble will protrude from the end of the
mounted so that it fits snugly against cartridge that is closest to the player
the tape head in the tape -player. The opening. Most automobile tape play-
wires from the ends of the coil are then ers that have seen leave one end of
I

connected to the audio output of the the cassette sticking out in the open. If
scanner, handi -talkie, or any other au- your tape player completely consum-
dio device that needs a little more This is the proper position Jiff the coil. es a cassette, you may be able to use
power. a thin flat wire that can be routed so
PARTS LIST FOR THE AUDIO that it exits the tape -player opening
Construction. You'll need to find an COUPLER without too much stress.
old cassette tape held together with Now drill a small hole in the cassette
small screws. Also the cassette car- LI- 200--4(0-turns of No. 36 or 40 cartridge right behind the metal tab so
tridge must have a small flat metal tab enameled wire that the tiny wires from the coil can
with foam or felt on it (normally used to RI -l0 -ohm. 1/4-watt resistor pass through it into the body of the
prss the tape against the tape head) Cassette -tape housing (sec text). fast-dry- cartridge.
as opposed to the type that only has a ing epoxy cement. shielded audio Remove the enamel coating at the
piece of thick foam glued to the car- cable. phone plug (if necessary). etc. coil ends by passing them through a
tridge body. Hunt for a bargain since (Continued on page 101)
Sound -Activated
iLj aleidoscopes have been popular
for ages, and over the years, a
DOS C0p12
provided you are located
of low humidity,
in an area
to use the brightly
is
wide variety of kaleidoscopes have Generate eye -catching colored particles (sprinkles) that are
been developed. Most have de- used as cake and cookie decorations
pended on rotation of either the mir-
patterns that change in (high humidity would cause the sprin-
rors, or particles imaged in them, to cadence with an audio kles to bond together).
provide a multiplicity of changing pat-
terns. signal with this sound - Construction. Begin construction by
the 1950's, a kaleidoscope in
In
activated kaleidoscope cutting two pieces of cardboard or
which the particles were caused to plastic to about 2- by -3'/4 inches. Be
move in cadence with music was sure they are the same length and wid-
shown on television. The Sound-Acti- BY DR. DON H. ANDERSON
th; they'll be used to form the reflecting
vated Kaleidoscope, described in this surfaces in the kaleidoscope. Apply
article, accomplishes the same thing the foil to the cardboard or plastic.
using readily available materials. Use thin transparent plastic film to
The kaleidoscope can be built to be provide the window area. Be sure that
viewed directly, and sound (be it from the film is stiff enough to hold the mirrors
radio, tape recorder, or the human in position after cementing, without
voice) can be used to move the parti- buckling. The clear film is the window
cles. It can also be coupled to a musi- through which the display will be pho-
cal instrument through a contact tographed if you use a video camera.
microphone. If you make a projection unit, the win-
I've had the greatest success when I dow will be used to illuminate the par-
coupled the kaleidoscope to an elec- ticles.
tric organ and projected the image of For assembly, a support can be
the moving particles on a screen in made by gluing two pieces of corru-
front of the organist. The heart of that gated cardboard together with the
unit was a small speaker. Sltrnvn here is the projection lens mounted
corrugations at right angles. The win-
in a cardboard tube ready for installa-
tion on a cloth -covered cardboard base.
dow material is cut about 7/8 -inch
Getting Started. For your first experi- wider than the mirror panels, but of
ment, Isuggest that you use a 4 -inch plastic sheeting. The surface that holds equal length.
speaker that has a well suspended the reflective foil should be as free Refer to Fig. 1. As shown, one of the
cone. The speaker cone is expected to from defects as possible because the mirror panels is pinned to establish the
bear the weight of the mirrors and the film will bring out any the defects in the spacing of the parts during cement-
mount, which may result in severe dis- surface. ing. Pinning the window material down
tortion if the speaker cone is not rug- Because the unit is to be experimen- (as shown in Fig. 2.) allows the two mir-
ged enough. tal, its assembly need not be super crit- ror panels to be properly arranged.
The mirrors are, ideally, of front sur- ical. The mirrors, angled at 60 , are Two pieces of masking tape placed
faced thin glass or plastic. Front sur- mounted on a thin aluminum plate, along the bottom and top edges serve
faced mirrors are available in a variety which is then mounted on a small pa- as a temporary support during the ce-
of sizes and thicknesses. To help deter- per cylinder. That assembly is then menting process.
mine mirror size, it is suggest that you glued to the cone of the speaker. Place a small amount of five -minute
build an experimental unit using re- For particles, crumpled bits of alumi- epoxy cement along the joints. Be
flective foil. Many art stcres sell reflec- num foil-either plain or colored (like careful that the cement does not get
tive foil by the foot. It is easily peeled florists use) -works well. Bits of plastic on the mirrored surfaces. The first coat
from its substrate and transferred to a insulation from some brightly colored must be solid and completely dry be-
piece of very smooth cardboard or wire can be used. Another alternative, fore the second coat is applied. Doing

66
TRANSPARENT
Be particularly careful around the card stock: A 5- by 7 -inch index card
FRONT WINDOW PINS apex of the unit. Any cement that runs works well. The cylinder is made by
inside will forever be a part of image of gluing 3 or 4 layers together to form a
the kaleidoscope's display. cylinder that's about 2 inches larger
For the base plate, use aluminum than the center of the speaker cone
sheeting. You can, if you wish, sub- and long enough to extend about Y2
stitute cardboard if all you are building inch above the edge of the speaker
is an experimental unit. Don't use plas- frame.
tic since it can build up static charges While that is drying, mount the ka-
that interfere with the free movement leidoscope to the top of the base
of the particles. plate. suggest that you use some cel-
I

MIRROR Cut the base plate about "A -inch lophane tape for the initial trials. You
PANEL larger than the kaleidoscope and give can cement the assembly in its final
it a coat of flat black spray paint. position later.
The kaleidoscope is cemented to After the paper cylinder is dry, find
the painted surface of the plate. The the balance point of the kaleidoscope
CORRUGATED CARDBOARD
TEMPORARY MOUNT
bottom is glued to the paper cylinder. by placing it on a finger and moving it
DURING CEMENTING Since white glue and aluminum are around. Glue the paper cylinder at
FIMPinningWnirror panel to et not compatible, a self- sticking label that point. When the joint is thoroughly
tern wy mount Itelps to establish was placed on the bottom of the alu- dry, glue the assembly to the speaker
the spacing of the parts. minum plate to provide a surface to cone. If you ever wish to remove the
which the glue would adhere. unit, you'll find that a razor blade or
Make the cardboard cylinder from very sharp knife allows you to break

PROJECTOR LENS OR
SIMPLE LENS IN A
CARDBOARD TUBE. '

1 MASKING TAP!
Fig. 2. lieu pieces of maskutelnpFplaced
LENS MOUNT SLIPS IN THIS
CARDBOARD TUBE.

along the bottom and top edges of the mir-


ror panels serve as a temporary support RUBBER BAND

during the cementing process.


ENLARGMENT FOR
SUPPORT ON BASE PLATE
MATERIALS FOR THE SOUND -
AM,
ACTIVATED KALEIDOSCOPE IMIL.

Small speaker (size not critical)


Front surfaced mirrors or reflective foil
BASE PLATE TWO LAYERS
Plastic sheeting or smooth cardboard (%- OF CORRUGATED BOARD
inch thick)
Fig. 3. A lens from a slide projector can be held in place by a cardboard tube wound
Clear plastic, rigid (thickness not
tightly around the lens. That assembly is placed inside another cardboard tube and
critical)
held in place by friction. supplied by a rubber band.
White glue
5- minute epoxy cement
Flat black spray paint
Stereo amplifier (optional, see text) SMALL SLIDE PROJECTOR
A small slide projector or halogen
flashlight
Projector lens or simple lens (4- to 6-
inch focal length)
Video camera extension microphone KALEIDOSCOPE UNIT

Note: Front surfaced mirrors are


available from Edmund Scientific
Company, 101 East Gloucester Pike,
Barrington, NJ 08007.

so ensures that the second coat won't


run inside the unit. Make sure that the
second coat is thick enough to pro-
WOODEN SUPPORT ANGLE
ABOUT 45 DEGREES
i
vide good mechanical stability with Fig. 4. A slide projector cesellrunted on a rack in such a nrty that the light
very rigid joints. is emitted at a 45- degree ang a tiro the apex of the kaleidoscope.

67
the joint between the base plate and BOLT AND WING NUT FLASHLIGHT
the cylinder.
When all joints are set, you can put C LAMPS
particles into the kaleidoscope unit
and test it with a small radio. You'll find
that the load of the kaleidoscope re-
sults in some audio distortion. With
some speakers, the distortion is so
small that it is of no concern.

Optics. The projection lens need not


have all the optical quality of a typical
slide projector lens. Since the ka-
leidoscope particles are in motion
and at times are flying above the sur-
face, the image is constantly chang-
ing in and out of focus. You might try
using a simple double convex lens as
a start.
Depending on the size of your ka-
leidoscope, you will need to use a lens
with a focal length of 4 to 6 inches. You
can try lenses from small hand magni- Fig. 5. Shown here are construction details for a typical experimental mount for
fiers or the so- called close up lenses a flashlight. Such an arrangement allows a flashlight to be used with either a
used with cameras. They usually have projection unit or a video camera.
the focal length marked on them. A
quick way to check your lens is to focus
the image of a distant object on a
white card. If the distance from the lens
to the card is about 4 to 6 inches, it's
worth a try.
Some ingenuity may be required to ORDINARY
mount the lens. If it is a loose lens, MIRROR

mount it in a cylinder made from sev- TRANSLUCENT OR


eral layers of card stock. A ring of FROSTED PLASTIC

cardboard glued on each side of the


lens will hold it securely in place. It is
OPENING
suggested that you build a model be-
fore building the final carrier. Your final
unit can be as professionally finished KALEIDOSCOPE
ROUND TUBE FITS ON
as your time and talent allow. TOP OF PROJECTION LENS
TUBE

If you are using a projection lens


Fig. 6. When projecting the image onto
from a small slide projector, it can be a wall screen, the tube is used to hold
held in place using the method illus- a mirror at a 45- degree angle. Fig. 7. When video taping, only a rela-
trated in Fig. 3. The cardboard tube is
securely in place, a collar mounted to
f
tively small amount c light is required.
wound tightly around the lens, glued The light should he diffused. That can be
the assembly, and the whole thing accomplished by placing a piece of frost-
glued to a corrugated cardboard ed plastic between the flashlight and the
panel. When thoroughly dry, one or particles in the tube.
two slits are cut and a rubber band
provides the friction to hold the lens. flashlight containing a high- intensity
Details of the best way to hold the halogen bulb with satisfactory results.
panel above the kaleidoscope are A typical experimental mount is shown
difficult to give. frequently use corru-
I in Fig. 5. That mount or a similar ar-
gated cardboard for the box. Try using rangement of your own design allows
a small slide projector as the light the flashlight to be used with either the
source. The slide projector is mounted projection unit or for video taping.
on a rack, as shown in Fig. 4, so that the If you wish to project the image onto
light is emitted at a 45 degree angle a wall screen (see Fig. 6), the tube is
into the apex of the kaleidoscope. used to hold a simple mirror (taken
Trial and error with the lens at several from an old purse) at a 45 degree an-
This simple mount can be used to hold a positions and angles may be needed gle. When video taping, only a rela-
flashlight at almost any angle for video to optimize the conditions. For short tively small amount of light is needed. It
taping or projecting the images. projection distances, have used a
I (Continued on page 99)

88
Sei

A n adventure inside a flea market On the project bench or Also the power cord had been cut off
in the next state uncovered an near its entry point to the unit.
item that will be very useful at home under 'our Christmas tree, Everything else looked very good.
this Christmas. was on the trail for a Even the 5- ampere fuse was in good
I

few table -top antique radios, circa


this troubleshooting device shape. There appeared to be no short
1940's, when came upon an old auto -
I
from the vacuum -tube era cuts in the manufacturer's construction
transformer- commonly called a techniques. The unit was rigidly built
Variac, which is a trade name. An au- is just as important today. with solid Bakelite parts.
totransformer can take line voltage Ihooked up a power cord and gave
and vary it at its output from zero to the autotransformer the acid test -AC
140 -volts AC. The unit found was an
I few screws, and then gently slid the power. Without a load connected, the
import that was sold by Radio Shack in metal protective shell off. After clean- autotransformer took the voltage with-
the late 1950's; it had been dropped ing the case found repainting was not
I out any smoke. In fact, almost no heat
and slightly damaged. The deep dust necessary. was detected; so far, so good. A volt-
and dirt covering parts of it did not Inspection revealed that some plas- meter connected to the autotrans-
bother me- that's the easiest thing to tic parts were broken, and some of the former's output jack showed that the
take care of. bought the gadget for
I Bakelite pieces were still inside the unit. output could be varied from 0- to
three dollars (the seller drove a hard One of the leads to the transformer coil 140.4-volts when the input was rated at
bargain), and took my prize home.
I was yanked a bit, and the copper wire 115.1 volts AC (the AC power line was
that was wound on the toroidal core low that day). Next, added a two-
I

The Story Deepens. The following was stretched. That caused the wiper photoflood bank of lights and the au-
weekend had a chance to scrutinize
I contact at the top of the unit (where totransformer worked well with a 300 -
the autotransformer. removed the
I the selected AC voltage is tapped) to watt load. The variable -voltage tap
large control knob from the top, and a ride roughly over the top of the coil. worked well throughout most of the

69
fuse holder and AC outlet, and passed
AUTO the line cord to the outside, was
TRANSFORMER
Ti
broken beyond repair. That was not a
total loss, because was not satisfiedI

F1
5A Si with the two- terminal AC outlet used in
the original unit. wanted a three -ter-
I

BLACK'
minal outlet, and a strong contact sur-
WIPER face in the outlet to grab the prongs of
HOT
(BLACK)
NEUTRAL I the AC plug. So discarded the plastic
I

(WHITE)
117VAC piece and covered the opening in the
RED
cylindrical housing with a piece of
sheet metal cut from a 2 -pound coffee
can. The price of the can was certainly
WHITE right. The section had cut from it had
I

0- 140VAC ADJUSTABLE almost the same radius as the metal


shield, and its indented ribs (common
(GREEN)
GROUND S01, SO2
to coffee cans) made it very rigid. I

(CONNECTED IN drilled a hole through it and inserted a


PARALLEL) grommet in it to protect the insulation
Fig. I. Here is the wiring diagram for the modified autotransformer. The original fuse
of the wires to be passed through it. The
holder was reused. The power switch and two- terminal outlet were discarded. Colored metal was painted black before in-
insulated wires (black -hot, red - variable AC, and white- neutral) were attached to the short stallation, and, when finished, the fab-
f
leads on the stripped autotransformer to assist in goo proofing the final wiring. ricated cover looked as if it was
installed by the manufacturer.
range. was too chicken to take the
I The interconnecting leads from the
flood lamps above 130 volts. The re- autotransformer were too short to
sults of the tests convinced me that the reach an external electrical box, so
autotransformer was worth sprucing they were extended using color -co-
up and using. ded stranded wire. The splices were
soldered and electrically insulated
Fixing Up. began by fixing a bump
I with black plastic tape.
on the tapped coil where the 117-volt The rest was easy to do. A 6 x 12- x'/z-
AC power line is connected. That was in.hardboard (veneered on both sur-
easy to do. Every time tried to push it
I faces) was cut and the edges sanded
down and glue it in place, the turns smooth. Any Y2- to -in. board cut to a
1

popped back up again. That tech- convenient size will do. One idea is to
nique was not working so tied a thin I
Here's the autotransformer ripe for purchase a cutting board in a house-
leather shoelace to the tap point, and repair. With a little effort. it turned out wares store should you dislike wood-
added some weights until the weight to be a worthwhile test-bench tool. working.
was heavy enough to hold the bump
down. applied some epoxy to the
I

sides of the turns so that when the


weight was removed, the turns re-
mained in place. Do not ever put glue
or cement on the contact surface; the
wiper will fail to make electrical con-
tact, and the unit will not work properly.
The epoxy set in 24 hours, and the
bump was gone.
The next consideration was the
broken Bakelite parts. One mounting
leg of the autotransformer was gone;
broken off and lost forever. However,
the rest of the base was good, so I

decided that the remaining two legs


were sufficient to hold the autotrans-
former to a breadboard. If necessary, I

could have used epoxy to cement the


entire base to the board. A plastic tab
that was used to secure the cover to The autotransformer is a one -coil device wound on a cylindrical iron larm with the AC line
the base was floating around inside connected across the bottom of the roil and to a tap on a copper turn about 85% of the
the case, so affixed it with some ep-
I
distance from the first tap. A .sliding contact selects one of the coils to pick off an AC
oxy. voltage. The plastic piece hanging from the leads of the winding was discarded because it
The plastic piece that housed the was damaged and the .single outlet was neither polarized nor of the three- terminal type.

70
A broken -off part was joined to the lease
with epoxy. The piece. which was found
inside the iota, contains an embedded mu
used to secure the unit's shield.

Here's the autotransformer mounted on Ille hoard with the electrical hot mounted and
wired. Note that the fuse holder is easy io reach fin-fuse replacement.

board about one inch away. Two of


the box's circular knockouts were re-
moved and cable clamps were in-
stalled. A third knockout was removed
A piece of a two-pound coffee can was and the original fuse holder was in-
used to close up the hole left w the
stalled. The knockout hole was too
autotran.sfornu'r'.s safety .shield. The can
large for the fuse holder, so an over-
had an almost prrfecl curve and indented
ribs for reinlirrcernent. A hole wa.c drilled sized washer was placed on each
through it. Once the shield was complete. side of the hole and the fuse holder
it was .cpraved with a.flat black paint. was installed through them. Should you
After drying, a grommet was installed. wish to do that, do not over -tighten the More than just a Christmas -tree bulb
nut because the plastic fuse holder .curer. the autotransformer is used here to
breaks easily. If you can't find washers moutuer a jailing part in an old relic-a
of the right size, cut out two squares of Hallicrafters SX- SB shot-move receiver.
aluminum and drill a hole in the center
of each. One of them should be sized The first task designated to the au-
I

to fit neatly on the inside and one on totransformer was to discover a fault in
the outside of the electrical box. an antique tube -design Hallicrafters
cord and clamped it to the electrical SX-38-B shortwave receiver. The re-
box. The wires from the autotransform- ceiver operation was intermittent, but
er were passed into the box to begin the trouble never lasted long enough
the wiring of the box. In Fig. 1, as in all to locate the fault. Voltage was ap-
electrical circuits, the white wires are plied and cranked the autotransform-
I

ground and connect to the silvered er up to 127 -volts AC, when the fault
screw terminals on the AC outlet. The occurred and held. The problem was
black wire (it's electrically hot) from the then traced to a defective wax -paper
autotransformer goes to the fuse. The capacitor.
red wire from the wiper terminal is also A used autotransformer may be
hot and connects to the brass-screw hard to find when you are looking for
The lead.. of the cylindrical winding were terminal on the outlet. one. Mouser Electronics sells them in
loo short. Colored leads (a red. a black, different sizes and configurations. One
and a white) were added to make wiring
The Juice is On. powered up the
I unit listed in their catalog is a Staco
easy and goof peon /. The splices were
.soldered, and black plastic tape was used
autotransformer assembly after the Variable Transformer, catalog No.
to insulate the splices. fuse was installed. The original unit 563- 3PN501 which sells for $125.98; it is
called for a 5- ampere fuse, so used a
I comparable to the unit found.
I

Electrical Work. The autotransformer fuse rated at 5 amperes, however, a In a few weeks Christmas will be
was secured to the board with wood fuse that has a lower current rating can here and the autotransformer wily be
screws. A 4 -in. square electrical box be used. A voltage check at the AC put to work on the Christmas tree's
and a face plate for one duplex outlet outlet indicated an output 0 to 140 lights. Those miniature -bulb sets last
with toggle switch, was installed on the volts AC as the control knob was much longer when the voltage is down
I installed a new three -wire power moved through its range. to about 105-volts.

73
BOOLEAN
ALGEBRA and
LOGIC
CIRCUITS
BY LOUIS E. FRENZEL. JR.

Don' t let logic gates bar your ability to experiment with circuits

If you have followed this math series, gebra" scare you. Once you learn the
you know that we've spent a lot of jargon and the few simple fundamen- A O oB
time covering the math related to tals presented here, even complex cir-
basic electrical principles and elec- cuits will be easy for you. So, get ready A
tronic fundamentals. In this month's in- for a digital -logic refresher, then we will
stallment, we'll head out in another have some fun writing the Boolean INPUT OUTPUT
direction for a change of pace. We equations of a circuit and creating a A B

will discuss a type of math used with circuit from the equations. 0 1

digital -logic circuits. That math is 1 0

known as Boolean algebra. Review of Digital -Logic Circuits. At B

one time or another, you probably I. The simple inverter. A. is shown


Fi,>,'.
What's Boolean for? Boolean al- learned how basic logic circuits work. here with its little f ur- entre truth table.
gebra is a collection of simple mathe- If not, the following brief summary will
matical procedures used to represent bring you up -to -date. The review is
and express the logical operations also for those of you who need a re- a buffer -a circuit that directly passes
that go on in a digital circuit. Boolean fresher. a binary digit onto the next circuit with-
algebra is very similar to standard al- The three basic logic gates are the out changing the value. The circle at
gebra. The primary difference is that inverter, AND gate, and (DP gate. Two the output indicates inversion. So the
unlike standard algebra, in which vari- other widely used gates -the NAND digit passes through the buffer and is
ables can be any value, in Boolean and the NOR-are often derived from inverted at the gate's output. Note that
algebra only the values 0 and are 1 those basic gate circuits. All of the the input and output are labelled with
recognized. Besides that, most of the gate circuits process binary numbers letters. All logic signals are given a
basic rules of working with algebraic made up of 0's and l's. Binary 0 and name or designation. Here A is the in-
expressions apply. binary are represented by voltage
1 put and B is the output.
The big benefit of Boolean algebra levels. For example, a binary 0 may be Also shown in Fig. is a table that
1

is that it provides a way to express digi- indicated with zero volts (ground), shows all possible combinations of in-
tal -logic operations mathematically. while a binary may be indicated by
1 puts and outputs. The input, A, can be
Boolean equations can be written to + 5 volts. either a 0 or 1. The table shows the state
precisely describe how a logic circuit of the output, B, for each input state.
operates, which can help you to de- The Inverter. An inverter is a logic Such a table is called a truth table.
sign such circuits. Boolean algebra element with a single input and a sin- Truth tables are used to show what's
also provides a way to minimize the gle output. As its name implies, it inver- going on inside a logic circuit.
number of gates needed in a logic ts an input signal. A binary-0 input
circuit to simplify circuit design. That produces a output. A input gener-
1 1 AND Gate. An AND gate is a logic cir-
lowers overall cost, and can help re- ates a 0 output. The inverter always cuit with two or more inputs and a sin-
duce power consumption. produces an output that is the comple- gle output. The output is a binary if all1

Also, the equations can show at a ment of the input. Complement here inputs are binary 1. Otherwise, the out-
glance what is going on in a logic means opposite or reverse. You will put is binary O. The AND gate is often
circuit to aid you in troubleshooting. also hear the inverter referred to as a called a coincidence circuit because
As I've said in previous articles, don't NOT gate. the output will be binary only when all
1

let terms like "Boolean," "equation," The logic symbol for an inverter is inputs are simultaneously all binary 1.
"mathematical expression," or "al- shown in Fig. 1. The triangle represents The logic symbol for a two-input AND

74
gate is shown in Fig. 2A. The inputs are have more than two inputs. Integrated - As you learn the basic rules, keep in
A and B; the output is C. The shape of circuit AND gates typically have 2, 3, 4, mind that the binary signals to be pro-
the symbol designates its function. An 5, 8, or 13 inputs. cessed by the logic circuits are known
alternate symbol is given in Fig. 2B. The as variables. Variables are signals that
box designates the circuit while the OR Gate. An oR gate is also a logic can change value. Binary variables
ampersand ( &) indicates the gate's circuit with two or more inputs and a can have one of two values; those val-
function. single output. Its output is a binaryl if at ues are 0 and 1.
The truth table for a two -input AND least one of its inputs is binary 1. Other- Variables are usually given names
gate is shown in Fig. 2C. There are al- wise, the output is binary O. to distinguish them from one another.
ways 2N possible input combinations, The logic symbols and truth table for Letters of the alphabet are the most
where N is the number of inputs. With an oR gate are given in Fig. 3. Note that common, although numerous other al-
two inputs, there are: the "equal to or greater than 1" desig- pha or alphanumeric names are also
nation means the OR function. The truth used. Usually signals are given some
22 =4
table shows the output Z with the inputs variable name (mnemonic) that is sim-
different combinations. They are listed W, X, and Y. With three inputs, there ply a shorthand way of referring to the
in the truth table along with the result- are:
ing outputs. Note that the only time the
2N =23 =8 AO r\ oC
output (C) isl, is when both inputs arel.
Keep in mind that an AND gate may possible input combinations. As with
Bo ce,
A
AND gates, IC OR gates typically come
with 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, or 13 inputs. A
A o oC
8 o
oC
A NAND Gate. A NAND gate is the Com-
o :
bination of an AND gate and an inver-
ter. It is often referred to as a NOT -AND Ao
A o circuit, and thus its name N -AND. The & o C

B o output is binary 0 only when all inputs Bo


C
B
are binary 1. For other input conditions,
the output is binary 1.
INPUTS OUTPUT A NAND can be drawn as an AND with INPUTS OUTPUT
A B C A B C
an inverter (NOT) circuit, as Fig. 4A
o o o
o 1 o
shows. However, the special symbol in o o 1

1 o o Fig. 4B is normally used. The circle at o 1 1

o
the output indicates inversion. An alter- 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 o
nate symbol is given in Fig. 4C. Here
C
the triangle or half arrow on the output D

Fig. 2. This two -input AND gate, A, can indicates inversion. The truth table indi- Fig. 4. A NAND gate is nothing more
be drawn as shown in B. The truth table cates all possible inputs and the corre- than an inverted AND (B). Its output is the
for all its possible states is shown in C. sponding output states. Looking back compliment of an AND gate's (C).
at the truth table for the AND gate, you
can see that a NAND output is its com-
Wo plement. NAND gates with 2, 3, 4, 5, 8,
X oZ oz
Yo and 13 inputs are available in IC form.
A A

Wo
NOR Gate. The NOR gate or NOT -OR
X circuit is an OR gate followed by an xo
Yo
B
OZ
inverter. The output is binary 0 if at least
one of the inputs is binary 1. Otherwise,
Y o D B
oz

the output is binary 1.


INPUTS OUTPUT The NOT -OR circuit, shown in Fig. 5A, X o
W X Y Z clearly illustrates the circuit's function, I >1 02
Y o
but usually one of the symbols in Fig. 5B
C
o o o o
or 5C is more offen used. The truth table
o o 1 1

o 1 o 1 shows the possible input and output


INPUTS OUTPUT
o 1 1 1
states. IC NOR gates are available with
o o X Y Z
2, 3, 4, 5, 8, and 13 inputs.
1 1

i o 1 1

i 1 o 1 O o 1

1 1 1 1
Expressing Logic Mathematically. o
1
1

o
o
o
To begin using Boolean algebra, we 1 1 o
C need to find some way to express the
Fig. 3. For a change, this oR gate. A, is basic logic operations using mathe- D

shown with three inputs instead of two. An matical expressions. Let's take a look Fig. 5. A NOR gate is nothing more
alternative symbol is shown in B, while at ways of expressing inversion, AND, OR than an inverted OR (B). Its output is the
the elements truth table is shown in C. ,NAND, and NOR operations. compliment of an OR gate's (C).
signal. An example is a binary signal Figure 8 shows a four -input AND gate OR output. Figure 11 shows a four-input
called "clear," which might be repre- with different input variables. Many NOR gate. The output expression is
sented by the mnemonic CLR. Many times you will see the output expression formed by simply writing the input vari-
times binary signals are grouped to- written with some variables separated ables separated by plus signs. Then, a
gether and related as in a binary by parentheses. Each input term ap- bar is placed over the entire expres-
number. For example, the bits in an 8- pears within a set of parentheses to sion to invert it. Again note that one
bit word might be given the names AO keep them visually separated to avoid term, DZ, is inverted at the input.
through A7. In any case, you will see confusion. But since each expression is
many different variations. written directly adjacent to the next, it AJ
BK
EX=AJ+BK+C5+p1
Inversion. Inversion expressed
is D7 C5
EB DZ
mathematically by placing a bar over TX =(D711EBICLKIIRST)
CLK
the variable. In Fig. 6, the input of the Fig. Il. Multiple -input NANns do not need
RST
inverter is A while the output is B. Note to have their variables separated by
that B is expressed in terms of A. That Fig. 8. The variables in Boolean algebra parentheses for clarity.
need not he one letter in length, but for
clarity, separating them with parentheses Now using those basic (Boolean) ex-
becomes necessary. pressions for each of the logic gates,
AO oB-A
more complex circuits can be easily
means that the variables are ANDed
represented.
Fig. 6. The complement of a variable can together. In Fig. 8, we say that the out-
be represented kv placing a bar over that put product is:
Deriving Boolean Expressions.
variable as shown here. TX = (D7)(EB)(CLK)(RST) Knowing the basic rules outlined in the
previous section, you can now derive
expression is read B is equal to NOT A. at Function. The logical oR is indicat- a complete Boolean expression for
The bar indicates that signal A has
NOT ed by placing a plus sign between the any larger, more complex logic circuit.
been inverted. Remember that A can variables. That is illustrated with the The process is simply to work your way
be either a binary 0 or a binary 1. NOT A, three -input OR gate shown in Fig. 9. through the various logic gates starting
of course, is the opposite, or comple- with the inputs and building the equa-
ment. T1 tion a step at a time. A couple of ex-
Since it is difficult to type a bar over a G ONZ=T1+G+ROY amples will illustrate the process.
letter as shown in Fig. 6, other simpler ROY
Refer to the circuit in Fig. 12. Note
methods have been devised for repre- Fig. 9. oRing of variables is indicated that the input variables are labelled.
senting inversion. Sometimes the inver- with plus signs. Note the three inputs. The output is designated G. Our job is
ted variable is indicated by an asterisk to write the expression for G in terms of
or a prime (similar to an accent). Using the input variables. It's really not as
Offen you will hear the output of an OR
the variables in Fig. 6: complicated as it sounds.
gate referred to as the sum of the input
B= A *orB =A' variables.

AND Function. The logical AND NAND Function. The NAND Or NOT-AND
operation is indicated by placing a function is simply the inverted product
dot between the two variables to be of the input variables. An example is
G=AB+C+DEF
ANDed. That is illustrated in Fig. 7. The shown in Fig. 10. The output expression
two inputs to the AND gate are A and B is written just as it would be for an AND
gate, but with a NOT indication given to
Ao
Bo-
Fig.
D
7. ANning of variables is
oC-A

indicated
B
the entire expression. That can be
done by puffing a bar over the entire
expression as shown in Fig. 10. Alter- Fig. 12. You end up with a sum of products
expression for this circuit after analysis.
kv using a dot between them. nately, the ANDed input terms can be
put into parentheses and an asterisk or
while the output is designated C. Look To begin, you start with the variables
at this expression for the output: AO at the inputs to each of the circuits on
Bo OD ABC
the left. Write the expression for the out-
C =AB CO IIJJJ
put of each circuit. For example, the
In regular algebra AB would mean Fig. 10. In a NAND expression, the result of output of AND -gate is simply AB. The
1

multiply A and B together. That's why all ANDing is simply inverted. output of the inverter 2 is NOT C. The
the output of an AND gate is often output of AND -gate 3 is DEF.
called the product of the inputs. As in apostrophe used to indicate the NOT of The outputs of gates and 3, and
1

regular algebra, it is not necessary to the function. Note that the B term has a inverter 2, form the inputs to oR -gate 4.
show any symbol between the two NOT bar over it. To complete the expression, simply OR
variables (although sometimes a dot is together each of the inputs to gate 4.
used). Instead, they are simply just writ- The NOR Function. To produce the The output expression G then be-
ten adjacent to one another. NOR function, we simply invert a basic comes:

76
The output of gate 2 is: ANDed together with the other two ex-
AB +C +DEF
pressions. Finally, to complete the cir-
(W + X)
Take a look at the expression we just cuit simply draw an AND gate with
derived. You often hear an expression Those two outputs become the inputs three inputs and connect them to the
like that referred to as a sum of prod- to AND -gate 3. We create the final out- outputs of the two OR gates and a
ucts. In this case, the products are the put expression, Z, by simply ANDing to- source of signal F. See Fig. 16.
ANDed variables AB and DEF. The sum, gether the two expressions. The result is:
of course, refers to the oong together
Z= (W +X +Y)(W +X)
of each of the products.
A slightly more complex circuit is You might hear that kind of expression
shown in Fig.13. Still the evaluation pro- called a product of sums. x=(A+B+CIID+EIIFI
cess is the same. Work your way
through the circuit from left to right writ- Generating a Circuit From Equa-
ing the output expression for each tions. Now let's consider the process
gate. The output of gate is A1(K) as
shown. We use parentheses in this case
1 of drawing the logic circuit corre-
sponding to a given Boolean expres-
Fig.16. The product f
sums expression
c

shown was used to generate this circuit.


to show the separation between the sion. Let's start with the simple
expression below:
M=B(A11K1+J)
W =XY +Z Exercise problems. Here are a cou-
o
A11K1+J ple of problems for you to practice on.
Al The various logic functions implied
1. Write the output expression of the
K by the equation are pretty easy to
circuit shown in Fig. 17.
spot. The X and Y are written adjacent
2. Draw the logic diagram corre-
B

f
Fig. 13. The output c one gate becomes the to one another indicating that the two
signals are ANDed. Simply draw an AND
sponding to the expression:
input of the next in this circuit.
gate with X and Y as the input. The M= (F +G +H)(J +K +L)
two variables, yet they are written ad- output of that AND gate XV is then go- Assume no inverted signals are avail-
jacent to one another to indicate a ing to be oRed with another input
able.
product or AND function. called Z. The plus sign tells us we need
Next, the output of gatel is oRed with an OR gate to do that. If only the varia- A

the input of J. The resulting output from ble Z is available, an inverter is B


C

gate 2 is: needed to produce Z. The resulting cir-


cuit is shown in Fig. 15.
A1(K) +J
A slightly more complex example is
That becomes one of the inputs to AND - given below:
gate 3. That expression is ANDed with X= (A +B +C)(D +E)(F)
input B to produce the final output ex-
pression: The parentheses tell you that you G

have three different groups of varia-


M = B(A1(K) +J) Fig. 17. Write the equation for the circuit.
bles ANDed together to form the output,
Again parentheses are used to keep X. The variables in the groups are owed
the variables separated and to ensure
the correct logical operation is ex- Truth Tables. You have already seen
pressed. how truth tables are used to define all
Take a look at the example in Fig. 14. possible combinations of inputs and
Again, the procedure is to develop the w= xv+Z outputs for the various logic elements.
output expressions of the input gates, Truth tables, however, can also be
used to describe larger, more com-
plex logic circuits. The nice thing about
Fig. 15. By drawing the logic symbols that a truth table is that it gives you a com-
correspond to the Boolean expressions plete picture of what's going on in the
Z= (w+x+vllw x) you'll arrive at the correct circuit. circuit for any set of input states.
Developing a truth table for any log-
together. You can start by creating the ic circuit is relatively easy. All you have
circuits for each group of variables. to do is write out all the possible input
Fig. 14. You end up with a product c sums f The plus signs inside the parentheses
indicate an oR gate should be drawn.
states, and for each one compute the
output state for every gate in the circuit
expression for this circuit after analysis.
To start you can draw an OR gate with until the final output is derived. Let's
inputs A, B, and C. Another expression take a couple of simple examples to
then work your way from left to right to
is derived by oong the input variables show how you can evaluate the output
create the output. The output from
D and E. Simply draw an OR gate with state for a given set of inputs.
gate 1 is:
Take a look at the circuit shown in
the two variables as the inputs. The
(+X +Y) variable F inside parenthesis will be Fig. 18A. Where N is the number of in-

77
states, develop the output for gate 1
and then gate 2. Those are OR gates,
and so produce a binary -1 output
when either or both inputs are binary 1.
For gates 1 and 2 simply search
through the table for those rows where
A binary l's occur at the inputs of the
gates and record binary 1's in the cor-
responding output column. Once you
INPUTS
have done that for both gates, you will
OUTPUTS
have the inputs to gate 3. Gate 3 is an
GATE 1 INVERTER 2 GATE 3
D E F DE F G
AND gate, so its output is when the1

o o o 0 1 1
output columns for gates and 2 are 1

o o 1 o o o both binary 1. Again look through all of


o 1 o o
the columns in the truth table to be sure
1 1

o 1 1 o o o
1 o o o 1 1 you understand how they apply to the
o o o
1

I
1 o circuit.
1 o 1 1 1

1 1 1 1 o i

B Exercise Problem. To see if you can


do this yourself, try the following prob-
Fig. 18. The possible outputs for circuit A can be displayed in a truth table like B.
lem.
3. Draw the circuit for the Boolean ex-
puts, the total number of different input sure you know how to develop the truth pression:
states is 2N. The circuit shown has three table from a given logic circuit. Refer
Z= Y(VW +X +VX)
inputs, so with three inputs, there are: to Fig. 19A. That circuit has four dif-
ferent inputs, therefore, it will have: Assume only the inputs V, W, X and Y
8 =23
are available. Develop the truth table
24 =16
Those eight possible combinations are showing the outputs for all inverters
the binary numbers 000 (decimal 0) possible input combinations. Those and gates.
through 111 (decimal 7). Therefore, we are the four-bit binary numbers 0000
will make a truth table with eight possi- (decimal 0) through 1111 (decimal 15).
ble input states as shown in Fig. 18B. They are illustrated in the truth table Writing from a Truth Table. In many
The remainder of the truth table will shown in Fig. 19B. cases, you will start with a truth table
contain the outputs at each element in The remaining columns in the truth and develop the Boolean expression
the circuit. For example, note that we table are the output of gate (A + B); 1 from it. That is what usually happens
have the output of AND gate 1, the out- the output of gate 2 (C + D); and the when you are designing a digital cir-
put from inverter 2, and the output from final output, F. Again, using the input cuit. Typically, you will define a desired
OR gate 3. Knowing how each of the
logic gates work, you can then deter-
mine the output of each gate given
the various combinations of inputs,
and record those values in the table.
For example, the input to gate is D 1

and E. Since it is an AND gate, the only


time it will produce a binary-1 output is A
when both D and E are binary l's. Sim-
ply locate those states in the inputs INPUTS OUTPUTS
and record binary l's beside them. All A B C D GATE 1(A + B) GATE 21C + D) GATE 3(E)
of the other entries in the DE column will o o o o o o

be binary O. The F column is created by o


o
o 1

o
o 1 o
1 o 1 o
simply inverting the F column. o 1 1 o 1 o
You now know both inputs to oR- 1 0 o 1 o o
o
gate 3. The DE and F columns can then
1 1 1 1 1

1 1 o 1 1 1

be owed together to produce the final 1 1 1 1 1 1

output, G. Again, remembering that 1 0 0 0 1 o o


1 0 0 1 1 1 1

an OR gate produces a binary-1 output 1 0 1 0 1 1 1

if either or both of its inputs are binary 1, 1 o 1 1 1 1 1

o 0 o o
you can complete the G column. 1 1 1

1 1 0 1 1 1 1

Be sure you go through the circuit 1 1 1 o 1 1 1

and the truth table carefully so that you 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

understand exactly what is going on in B


each column.
Let's take one more example to be Fig. /9. You must use all possible input combinations for the circuit A for the table. B.

78
output condition that is generated Now let's take a more complex ex- INPUTS OUTPUT
when specific input states occur. To ample. Suppose that we want to de- A B C D
develop your design, you build a truth velop a simple circuit for comparing 0 0 0 0
table filling in the columns with the de- two bits. We would like the output of o o 1 o

the circuit to be binary when the two 0 0 ABC


sired output states for the given inputs. 1
1 1

0 o
Then, the truth table can be used to bits are equal, and binary 0 when they 1 1

1 0 0 ABC
help write the Boolean equation, and are different. That is described in the 1

1 o 1 o
the logic circuit itself, can be deduced truth table shown in Fig. 21A. The two ABC
1 1 0 1

from the equation. Once the logic cir- inputs are X and Y, therefore, the four 1 1 1 0
cuit is drawn, it can be implemented possible input combinations are listed.
A
with ICs or other components. We want the output Z to be binary 1

A simple example of that is a design when the bits are alike. So we write a
where we have twc inputs and want a binary when both bits are 0 and when
1

specific output to occur. For example, both bits are 1. The remaining input
perhaps you want the output F to be states produce a binary 0 output.
binary when input D is equal to and
1 1

input E is equal to O. For all other input INPUTS OUTPUT


states, we want the output to be binary
X Y Z
O. That set of conditions can be drawn
0 0 i XY
in a truth table as shown in Fig. 20A. o 1 o
With two inputs, there are four possible 1 o o
input combinations. We want the out- 1 1 1 XY
put to be a binary when D is equal to
1 1
A B

INPUTS OUTPUT
Fig. 22. The conditions for a binary 1

D E F
output (A) must be oued together to
0 0 0
produce the Boolean equation (B).
0 1 0
1 0 1

1 1 o the truth table, write an AND expression


using the input variable for each place
A
where a binary appears in the output.
1
B
The first AND expression is ABC. The vari-
Do- -
Fig. 21. The truth table, A, generates a able with the NOT sign is used when a
E
F DE sum of products equation for circuit B. binary 0 appears at the input, and the
Eo
variable itself is used when a binary-1
B
Now we can write the equation for state occurs.
the circuit. We look at the output col- The other two conditions that pro-
Fig. 20. A truth table (A) must he duce a binary-1 output are ABC and
umn and note the places where the
generated from a circuit (B) before
binary l's occur. Then we write an AND ABC. Finally the output expression is
deriving the Boolean equation.
ed expression using the inputs. The first built by owing together the three input
binary 1 output occurs if X = 0 and Y = O. conditions that cause a binary to ap- 1

and E is equal to O. All other input states Therefore, the equation for that state is: pear:
produce a binary 0 output. The truth
Z = XY D= ABC +ABC +ABC
table shows that set of conditions.
Now to derive the Boolean expres- The other binary output occurs when
1
The corresponding circuit is shown in
sion from the truth table, we look at the X =1 and Y =1. Therefore, the input ex- Fig. 22B.
output column F and note where bin- pression is: That procedure works regardless of
ary 1's occur. Next, we look at the input the number of inputs used. As the
Z = XY
states that produce that output. Then number of inputs increases, the
we write an expression that is the prod- To complete the Boolean expression, Boolean expressions become far more
uct of the input variables. For example, we simply or? the two AND expressions complex. As it turns out, most of the
in the truth table of Fig. 20A, the equa- together. That is because the output larger more complex networks can be
tion becomes: becomes binary under either con- 1 simplified by the use of Boolean rules.
dition. The resulting output expression: In the next installment, we will intro-
F =DE
duce the Boolean rules and show you
Z =XY +XV
We write the D because a binary 1 ap- ways to turn complex circuits into sim-
pears in the D column. We write E The resulting circuit is illustrated in Fig. pler ones.
because a zero exists in the E column. 21B. But first, another exercise problem
That simple equation, of course, can Let's take it one step further, and de- can be found on page 94. Why not turn
be implemented with a single two in- velop a more complex circuit. Sup- there now to check your understand-
put AND gate. An inverter is be needed pose we have three inputs and the ing. The answers to all of problems in
to produce E if only the E input is avail- desired outputs are indicated by the this month's installment can be found
able. The resulting circuit appears in binary 1's in the truth table of Fig. 22A. there.
Fig. 20B. To develop the output expression for (Continued on page 94)
TSM CIRCLE 35 ON FREE INFORMATION CARD

It's a star burst, cartwheel, chase light...


VEGAS KIT it's everything 64 LEDs can do to entertain!
The TSM Vegas Kit (TSM -99) is a fes- means an additional 132 solder con-
tive light display. When as- nections. Get past that phase and the
sembled, the Vegas Kit is a fascinating rest is a piece of cake.
hypnotic lighting device which can be A ribbon cable is supplied with the J v V

both relaxing and amusing. A long se- kit to use as long jumpers and for inter-
quence of changing light patterns connecting the two boards. Unfor-
gives the display a dancing quality tunately, the individual wires were
that appears to have motion and stranded. discarded the cable and
I
Q rit
depth. A speed control can be set to
suit the mood of the observer.
The two -board kit holds the light -
used one from my junk box that was a
bit more colorful and had solid wire.
The solid wire would help me avoid
.
emitting diodes on one board eight twisting and pre -soldering of the wire r
radials of red and green LEDs (eight ends and the trouble of fitting the pro-
The LEDs are arranged in a cartwheel
LEDs per radial) -and all the elec- cessed ends into the small drilled holes
Jir.chion with four radii of red LEDs and
tronics on the other board. The circuit in the printed -circuit board.
four radii of green LEDs. The colors cf
board contains a diode bridge for rec- the radii alternate.
tifying 9 -volts AC. Its output is passed Power-Supply Confusion. There was
through two 5 -volt regulators. Two pre- some confusion generated by the kit one -hour's use. Once the power was
programmed ROMs contain the light- instructions in regards to the power applied to the Vegas Kit, the LED dis-
ing sequences and are used to control supply required to operate the Vegas play started and amazed those who
16 switching transistors. Kit. On the first page of the instructions it saw it.
was indicated that a 12 -volt DC,1 -am-
Construction. The light display goes pere power supply (not included) was Looks Great. The assembled Vegas
together with a minimum of trouble. By required to power the unit. The circuit Kit found its place in a Christmas -dec-
following the simple instructions, the board, however, indicated that a 9/12- orated window in a home. Next to a
two boards can be wired quickly. Con- volt AC, 1- ampere power source was moving mechanical Santa Clause, the
necting the LEDs may take some effort required. That made more sense since LED display was the most stared -at
because there are 64 of them- that's a diode- bridge circuit was included item in the window. Children and
132 solder connections. Each LED has on the circuit board. Somewhat later in adults were fascinated by the varying
a series current -limiting resistor which the instructions two sentences cleared light- patterns presented by the 64
up the confusion. Yes, a 12-volt, AC LEDs.
supply was required; however, in its The display can find its place any-
place a 12 -volt DC supply can be where inside the house too. It'll perk up
used, provided it is connected across a child's room. Set between parallel
filter capacitor C2 on the circuit board. mirrors it has an Infinity- Mirror effect
No further mention was made about 9- that makes it suitable in any room.
volt sources. The Vegas Kit is a project for begin-
With those options open, a tele- ners and gadgeteers who like novel
phone step -down transformer, nor- and unusual items to assemble and
mally used to power the lights in a use. The actual number of applica-
home phone, was used to provide the tions is unlimited. You can purchase
AC power. The transformer was rated the Vegas Kit (Order No. TSM -99) for
This is the circuit board that contains at 8.5 -volts AC and most probably $130.00. You can contact the TSM
the "brains" for the Vegas Kit. Tiro rated less than ampere, but decid-
1 I headquarters, at 2065 Boston Post
pre -programmed ROMs (marked X and Y) ed to use it anyway. It did do the job, Road, Larchmont, NY 10538 for the
provide almost 8(X) different patterns. although it was warm to the touch after TSM distributor nearest you.

80
Give a Friend A "Hands -On"
Experience for Christmas.. .
Does fighting the crowds at Christmas short -circuit SAVE MONEY ... A great gift to receive, Hands -
your holiday fun? Don't blow a fuse this year for ... On Electronics is also a great gift for you to give! The

electronics -
the friend who shares your love of project- oriented
or a youngster who may need only a
spark to ignite a life -long interest- give a gift
Special Holiday Rate saves you $11.00 off the
newsstand price on each gift. You can save another
$11.00 when you start or extend your own
subscription to Hands -On Electronics! subscription at the same time. It's our "thank -you"
for sharing the Hands -On experience with a friend
this Christmas.
... Because when you give him Hands -On Electronics,
you're giving him valuable "Hands -On" experience:

-
month after month of challenging construction projects
including complete plans for testing equipment,
electronic worksavers for home and car, add -ons and
Send no money, unless you prefer. We'll be glad to bill
you in January, Next Year. Just take a brief moment to
modifications for hi -fi, computers, radio and TV. go over your gift list and make sure you haven't
forgotten anyone who might appreciate the "Hands -On"
experience. Then write the names on the attached Gift
He'll get all the how-to he needs to build exciting, Certificate and mail it back in the postage -paid reply
useful projects like these ... a touch light dimmer .. . envelope ... we'll take it from there!
a traveler's theft alarm ... an economy NiCd battery
charger ... a voice synthesizer ... a wave form
generator ... the ultimate burglar alarm ... a stereo Your friends will receive a handsome gift announcement
graphic equalizer ... and many, many more! card signed with your name just before Christmas. And
all through the new year they'll remember and
appreciate your thoughtful gift of "Hands -On"
PLUS ... testbench tips and techniques ... circuit experience!
design ... electronics fundamentals ... book reviews
and new product news including our new -page
12
"Gizmo" section ... regular columns on computers,
scanners, dx'ing, ham and antique radio ... the list So don't blow a fuse ...
take it easy and enjoy the
goes on and on! holidays. Give Christmas gifts of Hands -On Electronics!

8 i
Working a little more enthusi-
astically, now, quickly removed the
I

rest of the old finish. Stripping may be a

Antique smelly, messy job, but it really doesn't


take long to complete even for a large
cabinet like this one.
had noticed too late, by the way,

Radio
I

that the recommended "mop -up" sol-


vent for the particular stripper was I

using was lacquer thinner. didn't have


I

any handy, but made do with mineral


By Marc Ellis spirits instead. That worked fairly well,
CABINET REFINISHING but tended to leave behind little grains
of solid sludge. Those remaining grains
ast month, we completed the res- finish and reassess the situation. I were easily brushed off once the cab-
toration of a Zenith Model 7S232 hoped that, once cleaned up, the inet had dried, but assume that they
I

"shutter -dial" chassis that was begun cabinet would take stain nicely so that would have been dissolved and re-
in the August issue. certainly enjoyed
I
a presentable replacement finish moved during mop -up had used the I

doing the work, and hope that you all


I could be applied. Being grainless, it correct solvent.
enjoyed reading about it. Unfor- would lack the beauty of the old one. When had finished, with the cab-
I

tunately, the set's cabinet also requires But it would at least be fresh and new, inet still damp from stripper and sol-
quite a bit of attention. (And cabinet providing an attractive setting in which vent, it looked almost as if could I

refinishing is my least favorite radio - to install the restored chassis. apply the new finish without re- stain-
restoration activity.) The radio was I used a methylene-chloride -based ing. But after overnight drying, the pic-
damaged in a small, but violent, gas - chemical stripper -the kind that ap- ture looked quite a bit different. The
furnace explosion while it was pos- plies as a heavy gel so that it will stick stripper had definitely removed quite
sessed by its previous owner-which is to the wood surface and do its work a bit of the old stain, resulting in a pale,
the only reason he was willing to sell it! without dripping off. That stuff takes off splotchy appearance. A new coat of
Besides blowing out the speaker old paint or varnish coatings as quickly stain would definitely be required,
cone (which has since been repaired) as anything know. And it's pretty nasty
I possibly with a preliminary bleach to
and charring the grille cloth, the explo- if you get it on your hands. It's not even out the variations in color inten-
sion also completely ruined the finish caustic like lye or acid, but will defi- sity. I'll report on my progress next
on the 7S232's cabinet. It looked as if it nitely sting, burn, and redden the skin. month.
had been almost vaporized, exposing I find it difficult to strip furniture while Several readers have written me in-
a rough, light -colored, wood surface. wearing gloves, so try to work near a
I teresting letters during the course of the
The wood seemed virtually grainless, water tap. By rinsing my hands fre- Zenith restoration, and this seems like a
suggesting that the grain had been a quently, can avoid most of the ill
I good time to catch up with them. So
photographic one-as was common effects. It's also wise to use that type of let's open the mailbag!
in sets of that era-and was lost along stripper outside or in a well -ventilated
with the finish. area. While not noxious, the fumes are 75232 Clones. One of the first com-
definitely not good for you-and can munications received was from John
I

Down to Basics. That was discourag- leave you with an unpleasant, hang- W. White, II, who says he has a Zenith
ing, but obviously the only thing to do over -like feeling the next morning. 65233 set that's very similar to my
was to strip off the remains of the old 75232. The cabinet on his was warped,
Under the Sludge. That type of so he had to discard most of it. But he
chemical stripper turns the old finish to enjoys the set so much that he keeps
a kind of gummy sludge. The idea is to the bare chassis on a bedside table for
remove as much as possible with a evening listening. John doesn't miss the
broad putty knife, being careful not to cabinet too much, because he likes to
scratch the wood surface as you work.
The remains of the sludge are then
mopped up with a cloth moistened in
solvent-leaving behind a clean -as-
a- whistle surface.
As soon as began the first mop -up
I

operation, received a very pleasant


I

surprise. A beautiful wood -grain pat-


tern was being exposed; the grain was
real after all! What had lookod prior
Shown here is the 7S232 now stripped of to stripping -like an almost -bare This is the preliminary stage in the
its finish. Much to my surprise und grainless, wood surface was really a construction of Dac Danro+r's Crosley 50
delight, the grain +rus not photographic, layer of old varnish, decomposed and replica. The fabricated parts for the coils
hut really in the wood -just waiting to he whitened in some way by the effects of and "hook" condenser are in the
brought out by an application of stain. the explosion. foreground.

82
Finally, Keenan suggested that re- I

store a really impossible set in the col-


umn, perhaps one with extensive
lightning damage. Having just de-
voted several months worth of columns
to a restoration, I'd like to deal with
some other kinds of subjects for a
while. But Keenan's suggestion did
give me a terrific idea.
How about a contest where you
Compare the front of Dan's replica (left) with a similar shot u/ an actual Crosley 5(I readers submit photos and descrip-
(right). Note the remarkable resemblance between the tuo! tions of your most messed -up radios?
The one judged to be the best (worst,
watch the glow of the tubes at night. Omnitron Electronics, 770 Amsterdam that is) would be restored in the col-
Can anyone help John with a sche- Ave., New York, NY 10025 is a good umn and then returned to the owner.
matic for a "National Dobro Amplifier source of hard -to -find tubes and other Let me know what you think, but hold
Model 6107A ?" It was built by Webster parts. your entries. It will be several months
Electric of Racine, WI and uses the fol- Keenan Whitley joins the growing before I'd consider doing that.
lowing tubes: one 5Z3, two 2A3's, a 79, group of people (see last month's col- Mike Schulsinger (Springfield, OH)
and a 56. He'd probably also be inter- umn) who have written to say that the wrote to correct a boo -boo made in I

ested in a cabinet for his Zenith. Con- Zenith dial glass and dial belt that I the September column. referred to I

tact him at RD 3 Box 217, Claysville, PA was looking for could be obtained at the broadcast band dial of the 7S232
15323. Antique Electronic Supply, 688 W. First as covering a range of 55 -170 kilo-
Frank De Stasi has another set very St., Tempe, AZ 85281. And he took the hertz; the range is really 550 -1700 kilo-
similar to mine, a Zenith 9S262. By a trouble to photocopy the entire A.E.S. hertz. Thanks for the correction, Mike!
strange coincidence, his is also a bare catalogue for me.
chassis job. Like John, he doesn't allow Keenan went on to say that those Waltons Reruns. finally received the
I

the lack of a cabinet to keep him from with cabinet restoration problems 75232 comment that was hoping I

enjoying the radio. But if you can sup- might like to read The Complete Man- someone would send! It comes from
ply a cabinet for Frank's set, write him ual of Wood Finishing by Frederick Di- Bill Morris (13901 Oakridge Dr., Carmel,
at 769 Sybil Ave., San Leandro, CA eghton. He says that it's an excellent IN 46032). Some years ago, had seen I

94577. book, and even contains a chapter on a Zenith set that looked very much like
Frank enclosed a schematic of the faking woodgrain finishes (in case mine used as a recurring prop in a TV
set, which has a larger speaker than you've lost a photographic one, as I situation comedy series. wanted to I

mine and a couple of extra tubes. suspected that had before stripping
I mention it in the column, but couldn't
Frank's set also boasts a motor tuning my Zenith cabinet). It's published by quite remember the series name. Bill
drive that allows him to go from one Stein and Day, Scarborough House, writes that the series was The Waltons,
end of the dial to the other in seconds. Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510. so keep an eye open for reruns in your
And since the tuning dials on those area. You may be lucky enough to
radios are geared way down for good spot the Zenith, too.
vernier action, imagine that the motor
I Bill included quite a want list of sets
drive comes in very handy. and parts, and I'll see if can fit them all
I

Frank tells me that he purchased the in. Please contact him if you can help!
9S262 schematic, and many others, He'd like to locate a Zenith Transo-
from Howard W. Sams & Co, Photofact ceanic Model 7G605 (1942 model);
Tech Services, PO Box 7092, Indi- servicing information, an owner's man-
anapolis, IN 46206. He reports that they ual, door assembly, and AM wave
can come up with schematics for magnet for a Transoceanic Model
many antique radios for a price of 1000- (1957 model); Fisher 800B re-
$1.00 per copy and a $2.50 handling ceiver; antenna coils for an Echo -
charge (I assume the latter is a "per phone EC -2; any Zenith shortwave
order" rather than "per copy" fee). receiver of the 1960's; and he wouldn't
mind locating a 7S232, either!
Helping Hands. John Fitzgerald (Mid-
dleton, WI) informed me that a copy of Criticism Accepted. George Bidwell
the 7S232's schematic can be found in (La Jolla, CA) wrote to remind me that I

Supreme Publications' Most Often haven't discussed the reader com-


still
Needed 1926 -1938 Radio Diagrams ments received in response to the col-
on page 228. That useful book, as well umns on the Crosley 50 (January and
as many of the other Supreme pub- February 1988 issues). At the time, I

lications, is available as a reprint. Write II's (Well nuore impressive to compare the postponed the discussion on that one -
ARS Enterprises, PO Box 997, Mercer rear view of the replica (tap/ Io the actual tube regenerative receiver; there was
Island, WA fora free catalogue. Here's .eel's (bottom). Except fuor the tube, Dan such a backlog of reader mail that the
another tip from John: He's found that made every one of his parts from scratch. (Continued on page 102)
PARTS LIST FOR THE FIXED-

Circuit FREQUENCY GENERATOR


Ul -LM324 quad op-amp, integrated
circuit
RI- 10,000-ohm, 1/4-watt, 5% resistor
Circus R2, R3-2200 -ohm, %4 -watt, 5% resistor
R4-47 000 -ohm, V4-watt, 5% resistor
R5-1000 -ohm, Y4 -watt, 5% resistor
C1- 0.1 - ceramic disc capacitor
By Charles D. Rakes BZ1 -piezo fixed -frequency transducer,
UNUSUAL USES FOR TRANSDUCERS Radio Shack 273 -064 or similar
Printed circuit or perfboard materials,
This month's Circus starts the new 6 12V
e