You are on page 1of 29

TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

DISSERTATION
ON
INDIAN BUILDING
TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA
GURGAON

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the


requirement for the award of degree of
Bachelor of Architecture

Submitted by
MOHD AAMIR KHAN
11-AR-42

Guided by
AR. MADHURI AGGARWAL

FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE & EKISTICS


JAMIA MILLIA ISLAMIA
NEW DELHI-110025

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 1


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank my teacher Ar.MADHURI AGGARWAL whose guidence helps


me in smoothly progression of my project. Also, thankful Mr. kapil(employee at TCI
ltd.) for providing me necessary details for the project. I wish to thank all my faculty
members who helped in my work during my dissertation.

MOHD AAMIR KHAN


B ARCH II YEAR

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 2


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF


INDIA submitted to Faculty of Architecture & Ekistics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
embodies the presentation work carried out by MOHD AAMIR KHAN of B.Arch.-3rd year
under our supervision.

Ar. MADHURI AGGARWAL Prof. S.M.Akhtar

(DISSERTATION GIDE) Dean

Faculty of architecture
&Ekistics
JMI

External Examiner 1

External Examiner 2

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 3


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

PREFACE

I have done the study on IndiAN building- Transport corporation of india ltd. I have done Case
Study on the same project. Based on the study of this Project, I have tried to explain the
Philosophy of the architect. Besides her Philosophy, I have also done study on the architectural
styles, materials used and construction techniques used in construction.

MD AAMIR KHAN

B ARCH II YEAR

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 4


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

CONTENT
CHAPTER PAGE NO.

I INTRODUCTION 5

Location 6

Accessibility 6

ARCHITECT/ FIRM 7

Design philosophy 8
Awards & nomination 9

REASON FOR SELECTION 10

SITE ANALYSIS 11

Area 11
Climate 11
Topography 11

Methodology 12

Plans 14

Elevation 16

Case study 17

Conclusion 23

BIBLIOGRAPHY 29

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 5


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA

EXTERIOR VIEW OF TCI BUILDING, GURGAON

INTRODUCTION

The corporate office building of the Transport Corporation of India has been designed to meet
the demands of a modern office, with a high level of environmental comfort, integration of
systems to support information technology, with flexibility and adaptability for growth and
change.

The building sits on a rectangular plot in an institutional area close to Delhi. Three stories of
offices and a basement surround the central court. The basement houses building services and
some work spaces.

The entrance overlooks a planted and shaded forecourt with a water pool. The orientation of
all the interior spaces is towards the central court with the exception of the managing director's
suite, which enjoys its own garden terrace on the top floor.

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 6


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

TCI LTD.

SATELLITE VIEW OF TCI LTD.

LOCATION The building is located at Plot 69 TCI, Inst. Area sectr 32, instut gurgaon,
HARYANA

And having accessibilities by every aspect

Accesibilties
By metro: HUDA CITY CENTRE (6.3 KM)

BY ROAD: RYAN BUS STOP (1.5KM)

BY AIR: IGI AIRPORT (20.1 KM)

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 7


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

ARCHITECT/ FIRM:

AR. ASHOK B LALL

As architects we believe that architecture should be an offering of beauty and joy that
enhances the cultural milieu, of the place and of its people, where it is practiced.

By ASHOK B LALL

Ashok B Lall Architects was established as an independent practice in the year 1980.

As experts they have developed a special competence in the area of sustainability and energy
conservation through research-in-practice over the past decade. Many of our executed projects
and research have been published in professional publications in India and abroad.

DESIGN PHILOSOPHY

As professionals they have a dual responsibility. We must serve in the best possible way the
legitimate need of our client. Equally, we must see that the means and ends of the building
design solutions we propose also serve a larger beneficial purpose.We believe that creative
practice of architecture would seek to converge this duality into a unity.

As a firm we do not espouse any style or aesthetic. Each design is a process of discovery where
solutions are found appropriate to the project at hand. The process is driven by three guiding
principles:

Inclusion of the client and user groups at all stages of the project by appropriately structured
consultation.

Search for simplicity and economy of means.

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 8


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

Prioritising selection of design strategies and technologies in favour of sustainability and energy
conservation.

Awards and Nominations

Low-Cost Housing Design for HUDCO

Prize winning design (placed third) for National Competition of Low- Cost Housing Design 1980-
81, sponsored by Housing and Urban Development Corporation and Hari Om Ashram Trust.

S.P. Jain Centre for Management-

Competition 1st prize, 1984-85

Middle-Income Housing Design

DDA Competition, (placed third) 1985 (collaboration with MN Ashish Ganju)

Campus for Gujrat Energy Design

Competition Entry (placed second), 1990-91 (collaboration


Development Agency- with Naveen Kulshreshtha)

TATA Energy Research Institute Master Plan & Tissue Culture Nominated for Aga Khan Award,
1995

Indian Institute of Health Management Research

For Competition First prize, Nominated for Aga Khan Award, 1995

Transport Corporation of India

Nominated for Aga Khan Award, 2001


Headquarters

Disha Foundation for the Special


Child DesignShare/SCN Citation Award, 2005

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 9


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

REASON FOR SELECTION


Transport corporation of india ltd. Building is among the list of indias most green building also
it has many architectural features where natural and technical aspects are being used very
intelligently , like peep window which they have used for cross ventillation like peep windows,
which is used for cross ventilation

The window reveals of the peep window cut out summer sun and let in winter sun

Polyurethane board insulation on wall and roof

Fountain court with water columns as environment moderator

Adjustable venetian blinds in double window sandwich to cut off insulation and allow daylight

ENTRANCE OF TCI LTD.

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 10


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

AREA:
Total Built-up area: 2750 m2

TOTAL AREA OF SITE: 3694 m2

Year of starting: 1998

Year of completion: 1999

CLIMATE
The climate of Delhi is a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical (Kppen climate
classification Cwa) with high variation between summer and winter temperatures and
precipitation.

Summers start in early April and peak in May, with average temperatures near 32 C

(90 F), although occasional heat waves can result in highs close to 45 C (114 F) on

some days. The monsoon starts in late June and lasts until mid-September, with about

797.3 mm (31.5 inches)[1] of rain. The average temperatures are around 29 C (85 F),

although they can vary from around 25 C (78 F) on rainy days to 32 C (90 F) during

dry spells. The monsoons recede in late September, and the post-monsoon season

continues till late October, with average temperatures sliding from 29 C (85 F) to

21 C (71 F).

Winter starts in November and peaks in January, with average temperatures around

1213 C (5455 F).

TOPOGRAPHY-

Site is almost flat but at gurgaon soil is heterogeneous. At most places it is rocky
and water is brackish.

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 11


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

METHODOLOGY:
Inward-looking compact form, with controlled exposure

Two types of windows designed: peep windows for possible cross-ventilation and view, the
other being for daylighting

EXTERIOR FAADE OF BUILDING

The courts have structural framework to provide support for shading screens

Landscaping acts as a climate modifier

The window reveals of the peep window cut out summer sun and let in winter sun

Adjustable venetian blinds in double window sandwich to cut off insulation and allow daylight

Polyurethane board insulation on wall and roof

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 12


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

Fountain court with water columns as environment moderator

Building systems designed so as to draw upon external environment to supplement the air-
conditioning system

Eco-friendly absorption technology adopted for air-conditioning

Careful planning of air distribution system

WINDOWS FOR CROSS VENTILLATION

Air-conditioning standards set by acceptance level of office staff and not by international
norms

Energy-efficient lighting system and daylight integration with controls

Optimization of structure and reduction of embodied energy by use of less energy-intensive


materials

Concept Although this is an air-conditioned building, it attempts an interactive interface with


the external environment to achieve greater energy efficiency. The basic design strategy is
inspired by the traditional inward-looking haveli plan. The central fountain courtyard acts as an
environment generator for the office spaces opening toward it. The external skin is treated as a

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 13


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

solid insulated wall with peep windows for possible cross-ventilation and higher windows for
daylight. Selection of materials and system of environmental control is prioritised in favour of
sustainability and efficiency in energy consumption so that a significant feature of energy saving
is actually the economy of the building envelope.

ASSUMPTIONS, path toward energy conservation:

1. air conditioning is still an expensive technology to install and to run.

2. this cost is largely a resultant of heat transfer through the building fabric.

3. to make air conditioning more affordable, the most effective strategy is: To design the
building fabric itself to minimize air conditioning load. This is effected at marginal extra cost of
insulation and shading.

PLANS

Description This is an office building designed to meet the demands of a modern office, with
high level of environmental comfort, integration of systems to support information technology,
with flexibility and adaptability for growth and change.

The building sits on a rectangular plot in an institutional area, which will have other office
buildings surrounding it. Three stories of offices and a basement surround the central court.
The basement plan is shown below.

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 14


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

The basement houses building services and some work spaces too. The entire building plan is
based on a planning grid of 1.4 m x 1.4 m which coordinates the ceilings with air-conditioning
and light fittings, locations for partitions as well as external windows - to permit a high degree
of flexibility in layouts for offices.

The building opens towards its entrance through a planted and shaded forecourt with a water
pool.

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 15


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

The orientation of all the interior spaces is towards the central court, with the exception of the
managing directors suite which enjoys its own garden terrace on the top floor.

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 16


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

CASE STUDY

This is an office building designed to meet the demands of a modern office, with high level of
environmental comfort, integrationof systems to support information technology, with
flexibility and adaptability for growth and change.

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 17


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

The building opens towards its entrance through a planted and shaded forecourt with a water
pool. The orientation of all the interior spaces is towards the central court, with the exception
of the managing directors suite which enjoys its own garden terrace on the top floor.

ENERGY SAVING FEATURES

Exposure

Insulation

Heat Transfer

Fountain Court

Interactive strategy for an air-conditioned building

Absorption technology for Air-Conditioning

Air Distribution

Control on air-conditioning loads

Illumination

Structural system and floor-to-floor height

External envelope

Monitoring and Automation

Exposure: The Building adopts a compact rectangular form and minimum height above ground
to limit exposure to the external conditions. Openings on the external walls are designed for
two separate functions: small peep windows at seating height provide for possible cross
ventilation and views out; larger windows at ceiling level are designed to distribute glare-free
daylight across the office floor.

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 18


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

VIEW OF PEEP WINDOWS

Taking the daylighting function into account the window area is minimised to 18% of the
external wall area. Both the entrance forecourt and central fountain court, towards which the
building envelope opens out with greater transparency, have a structural framework which
would provide support for shading screens to be stretched according to seasonal demands. The
planting scheme along the edges of the site with tall evergreen (Silver Oak) trees, provides
another protective layer for the building.

Insulation: The orientation of the building is determined by the site. The small peep-windows,
due to the deep reveal in which they are set allow insulation in favour of winter, cutting out the
mid-summer sun by the shade of the reveal on to the glass. The large daylight windows house
adjustable venetian blinds in a double-window sandwich. The blinds are to be adjusted
seasonally (three times a year) by the building maintenance staff to control direct insulation
and to reflect light towards the ceiling for distribution into the office spaces. The large glazed
areas towards the central court and the entrance court rely on screens that will be stretched
and gathered seasonally. The structural frameworks enclosing the courts provide the necessary
support systems for the screens.

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 19


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

Heat Transfer: In Principle, the building is a heavy mass construction insulated from the
outside. Wall insulation is 25 mm thick polyurethane foam protected by a dry red-stone slab
cladding system.

DETAIL OF POLYURITHENE CLADDING

The roof insulation is 35 mm thick and has a reflective glazed tile paving cover to minimise sol-
air temperature on the roof surface. The daylight windows provide insulation by way of tight-
sealed two layers of glass with a venetian blind installed between the two layers. The glazing
panels around the inner courtyard however are single glazed - it is anticipated that with the tall
water fountain working, the courtyard temperatures would shift substantially toward wet bulb
temperature. This would considerably reduce heat load from the courtyard side during
summers, and during spring and autumn would act as a heat sink. While the choice of single
glazing here evidently means savings in capital expenditure, considering the year-round
operation of the fountain court.

Fountain Court: The fountain is a re-circulating system in which a large body of water flows
over extensive surfaces to maximise evaporation.

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 20


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

MONUMENT IN FOUNTAIN COURT

The tall solid concrete columns of broad diameters over which the water trickles down the
height of the courtyard, and the thin sheet that overflows the sides of the pool at ground level
create a large heat sink and a body of air close to wet-bulb temperature. The white marble
sides of the tank reflect the courtyard light into the basement work areas.

Interactive strategy for an air-conditioned building: Recognising that climatic conditions range
on both the cold and the hot sides of the comfort zone, building systems are designed to draw
upon the external environment to supplement the air-conditioning system. The air-handling
system has provision for 100% filtered fresh-air-intake. Coolth can be stored in the building
mass by night flushing during spring and autumn. Similarly, during early and late winter, when
internal heat is to be rejected, fresh air would be drawn in, replacing the function of the chilling
plant.

Absorption technology for Air-Conditioning : After a careful cost-benefit study, an absorption


system chilling plant has been installed. Apart from not contributing to ozone depletion the
plant results in reduction of the capital expense of the electrical system, particularly its
electricity generation back-up. This is of critical value in a state like Haryana, where due to
acute electricity shortage the electricity generation back-up must cater to 100% of peak load.
The absorption chillers run on a diesel fired furnace. Electricity generation provides for
illumination, office machines and mechanical equipment.

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 21


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

Air Distribution: Each of the office floors is served with two air handling units. The allocation of
areas handled by each unit is designed to balance out peak demands on each unit. This is done
by responding to the orientation exposure of the building sides to the sun so that peak morning
and afternoon loads are shared by the air handling units even as the loads shift from the
easterly faces of the building in the morning toward the westerly faces in the afternoon.

Control on air-conditioning loads : The primary level control on external gains has been
described under exposure and heat transfer. And internal gain is controlled by minimising
internal lighting loads. The more significant saving, however, is affected by the clients agreeing
to air-conditioning standards set according to acceptance level of their office staff, rather than
by any international norms. The system is designed to following parameters: Outdoor Summer
43.50C db 240C wb (ignoring peak temperatures) Indoor Summer 240C db ( 10C) Also,
circulation passages and ancilliary function rooms have no air-conditioning. Toilets and pantries
expel air to the outside at a minimal rate drawing relief air from neighbouring conditioned
spaces.

Illumination: Daylight is the primary source of illumination. All work spaces receive adequate
daylight the maximum distance of a workstation from the daylight source being 5 M. The high
windows on the external walls are designed to throw daylight deep into the office space. This is
varied seasonally by adjusting venetian blinds installed in the window sandwich to control glare
and to modulate distribution. On the courtyard side fabric screens would be stretched over the
structural frame to respond to each season. Artificial illumination is on the ceiling grid with
compact fluorescent luminaries at 19 watts per square metre of floor area. Most of the office
work is done on computers and working hours are generally limited to daylight hours. The
illumination level offered by this system supplements daylight when necessary, and is
comfortable for short working hours. It has been agreed that task light desk lamps will be
provided on desks for elderly people and those who have late working hours. To provide visual
interest and a feeling of brightness occasional spot lights are provided to light up wall surfaces
with paintings and other artwork. Control of ceiling lights is in the hands of the building
management staff. The control circuits for ceiling lights are arranged in zones running parallel
to the daylight source so that they can be switched on progressively to compensate for
variation in and/or falling daylight levels. It is proposed that these will be controlled by
automatic timer switches with timing set for each season. (with manual override for unusually
cloudy weather)

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 22


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

Structural system and floor-to-floor height: A flat-slab system is adopted for floors and roofs.
This minimises the height required for accommodating air-conditioning and other services.
With a clear ceiling height for office spaces at 2.65 M the floor-to-floor height of the building is
3.5 metres. This compactness of height means minimising heat transfer through vertical
surfaces of the external skin. Restricting the building height to three stories was a deliberate
choice. With maximum ground coverage, this pattern of planning consumes the total
permissible FAR with the least possible building height. The advantages are manifold: The
energy consumed in transport of materials to heights during construction is minimised.
Similarly the energy consumed in conveying water and diesel for the A/C plant on the roof is
minimised. A major gain is being able to eliminate the necessity of lifts. Only one 6 passenger
elevator is provided for disabled or ill persons and for special guests.

External envelope: It is in the deployment of finishing materials of the building that some gains
are affected by conscious choice.

RED AGRA SAND STONE PRE GRANITE POLISHED STONE

The criteria for choice of materials was that within the constraints of performance
specifications demanded of the surface the material should be chosen from the nearest
possible source and should call for minimum processing toward converting or installing it. The
external cladding is undressed split red Agra sandstone with pre-cast concrete and terrazzo sills
and jambs. For office areas floors are pre-polished granite from Jhansi (the nearest source to
Delhi). For service areas it is Kota stone. Glass and aluminium are the worst culprits whose
areas, sizes and weights are kept to the minimum possible.

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 23


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

Monitoring and Automation: For the present, automation in the air-conditioning system is
limited the solenoid control valves and thermostats to regulate the flow of chilled water to the
air handing units and the switching on and off of the absorption chiller units; and for artificial
illumination the use of switches on timers.

More sophisticated computerised automation systems were found to be beyond budgetary


provisions and of doubtful cost-benefit. However, it is proposed to install a simple monitoring
system for illumination and air-conditioning to help in rationalising the systems management
routines for the daily as well as the annual cycles of building use.

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 24


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

Interior view from atrium to work areas

View of courtyard showing monument

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 25


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

Interior view showing work station

View of Courtyard monument

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 26


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

Exterior view showing faade

OTHER DETAILS

Client: Transport Corporation of India Ltd.

Cost: Rs 55 million

Infrastructure (electrical, HVAC, plumbing, lift, fuel oil tank, pumps and tubewells) : Rs 24
million

Civil, false ceilling, strong rooms, steel pergola : Rs 30,7 million

Landscaping : Rs 0,35 million

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 27


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://www.ashoklallarchitects.com/tci

http://www.cwejournal.org/wind-field-modifications-in-habitable-urban-areas

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transportcorporationofindia.ltd

https://archnet.org/library/files/files.jsp?keyword=Aga+Khan+Award+for+Architecture

BOOKS

ARCHITECTURE+DESIGN MAGAZINE
BUILDING FOR HEALTH.pdf

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 28


TRANSPORT CORPORATION OF INDIA, GURGAON

MOHD AAMIR KHAN B ARCH II YEAR Page 29