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Spatial Diversity.

Dmitriy Shutin

dshutin@tugraz.at.

www.spsc.tugraz.at

Graz University of Technology

Content of the talk

PART I.

Wireless communication and MIMO systems.

Wireless channels.

Part II.

Spatial Diversity

Outline PART I.

PART I.

What is MIMO

Multiple antennas in communication

Channel and channel models.

Channel and signal models.

PART II.

Outline PART II.

What is diversity?

Diversity schemes.

What do we actually win.

Implementing diversity IID channels

RX diversity(SIMO).

Alamouti scheme and TX diversity (MISO).

RX-TX diversity (MIMO).

Extended channels.

What is diversity?

Diversity Multiple independent look at the same transmitted

signal.

What is diversity?

Fading impairs wireless link.

Use multiple antennas to create alternative transmission

branches.

60

1st receiver antenna

2nd receiver antenna

80

Power variations, dB

100

120

140

160

distance,

What is diversity?

If p = P (signal is in fade)

Having M independent branches results

There are

Frequency diversity

Time diversity

Space diversity

Diversity schemes.

Space diversity: RX/TX has multiple antennas, spaced d

meters apart such that

d > Dc

frequencies, spaced f , such that

1

f > Bc

RMS delay spread

delay t such that

1

t > Tc =

BD

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.9/36

Diversity Gain

To exploit diversity we need:

Combine multiple branches in some way.

Make sure branches are independent. Separation

> B c , T c , Dc

Signal model for each branch:

r

Es

yi = hi s + n i , n = 1, . . . , M

M

hi flat-fading channel coefficient;

Es symbol energy;

ni additive noise.

Diversity Gain, contd

To combine branches Maximum Ratio Combining:

M

X

z= hi yi

i=1

M

!

1 X

2 Es

= |hi | =

M N0

i=1

M

!

1 X Es

= |hi |2 branches gain, = Single-branch SNR

M N0

i=1

Diversity Gain, contd

Assuming ML detection, averaged probability of the symbol

error can be upper-bounded as

!M

d2min

P e Ne

4M

d2min minimum separation of the symbol constellation.

Es

= N0 averaged SNR at the receiver antenna.

Diversity Gain, contd

Effect of diversity on the SER performance in fading channels.

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.13/36

Coding gain vs diversity gain

Approximate P e can be

expressed

c

Pe

(c )M

c modulation/channel constant

c 1 coding gain

M diversity order

Spatial vs Time/Frequency diversity

Spatial diversity

No additional bandwidth required

Increase of average SNR is possible

Additional array gain is possible

Time/Frequency diversity

Time/frequency is sacrificed

No array gain.

Averaged receive SNR remains as that for AWGN

channel.

Implementing Spacial diversity

Receiver diversity SIMO

Transmit diversity MISO

RX/TX diversity MIMO

Receive antenna diversity

Let us assume flat fading

y = E s hs + n, h = [h1 , . . . , hMR ]T

z = h y = E s hH hs + hH n

H

Receive antenna diversity, contd

Averaged probability of symbol error is given as (at high

SNR regime and rich scattering)

!MR

d2min

P e Ne

4

= MR

Receive antenna diversity - performance

Can be better than AWGN

due to array gain

For BER> 105

outperforms AWGN due

to array gain.

Transmit antenna diversity

Straightforward approach is useless:

Signal model (for MT = 2); h1 , h2 N (0, 1)

r

Es

y= (h1 + h2 )s + n

2

Equivalently, h (h1 + h2 )/ 2, and h N (0, 1)

p

y = Es hs + n

TX diversity Alamouti(MISO)

Preprocessing without channel knowledge.

Alamouti scheme, contd

Channel is constant over two symbols intervals and

flat-fading

h = [h1 , h2 ]

Two received symbols are:

r r

Es Es

y1 = h1 s 1 + h2 s 2 + n 1

2 2

r r

Es Es

y2 = h1 s 2 + h2 s1 + n2

2 2

Alamouti scheme, contd

Now, received vector is formed as y = [y1 , y2 ]T

r " #" # " # r

E s h1 h2 s1 n1 Es

y=

+ = Heff s + n

2 h2 h1 s2 n2 2

eff eff = khk 2 I)

r

H Es

z = Heff y = khk2 Is + n

2

q

which simplifies to zi = E2s khk2 si + n i.

Alamouti scheme Performance

High SNR regime gives

!2

d2min

Pe Ne

42

No array gain: =

Full transmit diversity for

MR = 2

MISO with known channel

Flat-fading channel is given as h = [h1 , . . . , hMT ]T

Signal at the receiver

s

ES H

y= h ws + n

MT

h

where w = MT khk

Transmit MRC Performance

High SNR regime gives

!MT

d2min

P e Ne

4

scattering = MT

Equivalent to RX diversity.

Alamouti scheme & MIMO

Transmit symbols like MISO Alamouti

Flat-fading channel matrix

" #

h1,1 h1,2

H=

h2,1 h2,2

r " # r " #

Es s1 Es s2

y1 = H + n1 , y 2 = H

+ n2 ,

2 s2 2 s1

equivalently...

Alamouti scheme & MIMO, contd

By defining y = [y 1 , y 2 ]T

r h1,1 h1,2 " # " #

Es h

2,1 h s

2,2 1 n1

y=

+

2 h1,2 h1,1 s2

n2

h2,2 h2,1

F

r

Es

z= kHk2F Is + n,

or,

2

r

Es

zi = kHk2F si + ni

2

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.28/36

Alamouti scheme & MIMO, contd

High SNR regime gives and rich scattering

!MR MT

d2min

Pe Ne

4MT

Diversity order MR MT

Array gain = MR

MIMO with channel knowledge

If channel known transmit MRC is used

s

Es H

y= H ws + n

MT

Vectors w and g are singular vectors from SVD

decomposition of H

H = UVH ; w U, g V

2

w and g correspond to the max singular value max of H

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.30/36

MIMO with DET Performance

Diversity order MR MT

2

SNR = E{max }

2

max(MT , MR ) E{max }

2

E{max } M T MR

Summary

Configuration Array gain Diversity gain

SIMO (Ch.Un.) MR MR

SIMO (Ch.Kn.) MR MR

MISO (Ch.Un.) 1 MT

MISO (Ch.Kn.) MT MT

MIMO (Ch.Un.) MR MR MT

2

MIMO (Ch.Kn.) max(MT , MR ) E{max }, MR MT

2

E{max } M T MR

Diversity order and channel variability

Can be quantified as

1

var =

M R MT

Link stabilizes as

var

Diversity order for extended channels

Elements in channel matrix H are

Correlated

Have gain imbalances

Fade with Ricean statistics

Highest possible diversity rich scattering (IID elements

in H)

Let as consider Alamouti scheme with MT = MR = 2

Correlations in H

Diversity order decreases

to r(R), where R is (4 4)

covariance Matrix:

R = E{vec(H)vec(H)H }

correlation.

No spatial diversity.

Array gain is present.

Ricean fading of H

Ricean fading occurs

when LOS is present.

As K link stabilizes.

K -factor is given as

A2LOS

K= 2

diffuse

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