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MJC-8 Q400

HGS OPERATION GUIDE


Version 1.0

Copyright Majestic Software 2015

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Contents

1. Introduction .................................................................................................. 3
2. HGS Control panel ....................................................................................... 3
3. HGS Advisory Panel .................................................................................... 4
4. Inertial Reference system ............................................................................ 5
5. Optical combiner (HUD) and the HGS modes of operation .......................... 6
6. Takeoff ......................................................................................................... 7
7. Climb ........................................................................................................... 8
8. AIII approach ............................................................................................. 10
9. IMC mode and approach ........................................................................... 14
10. VMC mode and approach ....................................................................... 15
11. MJC System Panel extension for the HGS ............................................. 15

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1. Introduction
HGS, or Headup Guidance System is installed by an operator in order to allow
the CATIII conditions manual takeoff, approach landing and rollout. The system
consists of the following components:

1. HGS Control panel - located on the aft part of the center console
2. HGS Advisory panel - located on the right side of the glareshield
3. Inertial Reference system - located on the aft part of the center console
4. Optical combiner - located overhead of the captain
5. Projector - located overhead of the captain
6. HGS computer - located in the avionics rack

HGS navigation is primarily based on the aircraft position, altitude, calculated


Localizer and Glideslope antenna locations, runway elevation, runway length
and the glideslope angle (the last 3 parameters are entered manually by the
pilot). During the takeoff roll, HGS can provide the ground roll guidance to guide
a pilot along the runway centerline during takeoff. On approach, both ILS and
position data is used to provide precise approach, flare and touchdown with or
without runway visibility.

In this document we will explain the HGS controls and components as well as
the HGS operation using a typical flight profile, containing the following phases:
Takeoff, Climb, Initial and Final Approach, Landing and Rollout.

2. HGS Control panel


Headup Guidance system parameters are set by captain using the HGS Control
panel, located aft of the power quadrant on the center console.

Picture 2.1. HGS Control panel

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Control panel display is split into 4 lines.

Line 1 contains the mode currently shown on the Combiner

Line 2 shows a standby mode which can be made active by pressing the
MODE button

Line 3 is used for viewing and editing the runway length and the runway
threshold elevation parameters

Line 4 is used for viewing and editing the glideslope angle

Control panel contains the following controls:

MODE button exchanges the modes on the first and second lines (makes
standby mode active and vice versa)

STBY button cycles between the available standby modes

RWY button enables to enter sequentially runway length (or remaining runway
length for takeoff mode), and the runway elevation. Green dot indicator on the
button is highlighted during the data input.

G/S button initiates the input of the runway glideslope angle. The angle must
correspond to the angle published on the approach chart.

CLR button instantly clears the content currently shown on the combiner

BRT+/BRT- buttons are used to adjust the brightness of the control panel
display.

TEST button is used for initiating the test mode of the HGS (not currently
simulated)

0..9 and ENTER buttons are used to enter the data, following the ENTER
button to confirm the input.

3. HGS Advisory Panel


Located on the glareshield in front of the first officer, the HGS Advisory Panel is
used to allow first officer to monitor the HGS operation. The panel does not
have any controls, and shows the following messages:

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Picture 3.1. HGS Advisory panel

AIII AIII is an active mode, approach is within the accepted parameters

NO AIII AIII is automatically cancelled due to parameters out of range

RO AIII Rollout mode is activated

RO CTN AIII rollout mode parameters out of range. Rollout mode is on


standby. Rollout guidance might be unreliable

TO CATIII Takeoff mode is active

TO CTN CATIII takeoff mode parameters out of range. Takeoff mode is on


standby. Takeoff guidance might be unreliable

TO Takeoff mode is cancelled due to parameters out of range

FLARE AIII Flare is in progress

RO ARM Rollout mode is armed and will be activated upon touchdown

APCH WARN AIII approach is on standby, due to parameters out of range.


Should parameters return to normal, normal AIII approach mode will be re-
activated if the aircraft is above 500ft radio altitude.

HGS FAIL HGS computer has detected a failure. HGS is inoperative.

4. Inertial Reference system


Inertial Reference system, or IRS is necessary for HGS operation should the
GPS sensed position becomes unreliable.

The IRS mode is controlled by a MODE knob on the IRS Mode Select unit,
located on the aft side of center console

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Picture 4.1. IRS Mode Select unit

OFF IRS is inactive

NAV Normal (NAV) mode is requested. If IRS was inactive prior to selection,
initialization will be initiated, taking 3 minutes if on the ground, and 30 seconds
in the air (aircraft is level, no turns).

ATT IRS will only supply the attitude (roll/pitch) information. This mode is not
suitable for HGS operation

5. Optical combiner (HUD) and the HGS modes of


operation
The optical combiner will synthesize an image in front of the captain, based on
the laser projection created by the overhead HGS projector. The image is
focused at a distance in such a way that minor changes to the pilots point of
view do not affect the correct collimation (or a visual overlay over the exterior
scenery) of the display. The picture shown by combiner is collimated in order to
be correctly overlaid over the outside view, such that a degree of heading, pitch
or roll shown on the HUD corresponds to a degree of heading pitch or roll,
related to the outside scenery.

5.1. HUD Controls

HUD is lowered or stowed by clicking with a mouse on the HUD arm, located to
the left of the lower portion of the overhead console

HUD brightness can be adjusted by rotating the BRIGHTNESS knob located on


the combiner arm

5.2. HGS modes of operation

We will demonstrate the individual modes of operation in more details in the


subsequent sections, using the typical flight profile. Here we provide a brief
description of each mode.

PRIMARY In the primary mode, HUD shows a copy of the information


available to the pilots by the EFIS. This mode can be used to fly the aircraft

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head-up during climb/enroute or enroute descend phases of flight. The primary
mode is always available for selection via the HGS Control Panel.

IMC IMC mode is generally used for approaches in IMC conditions.


This mode has all the relevant data to execute an approach, however it will not
provide flare or rollout guidance.

VMC VMC mode is normally used for approaches to runways not


equipped with PAPI. When the glideslope angle is correctly set using the HGS
Control panel, VMC mode will provide a visual cue in order for the pilot to
maintain a visual approach following the desired glideslope angle to the
touchdown zone of the runway.

TO CATIII Takeoff mode is similar to the Primary mode, in addition


however HGS also provides takeoff roll guidance in a form of a ground flight
director in order to augment the pilot during low visibility takeoff roll. TO mode
will automatically revert to Primary upon passing Vrotate.

AIII CATIII Approach mode, is indicated by AIII on the combiner


allows for manual CATIIIa weather conditions approach landing and rollout.
During AIII mode of operation, HGS will monitor the necessary for the safe
operation parameters, and indicate the appropriate warnings, advising the pilots
of any abnormality during approach. Note that AIII mode can only be engaged
above 500 feet radio altitude.

RO CATIII Rollout mode will automatically be initiated by HGS upon


touchdown in AIII mode, and will provide the roll guidance to the runway
centerline.

6. Takeoff
During the takeoff mode the HGS will guide the pilot along the runway
centerline until the rotation of the aircraft. The system will also provide the
information on remaining runway length.

To set the HGS for Takeoff mode:

Use ARCDU to tune the #1 and #2 receivers to the valid localizer


frequency
Set the published ILS course on both sides
Set the heading bug to the published ILS course.
Set V1, Vr, V2, Vref1 (initial clib), Vref2 (flaps retraction) speeds on both
sides
Select NAV1 source on the left, and NAV2 on the right PFD
Set the EFIS ATT/HDG SOURCE to NORM
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Using the HGS control panel on the center console set the remaining
runway length, and the runway elevation parameters.
Using the HGS control panel, selected primary mode (PRI) as active
mode (first line)

After lining up and aligning the aircraft with runway centerline, TO will appear in
the right top corner of the combiner and on the HGS control panel, indicating the
HGS has entered the takeoff mode.

At takeoff roll, after passing 20 kts IAS, the HGS will begin calculating the
remaining runway length.

Picture 6.1. HUD in takeoff mode

During the takeoff roll, the captain will use rudder pedals in order to maintain the
Ground Director inside the larger circle.

7. Climb
Upon the rotation, HGS will switch to primary mode (PRI), with flight guidance
symbol becoming alive, and the flight director replacing the ground director.

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Picture 7.1. HUD in primary mode during climb

The captain will fly the plane the desired pitch angle by using the aircraft
reference related position to the pitch lines.

The Flight Path Symbol or FPS is a cue, which allows flying the aircraft by the
inertial reference data. Horizontally FPS is a ground track indicator, and
vertically it shows a deviation angle from a straight and level flight. This property
of the FPS can be used to visually maintain the level flight by overlaying the
FPS with 0 degree line (horizon line). At the same time, keeping FPS centered
horizontally will allow for precise tracking of a navigation facility, for example a
VOR, Localizer or an NDB.

During climb the HGS will also suggest the airspeed to be flown based upon the
entered V2 and Vref speeds, by means of a vertical bar shown on the left "wing"
of the FPS, and the height of which is proportional to the speed difference
between the target and the current airspeed. After takeoff and before the
airspeed exceeds V2 + 10 knots, the selected airspeed reference is V2 (or Vref1
if REF SPEEDS INCR switch is activated on the overhead antiicing panel).

After the airspeed exceeds V2 + 10 knots and before it exceeds V2 + 40 knots,


the selected airspeed reference is V2 + 10 (or Vref1 + 10 knots for REF
SPEEDS INCR).

After the airspeed exceeds V2 + 40 knots, the speed error tape is not shown
until the landing gear is down again. Then the selected airspeed reference is
VRef2 (or VRef1 for REF SPEEDS INCR).

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8. AIII approach
AIII approach mode allows a pilot to manually perform the CATIIIa approaches.

Prior to entering the approach mode, HGS "waits" for all the approach
parameters to enter the allowed range, after which approach can be "captured"
or activated. The following approach parameters must be set on the HGS
control panel, left PFD index, AFCS and the ARCDU control panels

HGS Control Panel:

Runway length available for landing (in feet)


Touchdown zone elevation (in feet)
Glideslope angle (in degrees)

Left PDF Index Panel:

Vref1 - Go Around speed (in kts)


Vref2 - Approach speed (in kts)
Altimeter - Airfield pressure

ARCDU Control Panel:

ILS frequency on NAV1 and NAV2 receivers

AFCS Panel:

NAV1 source for Left PFD


NAV2 source for Right PFD
Approach Course as NAV1 and NAV2 OBS course angle
Approach Course as heading
LOC and GS modes as AFCS active modes

After all the parameters have been set, HGS will switch in to AIII mode and
begin guiding the pilot for descend based on the ILS data.

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Picture 8.1. AIII initial indication

AIII mode indication is arranged in such a way that the pilot only has to see the
combiner in order to successfully perform an approach and landing.

Captain will follow the flight director at all times. At a minimum of 1000 feet radio
altitude, the autopilot must be disengaged and the rest of the approach flown
manually.

Picture 8.2. AIII Edge Lines (right before flare)

At approximately 500 feet, the internal logic of the HGS will begin corrections to
the ILS data in order to integrate the flare maneuver which will be initiated at

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approx 100ft radio altitude, there for the pilot should expect that the behavior of
HGS own flight director will become increasingly different from the AFCS Flight
Director shown on the PFD. Please note that should AIII mode become
cancelled for any reason when the aircraft is below 500ft radio altitude, it can no
longer be reengaged.

Between 60 and 300 feet AGL, runway edge lines will be presented on the HUD
for the reference. It is important that the pilot does not utilize the edge lines as a
sole reference for the landing, as these lines might not exactly overlay with the
real runway. In every case the preference must be given to following the flight
director.

After passing 60 feet, the flare command "+" will be shown moving up towards
the flight director. When the command and the flight director coincide, flight
director becomes the flare command, indicated by the "+" sign, and guiding the
pilot to flare the plane.

Picture 8.3. AIII Flare

Upon touchdown, AIII approach mode will become the AIII rollout mode, with
ground director replacing the flight director, and the remaining runway length
indicator being dynamically updated as the aircraft rolls down the runway.

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Picture 8.4. AIII Rollout

In addition, the IDLE message is being shown for several seconds after
touchdown, reminding the pilot to retard to power levers.

Upon slowing down below 40 knots indicated airspeed, or extending the Power
Levers, HGS will enter the takeoff mode to augment the go around, or a
subsequent takeoff.

HGS Advisory panel usage

During the HGS approach or CATIII takeoff, the captain will fly the aircraft head
up, using the HUD (and the outside scenery when visibility allows) as the only
references, while the first officer will monitor the flight instruments and the HGS
advisory panel, located on the right side of the glareshield (see picture 3.1). The
panel will indicate the current active and armed status of AIII, RO or TO modes.

Upon any abnormal indication shown on the advisory panel, f/o will advise the
captain about the changed situation.

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9. IMC mode and approach
The special IMC mode of the HGS is designed to perform the low visibility
manual maneuvers and approaches. The IMC mode is similar to the CATIII
mode, with a difference, that the HGS will not be presenting the flare command,
and the flare must be performed in a conventional way using the visual cues.
Also there will be no switching to the Rollout mode after touchdown, and no
corrections to the glideslope and the localizer raw data in the vicinity of the
runway.

Picture 9.1. IMC mode (initial approach)

Picture 9.2. IMC flare cue (during visual flare)

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In the IMC mode, the flare cue will appear below 60 feet in order to remind the
pilot to flare the aircraft.

10. VMC mode and approach


VMC mode is the most basic mode of the HGS, which augments the visual
approaches by allowing the captain to maneuver the aircraft head up, and by
providing the visual glide slope reference, which can serve as a virtual "PAPI"
when overlaid with the runway touchdown zone.

Picture 10.1. VMC Approach

As long as the touchdown zone, glideslope reference and the base of the Flight
Path Symbol overlay, the aircraft flies the correct approach angle to the
touchdown zone.

11. MJC System Panel extension for the HGS


On the MJC System Application Avionics page, there are 2 designated buttons
that affect HGS operation:

1. AIII FAIL button will trigger the AIII Failure indication and logic during the AIII
mode approach. Second right mouse press on this button will clear the condition

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2. IMC ARM button is provided to force the IMC condition under 500 feet AGL to
allow for close to 0 visibility training. The visibility is then set to 1/16 of the
statute mile. Second right mouse press on this button will clear the weather.

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