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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Rear Latar

Language is a typical symbol of a country or region , because language is

a vital element in communicating or as the main communication style . In

interactions , social relationships with others in the community . Language is very

diverse in the world , because every language negarapunya each different from

one another , even language can distinguish between one country to country .

English is the International Language . By mastering English well , then

we will be able to communicate with other nations in this world . In addition , we

will be able to add insight and knowledge for the betterment of our nation and our

country , because we will be able to read English literature , listening to radio

broadcasts abroad , as well as watching movies other science . Thus , in the end

we can master the knowledge - knowledge in all fields .

In addition to increasing understanding about the international language ,

the English language is studied at least will be easier for us to get a decent job , or

for the provision of our knowledge in the future . By understanding and mastering

the International Language properly would provide excellent benefits for us all .

Therefore , it is necessary to first understand that there are grammatical in

English. In addition to facilitate pronunciation , we will also understand how to

arrange the word to be pronounced so that it becomes a coherent sentence and

correct according to his tenses .

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1.2 Problem Identification

Based on the background above, the authors formulate the problem as

follows :

1. Definition of tenses ?

2. How many tenses in English ?

3. How the formulas and examples tenses ?

1.3 Purpose

Identification of the above problem , the purpose of this paper to describe

or explain that these points , as well as help explain the procedures for the use of

words and writing words that correspond to the time and conditions of the

occurrence of an event in the English writing of the paper.

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CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

Tenses in English means the time ( time ) . The word means the verbtenses

or set of words used to express the relationship of time . In grammar , tenses are

the categories that puts the situation in time , to indicate when the situation takes

place .

Indonesian basic word order similar to English . Generally , a sentence

begins with the subject , followed by a verb ( also called predicates ) , and then

the object . Indicate the past tense or future only need to enter the words that

shows the time , in a very organized system.

2.1 Simple Present Tense

Tense used to express an action or activity that takes place / happening at

the current time in a simple form , activity or work performed repeatedly, daily

habits , events or actions that have nothing to do with time , and to express a

general truth .

Simple Present Tense use this type of " TO BE 1 " and " VERB 1 " TO BE

1 terdiri dari: am, is, are.

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I Am I
You
They
Are
We
He Do / Don't
She You
Is
It They
We
He

She Does / Doesn't

It

Table 2.1 to be

DO and DOES use the interrogative sentence .

DO NOT ( DO NOT ) and DOES NOT ( DOES NOT ) used in negative sentences

. TO BE 1 ( am , is , are ) used when a sentence no verb element ( NON VERB )

Formulas and example sentences Simple Present Tense

Expressing Simple Present Tense sentence that uses the verb ( VERB )

+ Subject + Verb 1 + Object


- Subject + DON'T / DOESN'T + Verb 1 + Object
? DO / DOES + Subject + Verb 1 + Object?

Table 2.2 Formula Simple Present Tense

Expressing Simple Present Tense sentence that does not use the verb ( NON

VERB )

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+ Subject + To be 1 + Non Verb + Object
- Subject + To be 1 + NOT + Non Verb + Object
? To be 1 + Subject + Non Verb + Object?

Table 2.3 Formula Simple Present Tense

Contoh :

1. (+) : She is a teacher


(-) : She is not a teacher
(?) : are She a teacher ?
2. (+) : He reads the newspaper everyday
(-) :He doesnt read the newspaper everyday
(?) : Does He read the newspaper everyday ?
3. (+) : After Sunday is Monday
(-) : After Sunday isnt Monday
(?) : Is Monday the day after Sunday ?

Only in positive sentences , for the subject " He , She , It " , the use of the verb

( VERB ) must end with " s / es . " The addition of " s / es " at the base verb

( inifinitive ) are as follows :

In general, the verb is directly coupled with the suffix " s" , for example :

Work - Works

Write Writes

Verb that ends in the letters " ch , o , s , sh , x " plus the suffix " -es " , for example

Teach - Teaches

Go - Goes

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Verb that ends with the letter " y " and begins with a consonant , the suffix " y "

was changed to " i" and then added " -es " , for example :

Study - Studies

Cry - Cries

Verb ending with the letter " y " that begins with a vowel , simply coupled with

the suffix " s" only, for example :

Buy - Buys

Play - Plays

If the verb begins with the letter auxiliary verb (Modal Auxiliaries ) , then do not

get the extra " s / es " , for example :

He Will work

Can she open

2.2 Present Continuous Tense

Present Continuous Tense Present Progressive Tense is also called is a

form used to express an action , state or event that is happening at the time

discussed .

On the use of the Present Continuous Tense verb used must end with ing /

( Verb + ing ) .

Present Continuous Tense form of time using this type of " TO BE 1 " .

The usefulness of this is the time Forms :

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To express ongoing actions

To express actions that will come

Formulas and example sentences Present Continuous Tense

+ Subject + To be 1 + (Verb + ing) + Object


- Subject + To be 1 + NOT + (Verb + ing) + Object
? To be 1 + Subject + (Verb + ing) + Object ?
Table 2.3 Formula Present Continuous Tense

Example:

1. (+) : We are studying English now


(-) : We arent studying English now
(?) : Are We studying English now ?
2. (+) : They are going to Bandung two weeks again
(?) : Are hey going to Bandung two weeks again ?
(-) : They are not going to Bandung two weeks again
3. (+) : She is cooking in the kitchen
(-) : She is not cooking in the kitchen
(?) : Is She cooking in the kitchen

There is a group of words yan should not be formed into the Present

Continuous , namely :

verb to express feelings , such as :

Like , want

verbs related to the senses , such as :

Feel , hear

verb to express thoughts or opinions , such as :

Believe , forget

How to Add infinitive with ing

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If the infinitive ( Verb i) one or more monosyllabic ending consonants , and

preceded by a vowel , the last letter is doubled and added ing , such as :

Cut Cutting

Begin - The Beginning

If the infinitive ends with the letter l which preceded a vowel , then the new

duplicated plus l ing , such as :

Control - Controlling

If the infinitive ends in the vowel e is preceded by a consonant , then e is

removed , then added ing , such as :

Come Coming

If the infinitive ends in the vowel e is preceded vowels i , ie it is converted first

into a new y plus ing , such as :

Die - Dying

2.3 Present Perfect Tense

Present Perfect Tense is the tense used to express an action , state or event

that occurred in the past . And at the time of speaking activities / actions have

been completed.

Present Perfect Tense using "TO BE 3" and "VERB 3" TO BE 3 adalah:

been.

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You
They
We
He Have
She You
Been
It They
Table 2.4 We to be
He
TO BE 3 (been) digunakan ketika
She Has
suatu kalimat tidak ada unsur kata kerja
It
(NON VERB). Untuk semua jenis kalimat, baik positif, negatif, atau kalimat tanya

pada Present Perfect Tense menggunakan VERB 3

Rumus dan Contoh Kalimat Present Perfect Tense


- Mengekspresikan kalimat Present Perfect Tense yang menggunakan kata

kerja (VERB).

+ Subject + Have/Has + Verb 3 + Object


- Subject + Have/Has + NOT + Verb 3 + Object
? Have/Has + Subject + Verb 3 + Object?
Table 2.5 Formula Present Perfect Tense

- Mengekspresikan kalimat Present Perfect Tense yang tidak menggunakan

kata kerja (Non VERB)

+ Subject + Have/Has + To be 3 + Non Verb + Object


- Subject + (Have/Has + NOT) + To be 3 + Non Verb + Object
? Have/Has + Subject + To be 3 + Non Verb + Object?
Table 2.6 Formula Present Perfect Tense

Example:

1. (+) : Ringgo Has lived here for ten years


(-) : Ringgo Has not lived here for ten years
( ?) : Has Ringgo lived here for ten years ?
2. (+) : She has been here since yesterday
( -) : She has not been here since yesterday

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(? ) : Has She been here since yesterday ?
3. (+) : They have heard the problem before
(- ) : They have not heard the problem before
(?) : Have they heard the problem before ?

The usefulness of this form is :

1. Declare an activity that just happens to result or consequence of the action

I can still be seen up to now


You
They discussed .
2. We To declare an activity that has
He
been completed at a particular
She been
It time in the past the not , but the

time of the incident were not

overlooked . The most important thing is the result of his actions now .
3. Declare an activity that has occurred but the events of the time is not yet

finished .
4. Declare a specific test activities were not before now .
5. Declare an activity that has occurred in the past and is still happening in

the present and future .


6. Shows an activity that is completed in a short time .

2.4 Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Present Perfect Continuous Tense or Present Perfect Progressive Tense is

the tense used to express an event or action that began in the past and continues to

this day or an event or action that begins in the past and has just finished at the

time of speaking.

Present Perfect Continuous Tense use this type of " TO BE 3 " ( been ) .
I
You
They
We Have 10
He
She Has
It
Table 2.7 to be

For all types of sentences, whether positive, negative, or interrogative sentence in

the Present Perfect Continuous Tense use TO BE 3 (been) followed by VERB +

ING.

Formulas and Example Sentence Present Perfect Continuous Tense

+ Subject + Have/Has + been + (Verb + ING) + Object

- Subject + Have/Has + NOT + been + (Verb + ING) + Object

? Have/Has + Subject + been + (Verb + ING) + Object?

Table 2.8 Formula Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Contoh :

1. (+):He has been swimming in pool for this day


(-): He has not been swimming in pool for this day
(?): Has He been swimming in pool for this day ?
2. (+): They have been waiting for their mentor since seven oclock
(-): They have not been waiting for their mentor since seven oclock
(?): Have They been waiting for their mentor since seven oclock ?
3. (+): She has been studying at this school this year
(-): She has not been studying this school this year
(?): Has She been studying this school this year ?

2.5 Simple Past Tense

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Simple Past Tense adalah bentuk waktu yang digunakan untuk

menyatakan suatu perbuatan atau kegiatan yang terjadi dimasa lampau dan

waktu terjadinya persitiwa itu telah diketahui.

Simple Past Tense menggunakan jenis "TO BE 2" and "VERB 2"

TO BE 2 terdiri dari: was & were

I I

HeTable 2.9 to be
Was
She
DID is used in a sentence to ask.
It
DID NOT (DID NOT) used in
Did / Didn't
You
negative You sentences.
We Were
TO BE 2 They
(Was & Were) is used
They
when there is no element of a
We
sentence verb (NON verb)
He
2 verb used only in positive sentences
She
only.
It

Formulas and Example Sentence Simple Past Tense

Expressing Simple Past Tense sentence that uses the verb (VERB)

+ Subject + Verb 2 + Object


- Subject + DID NOT (DIDN'T) + Verb 1 + Object
? DID + Subject + Verb 1 + Object ?
Table 2.10 Formula Present Perfect Continuous Tense

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Expressing Simple Past Tense sentence that does not use the verb (Non VERB)

+ Subject + To be 2 + Non Verb + Object


- Subject + To be 2 + NOT + Non Verb + Object
? To be 2 + Subject + Non Verb + Object?
Table 2.11 Formula Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Contoh :

1. (+) : Wiwin went to Gorontalo two months ago


(-) : Wiwin did not go to Gorontalo two months ago
(?) : Did Wiwin go to Gorontalo two months ago ?
2. (+) : She finished her homework in the library yesterday
(-) : She did not finish her homework in the library yesterday
(?) : Did She finish her homework in the library yesterday ?
3. (+) : Randi was a singer last year
(-) : Randi was not singer last year
(?) : was Randi a singer last year ?

2.6 Past Continuous Tense

Past Continuous Tense, or Past Progressive Tense is the tense that is used

to indicate that the two events occur at the same time, but the incident occurred

earlier and was still in progress when the second incident occurred.

On the use of Past Continuous Tense verb used must end with ing / (Verb +

ing). Past Continuous Tense form of time using this type of "TO BE 2" (was /

were).

Was to subject: I, she, he, it.

Were to the subject: you, they, we.

Formulas and Examples of Past Continuous tenses

+ Subject + To be 2 + (Verb + ing) + Object


- Subject + To be 2 + NOT + (Verb + ing) + Object
? To be 2 + Subject + (Verb + ing( + Object ?
Table 2.12 Formula Past Continuous tenses

Contoh :

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1. (+): Berid was walking down the street when it began to rain.
(-): Berid was not walking the street when it began to rain
(?) : Was Berid walking the street when it began to rain ?
2. (+): It was raining when Diana went to the market last night
(-): It was not raining when Diana went to the market last night.
(?): Was it raining when Diana went to the market last night ?
3. (+): Amel was sleeping all day yesterday when Ardy called him
(-): Amel was not sleeping all day yesterday when Ardy called him
(?): Was Amel sleeping all day yesterday when Ardhy called him ?

2.7 Past Perfect Tense

Past Perfect Tense is the tense used to indicate actions or events that began
or occurred in the past and continue to take place finishes in the past or the next.

Past Perfect Tense also serves as a substitute for the Simple Past Tense when

used to refer to or indicate past events or actions that occur within a specified

period.

I I
You
They
We
He Had
She You
Been They
It
We
He
She
Table 2.13 It
to be

Perfect Tense menggunakan jenis "TO BE 3" and "VERB 3

TO BE 3 adalah: been

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TO BE 3 (been) digunakan ketika suatu kalimat tidak ada unsur kata kerja (NON

VERB).Untuk semua jenis kalimat, baik positif, negatif, atau kalimat tanya pada

Present Perfect Tense menggunakan VERB 3.

Rumus dan Contoh Kalimat Past Perfect Tense


- Mengekspresikan kalimat Past Perfect Tense yang menggunakan kata kerja

(VERB)

+ Subject + Had + Verb 3 + Object


- Subject + Had + NOT + Verb 3 + Object
? Had + Subject + Verb 3 + Object?
Table 2.14 Formula Past Perfect Tense

- Mengekspresikan kalimat Present Perfect Tense yang tidak menggunakan

kata kerja (Non VERB)

+ Subject + Had + To be 3 + Non Verb + Object


- Subject + (Had + NOT) + To be 3 + Non Verb + Object
? Had + Subject + To be 3 + Non Verb + Object?

Table 2.15 Formula Past Perfect Tense

Contoh :

1. (+): His Wife had already eaten by the time I got home
(-): His wife had not already eaten by the time I got home
(?): Had his wife already eaten by the time i got home ?
2. (+): When you arrived , I had written the letter
(-): When you arrived, I had not written the letter
(?): Had I written the letter when you arrived ?
3. (+): They had been here
(-):They had not been here
(?): Had They been here ?

2.8 Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Continuous Tense, or Past Perfect Progressive Tense is the

tense used to express an event or action that has been going on for some time

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when there are events or other actions in the past. Events which occurred or took

place first expressed in the form of the Past Perfect Continuous Tense, whereas

subsequent events that occurred (event) expressed in the form of the Simple Past

Tense.

I
I

You been
You
They
Had
They
We
We
He
She He
It She

Table It 2.16 to be

2.9 Simple Future Tense

This tense is used to explain or describe an incident or event at a time when that

will come. There are two words that are required to help us use the simple future

tense: 1 'will' and 2 'shall' This type of sentence was divided into two, of which:

SENTENCE VERBAL

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a. No plans or Declare Previous actions / events that will be conducted in the

future (at that time).

example:

-Hold On. I'll get a pen.

(wait a minute, I'll take a pen)

-wait. I'll bring an umbrella.

(wait, I will bring an umbrella)

b. Prediction (estimate).

example:

-It will rain tomorrow. I'll be stay at home.

(tomorrow will rain. I'll stay at home)

-I Will go to school tomorrow.

(I'll go to school tomorrow)

NON-VERBAL SENTENCE

When the predicate of a sentence is not a verb, then use the 'be' verb to replace it.

example:

I'll be in London tomorrow.

(I'll be in London tomorrow)

Note:

When we have a plan or desire to perform an activity in the future, then use be

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going to or Present Continuous Tense to replace will / shall.

Example sentence:

I am going to go to Paris next week.

You are going to marry her next Friday.

She will see my mother at hospital tomorrow.

Simple Future Tense always uses the first verb (verb 1) for each sentence, and has

a certain time signal, such as:

-tomorrow

-next ...... .. (days, weeks, months, years) etc.

-soon (as soon as possible)

-on ...... .. (Monday, Tuesday) etc.

2.10 Future Continuous Tense

The formula:

subject + WILL + BE + Verb + ing

When do we use the Future Continuous Tense?

This tense describes an action that will occur at a specific time in the future.

example:

He will be teaching me at eight tomorrow

(he would teach me was at eight o'clock tomorrow)

2.11 Future Perfect Tense

The formula:

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WILL + HAVE + subject + Verb Forms to 3

When Do We Use the Future Perfect Tense?

This tense we use to describe an activity that will occur in the future before the

other activities going on.

example:

They will have tired when they arrive.

(they would have been tired when they come)

2.12 Future Perfect Continuous Tense

The formula:

Subject + WILL + HAVE + BEEN + Verb + ing I

Whenever we use the Future Perfect Continuous Tense?

We use this tense to talk about an action / activity long before some moment in the

future

example: I'll have been tired when he arrives. He will have been traveling for 24

hours.

(I will be tired when he arrived. He will make a long journey for 24 hours)

2.13 Past Future Tense

To declare an act / event that will occur in the past the

The formula:

+ subject + WOULD BE + Verb Form I (verb 1).

example: She would be at school tomorrow.

(He's going to school tomorrow)

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2.14 Future Past Continuous Tense

To declare an act that is occurring.

The formula:

+ subject + WOULD BE + Verb (verb 1) + ing.

example:

We would be having dinner at home yesterday.

(we will be having dinner at home yesterday)

2.15 Future Past Perfect Tense

To declare an event that will prbuatan or is occurring

The formula:

subject + WOULD + HAVE / HAS + be + Verb Forms to 3

example:

she would have be finished to Studied if she had not been lazy

(he would have graduated if he does not learn lazily)

2.16 Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense

To declare an action / event will be taking place in the past

The formula:

Subject + WOULD + HAVE + BEEN + Verb + ing I

example:

We would have been waiting long.

(we're going to have to wait a long time)

I would have been crying all the time.

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(I would've been crying all the time)

CHAPTER III
CLOSING

3.1 Conclusion

Tense general formula is as follows:

No tenses formula

1. Present Simple Tense S + V1.


2. Present Continuous Tense S + to be (is, am, are) + V-ing.
3. Present Perfect Tense S + have / has + V3.
4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense S + have / has + been + V-ing.
5. Simple Past Tense S + V2.
6. Past Continuous Tense S + was / were + V-ing.
7. Past Perfect Tense S + had + V3.
8. Past Perfect Continuous Tense S + had + been + V-ing.
9. Simple Future Tense S + will + V1.
10. Future Continuous Tense S + will + be + V-ing.
11. Future Perfect Tense S + will + have + V3.
12. Future Perfect Continuous Tense S + will + have + been + V-ing.
13. Past Simple Future Tense S + would + V1.
14. Past Future Continuous Tense S + would + be + V-ing.
15. Past Perfect Future Tense S + would + have + V3.
16. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense S + would + have + been + V-ing.

3.2 Advice

The material on English grammatical papers still need to be completed,


there are still many shortcomings in it due to the limitations that are owned by the

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authors. To the subject teachers concerned and all those who read this paper, in
order to provide input so that this paper can be more useful and easy to
understand.

Daftar Pustaka

A.Faidal Rahman Ali (2009), Cara Cepat Belajar 16 Tenses, Jakarta : Buku Kita.

Santi, Inez, ENGLISH FOR TEEN 2, C.V Andi Offset Yogyakarta, 2009.

Yusi Andriyanti. (2014). Papers,

https://www.scribd.com/doc/249147456/Makalah-16-Tenses-Big

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