You are on page 1of 5

IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 05, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

A Review Paper on Optimization of Turning on EN31 Material by
Taguchi Approach
Sumit M. Parmar1 Prof. Jaivesh D.Gandhi2
Student 2Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Shree S’ad Vidya Mandal Institute of Technology, Bharuch, Gujarat, India
Abstract— the purpose of this paper is to make an attempt to during the machining of the experiment found that
review the literature on optimization of process parameters feed rate is most significant factor for surface roughness and
for minimum surface roughness and maximum material speed and depth of cut most significant factor for MRR.
removal rate in turning. The process parameters like spindle Hridaya Shanker Ram, Muzahidul Islam [2], have
speed (rpm), feed (mm/rev) and depth of cut (mm) are taken worked to investigating machining characteristics of
into consideration. en31steel under different conditions in turning A L18
Key words: Process Parameters, Turning Operation, Surface orthogonal Array is applied to study the performance of
Roughness, MRR, Taguchi Method machining parameters. Tool material to be used is HSS. The
machining characteristics investigated are Thrust force
I. INTRODUCTION (T.F), Feed force (F.F), Radial Force (R.F), Surface
Turning is the removal of metal from the outer diameter of a roughness (S.R), and Material Removal Rate (MRR). The
rotating cylindrical work piece. Turning is used to reduce the results showed that the response variables were strongly
diameter of the work piece, usually to a specified dimension, influenced by the control factors (input parameters).also
and to produce a smooth finish on the metal. Often the work found the optimum level of parameter.
piece will be turned so that adjacent sections have different Vishal Francis, Ravi. S. Singh, Nikita Singh, Ali.
diameters. R. Rizvi and Santosh Kumar [3], optimized the cutting
parameters of mild steel (0.18% C) in turning to obtain the
factors effecting the surface roughness and MRR. To study
the influence of cutting parameters they applied ANOVA
and Signal to Noise ratio. The cutting parameters like
spindle speed, feed and depth of cut were taken into
consideration. A total of 27 experiments were done which
were designed according to Taguchi method. The
experiments were performed by using HSS cutting tool in
dry condition. For MRR the most significant factor was
spindle speed whereas feed was the most significant factor
for surface roughness.
Shunmugesh K., Panneerselvam K., Pramod M.
and Amal George [4], studied the machining process in
turning of 11sMn30 alloy using carbide tip insert in dry
condition. The optimal settings for the cutting parameters
were obtained. The three level cutting parameters were
Fig. 1: Work Piece cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The turning
Turning is the machining operation that produces experiment was conducted using L27 orthogonal array in
cylindrical parts. In its basic form, it can be defined as the CNC turning centre stallion 200. The roughness values Ra
machining of an external surface: and Rz were measured in Mitutoyu SJ210 surface roughness
 With the work piece rotating. tester. The statistical analysis was done by MINITAB 17. It
 With a single-point cutting tool was found that the feed rate is the most significant factor to
 With the cutting tool feeding parallel to the axis of the affect surface roughness other than cutting speed and depth
work piece of cut.
 At a distance that will remove the outer surface of the Taquiuddin Quazi and Pratik Gajanan More [5],
work. utilized Taguchi method to optimize the surface roughness
in turning EN8, EM31 and mild steels. The three levels
II. LITERATURE SURVEY turning parameters considered were cutting speed and feed
rate. The tool grades considered were TN60, TP0500 and
Suresh Kumar [1], have worked to Optimized the cutting TT8020. The experiments were carried on Super cut 5
parameters (spindle speed, feed and depth of cut) in dry hard turning machine. The roughness were measured by Wyko
turning of en31 material with uncoated cemented carbide NT9100 Optical Profiling System. The Taguchi method was
insert tool. Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array was conducted to designed and analysed by Minitab statistical 16. L9
find out the lowest surface roughness. A L9 orthogonal orthogonal array was used for analysis of all the materials
Array and ANOVA are applied to study the performance of along with three cutting tools. It was observed that feed rate
machining parameters. Tool material to be used is cemented has highest effect on surface roughness for all the three
carbide. Optimum parameters has been also found for alloys.
improved Surface roughness and high material removal rate

All rights reserved by 402
A Review Paper on Optimization of Turning on EN31 Material by Taguchi Approach
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 05/2016/100)

Rony Mohan, Josephkunju Paul C and George characteristics in turning AISI 410 steel bars using TiN
Mathew [6], optimized the machining parameters (cutting coated P20 and P30 cutting tool. The cutting parameters
speed, feed rate and depth of cut) for lower surface considered were insert radius, depth of cut, feed and cutting
roughness. AISI 52100 steel alloy also known as bearing speed. It was found that the insert radius and feed rate has
steels were used for optimization. Carbide inserted cutting significant effect on surface roughness with 1.91% and
tool with nose radius 0.80 were used for machining. 92.74% contribution respectively.
Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal arrays were used to design the Rahul Davis and Mohamed Alazhari [12], worked
experiment. Contribution of each factor was analyzed by to optimize the cutting parameters (spindle speed, feed and
ANOVA. It was found that feed has significant effect on depth of cut) in dry turning of mild steel with 0.21% C and
surface roughness. 0.64% Mn with a HSS cutting tool. Taguchi’s L27
Brajesh Kumar Lodhi and Rahul Shukla [7], orthogonal array was conducted to find out the lowest
attempted to optimize the surface roughness and MRR in surface roughness. ANOVA and Signal to Noise ratio were
machining AISI 1018 alloy with Titanium coated Carbide utilized to find out the performance characteristics. Among
inserts. Among spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut the the three cutting parameters only feed was found to be
optimal setting was obtained. Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array significant
was used to experiment in a CNC lathe machine. The D. Lazarevic, M. Madic, P. Jankovic, A. Lazarevic
optimal MRR was obtained at the highest levels of all three [13], discusses the use of Taguchi method for minimizing
factors. The minimum surface roughness was given at level the surface roughness in turning polyethylene. The influence
1, 1and 2 of each factor respectively. From ANOVA it was of four cutting parameters, cutting speed (65.03, 115.61,
also obtained that the spindle speed is the most significant 213.88 m/min),feed rate (0.049, 0.098, 0.196 mm/rev),
factor for MRR and surface roughness with 78.173% and depth of cut (1,2,4 mm) and tool nose radius (0.4,0.8 mm)
75.295% respectively on average surface roughness (Ra) was analyzed on the
D.V.V., Krishan Prasad [8], conducted full factorial basis of the standard L27 Taguchi orthogonal array. The
design consisting of 243 experiments considering three experimental results were then collected and analyzed with
machining parameters and two tool geometrical parameters the help of the commercial software package MINITAB.
to determine the impact of these parameters on surface Based on the analysis of means (ANOM) and analysis of
roughness. The machining parameters were speed, feed and variance (ANOVA), the optimal cutting parameter settings
depth of cut whereas the tool geometrical parameters were are determined, as well as level of importance of the cutting
back rake angle and side rack angle with three levels each. parameters. ANOVA results indicate that the feed rate is far
The metal used for turning was mild steel with HSS cutting the most significant parameter, followed by tool nose radius,
tool. It was found that feed is the only significant factor and cutting speed, whereas the influence of depth of cut is
during this experiment negligible. Figure 19 shows % contribution for surface
H.M. Somashekara and N. Lakshmana Swamy [9], roughness. The ANOVA resulted in less than 10% error
obtained an optimal setting for turning Al6351-T6 alloy for indicating that the interaction effect of process parameters is
optimal surface roughness. A model was generated for small. The optimum levels of the process parameters for
optimal surface roughness using regression technique. The minimum surface roughness are as follows: cutting speed
turning parameters considered were speed, feed and depth of 213.88 m/min, feed rate –0.049 mm/rev, depth of cut 2 mm,
cut with three levels each. L9 orthogonal array was and tool nose radius 0.8 mm. The machine used for the
implemented for the experiment. The roughness measure experiments was the universal lathe machine Potisje PAC30.
was done with three repetitions. The results found between Cutting tool was SANDVIK coromant tool holder
regression model and experimental values were having error SVJBR 3225P 16 with inserts VCGX16 04 04-AL (H10)
less than 2%. From ANOVA and S/N ratio, cutting speed and VCGX 16 04 08-AL (H10). It was measured at three
was found to be highest significant parameter followed by equally spaced positions around the circumference of the
feed and depth of cut. work piece using the profilometer Surftest Mitutoyo SJ-301.
Upinder Kumar Yadav, Deepak Narang and Pankaj Jitendra Verma, Pankaj Agrawal, Lokesh Bajpai
Sharma Attri, [10], enquired the effect of machining [14], Experiment was designed using Taguchi method and 9
parameters (speed, feed and depth of cut) on optimization of experiments were conducted by this process. Cutting speed
surface roughness in turning AISI 1045 steel alloy. The is the only significant factor which contributes to the surface
experiments were conducted on stallion 100HS CNC lathe roughness i.e. 57.47 %. The second factor which contributes
using Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array. From ANOVA it was to surface roughness is the feed rate having 23.46 %. The
found that feed has the maximum contribution of 95.23% on third factor which contributes to surface roughness is the
the surface roughness than cutting speed. Using the depth of cut having 16.27%. It is recommended from the
predictive equation the predicted value of optimum surface above results that cutting of 18.30 to 15.78 m/min can be
roughness at the optimal conditions was found to be 0.89μm used to get lowest surface roughness.
whereas the calculated response was 0.93μm. Therefore the Marinkovic Velibor and Madic Milos [15], presents
error between them comes out to be only 4.4%. So a good the Taguchi robust parameter design for modeling and
agreement was obtained between them. The results were optimization of surface roughness in dry single-point turning
evaluated by MINITAB 16 software. of cold rolled alloy steel 42CrMo4/AISI 4140 using TiN-
Nitin Sharma, Shahzad Ahmad, Zahid A. Khan and coated tungsten carbide inserts was presented. Three cutting
Arshad Noor Siddiquee [11], applied L18 orthogonal array parameters, the cutting speed (80, 110, 140 m/min), the feed
to optimize the surface roughness in turning. ANOVA and rate (0.071, 0.196, 0.321 mm/rev), and the depth of cut (0.5,
signal to noise ratio were applied to study the performance 1.25, 2 mm), were used in the experiment. Each of the other

All rights reserved by 403
A Review Paper on Optimization of Turning on EN31 Material by Taguchi Approach
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 05/2016/100)

parameters was taken as constant. The average surface E.D Kirby [18], use the application of the Taguchi
roughness (Ra) was chosen as a measure of surface quality. parameter design method to optimizing the surface finish in
The experiment was designed and carried out on the basis of a turning operation. This study was conducted using samples
standard L27 Taguchi orthogonal array. The surface cut from a single length of 1-in diameter 6061-T6 aluminum
roughness was most affected by cutting speed. The impact alloy rod. The control parameters for this operation
of feed rate was somewhat smaller, while the influence of included: Spindle Speed, Depth of Cut, and Feed
depth of cut was least pronounced. On the other side, in W.H Yang and Y.S Tang [19], carried out an
qualitative terms, the influence of feed rate and depth of cut experiment consist of eighteen combination on an engine
on the surface quality was opposite in relation to cutting lathe using tungsten carbide with the grade of P- 10 for the
speed. In fact, while the increase of cutting speed caused machining of S45C steel bars. The cutting parameters that
better surface quality, the increase of feed rate and depth of have been selected are cutting speed, feed rate and depth of
cut led to the decrease of surface quality. cut with the response variable, tool life and surface
Ali Riza Motorcu [16], investigated the surface roughness. Result show that cutting speed and feed rate are
roughness in the turning of AISI 8660 hardened alloy steels the significant cutting parameters for affecting tool life,
by ceramic based cutting tools was in terms of main cutting while the change of the depth of cut in the range has an
parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut in insignificant effect on tool life. For surface roughness, all
addition to tool nose radius, using a statistical approach. the cutting parameters have the significant effect. The
Machining tests were carried out with PVD coated ceramic confirmation experiments then were conducted to verify the
cutting tools under different conditions. An Orthogonal optimal cutting parameters. The improvement of tool life
Array, Signal-to-Noise ratio and Analysis of Variance were and surface roughness from the initial cutting parameters to
employed to find out the effective cutting parameters and the optimal cutting parameters is about 250%.
nose radius on the surface roughness. The machine used for H. K. Dave, L. S. Patel and H. K. Raval [20],
the turning tests was a John ford TC35 industrial type of studied on different materials like EN-8 and EN-31 in CNC
Computer Numeric Control (CNC) lathe machine. The turning process using TiN coated cutting tools. They
insert was coated using a PVD method. The coating selected inserts, work materials, speed, feed and DOC as
substance took place on the mixed ceramic substrate and machining parameters and Taguchi L8 orthogonal array.
PVD-TiN coated mixed ceramic with a matrix of Al2O3 ANOVA has shown that the depth of cut has significant role
(70%): TiC (30%) +TiN. The insert types were SNGA to play in producing higher MRR and insert has significant
120408 and SNGA 120412. AISI 8660 is a high carbon, role to play for producing lower surface roughness
chromium-nickel molybdenum alloy steel with high Ilhan, Asilturk, Harun Akkus [21], have studied on
hardness and strength and is suitable for springs and axle optimizing turning parameters based on the Taguchi method
shafts. The work pieces were in the form of cylinders of 52 to minimize surface roughness (Ra and Rz). Experiments
mm diameter and 220 mm length. The standard heat have been conducted using the L9 orthogonal array in a
treatment process to specimens was applied under water CNC turning machine. Dry turning tests are carried out on
condition and the average hardness measured was about 50 hardened AISI 4140 (51 HRC) with coated carbide cutting
HRC. These bars are machined under dry condition. The tools. The statistical methods of signal to noise ratio (SNR)
equipment used for measuring the surface roughness was a and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are applied to
surface roughness tester, MAHR Perthometer-M1 type of investigate effects of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of
portable. The surface roughness measures used is the cut on surface roughness. Results of this study indicate that
arithmetic mean deviation of the surface roughness of the feed rate has the most significant effect on Ra and Rz. In
profile, Ra. In collecting the surface roughness data of the addition, the effects of two factor interactions of the feed
shaft with the surface profilometer, three measurements rate-cutting speed and depth of cut-cutting speed appear to
were taken along the shaft axis for each sample with the be important. The developed model can be used in the metal
measurements being about 120° apart. Figure 20 shows machining industries in order to determine the optimum
factor levels and their interactions on Ra. The obtained cutting parameters for minimum surface roughness.
results indicate that the feed rate was found to be the Dr. C.J Rao, D. Nageswara Rao, P. Srihari [22],
dominant factor among controllable factors on the surface have studied the significance of influence of speed, feed and
roughness, followed by depth of cut and tool’s nose radius. depth of cut on cutting force and surface roughness while
However, the cutting speed showed an insignificant effect. working with tool made of ceramic with an Al2O3+TiC
Furthermore, the interaction of feed rate/depth of cut was matrix (KY1615)and the work material of AISI 1050 steel
found to be significant on the surface finish due to surface (hardness of 484 HV). Experiments were conducted using
hardening of steel. Moreover, the second order regression John ford TC35 Industrial type of CNC lathe. Taguchi
model also shows that the predicted values were very close method (L27 design with 3 levels and 3 factors) was used
to the experimental one for surface roughness for the experiments. Analysis of variance with adjusted
S. Thamizhmanii, S. Saparudin, S. Hasan [17], approach has been adopted. The results have indicated that it
analysed the optimum cutting conditions to get the lowest is feed rate which has significant influence both on cutting
surface roughness in turning SCM 440 alloy steel by using force as well as surface roughness. Depth of cut has a
coated ceramic tool. Taguchi’s mixed level L18 orthogonal significant influence on cutting force, but has an
array was used. The results were analysed in Design-Expert insignificant influence on surface roughness. The interaction
software. It was found that depth of cut was a significant of feed and depth of cut and the interaction of all the three
factor then feed in consideration of lowest surface finish. cutting parameters have significant influence on cutting

All rights reserved by 404
A Review Paper on Optimization of Turning on EN31 Material by Taguchi Approach
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 05/2016/100)

force, whereas, none of the interaction effects are having With Carbide Tool For Surface Roughness Analysis
significant influence on the surface roughness produced. Using Taguchi Analysis", Research Journal of
Wang M. Y. and Lan T. S [23], used Orthogonal Engineering Sciences, Vol. 3, June 2014, pp. 1 - 7.
Array of Taguchi method coupled with Grey Relational [5] Taquiuddin Quazi and Pratik Gajanan More,
Analysis considering four parameters viz. speed, cutting “Optimization of Turning Parameters Such as Speed
depth, feed rate, tool nose run off etc. for optimizing three Rate, Feed Rate, Depth of Cut for Surface Roughness
responses: surface roughness, tool wear and material by Taguchi Method”, Asian Journal of Engineering and
removal rate in precision turning on an ECOCA-3807 CNC Technology Innovation, Volume 2, March 2014, pp. 5-
lathe. The MINITAB software was explored to analyze the 24
mean effect of Signal-to-Noise (S/N) ratio to achieve the [6] Rony Mohan, Josephkunju Paul C and George Mathew,
multi objective features. This study not only proposed an “Optimization of Surface Roughness of Bearing Steel
optimization approach using Orthogonal Array and Grey during CNC Hard Turning Process”, International
Relational Analysis but also contributed a satisfactory Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology,
technique for improving the multiple machining Volume 17, Nov 14, pp. 173- 175
performances in precision CNC turning with profound [7] Brajesh Kumar Lodhi and Rahul Shukla, “Experimental
insight. Analysis on Turning parameters for Surface roughness
Singh H. and Kumar P [24], studied on and MRR”, Journal of Emerging Technologies and
optimization of feed force through setting of optimal value Innovative Research, Volume 1, Nov 2014, pp. 554 -
of process parameters namely speed, feed and depth of cut 557
in turning of EN24 steel with TiC coated tungsten carbide [8] D.V.V. Krishan Prasad, “Influence of Cutting
inserts. The authors used Taguchi’s parameter design Parameters on Turning Process Using ANOVA
approach and concluded that the effect of depth of cut and Analysis”, Research Journal of Engineering Sciences,
feed in variation of feed force were affected more as Vol. 2, September 2013, pp. 1-6
compare to speed. [9] H.M. Somashekara and N. Lakshmana Swamy,
“Optimizing Surface Roughness in Turning Operation
III. CONCLUSIONS using Taguchi Technique and ANOVA”, International
From the above literature review it is observed that Taguchi Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, Vol. 4
method is used to minimize surface roughness and May 2012,pp. 1967 - 1973
maximize material removal rate by optimizing process [10] Upinder Kumar Yadav, Deepak Narang and Pankaj
parameters like cutting speed, spindle speed, feed rate, depth Sharma Attri, “Experimental Investigation And
of cut, etc. It is observed that Taguchi Method is easy and Optimization Of Machining Parameters For Surface
simple so that it is most widely used method for Roughness In CNC Turning By Taguchi Method”,
optimization. In optimization of surface roughness feed is International Journal of Engineering Research and
found to be the most affecting factor and for material Applications, Vol. 2, July-August 2012, pp. 2060 -
removal rate depth of cut and cutting speed are found to be 2065.
most affecting factors. [11] Nitin Sharma, Shahzad Ahmad, Zahid A. Khan and
Arshad Noor Siddiquee, “Optimization of Cutting
Parameters for Surface Roughness in Turning”,
International Journal of Advanced Research in
The authors would like to thank Principal, H.O.D and Engineering and Technology, Volume 3, January- June
teaching staff of mechanical engineering department for 2012,pp. 86 - 96
providing their valuable guidance and overwhelming [12] Rahul Davis and Mohamed Alazhari, “Optimization of
support to carrying out this work. Cutting Parameters in Dry Turning Operation of Mild
REFERENCES Steel”, International Journal of Advanced Research in
Engineering and Technology, Volume 3, July-
[1] Suresh Kumar," Surface Roughness And Material
December 2012, pp. 104-110
Removal Rate Optimization of Uncoated Carbide
[13] D. Lazarevic, M. Madic, P. Jankovic, A. Lazarevic ,"
Inserts In Dry Hard Turning of EN31 Steel ", Indian
Cutting Parameters Optimization for Surface Roughness
Journal of Applied Research, June 2015, pp. 241 - 243.
in Turning Operation of Polyethylene (PE) Using
[2] Haridaya Shanker Ram, Muzhadil Islam," Investigating
Taguchi Method ", Tribology in Industry Vol. 34, No 2
Machining Characteristics of EN31 Steel Under
(2012) 68-73
Different Conditions In Turning”, International Journal
[14] Jitendra Verma, Pankaj Agrawal, Lokesh Bajpai,
for Technological Research in Engineering, July 2015,
"Turning Parameters Optimization for Surface
pp. 2897- 2900.
Roughness of ASTM A242 Type-1 Alloys Steel by
[3] Vishal Francis, Ravi S. Singh, Nikita Singh, Ali R Rizvi
Taguchi Method ", International Journal of Advances in
& Santosh Kumar,” Application of Taguchi Method and
Engineering & Technology, March 2012.pp 255-261
ANOVA in Optimization of Cutting Parameters for
[15] Marinkovic Velibor and Madic Milos “Optimization of
Material Removal Rate and Surface Roughness in
Surface Roughness in Turning Alloy Steel by Using
Turning Operation”, International Journal of
Taguchi Method ", Scientific Research and Essays Vol.
Mechanical Engineering Technology Volume 4,June
6, August, 2011, pp.3474-3484
2014,pp 47-53.
[16] Ali Riza Motorcu, “The Optimization of Machining
[4] Shunmugesh K, Panneerselvam K, Pramod M. & Amul
Parameters Using the Taguchi Method for Surface
George" Optimization of CNC Turning Parameters

All rights reserved by 405
A Review Paper on Optimization of Turning on EN31 Material by Taguchi Approach
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 05/2016/100)

Roughness of AISI 8660 Hardened Alloy Steel”,
Journal of Mechanical Engineering 2010, pp. 391-401
[17] S. Thamizhmanii, S. Saparudin, S. Hasan, “Analyses of
Surface Roughness by Turning Process Using Taguchi
Method”, Journal of Achievements in Materials and
Manufacturing Engineering ,Volume 20 January-
February 2007,pp.503-506
[18] E. Daniel Kirby,” A Parameter Design Study in a
Turning Operation Using the Taguchi Method “The
Technology Interface, 2006, pp.1-14
[19] W.H Yang, Y.S Trang, “Design Optimization of
Cutting Parameters for Turning Operations Based on
Taguchi Method”, Journal of Material Processing
Technology, 1998, pp.122-129
[20] H. K. Dave, L. S. Patel and H. K. Raval, " Effect of
Machining Conditions on MRR and Surface Roughness
During CNC Turning of Different Materials Using TiN
Coated Cutting Tools – A Taguchi Approach ",
International Journal of Industrial Engineering
Computations 3 (2012) 925–930.
[21] Ilhan, Asilturk, Harun Akkus,. “Determining the effect
of cutting parameters on surface roughness in hard
turning using the Taguchi method”, Measurement 44,
2014, 1697-1704
[22] Dr. C.J Rao, D. Nageswara Rao, P. Srihari, “Influence
of cutting parameters on cutting force and surface finish
in turning operation”, Procedia Engineering 64, 2014,
pp.-1405 -1415.
[23] Wang M. Y. and Lan T. S., “Parametric Optimization
on Multi-Objective Precision Turning Using Grey
Relational Analysis”. Information Technology Journal,
Volume 7, 2008, pp.1072-1076
[24] Singh H. and Kumar P., “Optimizing Feed Force for
Turned Parts through the Taguchi Technique”, Sadhana,
Volume 31, Number 6, 2006, pp. 671–681.

All rights reserved by 406