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MELDES EXPERIMENT

Mirnasari Mutmainna, Risnawati Lendang

Laboratory Fundamental of Physics II, Physics Department FMIPA


Makassar State University

Abstract. Objectives of this lab experiment is Understand the working principle of the rope waves, understanding
the relationship between stress wave propagation speed rope with the rope, and understand the relationship between
the density wave propagation speed rope with the rope. The first activity of mass weigh 5 will be used to load
balance measurement tool ohauss 310 grams. Take a piece of rope and tied one end to the vibrator and cast on the
pulley and a load of M 1 Once compiled then turn on the Power Supply so that the vibrator vibrates. Adjust the strap
length while sliding the vibrator so as to form a wave. Measure the length of the vibrator until the pulley rope when
waves are formed. Determine the number of nodes and then calculate the wavelength. Prepare three different kinds
of yarn magnitude, measuring length and weigh it. Do activity A for other types of yarn. Calculate the mass of each
length of rope unity. Take the first piece of rope and do activities such as the first activity. Record the number of
nodes that occur. Repeat the activity d to h for other types of rope with a constant load mass. Based on the obtained
results of the first experiment, the Speed of wave= | 17,93 0,01 |m/s, | 19,00 0,01 | m/s, |
20,00 0,01 | m/s, | 21,75 0,02 | m/s, | 21,84 0,02 |m/s. F= 0,396214 N, 0,429875 N,
0,484512 N, 0,532434 N, 0,574868 N. Activity 2, 1= 0,00132 kg/m and V1= 17,325

m/s. 2= 0.00089 kg/m and V2= 21,10 m/s. Results that we have obtained through this experiment in
accordance with the theory.

KEYWORDS: Abdominal and Node, Meldes Experiment, Pulley, Vibrators, Wave, Wavelength

INTRODUCTION

The purpose of this lab experiment is understanding the working principles rope waves,
understanding the relationship between stress wave propagation speed rope with the rope, and understand
the relationship between the density wave propagation speed rope with the rope.

Law Melde learn about the quantities that affect the propagation of transverse waves on a string.
Through experiments, Melde found that the wave propagation speed is proportional to the root of the
string tension force strap and root mass is inversely proportional to the length of string unity. Melde
experiments are used to investigate the propagation of transverse waves in the string.

The first activity of mass weigh 5 will be used to load balance measurement tool ohauss 310
grams. Take a piece of rope and tied one end to the vibrator and cast on the pulley and a load of M 1 Once
compiled then turn on the Power Supply so that the vibrator vibrates. Adjust the strap length while sliding
the vibrator so as to form a wave. Measure the length of the vibrator until the pulley rope when waves are
formed. Determine the number of nodes and then calculate the wavelength. Prepare three different kinds
of yarn magnitude, measuring length and weigh it. Do activity A for other types of yarn. Calculate the
mass of each length of rope unity. Take the first piece of rope and do activities such as the first activity.
Record the number of nodes that occur. Repeat the activity d to h for other types of rope with a constant
load mass.

THEORY
Franz Melde (11 March 1832-17 March 1901) was a German physicist. Melde experiment shows
a standing wave on a string. Melde experiment used to measure the standing wave pattern, to measure the
speed of transverse waves, and to determine the effect of tension transverse waves in a string. Melde
experiment is a scientific experiment conducted By German physicist Franz Melde the standing wave
generated in the cable tension was initially set to oscillate with a tuning fork, which is then repaired by
connection to an electric vibrator. This study sought to demonstrate that mechanical waves undergo
interference phenomena. In the experiment, the mechanical waves traveling in the opposite direction of
the moving dots, which are called nodes. This wave is called a standing wave by Melde since the position
of the nodes and loops (the point where the cord vibrates) stay static.

A rope with one end tied to a vibrator (vibrator) in A, while at the other end cast on a pulley and
the mass M. Large load voltage rope is great gravity of the mass load suspended. If the electric vibrator
vibrated with a frequency f, then the wave energy will move through from A to B, this energy causes the
rope becomes bumpy.

The reflection of waves by node B causes a surge in the direction opposite to the waves coming
from the source (point A). The combination (interference) wave came and the reflected wave produces a
stationary wave.

One wave is formed if there are three nodes or two stomach. If the vibration frequency can be
determined and the wavelength can be calculated then the propagation of waves on a string can be
determined.

In addition, by using equation 9.1 wave velocity can be calculated. Rapid propagation of waves
on a string can be determined by the equation:

v=
F

[ 9.1 ]

and,
v = f [ 9.2 ]
with:
v =T he Rate Of Propagation Of The Wave System (m/s)

F=style rope tension(N )

=density rope ( Kg/m)

=wavelength(m)

f =vibration frequency of the vibrator (Hz)


Figure 1. The composition of the experimental apparatus is stationary wave

EXPERIMENTAL METHODOLOGY

Activity 1,
Variable of manipulation : The mass of the load
Variable of response : String length and the amount of waves
Variable of control : Vibration frequency
Activity 2,
Variable of manipulation : The kinds of string
Variable of response : String length and the amount of waves

Variable of control : The mass of the load,density of string 1,density of string 2 and
Vibration frequency.

Activity 1. Investigate Relationship With Voltage Wave Speed Rope. Weigh the mass of the load is
used as many as five different kinds of measuring instruments with a mass balance ohauss 310 grams.
Take a piece of yarn or rope and tied one end to the vibrator and cast on the pulley and a load of M 1.
Once drafted by the picture above, then turn on the Power Supply so that the vibrator vibrates. Adjust the
strap length while sliding a vibrator to form stationary waves. Measure the length of the vibrator until the
pulley rope when stationary wave is formed. Determine the number of nodes and then calculate the
wavelength. Repeat the activity a to e as much as 5 times the mass of different loads. Log all observations
available observations in the table. Calculate the wave velocity of each experiment.

Activity 2: Investigating the Relationship Between Creep Speed Waves With Unity Mass strap
length. Prepare three kinds of rope / yarn of different magnitude. Take a rope / yarn, measuring its length
and weigh it. Do activity A for other types of yarn. Calculate the mass of each length of rope unity. Take a
piece of rope / yarn first, tie one end to the vibrator, while the other end cast given load on the pulley and
M. Turn on the Power Supply so that the vibrator vibrates then set the length of the rope to form a wave.
Measure the length of the vibrator until the pulley rope when stationary wave is formed. Record the
number of nodes that occur. Repeat the activity d to h for other types of rope with a constant load mass.
Record all observations on the observation sheet. Calculate the wave propagation speed rope on each trial.

Tools and materials


1. Vibrator (vibrator)
2. Variabel Power Supply
3. Balance Ohauss 310 gram.
4. rule
5. Double connecting cable to taste.
6. Pulley
7. Hanging Load

EXPERIMENT RESULT AND ANALYSIS DATA

Activity 1. Relationship tension strap with wave velocity

Vibration frequency = 50 Hz

Table 1. Relationship tension strap with wave velocity


No Load Mass (gram) Rope Length (cm) Number of waves
1 |40,430,01| |125,500,05| 3,5
2 |45,250,01| |114,000,05| 3
3 |49,440,01| |100,000,05| 2,5
4 |54,330,01| |83,000,05| 2
5 |58,660,01| |65,500,05| 1,5

Activity 2. Relationship between the density wave velocity rope with rope

Mass Meeting Rope 1 = 0.0132 g / cm

Mass Meeting Rope 1 = 0.0089 g / cm

Mass load = | 40.43 0.01 | g

Vibration frequency = Hz

Table 2. Relationship between the density wave velocity rope with rope
Wrist Type Rope Length (cm) Number of waves

I |125,500,05| 3,5
II |142,000,05| 2,5

Data Analysis
Activity 1(relationship between the string tension to wave velocity)
v =f L 1
= =L n
n
v=|v | +|vf| f = |L | L
v=| | +| | f
f f
f
| |
1
L n
= L
L

| || |
f f
f
v f Ln
1
= + L
v f f L
=
Ln
1

v | || |
v f
= +
f
L
v= | f

+
f
v |
=
L

=|LL|
Wavelength and uncertainty analysis
L 125,50
1 = =
n 3,5
=35,857 cm 1= |125,50
0,05
|0,35857=0,00014 m
0,35857 m 2=0,00016 m
2=0,38 m 3=0,0002 m
3 =0,4 m 4=0,00025m
4=0,415 m 5=0,00033 m
5 =0,4367 m

Speed of wave and uncertainty analysis


v 1= f =0,35857 x 50=17,93 m/s

Absolut Error of v
v= |0,00014
0,35857 50 |
+
0,01
17,93

v=|0,00039+ 0,0002|17,93

v=0,0106 m/s

Relatif error
v
= 100
v
0,0106
= 100
17,93

=0.0591(4 SF)

Degree of believing
DB=( 100 )

DB=( 1000,0591 )

DB=99,9409

Physics report
Speed of wave=|v 1 v|m/ s
Speed of wave=|17,93 0,01| m/s

v 2=19 m/ s

v=0,0118 m/ s

=0,062(4 SF)

DB=99,938

Speed of wave=|19,00 0,01| m/s

v 3=20 m/ s

v=0,014 m/ s

=0,07( 4 SF )
DB=99,93

Speed of wave=|20,00 0,01|m/s

v 4=20,75 m/s

v=0,0166 m/s

=0,08( 4 SF )
DB=99,2

Speed of wave=|21,75 0,02|m/s

v 5=21,835m/ s

v=0,0209 m/s

=0,096( 4 SF )
DB=99,904

Speed of wave=|21,84 0,02|m/s

Tension of string
F1=mg=0,04043 kg x 9,8 N /kg=0,396214 N

F2 =mg=0,04525 kg x 9,8 N /kg=0,429875 N

F3 =mg=0,04944 kg x 9,8 N /kg=0,484512 N

F 4=mg=0,05433 kg x 9,8 N / kg=0,532434 N


F5 =mg=0,05866 kg x 9,8 N /kg=0,574868 N

Below is a graph of relatonship between tension of string to speed of wave

25
20 f(x) = 20.66x + 9.91
15 R = 0.99

Spe e d of wave (m/s) 10

5
0
0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6

Tension of string (N)

Graph 1. Relationship between tension of string to speed of wave

Activity 2. Relationship between density string to string wave velocity

|mF | m

F mg F=
v= =
m
L
F=|
m |
mg
1 1
m
v=
F

=F 2 2

| |
mg
v= |Fv | F+|v | F
F
=
m
mg
m

| | | | |mm|F
1 1 1 1
F 2 2
F 2 2 F=
v= F+
F

| || | |m | m+|L| L
1 1 1 1
F2 2
F2 2 =
v F
= 1
F+ 1

v
=|
L|
1 1
m L
2
F 2 2
F 2 +
m

v | || |
v F
=
F
+

v=|
|
F
+ v
F

Speed of wave and uncertainty analysis


First string
F1=mg=0,04043 kg x 9,8 N /kg=0,396214 N
1=0,0132 gr /cm=0,00132 kg /m

v 1=

F

=
0,396214
0,00132
=17,325 m/s

F= |0.00001
0.04043 |
kg 0.396214 = |0.00001
0.04043
kg+
0.0005
5
m|0.0013

F=0.000098 N =0.00000045 kg/m

v= |0.000098
0.396214
+
0.0013 |
0.00000045
17,325

v=|0.000247+ 0.00035|17,325
v=0.01 m/s
0.01
= 100
17,325

=0.06( 4 SF )
DB=99.94

Speed of wave=|v 1 v|m/ s

Speed of wave=|17,32 0.01|m/ s

Second string
F2 =mg=0,04043 kg x 9,8 N /kg=0,396214 N

2=0.0089 gr /cm=0.00089 kg /m

v 2=

F

=
0,396214
0.00089
=21,10 m/s

F=|0.00001
0.04043 |
kg 0.396214 =|0.00001
0.04043
kg+
0.0005
5
m|0.00089

F=0.000098 N =0.0001 kg/m

v= |0.000098
0,396214 0.00089|
+
0.0001
21,10

v=2,376 m/ s

=0.1126(4 SF)
DB=99.8874

Speed of wave=|21,10 2,38|m/s


Below is a graph of relatonship between tension of string to speed of wave

25

20

15 f(x) = - 17.32x + 34.64


R = 1
Density rope (Kg/m)
10

0
0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2

Velocity (m/s)

Graph 2. Relationship between density of string to speed of wave

DISCUSSION

On this melde trial, we will do two activities. The first activity that is Investigate Relationship
With Voltage Wave Speed Rope. And the second activity is Investigating the Relationship Between Creep
Speed Waves With Unity Mass strap length.
Based on the obtained results of the first experiment using the question v = f and
F=mg , the Speed of wave
v 1=17,93 0,01 |m/s, v 2=19,00 0,01 |m/s,

v 3= 20,00 0,01 |m/s, v 4= 21,75 0,02 |m/s, v 5= 21,84 0,02 |m/s. With F1=
0,396214 N, F = 0 , 429875 N, F = 0,484512 N, F = 0,532434 N, F = 0,574868 N.
2 3 4 5

Activity 2 Investigating the Relationship Between Creep Speed Waves With Unity Mass strap

length using the question v=


F
, 1=
0,00132 kg/m and V = 17,325 m/s. = 0.00089
1 2

kg/m and V2= 21,10 m/s. Results that we have obtained through this experiment in accordance with
the theory.

CONCLUSION

Waves that occur on the rope caused because there is an energy that flows from the PS to the
vibrator. This energy then flows into the ropes and giving waves on a string.
The first experiment using the equation v = f , wave propagation speed is directly
proportional to the wavelength. with these equations we can obtain the wave propagation speed for each
wavelength. the equation F=mg , we'll get the rope tension force for each mass load applied. thus the
equation v = F / , Wave propagation speed is proportional to the square root of rope tension force.
The larger the rope tension force, the greater the wave propagation speed.
The second experiment with the same formula yaituv v = F / , we obtain Wave propagation
speed is inversely proportional to the square root of rope linear density. The greater the mass density rope,
the smaller the wave propagation speed. And results that we have obtained through this experiment in
accordance with the theory.

REFERENSI

[1] Halliday, David dan Resnick, Robert. 1999. Fisika Jilid 1 Edisi Ketiga (Terjemahan). Jakarta:
Erlangga.
[2] Tim Dosen Fisika Dasar 2 Jurusan Fisika FMIPA UNM. 2014. Penuntun Fisika Dasar II. Fisika
FMIPA UNM. Makassar.

[3] Tipler, Paul A. 2001. Fisika untuk Sains dan Teknik Edisi Ketiga Jilid 1 (Terjemahan). Jakarta:
Erlangga.