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EXERCISES CHAPTER 7:

(1) Liquid ammonia is a polar solvent in which polar organic compounds


are soluble. However because the dipole moment of ammonia is lower
than that of water, ammonia does not solvate ions as well as water does.
Consequently, the only ionic compounds that are soluble in ammonia are
those with appreciable covalent character. Predict which compound in
each of the following pairs will be more soluble in ammonia: (a) CH 4,
CH3OH; (b) KCl; KI; (c) LiBr; CsBr

(2) The capillary action, lifting fluids narrow tubes, occurs when there
are attractions between the liquid molecules and the inner surface of the
tube. The liquid meniscus is curved surface which is formed a narrow
tube. For water in a capillary tube glass, the meniscus is curved up at
the edges, so concave, while for the edges of mercury have a convex
meniscus shape. Taking consideration the text information and following
figure,

H2O Hg

a) Describe the forces involved in the formation


of meniscus.
b) Explain, with justification, the difference in the meniscus of water and
mercury in narrow glass tubes

3. The communication involves transmission of information. This is the


case of heredity process of DNA, which is transmitted generation to
generation the information. The discovery of DNA structure, the mid-
twentieth century, was a milestone for humanity. Wilkins, Watson and
Crick won the Nobel Prize in 1962 for this discovery. For the maintenance
of the dual structure DNA helix, under the rules of Chargaff, there is
chemical bonding between pairs of bases as shown below. It is observed
also that the pairs are always the same. In a simplified representation of
DNA structure, the side view may be compared to a spiral staircase (-
helix), where the size of the steps is always the same and the width of
the staircase is perfectly constant.

Figure 1. Chemical structure of the DNA


The bases are connected to the stair railing by nitrogen marked in
asterisk in the formulas below:

* * * *
(a) (b) (c) (d)

a) Considering only the information given in the text, what are the
possible combinations between bases a, b, c and d? Justify.
b) In fact, only two item combinations occur in nature. Justify this fact in
terms of intermolecular interactions.

4. The disposable diaper absorbs urine. This avoids the urine contact
with baby's skin. Some diapers disposable, however, continue dried even
after absorb a large amount of urine. The secret of these diapers resides
in chemical properties: the polyacrylate sodium is a polyelectrolyte. The
dry sodium polyacrylate when mixed with water, forms a gel which can
entrap 800 times its weight in water. The inner layer of the diaper is also
made from a polymer, polypropylene, which is not wet, preventing the
rash in babies. Which kind of molecular interaction is involved in the
sodium polyacrylate chemical properties?

Information:
EJERCICIO DE EXAMEN
5. The vapor pressure of a substance is related with its molecular
properties. The geometric isomers cis-dibromo-eteno and trans-dibromo-
eteno are liquid at room temperature:
a) write the structural formulas of these compounds;
b) indicate, with justification, which is more volatile liquid to room
temperature.

6. Those polymers, whose molecules distribute parallel to one another,


are crystalline, melting in a defined temperature without decomposition.
The melting temperature of the polymer depends, among other factors,
of the molecular interactions, due to forces of dispersion, hydrogen
bonds, permanent dipoles or induced dipoles. Below it is given the
molecular structures of some polymers.

Polypropylene

Poly (3-aminobutanoic acid)

Each of these polymers was subjected separately to progressive heating.


One of them blew up to 160 C another at 330 C and the third is not
Bakelite
melted, but decomposed. Considering the molecular interactions among
the three cited polymers,
a) Which one is melted at 160 C? Justify.
b) Which of them are melted to 330 C? Justify.
c) Which of them are not fused? Justify.

7. The vast majority of people, adults and/or children, like blowing soap
bubbles. A recipe to make the bubbles more resistant and bigger soap
bubbles is to add corn syrup (containing 80% glucose and 20% fructose)
to water with detergent. Based on the formula of glucose and fructose
and your knowledge of intermolecular forces, explain why the soap
bubble is more resistant in this case.

8. The hydrogen bonds formed between molecules of water, HOH, can


be represented by:

Based on this model, represent the hydrogen bonds that exist between
the molecules of ammonia, NH3.

9. A column chromatography allow the separation based on the


intermolecular interaction of the substances with the stationary and
mobile phases. Explain the interaction between the stationary phase
(silica gel) and the substances phenol and naphthalene, represented
below:
Silica gel Phenol Naphtalene

.
10. Two glass substrates commonly used in the manufacture of windows
was cleaned and dried. At the ambient conditions, it was carefully
deposited a drop (0.05 ml) of mercury in one of the substrates and one
drop (0.05 ml) of water in the other substrate. Consider that the liquids
are pure.
a) Draw the deposited liquid drop format on each of the substrates.
b) Explain the reason for any differences in shapes of drops of the liquid
deposited on each of the glass substrates.
c) What is the influence of liquid volume in shape of droplets deposited
onto the substrates?

11. The intermolecular forces are responsible for various physical and
chemical properties of molecules, such as the melting point. Consider
the molecules F2, Cl2 and Br2.
a) What are the main intermolecular forces in those species?
b) Arrange these species in order of increasing melting temperature.

12. The y-axis of the figure represents the boiling point of the
compounds of the groups 14 and 16 of the periodic table. On the x-axis
presents their values of the molar masses. Taking into consideration the
following chart, respond to items below:
(a) Explain the observed behavior for the boiling points in the family of
carbon compounds
b) Explain why the water has point boiling higher than that of other
elements of oxygen group and why this discrepancy does not occur with
the family of elements of the carbon group.

13. The van der Waals constant for NH3 is greater than that for CO2
which in turn is greater than for O 2. Use your knowledge of
intermolecular forces to explain why this fact.

14. The vaporization of paraffin and subsequent combustion break the


links between then the molecules of the substance, break links. How
these links are named?

15. "Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons composed of various


molecules formed by hydrogen atoms and carbon and, to a lesser
extent, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur, which are combined in different
ways, giving differentiated characteristics the various types of oils found
in nature ... ". Knowing that the boiling points of hydrocarbons such as n-
octane (I) 2-Methyl-heptane (II) and 2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane (III) can be
influenced by intermolecular interactions in each case, predict the
tendency of boiling points these three molecules.

16. The daily requirement of vitamins in the body is only a few


micrograms or milligrams, since they fill catalytic functions. Vitamins
allow anabolism and catabolism of the main elements nutritious, thus
driving the metabolism. They are classified as liposoluble and
hydrosoluble. Based on this information and knowledge on the subject:
a) Explain the meaning of the terms lipo-soluble and water soluble.
b) Rate the structures below in lipo-soluble and water soluble, justifying
your answer

17. Alginic acid, a natural polymer extracted from seaweed, is the


structure shown below. It is soluble in water, and used to give more
consistency to ice cream. Explain, based on its structure, why the acid
alginic is soluble in water.

18. What is the coordination number of the cubic close-packed structure


in a silver crystal?