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ACI 325.

9R-91

GUIDE FOR CONSTRUCTION OF CONCRETE


PAVEMENTS AND CONCRETE BASES (Reapproved 1997)

REPORTED BY ACI COMMITTEE 316*


W.M. Stingley
Chairman

B. E. Colley Howard K. Eggleston T. E. Howell John F. McLaughlin Israel Narrow


Ralph L. Duncan S. E. Hicks C. E. Lovewell Joseph H. Moore Thomas J. Pasko, Jr.
William A. Yrjanson

Members of Committee 325 voting on the 1991 revisions

Ralph L. Duncan, Shiraz D. Tayabji,


Chairman Secretary

Richard O. Albright Howard J. Durham Starr Kohn Antonio Nanni Michel A. Sargious
William A. Arent Robert J. Fluhr Ronald J. Larsen Thomas J. Pasko, Jr. Milton R. Sees
Glen E. Bollin Nader Ghafoori Torbjorn J. Larsen Ronald L. Peltz Terry W. Sherman
Jerry E. Breite Wilbur C. Greer, Jr. Richard A. McComb Sr. Robert W. Piggott Douglas C. Staab
Jo Coke Amir N. Hanna B. Frank McCullough Steven A. Ragan Douglas W. Weaver
Benjamin Colluci Morris Skip Huffman Paul E. Mueller John L. Rice C. Philip Weisz
Michael I. Darter Oswin Keifer, Jr. Jon I. Mullarky Raymond S. Rollings Gerald E. Wixson
Matthew W. Ross William A. Yrjanson
Task Force Member
Task Force Chairman

This report covers the construction of concrete pavements and concrete bases without attempting to include inflexible specifications for
procedures, materials, or equipment. References are made to specifications, but only as a guide to enable a selection of requirements suitable
for a particular location or class of work. The document is slanted to some degree toward use by agencies other than state highway
departments, or turnpike and airfield authorities, which usually have large and experienced engineering staffs with knowledge of past
performance of pavements in the area.
Sections are devoted to specifying, sampling, and testing materials, and to the possible influence of materials on skid resistance, economy,
and durability. Maximum aggregate size is mentioned as sometimes relating to pavement durability. Subgrades and subbases are treated only
as to final preparation for paving.
Recommendations for forms are included as well as recommendations for projects using slipforms. Arrangement of joints is described,
and references are given for guidance in using reinforcement. Sections on normal and high-early-strength concrete proportioning rely heavily
on reference to ACI 211.1, but point out the special problems connected with pavement concretes and the use of admixtures in pavement
concrete.
Sections on mixing, placing, finishing, and curing concrete refer to other ACI reports where pertinent, but make recommendations for the
special handling necessary in the case of pavements. Concrete bases are treated where procedures vary from those used for pavements, and
recommendations and references are given for cold and hot weather concreting.

Keywords: admixtures; aggregates; air entrainment; base courses; cements; cold weather construction; compressive strength; concrete construction; concrete
durability: concrete finishing (fresh concrete); concrete pavements; curing; curing compounds; curing films and sheets; flexural strength; formwork
(construction): high-early-strength cements; hot weather construction; joint sealers; joints (junctions); mix proportioning; mixing; mixing plants; placing;
portland cements: quality control; ready-mixed concrete; reinforced concrete; reinforcing steels; skid resistance; slipform construction; subbases.

*Committee 316 was merged with Committee 325 in 1974.


ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and Commen- This report replaces ACI 316R-82 effective July 1, 1991.
taries are intended for guidance in designing, planning, executing, or Numerous editorial and minor revisions were made to the report. Year
inspecting construction, and in preparing specifications. Reference designations were removed for standards and reports to make the current
edition the recommended reference. Additional references were added.
to these documents shall not be made in the Project Documents. If
Copyright 1991 American Concrete Institute. All rights
items found in these documents are desired to be part of the Project
reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any
Documents, they should be phrased in mandatory language and means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by any
incorporated into the Project Documents. electronic or mechanical device, printed or written or oral, or recording
for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge or retrieval
system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the
copyright proprietors.

325.9R-1
325.9R-2 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

CONTENTS

Chapter 1-Introduction 9.2-Spreading


9.3-Consolidation
Chapter 2-Materials 9.4-Finishing
2.1-Sources 9.5-Texturing of surface
2.2-Chemical admixtures 9.6-Edging
2.3-Aggregates 9.7-Ramps and intersections
2.4-Cement and cementitious materials 9.8-Surface requirements
2.5-Curing materials
2.6-Expansion joint filler Chapter 10-Curing and protecting concrete
2.7-Joint sealants 10.1-Curing
2.8-Nonbituminous inserts 10.2-Cold weather curing
2.9-Reinforcing steel and accessories 10.3-Protection of finished pavement
2.10-Water 10.4-Protection against rain
Chapter 3-Sampling and testing of Chapter 11-Concrete bases to be subse-
materials for quality assurance quently covered with a surface course
3.1-Sampling 11.1-General
3.2-Test methods 11.2-Materials
3.3-Flexural strength of concrete as basis 11.3-Econocrete
of design 11.4-Proportioning
3.4-Strength tests of field concrete 11.5-Transverse weakened-plane joints
3.5-Job control acceptance criteria 11.6-Surface finishing
3.6-Gradation, specific gravity, and absorption 11.7-Curing for base courses
of aggregates
3.7-Air content Chapter 12-Cold and hot weather concret-
3.8-Consistency ing
12.1-Cold weather concreting
Chapter 4-Subgrade or subbase prepara- 12.2-Hot weather concreting
tion and forms
4.1-General Chapter 13-Miscellaneous
4.2-Fine grading 13.1-Thickness tolerances
4.3-Requirements and checking of the
finished grade Chapter 14-References
4.4-Stationary forms 14.1 -Recommended references
14.2-Cited references
Chapter 5-Installation of joints and rein-
forcement
5.1-General
5.2-Longitudinal joints
5.3-Isolation or expansion joints
5.4-Weakened plane contraction joints
5.5-Transverse construction joints
5.6-Load transfer devices
5.7-Installation of dowel assemblies
5.8-Joint sealing
5.9-Placing reinforcement
Chapter 6-Concrete properties and
proportions of materials
6.1-General statement
6.2-Properties for pavements and bases
6.3-Proportioning
Chapter 7-High-early -strength concrete
7.1-Methods of production
Chapter 8-Mixing concrete
8.1-Batching plants
8.2-Measurement and handling of materials
8.3-Central-mixed concrete
8.4-Ready-mixed concrete
Chapter 9-Placing and finishing concrete
9.1-Placing
Fig. 1a -Step by step paving procedure
325.9R-4 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

Fig. 1b-A slipform paving operation showing paver components (Courtesy CMI Corp.)

CHAPTER 2-MATERIALS ACI 212.3R and TRB Special Report 1191


2.1-Sources should be consulted when considering the use of
Materials should be furnished only from admixtures in concrete. Experience records on
sources of supply approved before shipments are use of specific admixture with concreting materi-
started, and used only so long as the materials als commonly used in the area should also be
meet the requirements of the specifications. considered. When admixtures are required by
The basis of approval of such sources should be the general specifications, or permitted by the
the ability to produce materials of the quality engineer, they should conform to the appropri-
and in the quantity required. Unless local con- ate specifications as follows:
ditions indicate a need for modification, it is ASTM C 260
recommended that materials meet the standard ASTM C 494
specifications listed in the following section. ASTM C 618
ASTM C 989
2.2-Chemical admixtures
Admixtures may be used to modify the prop- 2.3-Aggregates
erties of concrete so that it will be more suitable 2.3.1 - Aggregates should conform to the
for a particular purpose. Their use to obtain quality requirements of ASTM C 33. For evalu-
desirable characteristics should be based on ating potential reactivity of an aggregate, meth-
appropriate evaluation of their effects on specif- ods are provided in the appendix of ASTM C
ic combinations of materials and on economic 33. The danger of aggregate-alkali reaction
considerations. Air-entraining admixtures difficulties can be reduced by following the
should be used to improve durability and work- recommendations in ACI 201.2R. The desired
ability. Water-reducing admixtures may reduce gradation limits for the project should be stipu-
total water content and water-to-cementitious lated, along with permissible day-to-day varia-
materials ratio, thus increasing compressive tions within the limits of the specifications.
strength, flexural strength, and durability, and Coarse aggregates should be furnished in at
decreasing permeability, shrinkage, and creep. least two separate sizes, with the separation at
Some admixtures accelerate the time of setting the 3/ 4 in. (19 mm) sieve when combined mate-
of concrete, permitting earlier finishing, removal rial graded from No. 4 (4.75 mm) to 11/ 2 in.
of forms, and opening of lanes to traffic, as well (37.5 mm) nominal maximum size (or 2 in. (50
as reduce the time of protection from freezing mm) maximum size] is specified and at the 1 in.
during cold weather. Others can retard the time (25 mm) sieve when combined material graded
of setting of concrete where rapid setting is from No. 4 (4.75 mm) to 2 in. (50 mm) nominal
undesirable. Many retarding admixtures acceler- maximum size [or 2 1/2 in. (63 mm) maximum
ate strength gain once initial set is attained size] is specified. When the nominal maximum
CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND BASES 325.9R-5

size of coarse aggregate is 1 in. (25 mm) or less, consist of any of the following:
such separation is not necessary. 2.4.1.1 - Portland cement (ASTM C 150)
2.3.2 - Aggregates should be handled and 2.4.1.2 - Blended hydraulic cements (ASTM C
stored in a manner which minimizes segregation, 595)
degradation, contamination, or mixing of 2.4.1.3 - Other special types, such as expansive
different kinds and sizes. A preferred method cements (ASTM C 845).
of stockpiling coarse aggregates to minimize 2.4.2 - When hydraulic cements listed in
segregation is construction of the stockpile in Section 2.4.1.1 are to be batched on the job with
successive horizontal layers not more than 6 ft (2 another cementing material, the batched
m) thick, with each layer completed over the ingredient may be one of the following:
entire stockpile area before the next is started. 2.4.2.1 - Ground granulated, blast furnace,
If operation of hauling equipment on a stockpile slag (ASTM C 989)
is necessary all ramps and runways on the 2.4.2.2 - Fly ash (ASTM C 618)
stockpile should be covered by suitable mats or 2.4.2.3 - Natural pozzolan (ASTM C 618)
boards, or rubber tired vehicles should be used 2.4.2.4 - Silica fume
to minimize degradation. Rejected material,
may be reprocessed and returned to the 2.5-Curing materials
stockpile provided the reprocessed materials The specifications should stipulate the type or
meet the applicable specifications. Comparable types of curing material to be used and require
care should be used in removal of aggregates conformance to the appropriate specification
from stockpiles to prevent segregation. below. The general requirements of curing
Information about stockpiling in specific practice as recommended by ACI 308 should be
situations can be obtained from ACI 304R and followed.
ACI 221R. 2.5.1 - Burlap should be made from jute or
2.3.3 - Frozen aggregates or aggregates kenaf and, at the time of use, should be in good
containing frozen lumps should be thawed condition, free from holes, dirt, clay, or any
before use. Washed fine aggregates and fine other substance which interferes with its
aggregates produced or manipulated by absorptive quality. It should not contain any
hydraulic methods should be allowed to drain substance which would have a deleterious effect
for at least 12 hrs before use. Stockpiles, or cars on the concrete. Additional details are in
and barges equipped with seep holes are AASHTO M 182. Burlap that will not absorb
considered to offer suitable opportunity for water readily when dipped or sprayed and that
drainage. weighs less than 7 oz/yd2 (240 g/m2) when clean
2.3.4 - Aggregates should have a reasonably and dry should not be used. Burlap made into
uniform moisture content when delivered to the mats should be handled with care to avoid
mixer. Wetting of dry aggregates prior to marring the finished surface of the concrete.
batching will effect cooling by evaporation and 2.5.2 - Waterproof paper and impermeable
may, if carefully done, minimize moisture sheets should conform to the water retention
variations and reduce excessive absorption of requirements of ASTM C 171.
mixing water. 2.5.3 - Liquid membrane-forming compounds
should conform to the requirements of ASTM C
2.4-Cement and cementitious materials 309. Type 2, white pigmented curing compound
The cement type or types to be used should is generally preferred for concrete pavements.
be specified and should conform to the Type 1, clear or translucent, and Type 3, light
requirements of applicable ASTM standards as gray pigmented, are also used.
listed below. All cement used on a given project
should be from the same source unless otherwise 2.6-Expansion joint filler
permitted by the specifications. For further Expansion joint filler should be of the type
guidance on cementitious materials see ACI 223, specified and conform to one of the following
ACI 225R, ACI 226.1R, and ACI 226.3R. specifications, depending on the conditions of its
2.4.1 - Cementitious materials used may use.
325.9R-6 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

2.6.1 - ASTM D 1751. hand wire brushed test specimen are not less
2.6.2 - ASTM D 1752. than the applicable ASTM specification
2.6.3 - ASTM D 994. requirements.
2.9.5 Tie bars - Tie bars should be deformed
2.7-Joint sealants steel bars conforming to the requirements of the
The recommendations in ACI 504R should be specifications for reinforcing bars except that
followed in the selection of joint materials. only grades of steel bars should be used that can
Among the current specifications for joint be bent and restraightened without damage
sealants are: when this procedure is indicated. Tie bars can
2.7.1 - ASTM D 1850. have various shapes to conform to the placement
2.7.2 - ASTM D 1190. method: straight for embedment from the
2.7.3 - Federal Specification SS-S-200. surface, bent to form legs for preplacement on
2.7.4 - ASTM D 1854. grade, sinuous to develop bond when inserted in
2.7.5 - ASTM D 2628 and ASTM D 2835. freshly slipformed edge. Joint hook bolts may
2.7.6 - AASHTO M 282. be used as an alternate to tie bars. Such bolts
2.7.7 - ASTM D 3406. should not be less than 1/ 2 in. (13 mm) in
Information on other sealants which may be diameter and should be equipped with adequate
used, such as silicone, may be found in ACI couplings.
504R. 2.9.6 Dowels - Dowels should be plain round
bars conforming to the requirements of the
2.8-Nonbituminous inserts specifications for plain round bars, ASTM A
2.8.1 - ASTM D 2828. 615, A 616, and A 617. Dowel bars should not
be burred, roughened, or deformed out of round
2.9-Reinforcing steel and accessories in such a manner as to hinder slippage in the
The desired types of reinforcing steel and concrete. When metal expansion caps are used
accessories should be specified in accordance for expansion joints, they should cover the ends
with the following applicable specifications: of the dowels for not less than 2 in. (50 mm) nor
2.9.1 Steel wire fabric reinforcement - ASTM A more than 3 in. (75 mm). Caps should be closed
185, ASTM A 497 or ASTM A 884. at one end, and should provide for adequate
2.9.2 Bar mats - ASTM A 184. Member size expansion. It should be of such rigid design that
and spacing should be shown on the plans. All the closed end will not collapse during
intersections of longitudinal and transverse bars construction. Epoxy coatings have also been
should be securely wired, clipped, or welded used on dowels to prevent corrosion.
together in the plant of the steel supplier. 2.9.7 Chairs - Chairs which are used to
2.9.3 Reinforcing bars - Reinforcing bars support reinforcing steel, dowels, or tie bars on
should conform to the requirements of one of subbases must be of adequate strength and
the following standard specifications: design to resist displacement or deformation
2.9.3.1 - ASTM A 615, Grade 40 or Grade 60. before and during concrete placing.
2.9.3.2 - ASTM A 616, Grade 50 or Grade 60. 2.9.8 Stakes - Stakes used to support
2.9.3.3 - ASTM A 617, Grade 40 or Grade 60. expansion joint fillers should be metal. Their
2.9.3.4 - Guidance for the use of fiber length and stiffness should be adequate to keep
reinforced concrete can be found in ACI 544.1R. the fillers in proper position during the concrete
2.9.3.5 - ASTM A 775 specifies materials, placement.
surface preparation procedures, and coating
requirements for protective epoxy coatings. 2.10-Water
2.9.4 Surface condition - Reinforcing steel Water used in mixing or curing concrete
should be free from dirt, oil, paint, grease, or should be clean and free from injurious amounts
other organic materials that may adversely affect of oil, salt, acid, vegetable matter, or other
or reduce bond with the concrete. Rust, mill substances harmful to the finished product.
scale, or a combination of both should be Water obtained from natural sources should be
considered acceptable provided the minimum withdrawn in a manner which excludes silt, mud,
dimensions, weight, and physical properties of a grass, or other foreign materials. Water should
CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND BASES 325.9R-7

be secured only from previously approved 3.1-Sampling


sources or sources approved after testing in Samples of materials on which the acceptance
accordance with AASHTO T 26. Nonpotable or rejection of material is based should be
water should be used only if it produces mortar carefully taken in accordance with prescribed
cubes having 7- and 28-day strengths equal to procedures. Samples for inspection or
the strength of similar specimens made with preliminary tests should be required of the
distilled water when tested in accordance with producer.
ASTM C 109. 3.1.1 - It is impossible to overemphasize the
importance of proper sampling. No amount of
care and accuracy in subsequent testing will
CHAPTER 3-SAMPLING AND TESTING OF provide correct information if the samples are
MATERIALS FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE carelessly taken, and not representative of the
The type of quality assurance program material sampled. Procedures should be set up
required to establish that the concrete as for gathering samples in a manner which
produced, and after incorporation in the work, provides the maximum possible information on
meets the requirements of the specification will the average characteristics, and the nature and
depend on the nature and size of the project. extent of variability of materials.
On small jobs only a limited amount of sampling 3.1.2 - Methods of sampling materials and the
and testing can be justified, but on major work it proper size of samples for various tests are often
is important to use a quality assurance program stipulated in the test methods. Sample sizes
based on statistical concepts. The program must be adequate for all tests to be conducted.
should require that the contractor, the concrete Procedures for obtaining samples of materials
producer, and suppliers of constituent materials are covered in AASHTO or ASTM standards
be responsible for product quality control, and and are referenced in the appropriate materials
that the owner be responsible for acceptance. specifications of Chapter 2.
This requires that the producer, supplier, or
contractor sample and test the product to 3.2-Test methods
control the process and the materials being used Materials should be tested in accordance with
so that they are both within the specified limits, methods referred to in the appropriate contract
and so that the resulting concrete is of uniform specifications, or other recognized standard
quality. Because it is difficult and costly to procedures. Test methods appropriate for use in
replace defective concrete and because suitable contract documents are listed in Chapter 14.
tests do not yet exist which can fully define the
required properties of concrete after hardening, 3.3-Flexural strength of concrete as basis
the owner may wish to elect to sample and test of design
the freshly mixed concrete as produced prior to Specimens for flexural strength tests to be
incorporation in the work, or to sample and test used as the basis for the laboratory
any of the constituent materials. Such tests by proportioning of concrete mixtures should be
the owner for acceptance purposes should not molded and cured in accordance with ASTM C
relieve the contractor of his responsibilities for 192 and tested in accordance with ASTM C 78.
product control. Guidelines for developing The average flexural strength of concrete as
quality assurance programs will be found in ACI determined by the laboratory test should not be
121R, ACI 221R, ACI 311.4R, ACI 311.5R and less than 650 psi (4.5 MPa) at 28 days. If known
ACI SP-2 (ACI 311.1R). characteristics of the available materials or
On projects where flexural testing may be preliminary tests indicate difficulty in attaining
unreliable or prohibitively expensive, this strength economically, a minimum average
compressive testing may be used for job control flexural strength of 600 psi (4.1 MPa) may be
provided adequate correlations are established used provided the slab thickness is designed
between flexural and compressive strength for accordingly.
the concrete mixture used on the job (see For projects where it is desirable to use
Section 3.3). compressive strength testing as the basis for job
325.9R-8 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

control, companion compressive cylinders should strength and no one test falls more than 500 psi
also be made. These cylinders should be (3.5 MPa) low in compression or 75 psi (0.5
molded and cured in accordance with ASTM C MPa) low in flexure. The mixture should be
192 and tested in accordance with ASTM C 39 reproportioned in the event of compressive or
to establish the correlation between the flexural flexural strengths failing to meet this criteria.
and compressive strengths.
3.6-Gradation, specific gravity, and
3.4-Strength tests of field concrete absorption of aggregates
3.4.1 Strength test specimens - Specimens, Concrete uniformity is difficult to control
either compressive or flexural, should be made unless aggregates are tested with a frequency
in the field in accordance with ASTM C 31 in consistent with the production rate.
sufficient numbers to assure job control; for 3.6.1 Grading - Fine and coarse aggregate
example, two sets each day for fast moving grading should be closely monitored using the
projects, one set on projects with low to sieve analysis procedures of ASTM C 136.
moderate production rates. Flexural specimens 3.6.2 Coarse aggregate - The bulk specific
should be tested in accordance with ASTM C gravity in a saturated-surface-dry condition and
78. Compressive specimens should be tested in the absorption of coarse aggregate should be
accordance with ASTM C 39. More elaborate determined in accordance with ASTM C 127.
testing programs can be developed using the 3.6.3 Fine aggregate - The bulk specific gravity
methods described in ACI 214. in a saturated-surface-dry condition and the
3.4.2 Accelerated strength tests - ASTM C 684 absorption of fine aggregate should be
includes three methods, any one of which may determined in accordance with ASTM C 128.
be used to predict the compressive strength of
concrete at later ages for acceptance purposes or 3.7-Air content
for process control as the concrete is produced The air content of plastic concrete may be
and used. Results are available within 24 to 48 determined in accordance with standard
hrs, depending on the method used. Choice of methods of test for air content: (1) gravimetric,
the method should be based on this factor and ASTM C 138; (2) volumetric, ASTM C 173; or
convenience, since cooperative testing programs (3) pressure method, ASTM C 231. For
and practical experience show the three methods concretes made with blast-furnace slag,
have equal precision. Currently, these methods lightweight aggregate, or other vesicular porous
are being used with 6 x 12 in. (152 x 305 mm) aggregates, the volumetric (rolling) method must
cylinders only, but there is no theoretical reason be used.
why they could not be used with flexural beams.
The size of beam specimens involved, however, 3.8-Consistency
restricts use of the methods for practical 3.8.1 - Consistency is usually determined in
purposes to cylinders subsequently tested in Accordance with ASTM C 143. See Fig. 3.8.1.
compression.
3.4.3 Tests of in-place concrete - In the event
of low compressive tests, core testing of in-place
concrete should be conducted in accordance
with ASTM C 42 evaluated in accordance with
ACI 318, Chapter 4. Beams sawed from the
pavement should not be used to evaluate in-
place concrete strength.

3.5-Job control acceptance criteria


Whether compressive or flexural strengths are
used for acceptance, the acceptance criteria
should allow occasional low tests. Low strength
results should be evaluated in accordance with Fig. 3.8.1-Testing devices. (a) airpressure
ACI 318, Chapter 4, Section 4.7.4.1. The
meter, (b) slump cone, (c) rollameter
concrete proportion should be considered
adequate when the average of any three
consecutive tests equals or exceeds the specified
CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND BASES 325.9R-9

CHAPTER 4-SUBGRADE OR SUBBASE have been properly aligned and set to grade.
PREPARATION AND FORMS High areas are trimmed to proper elevation.
4.1-General Low areas should be filled and compacted in
Only that portion of the final fine grading of compliance with the specified compaction
the underlying base course, subbase course, requirements of the underlying material. If the
select materials, or treated base material equipment is controlled with an automatic
referred to as subbase construction operation, guidance system operating from a wire guideline,
which is usually considered as incidental to the the grading equipment can run directly on the
paving operation, is within the scope of this unfinished surface. (see Fig. 4.2). This
guide. For more specific information covering equipment is often used on large projects. Fine
other aspects of incidental pavement grading of cement treated subbases should be
construction such as clearing and grubbing, completed prior to initial hardening of the base
removal of structures and obstructions, material, which takes 4 to 6 hr. Trimmed
excavations and embankments, or the cement treated base (CTB) material should be
construction of special subbases with or without removed from the surface of the subbase or used
cementing agents, reference should be made to to fill low spots.
the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Highway After the grade or subbase has been placed and
Construction 2 or to the various state highway compacted to the required density, the grade on
standard specifications for road construction. which the pavement is to be constructed should
Essential preparatory work prior to the paving then be brought to the proper profile. If the
operation includes such items as fine grading, density of the base is disturbed by the grading
making minor adjustment, to the surface of the operations, it should be corrected by additional
subgrade or subbase (or underlying material if compaction before concrete is placed. The
required), adding moisture and recompacting grade should be constructed sufficiently in
any disturbed material, and preparing the final advance of the placing of the concrete that the
finished surface to conform to the grade and two operations do not interfere. If any traffic is
cross section shown on the plans. allowed to use the prepared grade, the grade
Accurate trimming is important to the paving should be checked and corrected immediately
contractor from the standpoint of the amount of ahead of the placing of the concrete.
concrete needed to complete the job. Subbases
of adequate stability will benefit pavement
smoothness. Where slipform methods are used,
it is recommended that a minimum width of
subbase should be 2 ft (0.61 m) greater on each
side than the width of the driving lanes to
accommodate the slipform tracks. Not all
concrete pavement is placed on special subbases.
Most city streets and many light traffic rural
pavements are placed directly on the prepared
subgrade. On heavy duty routes or where
serious frost problems exist special granular
subbases with or without a cementing agent are
frequently used. Care should be taken to insure Fig. 4.2-Subgrade trimmer operating from
that utility trenches are properly filled and stringline for both line and grade (Courtesy
compacted prior to fine grading and paving. Construction Machinery, Inc.)
Controlled low strength concrete fill may be
used for this purpose in lieu of conventional soil 4.3-Requirements and checking of the
backfilling techniques. finished grade
Prior to placing concrete, the underlying
4.2-Fine grading material should be checked for conformity to
When forms are to be used in the paving specified density and cross section. The cross
operation, fine grading is usually done with section can be checked by means of an approved
equipment which rides on the forms after they template riding on the forms or by use of a
325.9R-10 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

stringline if forms are not required The


underlying material should be wetted down
sufficiently in advance of placing concrete to
insure that the material is in a moist condition
when concrete is placed. The underlying
material should be free of foreign matter, waste
concrete, and debris.

4.4-Stationary forms
4.4.1 Materials and dimensions - Forms
capable of supporting the loads imposed by the
construction equipment should be used. A test Fig. 4.4.1-Standard paving forms
to evaluate the load capability of straight metal
forms has requirements that forms should not are at the proper elevation. It is preferable that
deflect more than 1/ 4 in. (6 mm) when tested as the grade be established by cutting.
a simple beam with a span of 10 ft (3 m) and a Foundations below the established grade should
load equal to that of the finishing machine or be filled to grade in lifts of 1/ 2 in. (12.7 mm) or
other construction equipment that will operate less for 18 in. (460 mm) each side of the form
on them. The two form thicknesses in general and thoroughly compacted according to job
use are 1/ 4 in. (6 mm) and 5/ 16 in. (8 mm). If specifications. The alignment and grade
the forms are to support heavy paving elevations of the forms should be checked and
equipment they should have a thickness of not corrections made by the contractor immediately
less than 5/ 16 in. (8 mm). It is recommended before placing the concrete. When any form has
that forms have a depth equal to the specified been disturbed or after any unstable grade has
thickness of the concrete, and a base width that been corrected, the form should be reset and
is equal to three-quarters of the depth but not rechecked. Forms should be set sufficiently in
less than 8 in. (200 mm). Forms should be advance of concrete placement to permit
provided with adequate devices for secure inspection of the work. After the forms have
setting so that when in place they will withstand, been set to the correct grade, the subgrade or
without visible spring or settlement, the impact subbase should be thoroughly tamped,
and vibration of the consolidating and finishing mechanically, or by hand, at both the inside and
equipment. Flange braces should extend outside edges of the base of the forms. Forms
outward on the base not less than two-thirds the should be staked into place with not less than
height of the form. Built-up forms, made from three pins for each 10 ft (3 m) section. Form
smaller sizes, are not recommended on projects sections should be tightly locked, and free from
where the total pavement area is greater than play or movement in any direction. The forms
2000 yd2 (1670 m2). If built-up forms are used, should not deviate from true line by more than
1
the increase in depth should be not more than / 4 in. (6 mm) at any point. No excessive
25 percent of the original form depth. When settlement or springing of forms under the
checked for straightness, forms should not vary finishing machine should occur. Forms should
by more than 1/ 8 in. (3 mm) in 10 ft (3 m) from be cleaned and oiled prior to the placing of
the true plane surface on the top, and 1/ 4 in. (6 concrete.
mm) in 10 ft (3 m) along the face of the form. 4.4.3 Removal of forms - Forms should remain
Forms should contain provisions for locking the in place at least 8 hr after placing the concrete.
ends of abutting form sections together tightly. If the air temperature is below 50F (10C) at
Flexible or curved forms are recommended for any time during the 8 hr following concrete
use when the curve has a radius of 100 ft (30 m) placement, the forms should be left in place for
or less. Fig. 4.4.1 shows a standard paving form. a sufficient additional time to assure that
4.4.2 Form setting - It is essential that the pavement edges will not be damaged Curing of
foundation under the forms be compacted and the exposed concrete pavement edges should
cut to grade so that the forms, when set, are begin immediately after removal of the forms.
uniformly supported for their entire length and
CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND BASES 325.9R-11

CHAPTER 5-INSTALLATION OF JOINTS blades, wet abrasive, or dry abrasive blades, care
AND REINFORCEMENT should be exercised that sawing is delayed
5.1-General sufficiently to prevent a rough, eroded joint.
Joints are placed in concrete pavements to Longitudinal joints are less prone to random
control the location of cracks, and in some cracking due to late sawing than transverse
instances, provide relief for expansion due to joints.
temperature and moisture changes. ACI 504R 5.2.2 Construction joints - Longitudinal keyed
contains information on joint sealants. construction joints (i.e., joints between lanes
5.1.1 - All longitudinal and transverse joints placed separately) can be formed with either the
should conform to the details and positions slipform methods or standard steel forms and
shown on the plans. keyway. Consideration can be given to
5.1.2 - Plans and specifications should be elimination of keyways in this joint where
explicit as to location and type of joints at ramp stabilized subbases are used. If permitted by the
entrances and intersections, and where normal specifications, tie bars may be bent against the
spacing is altered due to end-of-day or form during casting of the first lane, and then
emergency construction joints. bent out for insertion into the adjacent lane.
5.1.3 - All transverse joints should be Current ASTM specifications for reinforcing
constructed in line for the full width of the bars do not guarantee that bars can be bent and
pavement. Faces of joints should be normal to restraightened without breakage. Hence, if this
the surface of the pavement. method is specified, precautionary steps should
5.1.4 - Special care should be taken to prevent be taken to assure adequate performance. One
uneven riding surfaces at formed joints. If state highway department has alleviated the
edging is required or permitted, a 10 ft (3 m) problem of tie bars which will not tolerate a 90-
straight edge should be used to assure that deg bend with subsequent straightening; they use
displaced concrete has not resulted in high spots. a 60-deg bend initially, and then a straightening
Joint forming insets placed ahead of the screeds 60-deg bend to produce a skewed but adequate
may tip; if placed behind they are liable to result tie bar arrangement (see Fig. 5.2.2).
in high spots. Joint hook bolts conforming to the provisions
5.1.5 - Keyways, when required, should be of Section 2.9.5 may be used. Hook bolts and
accurately formed by material of sufficient couplings should be provided with approved
strength to assure a full keyway and accurate fasteners for attachment to the pavement forms
alignment. Keyways may also be extruded to the to maintain them in correct position during
proper dimensions by a slipform paver. concreting and subsequent removal of forms.
Slipform pavers should be equipped with a
5.2-Longitudinal joints suitable device for the installation of tie bars, or
5.2.1 Weakened plane joints - Longitudinal other approved means of holding the lanes in
weakened plane joints may be formed in the contact should be provided.
concrete by sawing. Care must be exercised to
insure that the depth of the separation is 5.3-Isolation or expansion joints
adequate to prevent random cracking, usually Isolation or expansion joints should be placed
about one-third of the slab depth. If sealing between all structures and features such as catch
cannot be done ahead of traffic, backer rod basins and manholes projecting through, into, or
should be installed before the pavement is against the pavement. Unless otherwise
opened. indicated on the plans, such joints should be not
5.2.1.1 Sawing - The timing of the sawing less than 1/ 4 in. (6 mm) thick and of the
operation should be late enough to avoid premolded type. A need for thicker joints can
raveling of the new concrete, but soon enough often be predicted. Expansion joint fillers
so that random cracking does not occur. Where should be firmly held in place and not dislodged
cracking has occurred at the proposed joint so that concrete cannot enter the expansion
location, the sawing of that joint should be space at bottom, sides, or top.
omitted. Whatever the sawing method, diamond
325.9R-12 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

board, or other approved material. The filler


should extend downward to the bottom of the
slab, and unless otherwise prescribed, the top
edge should be held about 1/ 2 in. (13 mm)
below the finished surface of the pavement. The
top edge of the filler should be protected by a
metal channel while the concrete is being
placed. The joint assemblies should be
protected against damage until they are installed
in the work. Joint assemblies damaged during
transportation, or by careless handling, or while
in storage should be replaced or repaired and
should not be used until they have been
approved by the engineer.
5.3.1.3 Joint filler - The designated joint filler
should be punched or drilled to the exact
diameter and at the location of the dowels. It
should be furnished in lengths equal to the
width of one lane. Where more than one length
is used in a joint the abutting ends of the filler
should be held in alignment. Care should be
exercised so that when the filler is cut away
during paving, for example, to accommodate the
flanges on the wheels of the paving train, plugs
of concrete do not develop across the joint. The
supporting assembly should furnish positive
Fig. 5.2.2 - Method for minimizing breakage of support of the filler in a position normal to the
tie bars that are bent into keyways and surface.
restraightened
5.4-Weakened plane contraction joints
5.3.1 Transverse expansion joints - Transverse Transverse groove or weakened plane
expansion joints should be constructed at right contraction joints should be constructed in the
angles to the centerline of the pavement, unless same manner as provided for weakened plane
otherwise required, and should extend the full longitudinal joints except that some type of load
width of the pavement. transfer may need to be provided where
5.3.1.1 Expansion joints at bridge ends - expected traffic volume and the magnitude of
Bridge ends should be protected from excessive the loads will be heavy. In this case it is
pressures due to pavement expansion by the recommended that slip dowels or other load
installation of ample width expansion joints in transfer devices be provided. Many heavily
the pavement near ends of bridges. Anchor traveled pavements without dowels have been
slabs should not be depended on to prevent all successful where high quality bases were
movement. Some state highway agencies employed (cement or asphalt stabilized) but, in
construct an asphalt section in lengths up to 50 general, some type of load transfer is
ft (15 m) to provide positive protection against recommended. Dowels should be firmly held in
compressive damage for abutments. (NCHRP position by welded assemblies for supporting and
Synthesis 159)3 spacing the dowels. Alternately machine
5.3.1.2 Expansion joints where dowels are placement can be used. Accurate positioning
used - These joints should be formed by securely must be assured for proper functioning of
staking in place approved load transfer devices dowels. A positive marking system should be
which consist of welded assemblies of dowels, used to assure that sawed or tooled grooves are
supporting and spacing devices, and joint filler. over the midlengths of the dowels. Grooves
The filler may be the premolded type, redwood
CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND BASES 325.9R-13

should be not less than one-fourth the slab subsequent transverse joints should be measured
depth. from the transverse contraction joints last
Fig. 5.4 shows a detail of a longitudinal joint, placed. In lane-at-a-time construction,
a transverse contraction joint, and a dowel bar construction joints not located in the adjacent
assembly. lane should be keyed and tied to prevent the
formation of sympathy cracks.

5.6-Load transfer devices


5.6.1 Dowels - Dowel bars should have a
diameter consistent with slab depth and be
placed at the mid-depth of the slab. Proper
horizontal and vertical alignment should be
assured by either approved dowel assembly
devices, or by approved machine placement.
Good consolidation of concrete around the
dowels is essential to good performance.
5.6.2. Dowel coating - The free or unbonded
Fig. 5.4 -Detail of longitudinal joint and end of each dowel should be coated with a
transverse contraction joint for lane-at-a-time corrosion inhibitor. When the inhibitor has
paving, showing dowel bar assembly (with caps dried, the free end of each bar should be
making design also useable for expansion joints, completely coated with a thin brush coat of a
providing expansion joint material is used), lubricant immediately before it is placed in
keyway, hookbolt dowels, preformed compression position. An excessive coating should be
seal, and optional transverse joint base plate to avoided. The free ends of the dowel bars for
prevent infiltration where untreated granular bases expansion joints should be provided with metal
are used dowel caps. Approved types of epoxy coated
dowels can be used in lieu of lubricated dowels.
5.5-Transverse construction joints Consideration may also be given to other types
Unless other prescribed joints occur at the of coatings for the purpose of preventing bond,
same points, transverse construction joints corrosion, or both.
should be made at the end of each day or where
interruptions occur in the concreting operation. 5.7-lnstallation of dowel assemblies
Weather conditions should govern the length of 5.7.1 - Dowel assemblies should be put in
delays which are considered cause for requiring place on prepared subbase or subgrade.
the setting of a joint. A 30-min delay could be Transverse dowel assemblies should be placed at
considered a reasonable limit during hot, dry, right angles to the centerline of the pavement
windy weather; up to an hour or more may be except when otherwise detailed on the plans.
tolerated when conditions are less severe. Doweled joints required or permitted to be set
Transverse construction joints should be at angles other than normal to the centerline
formed by staking in place a bulkhead of the will require careful detailing and installation to
proper shape containing a keyway and tie bars assure freedom of movement. Dowels should be
similar to that described in Section 5.2.2. An securely held in the required position. On
equally effective joint can be formed by omitting widened curves, the longitudinal center joint
the keyway and increasing the size of tie bars to should be placed so that it will be equidistant
dowel bar dimensions. from the edges of the slab. Joints should be set
Transverse construction joints should not be to the required line and grade and should be
formed to make a slab less than 10 ft (3 m) securely held in the required position by stakes,
long. If sufficient concrete is not available to an approved installing device, or other approved
place a slab at least 10 ft (3 m) long, the method (see section 5.4). Dowels should be
construction joint should be formed at the installed in a way that prevents concrete
preceding joint location. The spacing of pressure from disturbing their alignment.
325.9R-14 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

If joints are constructed in sections, there such stretching may be a drastic shortening of
should be no offsets between adjacent units. the useful life of the material. The seal and the
Dowel bars should be checked for exact position installation lubricant should conform to Section
and alignment as soon as the joint assembly is 2.7.5. Fig. 5.8.4 shows a machine used to install
staked in place on the subgrade or subbase, and preformed joint material.
the joint should be tested to determine whether
it is firmly supported. Any joint not firmly
supported should be reset. Wires or bars used
to hold assemblies in position for shipment
should be cut before concrete is placed if they
could cause restraint to early shrinkage of new
concrete.

5.8-Joint sealing
ACI 504R should be referred to in selecting
proper joint shape factors and joint sealants.
5.8.1 - The tops of expansion joints and all
edged and sawed joints should be sealed with
the specified sealing material before traffic is
permitted on the pavement. Joint openings
should be thoroughly cleaned of all foreign
matter before the sealing material is placed. All
contact faces of joints should be cleaned to
remove loose material, and should be surface Fig. 5.8.4-Machine used for installation of
dry when hot-poured sealing material is used. preformed neoprene contraction joint strip. The
When sawing of green concrete is required or material and reel are not pictured. Machine is
permitted, extra care should be exercised to self-propelled and capable of installation of the
remove the slurry coating deposited along the strip with little length change.
sides of saw cuts.
5.8.2 - Sealing material should be installed in 5.8.5 - Edge seals are sometimes specified and
the joint openings to conform to the details these may be useful in preventing infiltration.
shown on the plans. The installation should be Such systems have exhibited varying degrees of
done in such a manner that the material will not success and their use should be based on
be spilled on the exposed surfaces of the experience (Fig. 5.8.5).
concrete. Any excess material on the surface of
the concrete pavement should be removed
immediately and the pavement surface cleaned.
5.8.3 - Poured joint sealing materials should
not be placed when temperatures are such as to
prevent proper installation. The manufacturers
recommendations may be useful in preparing
specification limits.
5.8.4 - Where preformed joint material, such Fig. 5.8.5-A method sometimes used to
as neoprene (preformed compression sealants), prevent entrance of water between pavement
is used the uncompressed width of such joint and asphalt shoulder. (1 in. = 25.4 mm)
material should be properly balanced with the
joint opening, which in turn should be of a width
consistent with the length of the slab and 5.8.6 - Some jointing materials are
temperature ranges expected. The installing incompatible and should not be used in direct
device should assure that the preformed material contact with each other without an inert divider.
is not stretched more than 3 percent during Some bituminous materials, for example, should
insertion in the joint opening since the result of not be in contact with a joint seal of the two
CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND BASES 325.9R-15

component, polysulfide type. They may be sheet or mat of reinforcement to be laid full
separated with a neoprene tape, or other length on the concrete in its final position
relatively inert material. without farther manipulation of the
reinforcement. Adjacent mats or sheets should
5.9-Placing reinforcement be tied to prevent an opening from occurring
5.9.1 - When steel reinforcement for jointed between the mats. The balance of the required
pavements is used it should consist of welded concrete should be placed after the
wire fabric or bar mats in accordance with reinforcement is in place. The first course of
Sections 2.9.1 and 2.9.2. The surface condition struck-off concrete should not be exposed
of the steel with respect to foreign matter and particularly during hot, windy weather. Probably
rust should conform to the requirements in 30 min should be considered a reasonable
Section 2.9.4. Width of fabric sheets or bar mats maximum exposure time. The positioning of the
should be such that, when properly placed in the reinforcement during concrete operations should
work, the extreme longitudinal members of the be checked and if necessary, corrected.
sheet or mat will be located not less than 2 in.
(50 mm) or more than 6 in. (150 mm) from the
edges of the slab. The length of fabric sheets of
bar mats should be as shown on the plans and
should be such that, when properly placed in the
work, the reinforcement will clear all transverse
contraction joints by not less than 6 in. (150
mm) as measured from the center of the joint to
the ends of the longitudinal members of the
sheet or mat.
5.9.2 - When reinforcing bar assemblies arc
shown on the plans, the bars should be firmly
fastened together at all intersections. Adjacent
ends should lap not less than 30 diameters (see
Section 5.9.7).
5.9.3 - Where bars are fabricated into mat Fig. 5.9.5-Mesh installations on two-course
form by positive welding at all intersections, the pavement, employing forms. Mesh cart towed
laps for longitudinal bars should be a minimum by spreader
of 30 diameters. If the mat pattern is such that
the edge longitudinal bars or the end transverse 5.9.6 - When concrete is placed in a single
bars of the mats overlap, the lap should be made course, wire fabric sheets or bar mats may be
so that the bars overlap each other by at least 2 laid in proper horizontal alignment on the full
in. (50 mm). depth of struck-off concrete and machine
5.9.4 - Steel fabric sheets should be lapped as vibrated or tamped to proper elevation. Care
shown on the plans. Sheets should be securely should be exercised that the installing machines
tied together to prevent displacement, are designed and adjusted so that they will not
particularly from being pulled by the paving leave cleavage planes over steel members nor
train. drag the sheets or mats from their proper
5.9.5 - When reinforced concrete is placed in position. At each transverse joint a check
two lifts (see Fig. 5.9.5) the initial layer should should be made to assure proper clearance
be uniformly struck off at a depth not less than between mesh ends and the joint.
2 in. (50 mm) below the finished surface nor 5.9.7 - Where continuously reinforced
greater than middepth of slab below the concrete pavement is specified, steel in the
proposed surface of the pavement, and the quantity, fabrication, and grade shown on the
reinforcement placed thereon. The concrete plans should be installed so that the
should be struck off to the entire width of the reinforcement will have a minimum cover of 2
placement and a sufficient length to permit the in. (50 mm) and the longitudinal members will
325.9R-16 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

not fall below the middepth of the slab, unless 5.9.8 Verifying location of reinforcing - A gage
otherwise specified or shown on the plans. should be used to determine the location of the
When the concrete is placed in a single reinforcing in a pavement. Insertion to the
course, the steel should be placed on supports depth of the reinforcing location will indicate its
that will retain the steel in its specified position positioning in the fresh concrete.
while the concrete is being deposited, or else
mechanical placement as described in Section
5.9.6 should be used (Fig. 5.9.7). When CHAPTER 6-CONCRETE PROPERTIES
transverse bars are not used, the steel can be AND PROPORTIONS OF MATERIALS
placed through tubes in a concrete spreader. 6.1-General
Equipment is also available to place steel with Concrete pavements, and in most respects
transverse bars in single course construction. concrete bases, are exposed to severe treatment.
When the concrete is placed in two courses, the In addition to the pounding of traffic, many
procedure outlined in Section 5.9.5 should be factors are present tending to destroy them.
followed. They are subjected to rapid change in extremes
Lap splices for individual bars, prefabricated of temperature, abrasion, usually salt
bar mats, or deformed welded wire fabric mats applications, as well as the certainty of erratic
are usually designated on plans and should be subgrade support at alI ages after the first few
carefully checked in the work. The importance hours. For these reasons, and of course for
of adequate laps and proper placement cannot economy, considerable extra care in
be overemphasized. The danger of failure at proportioning is justified (see ACI 211.1).
splices at early ages can be minimized by The concrete produced should be required to
arranging the splices in a skewed or staggered attain strength compatible with the structural
pattern from one pavement edge to the other. design. It should contain entrained air within
Splice lengths should be shown on the plans or the range recommended for the aggregate size
specifications and should not be less than 30 and the area in which it is to be used, and most
diameters, nor less than 16 in. (400 mm). importantly, it should have a water-cement, or
water-cementitious material ratio not higher
than that recommended for the anticipated
exposure. When a blend of cementing materials
is used as provided in Section 2.4.2, the water-
cementitious material ratio should be
appropriate for making highly durable concrete
with these materials.

6.2-Properties for pavements and bases


6.2.1 Water and air content - Water content
should be kept as low as practicable to produce
dense and durable concrete with the required air
void system. Total air content should conform
to ACI 201.2R, Table 1.4.3, for exposure
conditions anticipated.
6.2.2 Maximum size of coarse aggregate-
Observations of existing concrete in the area
may be helpful if aggregate quality is uncertain.
Some reduction in the maximum size of
aggregate may improve resistance to D
cracking. Guidance for improving resistance to
D cracking can be found in ACI 221R.
6.2.3 Chemical admixtures - One or more
Fig. 5.9.7-Bar on chairs, spliced, for single
admixtures may be helpful in most situations,
course slipform operation but none should be used without the same
CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND BASES 325.9R-17

careful evaluation before the start of work using chemical admixtures (see Section 2.2), certain
job materials as should be done for concrete blends of cementing materials (see Section
without admixtures. Evaluations are preferably 2.4.2), or both are used in the work. Specified
made by means of full scale trial batches. Refer concrete strengths for design and durability
to ACI 212.3R or TRB Special Report 119.1 purposes should generally not be less than:
6.2.4 Skid resistance - It has been found that Flexural strength with third-point loading - 650
low water-cement ratios are helpful in psi (4.5 MPa) at 28 days; Compressive
maintaining the skid resistant qualities of strength-4000 psi (27.6 MPa) at 28 days.
concrete pavement surfaces. Some aggregates Specification for statistical control limits to
are more susceptible than others to polishing, achieve these strengths should be based on
and local experience in high traffic areas should principles stated in ACI 214.
be observed. The contribution of fine
aggregates to skid resistance is discussed in CHAPTER 7-HIGH-EARLY-STRENGTH
Section 9.5. CONCRETE
6.2.5 Air entrainment - Where freezing and 7.1-Methods of production
thawing cycles occur, all concrete must contain a High strength at an early age may be desired
satisfactory air void system to improve its to permit placing some key sections of pavement
durability. In practice this is specified in terms into use at the earliest possible moment, or for
of the volume of entrained air required as other reasons. High-early-strength concrete may
related to the nominal maximum size of coarse be produced by in the following ways.
aggregate used. See the recommendations of 7.1.1 - Use of high-early-strength portland
ACI 201.2R. cement Type III or IIIA, by either method of
proportioning in lieu of normal portland cement
6.3-Proportioning (Type I or IA, or Type II or IIA).
Specifications should establish limits for these 7.1.2 - Reducing the water-cement ratio by use
basic mixture proportioning factors: either of additional normal portland cement (Type I or
maximum water-cement or water-cementitious IA or Type II or IIA).
material ratio or minimum strength or minimum 7.1.3 - Use of calcium chloride as an
cement content. In addition, minimum and ingredient of the concrete in the following
maximum air content, maximum slump, and quantities: (1) between 1 and 2 lb (0.45 to 0.91
maximum size of aggregate should be specified. kg) per 100 lb (45.5 kg) of Type I cement or (2)
Preliminary batch weights can be developed between 0.8 to 1.6 lb (0.36 to 0.73 kg) per 100 lb
from experience, from tables of approximate (45.5 kg) of Type III cement. Calcium chloride
relationships (see ACI 211.1), or from small trial should be added in solution. It is convenient to
batches. Regardless of how batch weights are proportion the solution so that 1 qt (0.95 L)
initially determined, they should be finally contains one lb (0.45 kg) of calcium chloride for
established from full-size batches at the start of use with Type I cement and that 1 qt (0.95 L)
the work. ACI 211.1 contains a step-by-step contains 0.8 lb (0.36 kg) calcium chloride for use
procedure for determining batch weights and with Type II cement. It should be recognized
tables of approximate relationships. that the use of calcium chloride very likely will
Where minimum cement content is specified reduce the natural ability of concrete to inhibit
as the criterion of quality of concrete pavement, corrosion of embedded metals such as tie bars,
the committee recommends a minimum of 564 mesh, or dowels.
lb/yd 3 of cement per cubic yard (334.6 kg/m3) 7.1.4 - Use of an appropriate accelerating
unless local experience demonstrates that this admixture meeting the requirement of ASTM
minimum can be decreased. C 494.
If one of the alternate permitted mixture 7.1.5 - Currently, fast track paving
proportioning factors, i.e., required strength construction practices are under development
consistent with specified air content and slump is which use rapid strength gaining concrete
employed, less cement per cubic yard of proportions of various material compositions.
concrete might be used, especially if certain During 1986 and 1987, several projects were
325.9R-18 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

successfully completed so that the pavements the mixing water for succeeding batches should
could be opened to traffic in 12-24 hr. The not be permitted unless the quantity of wash
high-early-strength technology being developed water is accurately measured.
in these systems may lend itself to quick opening 8.2.4 - Chemicaladmixtures, other than fly ash
pavement sections. and other cementitious materials, should be used
The user is referred to the American Concrete in liquid form and may be batched by weight or
Pavement Associations Technical Bulletin on by volume. Accuracy of weighing chemical
Fast Track Paving4 for additional information. admixtures should be within plus or minus 3
percent of the required weight. Volumetric
measurements should be within an accuracy of
CHAPTER 8-MIXING CONCRETE plus or minus 3 percent of the total amount
8.1-Batching plants required. A suitable device for measuring and
Batching plants used to supply concrete for dispensing the liquid admixture should be
paving and concrete bases should be of sizes provided. If an air-entraining admixture is used
adequate to supply well-mixed concrete at the together with a chemical admixture, each
production rate specified or anticipated by the admixture should be measured and added to the
contractor. Plants should be in good repair and concrete mix separately to avoid all contact with
operate reliably. Guidance for establishing plant each other until they are in the mix. All other
requirements and judging the adequacy of a cementitious materials should be measured by
batching plant can be found in Certification of weight to an accuracy of plus or minus 3
Ready Mixed Concrete Production Facilities percent.
(QC-3) 5, Sections 9, 10, and 11 of ASTM C 94,
ACI 304R, and ACI 311.5R. 8.3-Central-mixed concrete
Plants should contain separate bins or 8.3.1 Stationary mixers - Stationary mixers at
compartments for each aggregate size specified. the site should meet the standards of the
Bulk cement and other cementitious materials Concrete Plant Manufacturers Bureau.6
should be stored in closed bins or silos. If Regardless of mixer size, the required minimum
combined bins or double silos are used, storage mixing time for an individual mixer should be
compartments for cement and other specified as that which, as shown by tests, will
cementitious materials must be separated by result in satisfactory mixing. The mixing time
double walls. should not be less than 60 sec. Where mixer
Suitable batching equipment with weigh performance tests are not made, minimum
hoppers, scales, and batching controls should be mixing time should be in accordance with ASTM
provided. Cementitious materials should be C 94. Preblending of materials is necessary to
weighed in separate hoppers and should not be obtain a uniform mixture with large batches and
weighed cumulatively with aggregates. Weighing short mixing times.
equipment should meet the requirements and Mixing of concrete should continue for the
accuracies specified in ASTM C 94. required mixing time after all ingredients,
including water (and admixture if added with the
8.2-Measurement and handling of materials water), are in the mixing compartment of the
8.2.1 - Bulkcement is normally used on high mixer before any part of the batch is released.
production paving projects. Cement should be Transfer time in multiple drum mixers should be
measured by weight within a maximum allowable counted as part of the mixing time.
error of 1 percent. 8.3.2 Transporting mixed concrete - When
8.2.2 - Aggregates should be weighed within a nonagitating hauling equipment is used for
maximum allowable error plus or minus 2 transporting concrete to the delivery point,
percent. discharge should be completed within 45 min
8.2.3 - Mixing water may be measured by after mixing. In case of emergency, the haul
weight or by volume. Measurement of the water time may be increased to that which will not
should be within a maximum allowable error of result in undue loss of slump or separation of
plus or minus 1 percent of the total mixing the mixture (see ASTM C 94). Under
water. The use of wash water as a portion of conditions contributing to quick stiffening of the
CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND BASES 325.9R-19

concrete or when the temperature of the equipment for proper spreading. All should be
concrete at point of discharge is 85F (30C) or operated with care in a prescribed and uniform
above, the time between mixing and discharge manner to minimize segregation. See Fig. 9.2.1
should not exceed 30 min. On smaller projects spreading can be
8.4-Ready-mixed concrete accomplished in a number of ways such as with
Ready-mixed concrete should be mixed, mixer powered strikeoff, hand tools, or a plank,
handled, and transported to the site in but in any case the concrete should be spread to
accordance with ASTM C 94. Truck mixers the proper depth for consolidation and finishing.
should conform to the requirements of the
Truck Mixer Manufacturers Bureau of the
National Ready Mixed Concrete Association.
Suitable equipment should be provided for
transferring the concrete from the transporting
vehicle and distributing it uniformly, without
segregation, on the grade.

CHAPTER 9-PLACING AND FINISHING


CONCRETE
9.1-Placing
9.1.1 Equipment - Placing equipment should be
capable of transporting the mixed concrete from
the mixer or hauling equipment and depositing it Fig. 9.2.1 -Concrete spreader. Dowel basket,
near its final position on the grade with a hookbolts, lane-at-a-time construction
minimum of segregation, and without damage to 9.2.2 Two-course construction - When mesh is
the grade. On large jobs, screw, belt, or hopper to be used, and is to be placed by hand, the
type spreaders are available and should be concrete below the mesh is struck off, the mesh
required. These generally operate from the placed and tied, and the top course spread. On
shoulder and carry the concrete the full width of large projects two spreaders are sometimes used.
the slab. If transit mixers are used, with only More commonly, the concrete is struck off to its
chutes available to deposit the concrete on the full depth and the mesh vibrated or tamped to
grade, lane-at-a-time paving is advisable. When its proper position. Mechanical mesh depressing
plain pavement is constructed with a slipform machines are also available.
paver, concrete may be dumped on the grade in
front of the paver from dump trucks. Hauling 9.3-Consolidation
equipment should not be allowed to operate on 9.3.1 Methods - A guide to proper
the grade in front of the paver if rutting occurs. consolidation can be found in ACI 309R.
9.1.2 Special situations - Where widths vary at Spading at joints and edges, screeding,
ramps and intersections, it will not always be mechanical tampers, and vibrators are all
possible to use ideal methods. However, it is effective to some degree but do not
equally important to require that concrete not automatically assure dense concrete. Vibrators,
be dumped haphazardly and shoved or vibrated either internal (spud), or surface types (pan or
into its final position. Hand shoveling may be tube), are capable of producing good results.
necessary to avoid segregation. However, surface vibrators should be used with
care to prevent excess mortar from rising to the
9.2-Spreading surface. Surface vibration may not provide
9.2.1 Equipment - For large jobs, paddle or adequate consolidation for thick pavements.
auger type spreaders, belt spreaders, and hopper 9.3.2 Procedure - The entire area of the
and auger type spreaders are available and pavement should be consolidated in a manner as
should be required, unless slipform pavers are effective as possible. Particular attention should
used. Slipform paving machines include built-in be given to edges, the area along the centerline,
325.9R-20 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

and at other joints. Mechanical mesh placers surfaces.


may provide some consolidation. Slipform 9.4.3 Procedure - Regardless of the type of
pavers are equipped with gang mounted internal equipment used, good results are attainable if all
vibrators and are operated within the concrete machines are coordinated, properly adjusted,
mass to consolidate the concrete as the paver and operated by experienced personnel.
moves forward. Vibrators should be stopped Slipform pavers should carry a constant, uniform
when the paver is stopped. roll of concrete ahead of the strike-off device to
9.3.3 Special situations - Extra care is required submerge the internal vibrators and equalize the
to assure proper consolidation around dowel depth of concrete placed by the spreader. It is
bars and supporting baskets, at edges and almost impossible for following equipment in the
corners or around drains, and at irregular train to completely equalize the depth if a
sections related to ramps or intersections. spreader has a tendency to leave too much, too
little, or erratic amounts of concrete.
9.4-Finishing 9.4.4 Hand finishing - If a significant amount
9.4.1 Slipform pavers - Slipform pavers are of hand finishing becomes necessary when
designed to spread, consolidate, screed, and float paving with any type of full-scale paving
finish the freshly placed concrete in one pass of equipment, the operation should be stopped and
the machines to provide a well consolidated and procedures altered to eliminate the need for
homogenous pavement requiring a minimum of hand work. No water should be added to the
hand finishing to meet surface tolerances. The surface for finishing purposes.
machines should vibrate the concrete pavement
for its full width and depth. Vibration is usually 9.5-Texturing of surface
supplied by gang mounted spud type internal The surface of a pavement should include
vibrators. both fine and coarse texture. The fine texture
Slipform pavers should be operated with as (grittiness) is formed by the sand in the cement-
nearly a continuous forward movement as mortar layer. The coarse texture is formed by
possible, and all operations of mixing, delivering, the ridges of mortar left by the method of
and spreading concrete should be coordinated to texturing.
provide uniform progress with stopping of a A wide variety of skid-resistant texture
paver held at a minimum. When it is necessary patterns can be applied to concrete surfaces.
to stop a paver, the vibratory elements should Different textures may be desirable at different
also be stopped. Slipform pavers are capable of locations on the same project. The texture
taking grade from a subbase or subgrade method selected should be compatible with the
accurately trimmed with automated equipment, environment, speed, and density of traffic, and
or sensing devices working off a stringline. topography and geometrics of the pavement.
9.4.1.1 Edge Slump - Edge slump is of An adequately skid-resistant texture can be
particular concern with slipform pavers, built into concrete pavements by using one or
especially for thick pavements. It must be kept more of the following texturing methods: burlap
to an absolute minimum, within project drag, brooming, wire combs, and other types
specifications. This is accomplished by proper such as rug backing, plastic combs, etc. (see Fig
concrete proportion use of low slump concrete 9.5).
and proper operation of the paver. If edge Superior skid resistance may be required to
slump requiring significant hand work occurs, provide additional safety in critical areas such as
the paving operation should be stopped and toll plazas, busy intersections, airport runways,
procedures altered. Specifications generally or other locations where frequent braking,
require edge slump to be no more than 1/ 4 in. (6 acceleration, or cornering occurs. This may be
mm). accomplished by providing deeper than normal
9.4.2 Equipment - Requirements for finishing texturing, grooving, or if necessary, by
equipment should not be so restrictive as to introducing aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, or
prohibit new and improved types. If properly other wear-resistant particles into the surface of
used, tube finishers are effective, but see Section the concrete. ACI 325.6R provides further
10.5 for procedures needed to assure nonskid guidance on texturing pavements.
Fig. 9.5-Different textures used to increase skid resistance: (1) burlap drag (2) wire comb, (3) heavy nylon
bristle broom, (4) fine nylon bristle broom, (5) natural bristle broom, (6) grooving tool plus natural bristle
broom, and (7) planer. (Courtesy Missouri State Highway Commission)

9.6-Edging high slump concrete or other expedients. Every


The edges along the formline and at effort should be made to
expansion joints should be smoothed with an standardize ramp widths to the maximum extent
edging tool. Contraction joints should also be possible consistent with traffic considerations.
edged unless formed by sawing. Construction Ramp design which permits hauling concrete on
joints are also sometimes edged, but with a short the subbase also contributes to reduced
radius tool unless they are to be grooved and construction costs due to the restricted hauling
filled. Profile recording devices are commonly space available on most ramps.
used to determine smoothness of a highway
pavement surface. Accumulated measurement 9.8-Surface requirements
of deviation from a plane surface for a chosen 9.8.1 High-speed roads - High-speed roads are
length of pavement indicates ride characteristics roads carrying traffic with an average speed over
of the pavement. Measurements should be 45 mph (72 km/h). Surfaces of these roads are
taken within 24 hr of concrete placement to generally required to be within 1/2 in. (3 mm) as
allow correction early in the pavement curing measured with a 10 ft (3 m) straightedge in the
process. longitudinal direction. Deviations of more than
1
/ 8 in. (3 mm), but less than 1/2 in. (13 mm)
9.7-Ramps and intersections should be corrected by grinding in such a
Past practice has been to use irregular ramp manner as not to result in a polished surface. If
widths and sections of odd shape which more than 1/ 2 in. (13 mm), the pavement should
generally precluded the use of highly be corrected by grinding if the pavement is
mechanized equipment. While these paved within thickness tolerances, evaluated as to its
areas cost about double the same amount of serviceability, or removed and replaced. A
mainline pavement, they seldom are of equal greater tolerance, up 1/ 4 in. (6 mm) in 10 ft (3
quality and tend to show deterioration earlier m), can be permitted for surface deviations
than the rest of the project. Extra effort should measured in the transverse direction.
be expended to place and finish ramp and 9.8.2 Ramps, intersections, and low-speed
intersection concrete without resorting to unduly roads - Surface tolerances may be difficult to
325.9R-22 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

meet for these pavements. Extra effort should 10.1.3 Cotton mats or burlap - The surface and
be made to use construction techniques which edges of the pavement should be entirely
will produce surface tolerances comparable to covered with mats. Prior to being place, the
those on the mainline. However, surface mats should be saturated thoroughly with water.
tolerance can be increased to 1/ 4 in. (6 mm) in The mats should be so placed as to cause them
10 ft (3 m) in these sections. to remain in intimate contact with the surface,
but these should not be placed until the surface
CHAPTER 10-CURING AND PROTECTING has hardened sufficiently to prevent marring.
CONCRETE They should be maintained fully wetted and in
10.1-Curing position for the specified curing period.
Immediately after the finishing operations have 10.1.4 Waterproof paper - As soon as the
been completed and the water film has pavement has hardened sufficiently to prevent
evaporated from the surface or as soon as marring of the surface, the pavement should be
marring of the concrete will not occur, the entire entirely covered with waterproof paper. The
surface of the newly placed concrete should be paper units should be lapped 12 in (300 mm).
covered and curing in accordance with one of The waterproof paper should be sufficiently wide
the methods in Sections 10.1.1 through 10.1.5. to overlap and completely cover the sides of the
In all cases in which curing requires the use of slab after the forms have been removed unless
water, the curing operation should have prior additional strips of paper are furnished for
right to all water supply or supplies. ACI 308 curing the sides. The curing paper should be
should be used as a guide. This place and maintained in intimate contact with
recommendation requires 7 days curing at the surface and sides of the pavement during the
temperatures above 40F (4C) but provides for curing period. Damaged curing paper which
shorter curing periods if 70 percent or more of cannot be effectively patched or repaired should
specified compressive or flexural strength can be be discarded. Curing paper should be placed
attained earlier. only on a moist surface. If the surface appears
10.1.1 Membrane curing - Immediately after dry it should be wetted by a spray fine enough
the water film has disappeared from the surface to prevent damage to the fresh concrete.
of the pavement, the surface should be 10.1.5 White polyethylene sheeting - The surface
uniformly coated with liquid membrane curing and sides of the pavement should be entirely
material by a suitable means of an approved covered with white polyethylene sheeting. It
mechanical spray machine at the rate of not less should be placed while the surface of the
than 1 gal. per 150 ft2 of surface (one L per 3 concrete is still moist. If the surface appears dry
m2), or as recommended by the manufacturer. it should be wetted with a fine spray before the
To insure uniform consistency and dispersion of sheeting is placed. Adjacent sheets should be
the pigment in the curing material, it should be lapped 18 in. (460 mm). The sheeting should be
agitated in the supply container immediately weighted to keep it in contact with the pavement
before transfer to the distributor and kept surface and it should be large enough to extend
thoroughly agitated during application. Irregular beyond the pavement edge and completely cover
areas or sections of pavement where the use of a the sides of the slab after the forms have been
mechanical spraying machine is impracticable removed. The polyethylene sheeting should
may be sprayed with approved hand spraying remain in place for the duration of the curing
equipment. The sides of the pavement slab period. A minimum polyethylene thickness of 4
should be coated within 60 min after the mils (1 mm) should be specified. Special
removal of forms. Any areas of the coating insulating sheeting materials are sometimes used
which are damaged within the specified curing for cold weather or fast-track paving.
period should be immediately repaired. 10.1.6 Curing of saw cuts - Saw cuts in
10.1.2 Mono-molecular coatings - This type of pavement being cured should be protected from
membrane coating material may be desirable rapid drying. This is often accomplished with
under adverse drying construction conditions to twisted paper or fiber cords or ropes, or with
retard surface evaporation. This is not a gummed polyethylene strips, or other approved
substitute for curing. material.
CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND BASES 325.9R-23

10.2-Cold weather curing 11.2-Materials


Cold weather curing should provide protection Recommendations for materials to be
from freezing without overlooking the primary included in the work are given in Chapter 2.
goal of retaining moisture for the time necessary
to bring cement hydration to an acceptable 11.3-Econocrete
point. Polyethylene sheets covered with hay or Econocrete may be considered as a concrete
straw serve both purposes. See ACI 306R and base for various surface courses.
ACI 306.1.
11.4-Proportioning
10.3-Protection of finished pavement Proportioning of concrete for bases should be
The contractor should protect the pavement done in accordance with the recommendations
and its appurtenances against both public traffic of ACI 211.1 and Chapter 6 of this report.
and traffic caused by his own employees and
agents. This should include the use of flaggers 11.5-Transverse weakened-plane joints
to direct traffic and the erection and Concrete bases may be provided with
maintenance of warning signs, lights, barricades, expansion and/or contraction joints, and should
and pavement bridges or crossovers. Any be constructed according to the
damage to the pavement, occurring prior to recommendations provided for constructing
opening to the public should be repaired or the similar joints in concrete surface courses.
pavement replaced. (See Section 13.1.2).
11.6-Surface finishing
10.4-Protection against rain No intentional effort should be made to
So that the concrete may be properly roughen the pavement surface. Final finish
protected against the effects of rain before the should be left as smooth as possible without
concrete has sufficiently hardened, the extraordinary finishing effort in order to keep
contractor should be required to have available the coefficient of friction low. The finished
at all times materials for the protection of the surface should not deviate more than 1/ 4 in. (6
surface of the unhardened concrete. Such mm) between two contact points when tested
protective materials should consist of burlap or with a 10-ft (3-m) straightedge parallel to the
cotton mats, curing paper, or plastic sheeting centerline.
material. In addition, when the slipform method
of paving is used, the contractor should be 11.7-Curing for base courses
required to have an acceptable plan for the Base courses should be cured as carefully, and
emergency protection of the surface and edges. in the same manner, as surface courses. Wax
When rain appears imminent, all paving base membranes are considered bond breakers,
operations should stop and all personnel should and should not be used on patches that are
take the necessary steps for complete protection expected to bond with concrete overlays.
of the unhardened concrete. Additional
information can be found in Reference 7.
CHAPTER 12-COLD AND HOT WEATHER
CHAPTER 11-CONCRETE BASES TO BE CONCRETING
SUBSEQUENTLY COVERED WITH A 12.1-Cold weather concreting
SURFACE COURSE Numerous problems are encountered in winter
11.1-General concreting operations which make advanced
This work consists of constructing a course of planning necessary. Materials for protection of
portland cement concrete base, with or without the subgrade and underlying base courses, and
reinforcement as specified, on a prepared grade for curing of the concrete should be on hand at
in compliance with these recommended the jobsite prior to the start of concreting
practices. The recommendations of Chapter 9 operations. Special winter concreting practices
should be followed unless modified by the are covered in ACI 306R and ACI 306.1.
following.
325.9R-24 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

12.2-Hot weather concreting being damaged. The transverse and longitudinal


During hot weather concreting, necessary joints should be sealed or otherwise protected
precautions should be taken to place the before any construction traffic is permitted.
concrete at the coolest temperature practicable. Rapid strength gain concrete mixtures may be
The concrete temperatures must be controlled to specified to provide earlier opening of the
assure proper placing, consolidation, finishing, pavement.
and curing, and to prevent plastic shrinkage Other construction equipment such as
cracking. For useful information for preventing subgrade planers and concrete finishing
problems that can develop during hot weather machines may be permitted to ride on the edges
concreting, refer to ACI 305R. of previously constructed pavement slabs when
the concrete is at least 72 hr old and has
attained a minimum flexural strength of 400 psi
CHAPTER 13-MISCELLANEOUS (3 MPa). All edges of slabs should be protected
13.1-Thickness tolerances from damage.
All pavements and base courses should be Pavements carrying construction equipment
constructed to the thickness shown on the traffic should be kept clean. Spillage of material
drawings. Careful checking of form elevations, or concrete should be removed immediately
and measurements of the depth to the subgrade after occurrence.
or underlying base course by stringline Traffic should be excluded from the pavement
measurements will generally suffice. Should it by erecting and maintaining barricades and signs
be considered necessary to determine the until the concrete is at least 14 days old, or for a
thickness of pavement after placement, the longer period if necessary to gain adequate
pavement thickness should be determined by strength. No traffic should be permitted on the
measurement of cores drilled from the pavement until the joints have been sealed.
pavement. Cores should be taken at intervals as Any portion of a pavement damaged by
required by the Engineer. The cores should traffic, construction equipment, or other causes
have a diameter of at least 4 in. (100 mm). prior to final acceptance by the Engineer should
Measurement of individual cores should be be repaired or replaced by and at the expense of
performed in accordance with ASTM C 174. the Contractor by procedures and methods as
13.1.1 Thickness tolerances for pavements and approved.
bases - Acceptance of the work should be based,
in part, on the result of test cores taken from
the finishing work. Consideration should be CHAPTER 14-REFERENCES
given to providing for partial payment of the 14.1 Recommended references
contract unit price per square yard for the work The documents of the various standards-
through a price adjustment based on the producing organizations and ACI documents
recommendations contained in the AASHTO referred to in this document are listed below
Guide Specifications for Highway Construction.2 with their serial designation.
13.1.2 Opening to traffic and construction traffic
limitations - The finished pavement should be American Association of State Highway and
protected against damage from the construction Transportation Officials
operations and traffic until final acceptance. M 182 Burlap Cloth Made from Jute or
As a construction expedient in paving Kenaf
intermediate lanes or closure lanes of
pavements, the operation of equipment on the M 282 Joint Sealants -- Hot Poured --
previously placed lanes may be permitted under Elastomeric Type for Portland
the conditions outlined below. Vehicle loads Cement Concrete Pavement
should not exceed design axle load.
In no case should hauling equipment or T 26 Quality of Water to be Used in
concrete mixer trucks be permitted on newly Concrete
paved lanes until the pavement has attained a
strength sufficient to carry the traffic without
CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND BASES 325.9R-25

American Concrete Institute 311.5R Batch Plant Inspection and Field


121R Quality Assurance Systems for Testing of Ready-Mixed Concrete
Concrete Construction
318 Building Code Requirements for
201.2R Guide to Durable Concrete Reinforced Concrete

211.1 Standard Practice for Selecting 325.6R Texturing Concrete Pavements


Proportions for Normal,
Heavyweight, and Mass Concrete 504R Guide to Joint Sealants for
Concrete Structures
212.3R Chemical Admixtures for
Concrete 544.1R State-of-the-Art Report on Fiber
Reinforced Concrete
214 Recommended Practice for
Evaluation of Strength Test SP-2(311.1R) ACI Manual of Concrete
Results of Concrete Inspection

221R Guide for Use of Normal Weight ASTM


Aggregates in Concrete A 184 Specification for Fabricated
Deformed Steel Bar Mats for
223 Standard Practice for Shrinkage- Concrete Reinforcement
Compensating Concrete
A 185 Specification for Welded Steel
225R Guide to the Selection and Use of Wire Fabric for Concrete
Hydraulic Cements Reinforcement

226.1R Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace A 497 Specification for Welded


Slag as a Cementitious Deformed Steel Wire Fabric for
Constituent in Concrete Concrete Reinforcement

226.3R Use of Fly Ash in Concrete A 615 Specification for Deformed and
Plain Billet-Steel Bars for
304R Guide for Measuring, Mixing, Concrete Reinforcement
Transporting, and Placing
Concrete A 616 Specification for Rail-Steel
Deformed and Plain Bars for
305R Hot Weather Concreting Concrete Reinforcement

306R Cold Weather Concreting A 617 Specification for Axle-Steel


Deformed and Plain Bars for
306.1 Standard Specifications for Cold Concrete Reinforcement
Weather Concreting
A 775/ Specification for Epoxy Coated
308 Standard Practice for Curing A 775M Reinforcing Steel Bars
Concrete
A 884 Specification for Epoxy-Coated
Steel Wire and Welded Wire
309R Guide for Consolidation of Fabric for Reinforcement
Concrete
C 31 Methods of Making and Curing
311.4R Guide for Concrete Inspection Concrete Test Specimens in the Field
325.9R-26 MANUAL OF CONCRETE PRACTICE

C 33 Specification for Concrete C 192 Test Method of Making and


Aggregates Curing Concrete Test Specimens
in the Laboratory
C 39 Test Method for Compressive
Strength of Cylindrical Concrete C 231 Test Method for Air Content of
Specimens Freshly Mixed Concrete by the
Pressure Method
C 42 Method of Obtaining and Testing
Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams C 260 Specification for Air-Entraining
of Concrete Admixtures for Concrete

C 78 Test Method for Flexural C 309 Specification for Liquid


Strength of concrete (Using Membrane-Forming Compounds
Simple Beam with Third-Point for Curing Concrete
Loading)
C 494 Specification for Chemical
C 94 Specification for Ready-Mixed Admixtures for Concrete
Concrete
C 595 Specification for Blended
C 109 Test Method for Compressive Hydraulic Cements
Strength of Hydraulic Cement
Mortars (Using 2-in. or 50 mm C 618 Specification for Fly Ash and Raw
Cube Specimens) or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for
Use as a Mineral Admixture in
C 127 Test Method for Specific Gravity Portland Cement Concrete
and Absorption of Coarse
Aggregate C 684 Method of Making, Accelerated
Curing, and Testing of Concrete
C 128 Test Method for Specific Gravity Compression Test Specimens
and Absorption of Fine Aggregate
C 845 Specification for Expansive
C 136 Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Hydraulic Cement
Fine and Coarse Aggregates
C 989 Specifications for Ground Iron
C 138 Test Method for Unit Weight, Blast-Furnace Slag for Use in
Yield, and Air Content Concrete and Mortars
(Gravimetric of Concrete)
D 994 Specification for Preformed
C 143 Test Method for Slump of Expansion Joint Filler for
Portland Cement Concrete Concrete (Bituminous Type)

C 150 Specification for Portland Cement D 1190 Specification for Concrete Joint
Sealer, Hot-Poured Elastic Type
C 171 Specification for Sheet Materials
for Curing Concrete D 1751 Specification for Preformed
Expansion Joint Fillers for
C 173 Test Method for Air Content of Concrete Paving and Structural
Freshly Mixed Concrete for Construction (Nonextruding and
Volumetric Method Resilient Bituminous Types)
CONCRETE PAVEMENTS AND BASES 325.9R-27

D 1752 Specification for Preformed ACI publications are available from the
Sponge Rubber and Cork American Concrete Institute, P.O. Box 19150,
Expansion Joint Fillers for Detroit, Mich. 48219
Concrete Paving and Structural
Construction ASTM standards may be obtained from the
American Society for Testing and Materials,
D 1850 Specification for Concrete Joint 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA 19103.
Sealer, Cold Application Type
TRB standards may be obtained from the
D 1854 Specification for Jet-Fuel- Transportation Research Board, 2101
Resistant Concrete Joint Sealer, Constitution Ave., N. W., Washington, D. C.
Hot-Poured Elastic Type 20418.

D 2628 Specification for Preformed Federal standards are available through the
Polychloroprene Elastomeric Joint Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Seals for Concrete Pavements Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20402.

D 2828 Specification for Nonbituminous 14.2 Cited references


Inserts for Contraction Joints in 1. Admixtures in Concrete: Accelerators, Air Entrainers,
Portland Cement Concrete Water Reducers, Retarders, Pozzolans, Special Report No.
119, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D. C.,
Airfield Pavement, Sawable Type 1971, 32 pp.

D 2835 Specification for Lubricant for 2. Guide Specification for Highway Construction,
Installation on Preformed American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Compression Seal in Concrete Officials, Washington, D. C., 1984.
Pavements 3. Design and Construction of Bridge Approaches,
NCHRP Synthesis 159, Transportation Research Board,
D 3406 Specification for Joint Sealants, Washington, D. C.
Hot-Poured, Elastomeric-Type,
4. Technical Bulletin on Fast Track Paving, American
for Portland Cement Concrete
Concrete Pavement Association, Arlington Heights, Ill.
Pavements
5. Certification of Ready Mixed Concrete Production
D 3569 Specification for Joint Sealant, Facilities, QC-3, National Ready Mixed Concrete
Hot-Poured, Elastomeric, Jet- Association, Silver Spring, MD.
Fuel-Resistant Type, for Portland 6. CPMB 100--Concrete Plant Standards of the CPMB,
Cement Concrete Pavements Eighth Revision, 1986.

7. Concrete Pavements Exposed to Rain During


Federal standards Construction, American Concrete Pavement Association,
Arlington Heights, IL
SS-S200 Sealing Compound, Two
Components, Elastomeric
Polymer Type, Jet-Fuel-Resistant,
Cold Applied, Concrete Paving

AASHTO standards can be obtained from


the American Association of State Highway and This report was submitted to letter ballot of the
Transportation Officials, 341 National Press committee and was approved according to
Building, Washington, D. C. 20004. Institute procedures.