37 views

Uploaded by Chandni Seelochan

hhhh

hhhh

© All Rights Reserved

- Numerical Example of Creating a System Curve for Single Pump Systems - Rev 1
- Technical Reference WaterCAD V8 XM
- FF Calculation
- Simulation of Existing Water Distribution Network by using Epanet: A Case Study of Surat City
- 3
- The Hazen Williams formula for use in fire sprinkler systems - Canute LLP.pdf
- Heat Distribution
- Slurry Properties
- Capstone Final
- Newdes
- Fluid Mechanics Lab Report
- Ce 394 Plumbing
- Drainage Criteria Manual
- Open Channel Flow Resistance_-_Ben Chie Yen_2002.pdf
- Spe 36841
- 8 pipe note 3
- Chapter 5(b) Pressure Drop in Piping System
- 860007_ch3.pdf
- Analysis of the Effects of Valve Propagated Pressure Surge on Pipe Flow.pdf
- Lab 2

You are on page 1of 11

Faculty of Engineering

Department of Chemical and Process Engineering

Course: CHNG 1006 Transport Phenomena I

Year: 2015

Name of Experiment: Fluid Friction Apparatus

Date Conducted: 10/03/15

Date Submitted: 24/03/15

Name of Student: Chandni Seelochan

ID#: 814001154

Lab Group: Group 6

Abstract

The main objective of this experiment was to investigate the fluid friction apparatus provided

and calculate the coefficients of resistance for the 3 types of pipe fittings. These include a 90

pipe angle, a 90 pipe bend and a 45 pipe angle.

The experiment was carried out by adjusting the flow of the water by opening the tap of section

five of the apparatus. The time required to fill a noted amount of water was recorded. This

assisted in finding the volumetric flowrate and with further information on the diameter of the

pipes, the flow velocity was determined. With this quantity, the Reynolds number was found and

this led to the calculation of the pipe friction factor using the Blasius equation. The head loss due

to the pipes was then found using the Darcy-Weisbach equation and then additional pressure

losses owing to the pipe elbows using the equation provided. The head loss due to the 45

elevation was also recorded during the lab using a manometer. These values were negative since

a pressure drop was expected. The coefficient of resistance for each component was then

calculated. Due to restrictions in the lab and inadequate information provided, assumptions were

made in carrying out the calculations.

Results

Table 1: Results Obtained Upon Performing the Experiment

Experiment Time (s) Volume (mL) h1 (mm) h2 (mm) Head loss (mm)

1 18.28 1500 17.5 16.5 -1.0

2 23.37 2350 17.0 15.8 -1.2

3 22.25 1800 17.4 16.3 -1.1

4 16.41 2100 17.7 14.6 -3.1

5 9.00 1950 20.8 13.6 -7.2

6 5.46 2150 24.8 12.5 -12.3

7 7.00 1850 32.8 10.5 -22.3

8 4.53 2080 36.5 9.2 -27.3

9 4.35 2130 38.5 9.0 -29.5

10 2.62 1600 47.3 5.5 -41.8

90 pipe angle 1.13 2

90 pipe bend 1.13 2

45 pipe angle 0.24 2

Internal Diameter, d (m) 0.017

Cross sectional Area, A (m2) 2.27 x 10-4

Kinematic Viscosity (m2/s) 9.57 x 10-6

Wall Roughness, k (mm) 0.001

Gravity (m/s2) 9.81

Length(m)

Pipe Angle 90 0.203

Pipe Bend 90 0.322

Pipe Angle 45 0.247

Total Pipe 0.772

Sample Calculations

Experiment 1 Data

Assuming constant turbulent flow,

Volume

Volume Flowrate, Q = Time

3

0.0015m

= 18.28 s

= 8.21 x 10-5 m3/s

4Q

Flow speed, v = d 2

0.017

= (3.14)

( 4 )(8.21)(105 )

= 0.362 m/s

vd

Re =

( 0.362 )(0.017)

= 0.957 x 106

= 6422

0.3164

= 4

0.3164

= 4 6422

= 0.0353

Head loss due to entire pipe length, hv

l v 2

hv = d 2 g

(0.0353)(1)(0.362)2

= (0.017)(2)(9.81)

= 0.0138m

Head loss due to 45 elevation was recorded in the experiment, hvelevation = 0.001m

Additional head loss due to 90 pipe angle, hvz90

From literature, the coefficient of resistance is 1.13 for knee pieces of 90 bend.

(Provided from manual) Since the radius of the 90 pipe angle is smaller than the pipe

diameter, it was assumed that this resistance of coefficient was also 1.13.

2

v

hvz90 =

2g

0.3622

= (1.13)

2(9.81)

= 7.53 x 10-3 m

Total head loss (pipe, 45 elevation and 90 pipe angle), htotal90

htotal90 = hv + 2 hvz90

= 0.0107 + 0.001 + [(7.53 x 10-3) (2)]

= 0.03m

N.B: The head loss for the fitting is doubled since two pieces are present

v2

hvzbend =

2g

2

0.362

= (1.13) 2(9.81)

= 7.53 x 10-3 m

Total head loss (pipe, 45 elevation and 90 pipe bend), htotalbend

htotalbend = hv + 2 hvzbend

= 0.0107 + 0.001 + [(7.53 x 10-3) (2)]

= 0.0299m

Additional head loss due to 45 pipe angle

v2

hvzbend =

2g

0.3622

= (0.24)

2( 9.81)

= 1.60 x 10-3 m

Total head loss (pipe, 45 elevation and 45 pipe angle), htotal45

htotal45 = hv + hvelevation + 2 hvz45

= 0.0107 + 0.001 + [(1.60 x 10-3) (2)]

= 0.0026m

The coefficient of resistance for 90 pipe angle, 90

2 htotal 90 g l

90 = 2

v d

( 2 ) ( 0.0267 ) ( 9.81) (0.0353)(0.203)

= 2

0.362 (0.017)

= 3.44

The coefficient of resistance for 90 pipe bend, bend

2 htotalbend g l

bend =

v2 d

( 2 ) ( 0.0267 ) ( 9.81) (0.0353)(0.322)

=

0.3622 ( 0.017)

= 3.20

The coefficient of resistance for 45 pipe angle, 45

2 htotal 45 g l

45 = 2

v d

( 2 ) ( 0.0149 ) ( 9.81) (0.0353)(0.247)

= 2

0.362 ( 0.017)

= 1.57

Results / Calculations

Table 5: The Variables for each Experiment performed

Experim Time, t Volume, V Volumetric Flowrate, Q Flow Speed, v

ent (s) (m3) (m3/s) (m/s) Re d /k

170 0.03

1 18.28 0.00150 0.00008206 0.362 6422 00 53

170 0.03

2 23.37 0.00235 0.00010056 0.443 7870 00 36

170 0.03

3 22.25 0.00180 0.00008090 0.356 6331 00 55

1001 170 0.03

4 16.41 0.00210 0.00012797 0.564 5 00 16

1695 170 0.02

5 9.00 0.00195 0.00021667 0.955 7 00 77

3081 170 0.02

6 5.46 0.00215 0.00039377 1.735 7 00 39

2068 170 0.02

7 7.00 0.00185 0.00026429 1.164 3 00 64

3593 170 0.02

8 4.53 0.00208 0.00045916 2.023 5 00 30

3832 170 0.02

9 4.35 0.00213 0.00048966 2.157 1 00 26

4779 170 0.02

10 2.62 0.00160 0.00061069 2.690 3 00 14

Table 6: Head loss calculations for each experiment with respect to each fitting

Experim hvz45 htotal90 htotalben

ent hvpipe (m) hvz90 (m) hvzbend (m) (m) d htotal45

0.02 0.025 0.013

1 0.0107 0.0075 0.0075 0.0016 57 7 9

0.03 0.037 0.020

2 0.0153 0.0113 0.0113 0.0024 79 9 1

0.02 0.025 0.013

3 0.0104 0.0073 0.0073 0.0016 51 1 5

0.05 0.059 0.031

4 0.0233 0.0183 0.0183 0.0039 99 9 0

0.16 0.163 0.080

5 0.0585 0.0525 0.0525 0.0111 34 4 8

0.51 0.513 0.240

6 0.1664 0.1733 0.1733 0.0368 30 0 0

0.23 0.239 0.116

7 0.0828 0.0781 0.0781 0.0166 90 0 0

0.68 0.689 0.317

8 0.2177 0.2357 0.2357 0.0501 90 0 8

0.77 0.779 0.357

9 0.2436 0.2680 0.2680 0.0569 96 6 4

1.19 1.192 0.535

10 0.3585 0.4169 0.4169 0.0885 23 3 6

Results / Calculations

Table 7: Coefficient of Resistance for each Fitting

Experiment 90 bend 45

1 3.44 3.20 1.57

2 3.38 3.15 1.52

3 3.45 3.20 1.58

4 3.32 3.10 1.46

5 3.19 2.99 1.34

6 3.06 2.89 1.22

7 3.14 2.96 1.29

8 3.03 2.87 1.19

9 3.02 2.86 1.18

10 2.98 2.83 1.14

Discussion

In this experiment, the fluid friction apparatus provided was investigated and the coefficient of

resistance determined. This was done by varying the fluid flow through a system with straight

pipes and two 90 pipe angles, two 90 knee pieces (bend) and two 45 pipe angles. The time to

fill a certain volume of fluid was recorded and so was the respective head loss. These values

were then used to determine the coefficient of resistance of the fittings. It should be noted that

the diameter throughout the system was taken as a constant value of 17mm.

In the manual, calculations were very vague. The head loss for the entire system was calculated

to using the hv formula, and the additional pressure losses due to the pipe fittings were the found

using the hvz formula. Head loss owing to the 45 elevation was recorded during the experiment.

Since there were two pipe fittings of each type, the h vz value was doubled and this value added to

the hv value and hvelevation was taken as the total head loss. This is called the equivalent length

method. This just means that the head losses for the pipe fittings were found such that it was a

straight piece of pipe.

In calculating the head loss in the system for the straight pipes, that is excluding the losses owing

to the pipe elbows, a total length was not provided, nor was the length of the straight pipes.

However, since this value was required to find the total head loss and hence the coefficient of

resistance, unit length was used. The aim was to get the sum of the lengths of the original pipes

and the equivalent lengths (head loss) of the fittings and with the head loss due to elevation, the

total head loss in the system can be found.

In calculation of the additional head losses due to the various pipe fittings, it was stated that the

literature specifies empirically obtained coefficients of resistance that can be used to calculate the

additional head loss. From the information given about pipe elbows, the manual provided

coefficients of resistance for pipe bends and pipe angles of 45 at 1.13 and 0.24 respectively for

smooth pipes. For pipe angles of 90, it was stated that the elbow radii is less than the pipe

diameter (R/d < 1) so the coefficients of resistance for knee pieces are approximately applicable.

So, a value of 1.13 was used for the coefficient of resistance for the 90 pipe angle as well.

Additionally, for the total coefficient of resistance, a length of 1m was used for the length

variable in the equation.

Some sources of errors in the experiment can be parallax error when reading head loss from

manometer, slow reaction time when using stopwatch and closing valve upon cue and major

errors when reading the manometer in such short time intervals.

References

Pentair. 2015. Head Loss in Piping Systems. http://www.hydromatic.com/ResidentialPage

_techinfopage_headloss.aspx (accessed 21st March, 2015)

The Engineering Toolbox. Total Pressure or Head Loss in Pipe or Duct Systems. http://www.

engineeringtoolbox.com/total-pressure-loss-ducts-pipes-d_625.html (accessed 21st March, 2015)

- Numerical Example of Creating a System Curve for Single Pump Systems - Rev 1Uploaded byFA Ay
- Technical Reference WaterCAD V8 XMUploaded byKhotimatuz Zahroh
- FF CalculationUploaded byEngr. Abdullah
- Simulation of Existing Water Distribution Network by using Epanet: A Case Study of Surat CityUploaded byGRD Journals
- 3Uploaded byAymenRashid
- The Hazen Williams formula for use in fire sprinkler systems - Canute LLP.pdfUploaded bySivapriya Samy
- Heat DistributionUploaded byabcpqr123456
- Slurry PropertiesUploaded byJuan Pablo Apaza
- Capstone FinalUploaded bynwright_bester
- NewdesUploaded bytenner
- Fluid Mechanics Lab ReportUploaded byBilal Ahmad
- Ce 394 PlumbingUploaded bySamar Mohapatra
- Drainage Criteria ManualUploaded bymahesh
- Open Channel Flow Resistance_-_Ben Chie Yen_2002.pdfUploaded byAndres Granados
- Spe 36841Uploaded bycmkoh
- 8 pipe note 3Uploaded byVenkitaraj K P
- Chapter 5(b) Pressure Drop in Piping SystemUploaded byAlex Cool
- 860007_ch3.pdfUploaded byJuan Zamora
- Analysis of the Effects of Valve Propagated Pressure Surge on Pipe Flow.pdfUploaded bySantanu Karar
- Lab 2Uploaded bybedirtupak
- Frictional LossesUploaded byshahzaib
- 01 closed_conduit.pptUploaded byMuaz Mushtaq
- Hydraulic_PVC Pipe- Design and InstallationUploaded byIng Civil JS
- Design of Pipeline Systems 3Uploaded byArafat Hasann
- Friction_Coeff.xlsUploaded byeco protection
- LAB16FFFFFFINAL (1)[1]FffffffffffffffffffUploaded byM-poe Mampshika
- Public Health Engineering (Supp) - Ece 2305Uploaded byMurtatha
- lec5.pdfUploaded byTesh Si
- hjkajshUploaded byTaufiqTaufiq
- 1 St ProjectUploaded byAnonymous iqwOYvd

- Mass Transfer Operations - Robert TreybalUploaded byanivyas
- CSEC MayJune2011 Chemistry.srUploaded byemma
- Management Essay Qn 4Uploaded byChandni Seelochan
- EarthquakesUploaded byChandni Seelochan
- cervix cancer information.pdfUploaded byCloudDudette
- Cooling TowerUploaded byLillianLin
- Microsoft Word - Lab Biochemical Engineering StudentsUploaded byChandni Seelochan
- Components of the Environment PptxUploaded byChandni Seelochan
- KaleUploaded byChandni Seelochan
- MethotrexateUploaded byChandni Seelochan
- PrednisoloneUploaded byChandni Seelochan
- Safety a Major Objective in the Process IndustryUploaded byChandni Seelochan
- Beds of Particles 2Uploaded byChandni Seelochan
- Chem Eng. Lab 1- Reaction KineticsUploaded byChandni Seelochan
- Steve DistillationUploaded byChandni Seelochan
- Laura's Vit C ProjectUploaded byChandni Seelochan
- 2016-Projects CHNG3007 Separation Processes 2Uploaded byChandni Seelochan
- EthyleneUploaded by2065001779207
- Elevator PitchUploaded byChandni Seelochan
- 2-D Conduction - Finite-Difference Method LectureUploaded byChandni Seelochan
- Acid Reflux DiseaseUploaded byChandni Seelochan
- CHNG1008 14-15 Assignment 1Uploaded byChandni Seelochan

- Bogati DhanirajUploaded byBbaPba
- CommissioningUploaded byRagab Tolba
- Rr411809 Light Metals and AlloysUploaded bySRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- D 1568 â€“ 97 ;RDE1NJG_Uploaded byPercyMinchan
- haleuavUploaded byapi-252750024
- ATES Payout Structure - 1st Nov 2017 PDF (004)Uploaded byBhuwan Gupta
- Backhaus ed. - Entrepreneurship, Money and Coordination ~ HaUploaded byMitu Andra Ionela
- Solution Manual for Structural Analysis 9th Edition by Hibbeler %28Chapter 17 Not Included%29Uploaded byZamirBeltranOtero
- TMH-6 -ST1Uploaded byATHOLSCHWARZ
- Drilling Assembly HandbookUploaded byRodrigo Sena
- Widening Gyre HERO SystemUploaded byKurt Garwood
- -L1- Magnetic Force 16th June.pdfUploaded byRajkumar Bhatnagar
- itUploaded byRaghavendra Prasad
- As 2567-2002 Laminar Flow Cytotoxic Drug Safety CabinetsUploaded bySAI Global - APAC
- AstroCel® I H13,14 HEPA Filter CathalogueUploaded byalone160162l
- AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF CLAY TYPE, VOLUME AND DISTRIBUTION ON NMR MEASUREMENTS IN SANDSTONESUploaded byari_si
- Pendulum.pdfUploaded byĐỗ Lê Duy
- Plate Girder BridgesUploaded bybasanth_712982
- Module 3 Liquefaction HazardsUploaded byjadecougar
- V730P_SVC_105832_2_00Uploaded byEnrique Duarte
- Express Water - June 2018Uploaded bymayur_259
- astm-f442f442m-13-6943Uploaded byBinodh Daniel
- Samsung Rotary Type CompressorUploaded byJupiter3108
- Service Manual 6800338Uploaded byrowan
- Embedded c QuizUploaded byJonathan Schell
- vinegar and baking soda argument guideUploaded byapi-310228653
- Chapter 1Uploaded bykhankhar
- WCB External Gear Slewing Bearing-Single Row Ball Slewing RingUploaded byWCB BEARING
- 1000247 001REP Increased SAG Grinding Capacity at Goldex RAUploaded byrodrigoalcaino
- STA_9_1Uploaded byJayaprakash Polimetla