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Act of Teaching Chapter 8

Outline
I. Cooperative Learning: Teaching Learners to Like and Care to One Another
- What is Cooperative Learning?
- Purpose and Characteristic of Cooperative Learning
- Some Variation of the of Cooperative Learning
- Good Leaders of Cooperative Learning
- Good Cooperative Learning
- When Cooperating learning should be used
- Limitation Cooperative Learning

II. Discovery Learning: Figuring things out for yourself


- What Is Discovery Learning?
- Purposes and Characteristics of Discovery Learning
- When Discovery Learning Should Be Used
- Limitations of Discovery Learning
- Summary on Discovery Learning

III. Constructivist Teaching and learning: Problem Solving under Teacher Guidance
- What Is Constructivism?
- Purposes and Characteristics of Constructivism
- When Constructivism Should Be Used
- Limitations of Constructivism

IV. Direct Instruction: Teaching in the Most Efficient and Effective Way
- What is Direct Instruction?
- Purpose and Characteristics of Direct Instruction
- Examples of Direct Programs
- Good Direct Instructors
- When Direct Instruction Should Be Used
- Limitation of Direct Instruction Summary on Direct Instruction

Notes
I. Cooperative Learning: Teaching Learners to Like and Care to One Another
- What is Cooperative Learning?
- Where learners work together in small groups and are rewarded for their collective
accomplishments.
- Purpose and Characteristic of Cooperative Learning
- Based on a humanistic school of thought
- Heterogonous team will have equal opportunity to learn
- Rules of behavior required of team member
- Unique system of rewards

- Some Variation of the of Cooperative Learning


- Student teams achievement division (STAD)
- Teams, Games, Tournament (TGT)
- Team-Assisted Individualization and Team-Accelerated Instruction (TAI)
- Jigsaw
- Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)

- Good Leaders of Cooperative Learning


- Believe in the philosophy All for one, one for all
- Able to organize heterogonous teams and ensure that team member also value
cooperative and collaboration learning.

- Good Cooperative Learning


- Preparation for STAD:
- Be prepared to provide information in an effective way and the students must
be prepared to engage in the group.
- Set the team goals
- Prepare students for teamwork
- Give teams the assignments
- Monitor the team
- Quiz the students
- Score the quizzes
- Recognize team accomplishments

- When Cooperating learning should be used


- When the teacher could find a potential leaders who believe in the philosophy all
for one, one for all.

- Limitation Cooperative Learning


- Team members must explain how they derived the correct answers and why they
are correct.
- Individual team members be accountable to the team.
- Team members must stay on task.
- Individuals must get along with others.

II. Cooperative Learning seems to have a hint of romanticism compare to other


instructional mode.
Certain attributes for the teacher:
- Good presenter
- Insightful in developing worthwhile assignments
- Able to monitor the teamwork, diagnose problem, and prescribe remedies.

III. Discovery Learning: Figuring things out for yourself


- What Is Discovery Learning?
- Discovery or inquiry learning refers to learning that takes place when students are
asked to find out or figure out something for themselves

- Purposes and Characteristics of Discovery Learning


- Discovery learning will give the students more freedom in their learning, whilst
still within the range of the learning boundaries that the teacher should have
provided.

- When Discovery Learning Should Be Used


- To get students to think for themselves
- To help them discover how knowledge is created
- Should be used only when you have developed the qualities of a good facilitator
and you know and can follow the regimen for good discovery learning.

- Limitations of Discovery Learning


- some teachers simply do not have the experience or aptitude for this approach
- discovery learning allows students to make errors. Unless these errors are
corrected, serious confusion can result.

IV. Constructivist Teaching and learning: Problem Solving under Teacher Guidance
- What Is Constructivism?
- a way of teaching and learning that intends to maximize student understanding.

- Purposes and Characteristics of Constructivism


- The purpose of constructivist teaching and learning is to help students to acquire
information in ways that make that information readily understood and usable.

- When Constructivism Should Be Used


- Ensuring student understanding

- Limitations of Constructivism
- It would be difficult for novices to learn how to do something if they do not have
the needed prior knowledge.
- Teachers would need to be able to monitor and guide often freeflowing activity
and to provide scaffolding or help momentarily.

IV. Direct Instruction: Teaching in the Most Efficient and Effective Way
- What is Direct Instruction?
- Teacher dominated and teacher directed
- Derive exclusively from research on teaching/learning

- Purpose and Characteristics of Direct Instruction


- Help the students to learn basic academic content
- Teacher centrality: teacher exert strong direction
- Task orientation: primary task is academic learning of basics
- Positive expectations: teacher expects each child to be successful and has deeply
concern about the progress of each child
- Student cooperation and accountability: students are held accountable for their
academic work
- Nonnegative affect: teacher ensure learner feel psychologically safe and secure
- Establishment structure: teacher establish class rules and insist them to follow

- Examples of Direct Programs


- Basic Practice Model
- Explicit Teaching
- Active Teaching
- The Mastery Teaching Program
- Direct Instructional System for Teaching and Learning (DISTAR)

- Good Direct Instructors


- Review of homework
- Ensure that the learners are ready with the new material
- Guided whole-class practice
- Independent practice

- When Direct Instruction Should Be Used


- It is most valuable when teaching knowledge with explicit concepts and
procedures

- Limitation of Direct Instruction


- Restrict student autonomy
- Tight structure of lesson
- Does not promote achievement in creativity, abstract thinking, and higher level of
cognitive thinking

- Summary on Direct Instruction


- Effective teachers should see what they bring about consistently higher levels of
student learning.
- Learning theory what they know and believe about how people learn.

Reflection:
This chapter focuses on the four modes that I usually apply on my lesson plans. The
author provides the details of each mode that would be helpful for my future opportunity in
making more lesson plans. I am aiming to effectively teach the students. It would start from
me who will improve the way I bring myself as a teacher. For example, be a strong teacher in
directing the students (for Direct instruction) or have a believe one for all, all for one (for
Cooperative Learning).