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Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

2015; 3(2-1): 88-91
Published online February 10, 2015 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/jeee)
doi: 10.11648/j.jeee.s.2015030201.29
ISSN: 2329-1613 (Print); ISSN: 2329-1605 (Online)

Design and implementation of a teleprotection system with
digital and analog interfaces
Vahid Hamiyaty Vaghef, Maryam Shabro, Behnam Gholamrezazadeh Family
Communication Department, Niroo Research Institute, Tehran, Iran

Email address:
vvaghef@nri.ac.ir (V. H. Vaghef), mshabro@nri.ac.ir (M. Shabro), behnam_gh_f@yahoo.com (B. G. Family)

To cite this article:
Vahid Hamiyaty Vaghef, Maryam Shabro, Behnam Gholamrezazadeh Family. Design and Implementation of a Teleprotection System with
Digital and Analog Interfaces. Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering. Special Issue: Research and Practices in Electrical and
Electronic Engineering in Developing Countries. Vol. 3, No. 2-1, 2015, pp. 88-91. doi: 10.11648/j.jeee.s.2015030201.29

Abstract: Safe and un-interrupted power transmission requires a widespread use of control and protection equipment to avoid
fault propagation in power network. Protection systems have been used to detect faults and block them to strike the high voltage
lines. The teleprotection system continuously sends commands to remote substation in case of fault identification. Thus, the
reliability and transmission time are vital issues to avoid intolerable errors. Teleprotection systems are interface between
protection system and communication equipment. This paper proposes a digital teleprotection system to connect to digital
communication network. The system is based on line interfaces and in accordance to ITU-T G.703 standard (64kbps and 2Mbps
rates). Furthermore, the system benefits from the analog interface and direct analog voice band or optical fibers connection using
eight independent commands. The system supports 8 channels simultaneously while its transmission time is 4ms at most.

Keywords: Protection, Relay Interface, Communication Interface, Type Test, Dependability and Security

and/or abnormal situations, a protective system should be used
1. Introduction to detect and isolate the faulty parts from the whole network
High voltage networks, transmission lines, bus bars, power and prevent the fault from propagation [1]. Using the
transformers, etc. are mainly installed and operated in outdoor teleprotection system protection commands can be sent to
and are exposed to natural disasters. Therefore, they should be remote substation through the telecommunication network in
protected against hazard events and they should be separated order to isolate the damaged sections from the entire network
from other parts of the network, to prevent the fault expansion. according to protection scheme. “Fig. 1” shows the
In order to protect the equipment upon an error occurrence architecture of a protection link between two substations.

Figure 1. Systems for a protection link

Teleprotections are used in conjunction with equipment with an available and reliable communication
communication channels to establish a link between media, provide the possibility to isolate damaged sections of
protection relays in substations of both line sides. In situation the entire network by sending commands in the shortest
of breakdown in voltage lines or equipment, the protection possible time.

and the communication interface provide an isolated Utilizing innovative techniques such as iterative frame full-duplex communication. teleprotection word. it includes some sections which prepare inputs and DTPS each protection command is mapped into an n-bit code outputs based on these equipments. Specification of Commands in the by several parameters. the type tests interference are taking into account using the appropriate according to the IEC60834-1 standard for DTPS are algorithm. industrial applications such as electrical power industry. the command codes are sent. TX 1 HVU input filtering Input Command 1 2 Min. in Therefore. Traditionally. duration time Tx Guard Command Guard 2 RX 3 Command execution delay time 3 Output Command 4 Min. decision threshold and acceptance window to code states and makes decisions based on the receiver conditions. the protection system and the telecommunication devices. frequency and power level of commands is transferred. Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering 2015. These code words are chosen to reduce the probability system is divided into three parts: of receiving incorrect code due to the channel noise. duration time Rx 4 Figure 2. This ensures that the hamming distance of a code Telecommunication equipment interface word is higher than 8 bit and leads to the more flexible The protection interface (or high voltage relay interface) framing and to provide a much greater diversity of commands. Therefore. 3(2-1): 88-91 89 The performance of a teleprotection system is characterized 2. Each In this article. because of Digital teleprotection systems (DTPS) are used in transmission media and receiver execution delay in the conjunction with digital communication equipments. and the transmitter sends a electrical power systems is achieved using digital command code word instead of Guard code word. . data encoding/decoding transmission time that is one of the main parameter in and error detection capabilities. The processing unit controls the sending. the Propagation Delay. DTPSs offer built-in high security and dependability along It should be noted that an analog communication interface with fast response in comparison with analog ones. a convolution coding is employed to generate 16-bit Processing and making decisions code words. Besides. block diagram of different parts and the features of the Transmission delay and robustness against noise and designed DTPS are discussed. teleprotection systems. These delays make the nominal systems provide signal conditioning. This code communication networks. presented. The effective parameters communication networks are growing rapidly in many in commands transmit and receive is illustrated in “Fig. One of the main advantages of DTPS with respect to ATPS The teleprotection system works as an interface between the is the communication mechanism. When a change in the status of input command happened. the Therefore. While The guard code is sent in normal condition while in other ATPS are mainly used in power utilities. Due to their digital nature. digital cases. telecommunication systems such as analog PLCs. higher security and (ATPS) transmits up to four commands and connects to analog dependability is achieved in higher BER channels. These receiver of the opposite side. words minimizes the probability of receiving unwanted or The majority of current analog teleprotection systems missed commands. In general. translated the code words to voice band frequencies. In this Protection equipment interface study. word will be received after some delay. a comprehensive protection and control of input filter checks the validity of it. the specification of commands in DTPS. Dependability and Security have been considered the most Designed System important ones. the command is mapped to single or dual tone frequencies. While in ATPS. 2”. Parameters in commands transmit and receive.

comparators. telecommunication equipments including line drivers.90 Vahid Hamiyaty Vaghef et al.V.2.3. EMI filter. Relay Interface Units Possibility for synchronization with GPS An isolated DC power supply These units receive the state of protection relays and Modular parts with a 3U standard sub rack transmit the necessary commands to protective relays. communication/line interfaces. and isolators The main tasks of the units are described in below (opto-coupler and relay). buffers.5”. Blocks of Analog LIU card.703 standard) The ability to connect communication equipment with the analog interface card in voice band frequency Possibility to device configuration through the RS232/USB/LAN interfaces Figure 5. interface with GPS receiver. relay interfaces. interface for GPS receiver Figure 6. and power supply converter. Control Unit Some important processing in this unit are: making decisions according to relay status in the transmitter section. The block diagram of LIU cards is shown in “Fig. processing the received commands in the receiver side. H. display units. 3.6”. checking the validity of commands. 3. Blocks of H. . line filter. The main characteristics of the designed and implemented DTPS are [2]: Figure 4.4” and “Fig.1. Block Diagram of the Designed System The generic block diagram of the designed DTPS and their interactions is shown in “Fig. and HMI software. The block diagram of RIU cards is shown in “Fig. controlling all the tasks and parameters configuration. RIU card. Generic blocks of the designed DTPS. check the alarm conditions. Power Supply Unit 3. 3. it includes line protection.: Design and Implementation of a Teleprotection System with Digital and Analog Interfaces Figure 3. Blocks of Digital LIU cards Possibility to send and receive up to eight commands as independent or simultaneous Isolated interfaces for connecting to a protection system The ability to connect telecommunication equipment with digital interface (E1 and 64kbps interfaces in accordance with ITU-T G.V. framer.3”. user interfaces (HMI). Parameters adjustment by software Possibility to record the history of commands and events 3. It In compliance with IEC60834-1 standard includes level shifters. and isolators.4. It has a central controller unit. choosing appropriate code words. H.V. Line Interface Units The power supply unit makes an isolated power for internal These units make a full duplex communication with use in system.

permissive and 2) TeleProtection System Performance tests. Shabro. IEC. including: [3] IEC60834-1. due to a variety of electronic 5. LF disturbance emission system parameters are set. Also environmental tests will be done on implemented DTPS have been described. 5) Environmental Conditions tests. "Teleprotection equipment of power systems. a variety of problems Figure 7. Vaghef. have been faced during the EMC tests. 3) Insulation Voltage Withstand tests. JCMPN02. including: Power frequency voltage withstand test and insulation resistance Impulse voltage withstand test References 4) Electro Magnetic Compatibility tests. including: in “Fig.7”. It defines the tests level. Part 1: command systems". The main features of the are very important. Type Tests of the Designed System to the IEC60834-1 standard. Fast transient burst (EFT) [2] NRI. The functional and performance tests are the most popular tests. document code: RF disturbance emission JCMPN02/E. Family. Despite the practical and theoretical considerations. Using a graphical user interface.19 of Cigre. H. Shock Vibration All of the above mentioned type tests have been performed on the designed DTPS in reference laboratory. 7-8 March. 1999. Connecting to analog acceptance criteria. V. and their main features of this system. Damp heat test [4] M. the In this paper the design and implementation of a digital insulation and electromagnetic compatibility between them teleprotection system is presented. 7thSASTech Cold test 2013. and B. Communication research group. Working Group B 5. 2013. Temperature and humidity performance and testing. October 2010. including: [1] Cigre. Discussion and Conclusion equipments which are used in the industrial environments. "Design and Dry heat test Implementation a Digital Teleprotection System". The results of type tests on this product meet the Security IEC60834-1 requirements. The IEC60834-1 standard is published for E1 and 64kbps (according to G. Iran. Iran and PKG under Grant No. final report of “Design Electrostatic discharges (ESD) and implementation of a industrial Teleprotection system for Radiated electromagnetic field digital communication networks”. "Protection relay Damped oscillatory wave immunity test coordination". Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering 2015. Dependability Security with sudden signal interruption Recover time Acknowledgements Jitter This work was supported by the Niroo Research Institute Nominal impedance (NRI). 3(2-1): 88-91 91 DC/DC converters. After some modifications. direct 1) Power Supply tests. including: connecting to optical fibers and send/receive up to eight Power supply variation independent or simultaneous commands are the salient Interruptions features of the system. Second Change of temperature test Edition. Blocks of PSU card. . The block diagram of PSU card is shown Mechanical tests. 2012. Bandar-Abbas. including: blocking) in 400kV. Therefore. the final test results showed the compatibility 4. The tests are listed as below: telecommunication through analog voice band. Gh. 230kV and 63kV substations are Transmission time available. using the presented Reverse polarity system. different protection schemes (direct.703 standard) interfaces are Teleprotection systems [3]. Besides this issue. Incorporating the the device.