You are on page 1of 36

MIMO systems and

Spatial Diversity.
Dmitriy Shutin
dshutin@tugraz.at.

Signal Processing and Speech Communication Laboratory

www.spsc.tugraz.at
Graz University of Technology

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.1/36

Content of the talk
PART I.
Wireless communication and MIMO systems.
Wireless channels.
Part II.
Spatial Diversity

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.2/36

Outline PART I.
PART I.
What is MIMO
Multiple antennas in communication
Channel and channel models.
Channel and signal models.

PART II.

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.4/36

Outline PART II.
What is diversity?
Diversity schemes.
What do we actually win.
Implementing diversity IID channels
RX diversity(SIMO).
Alamouti scheme and TX diversity (MISO).
RX-TX diversity (MIMO).
Extended channels.

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.5/36

What is diversity?
Diversity Multiple independent look at the same transmitted
signal.

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.6/36

What is diversity?
Use multiple antennas to create alternative transmission
branches.

60

80
Power variations, dB

100

120

140

160

distance,

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.7/36

What is diversity?
If p = P (signal is in fade)
Having M independent branches results

P (all M branches are in fade) = pM  p

There are
Frequency diversity
Time diversity
Space diversity

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.8/36

Diversity schemes.
Space diversity: RX/TX has multiple antennas, spaced d
meters apart such that

d > Dc

Frequency diversity: signal is transmitted over two carrier

frequencies, spaced f , such that
1
f > Bc

Time diversity: the same signal is re-transmitted with a

delay t such that
1
t > Tc =
BD
MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.9/36
Diversity Gain
To exploit diversity we need:
Combine multiple branches in some way.
Make sure branches are independent. Separation
> B c , T c , Dc
Signal model for each branch:
r
Es
yi = hi s + n i , n = 1, . . . , M
M
Es symbol energy;

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.10/36

Diversity Gain, contd
To combine branches Maximum Ratio Combining:
M
X
z= hi yi
i=1

Each branch increases SNR

M
!
1 X
2 Es
= |hi | =
M N0
i=1
M
!
1 X Es
= |hi |2 branches gain, = Single-branch SNR
M N0
i=1

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.11/36

Diversity Gain, contd
Assuming ML detection, averaged probability of the symbol
error can be upper-bounded as
!M
d2min
P e Ne
4M

Ne - number of nearest neighbors

d2min minimum separation of the symbol constellation.
Es
= N0 averaged SNR at the receiver antenna.

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.12/36

Diversity Gain, contd
Effect of diversity on the SER performance in fading channels.

Diversity affects the slope of the SER-SNR curve.

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.13/36
Coding gain vs diversity gain
Approximate P e can be
expressed
c
Pe
(c )M

c modulation/channel constant
c 1 coding gain
M diversity order

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.14/36

Spatial vs Time/Frequency diversity
Spatial diversity
Increase of average SNR is possible
Time/Frequency diversity
Time/frequency is sacrificed
No array gain.
Averaged receive SNR remains as that for AWGN
channel.

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.15/36

Implementing Spacial diversity
Transmit diversity MISO
RX/TX diversity MIMO

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.16/36

y = E s hs + n, h = [h1 , . . . , hMR ]T

Maximum Ratio Combining at the receiver

z = h y = E s hH hs + hH n
H

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.17/36

Averaged probability of symbol error is given as (at high
SNR regime and rich scattering)
!MR
d2min
P e Ne
4

= MR

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.18/36

Can be better than AWGN
due to array gain
For BER> 105
outperforms AWGN due
to array gain.

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.19/36

Transmit antenna diversity
Straightforward approach is useless:
Signal model (for MT = 2); h1 , h2 N (0, 1)
r
Es
y= (h1 + h2 )s + n
2

Equivalently, h (h1 + h2 )/ 2, and h N (0, 1)
p
y = Es hs + n

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.20/36

TX diversity Alamouti(MISO)
Preprocessing without channel knowledge.

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.21/36

Alamouti scheme, contd
Channel is constant over two symbols intervals and
h = [h1 , h2 ]
r r
Es Es
y1 = h1 s 1 + h2 s 2 + n 1
2 2
r r
Es Es
y2 = h1 s 2 + h2 s1 + n2
2 2

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.22/36

Alamouti scheme, contd
Now, received vector is formed as y = [y1 , y2 ]T
r " #" # " # r
E s h1 h2 s1 n1 Es
y=
+ = Heff s + n
2 h2 h1 s2 n2 2

MRC gives ( using HH H

eff eff = khk 2 I)

r
H Es
z = Heff y = khk2 Is + n
2
q
which simplifies to zi = E2s khk2 si + n i.

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.23/36

Alamouti scheme Performance
High SNR regime gives
!2
d2min
Pe Ne
42

No array gain: =
Full transmit diversity for
MR = 2

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.24/36

MISO with known channel
Flat-fading channel is given as h = [h1 , . . . , hMT ]T
s
ES H
y= h ws + n
MT
h
where w = MT khk

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.25/36

Transmit MRC Performance
High SNR regime gives
!MT
d2min
P e Ne
4

Array gain in rich

scattering = MT
Equivalent to RX diversity.

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.26/36

Alamouti scheme & MIMO
Transmit symbols like MISO Alamouti
" #
h1,1 h1,2
H=
h2,1 h2,2

r " # r " #
Es s1 Es s2
y1 = H + n1 , y 2 = H
+ n2 ,
2 s2 2 s1

equivalently...

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.27/36

Alamouti scheme & MIMO, contd
By defining y = [y 1 , y 2 ]T

r h1,1 h1,2 " # " #
Es h
2,1 h s
2,2 1 n1
y=
+
2 h1,2 h1,1 s2

n2
h2,2 h2,1

MRC is formed (using HHeff H eff = kHk 2 I)

F
r
Es
z= kHk2F Is + n,
or,
2
r
Es
zi = kHk2F si + ni
2
MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.28/36
Alamouti scheme & MIMO, contd
High SNR regime gives and rich scattering
!MR MT
d2min
Pe Ne
4MT

Diversity order MR MT
Array gain = MR

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.29/36

MIMO with channel knowledge
If channel known transmit MRC is used
s
Es H
y= H ws + n
MT

Receiver forms weighted sum z = g H y

Vectors w and g are singular vectors from SVD
decomposition of H

H = UVH ; w U, g V
2
w and g correspond to the max singular value max of H

This is known as dominant eigenmode transmission DET

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.30/36
MIMO with DET Performance
Diversity order MR MT
2
SNR = E{max }
2
max(MT , MR ) E{max }
2
E{max } M T MR

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.31/36

Summary
Configuration Array gain Diversity gain
SIMO (Ch.Un.) MR MR
SIMO (Ch.Kn.) MR MR
MISO (Ch.Un.) 1 MT
MISO (Ch.Kn.) MT MT
MIMO (Ch.Un.) MR MR MT
2
MIMO (Ch.Kn.) max(MT , MR ) E{max }, MR MT
2
E{max } M T MR

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.32/36

Diversity order and channel variability
Can be quantified as
1
var =
M R MT

var

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.33/36

Diversity order for extended channels
Elements in channel matrix H are
Correlated
Have gain imbalances
Highest possible diversity rich scattering (IID elements
in H)
Let as consider Alamouti scheme with MT = MR = 2

MIMO systems andSpatial Diversity. p.34/36

Correlations in H
Diversity order decreases
to r(R), where R is (4 4)
covariance Matrix:
R = E{vec(H)vec(H)H }

Rank r(R) = 1 full

correlation.
No spatial diversity.
Array gain is present.