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Writing 40 - Cora Agatucci

Basic English/Writing II

WR 40 Assignments (1) Winter 2001


Some Course Handouts & Assignment Directions will be posted to this webpage
after assignments are given in class. Note: Some WR 40 assignments and activities
do not include handouts;
if you miss class . . . and any in-class assignments and activities,
it is your responsibility to contact the instructor to discuss, or E-Mail
Cora now: cagatucci@cocc.edu

Assignments (1) Table of Contents Short Cuts:


1. Preparation & Participation (Cr/NCr) Assignments & Activities
WK #1: Diagnostic Paragraph #1 & Diagnostic Editing Ex.
Chart: Punctuating Common Sentence Patterns
WKS #2, #3, & #4: Developing Sentence Analysis & Editing Skills
Sentence Analysis, Part I: Identifying Subjects & Verbs
Sentence Analysis Practice Ex., Part I
Sentence Analysis Practice Ex. #2, Part I
Sentence Analysis, Part II: Identifying Clauses
Sentence Analysis Practice Ex., Part II
Sentence Analysis, Part III: Identifying Types of Clauses & Sentences
Sentence Analysis Practice Ex., Part III
Textbook Exercises: Correcting Major Sentence Errors (Chs. 18 & 20)
WK #6: Quiz #1 Review Exercise
NOTE: Directions for Preliminary Drafts, Workshops, Writer's Profiles, etc.
are given in class
with Directions for graded writing assignments
WKs #8 -9: Improving Sentence Style & Improving Word Choice (handouts)
WK #9-10: Quiz #2 Review Exercise
Go to WR 40 Assignments (2):
http://www.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/wr40/assignmts2.htm
for: 2. Writer's Profiles (Cr/NCr); 3. Paragraphs (Graded Assignments)
4. Essays (Graded Assignments)

Week #1: Diagnostic Paragraph #1 & Diagnostic


Editing Ex.
A. Diagnostic Paragraph #1 written during class on Tuesday, Jan. 9
Choose one of the following topics for Diagnostic In-Class Paragraph #1:

1. Winter Driving Hazards

2. The Holiday Season

3. How to Relax

4. Honesty: Always the Best Policy?

B. Diagnostic Editing Ex. DUE: Thursday, Jan. 11.

Grammar Review (Chs. 17-20, 30 & handout: "Punctuating Common


Sentence Patterns," Chs. 21, 25, 27, 29, & 31)

A. Identifying Subjects and Verbs (Ch. 17) Identify the complete subject-verb
combinations in each sentence by doing the following tasks:

(a) Circle and write S over the Simple Subject words of each subject-verb
combination; and

(b) Underline once and write V over the verbs of each subject-verb
combination.

Note that one or more sentences contain more than one complete subject-verb combination
to be identified.

1. The weary old woman sat on the bench.

2. Juanita and Frank came for Thanksgivings last year.

3. Jane attends college and studies very hard.


4. Did John miss the bus today?

5. A list of required textbooks has been posted on the library door.

6. One of the boys lost his bicycle yesterday.

7. There is a bicycle by the fence at the schoolyard.

8. Although the fishermen trolled in the bay for hours, they caught nothing because they

were using the wrong bait.

B. Correcting Fragments, Comma Splices, and Run-On Sentences, and Using


Commas Correctly ( Chs. 18-20, 30 & Handout: "Punctuating Common Sentence
Patterns"): Proofread the following sentences carefully, and correct any errors that you
find.

9. Many newcomers to Central Oregon dont know how to drive in winter conditions,
therefore the police department offers a class in safe winter driving every fall.

10. Because Aunt Martha is an expert seamstress John asked her to hem his new pants.

11. All continuing students are given the opportunity to register for next terms classes in
advance students should take advantage of this opportunity.

12. If you would wait just a few more minutes.

13. Fast food restaurants have become an American institution but the food is not very
healthy.

14. Bright reds yellows and blues appearing in every one of Rauls paintings.

15. One of my teachers lives at 715 Newport Avenue Bend Oregon.

16. Aunt Helen sent us a Thanksgivings basket filled with savory pumpkin pie roasted
chestnuts and homemade cranberry sauce.

C. Pronoun Choice (Ch. 25): Substitute the appropriate subject, object, or possessive
pronoun for the underlined word or words in each sentence below. Write the correct
pronoun in the space provided after each sentence.

17 . Phyllis and Donald are going to the movies. _________


18 My mother gave Katharine the house keys. _________

19 The dogs bones are in the cupboard. _________

20 There seems to be misunderstanding between John and me. _________

21 My bike is faster than Juanitas bike. _________

22 Ive been hired to take care of Mr. and Mrs. Arnolds garden this summer.

_________

D. Agreement & Reference Problems (Chs. 21 & 27): Proofread the following sentences
for errors in Subject-Verb Agreement, Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement, and Pronoun
Reference. Correct any errors that you find.

23. Donna and she is always arriving late to the meetings.

24. My new neighbors next door seems kind and friendly.

25. There is many problems to be solved this year.

26. One of the men have brought his two children to the meeting.

27. If a person gets bad service at a restaurant, they should not just sit back and sulk.

28. The rivers of India eventually make its way to the sea.

29. The firefighters who was involved in the rescue all received citations for bravery.

30. I cooked a delicious baked potato, took off my apron, sat down at the table, and ate it with

great enjoyment.

31. When students are not sure how to correct a grammatical problem, she can seek help in the

Writing Lab.

E. Other Punctuation, Mechanics, & Spelling (Ch. 31 & 29): Proofread the
following sentences for errors in End Punctuation, Quotations, Apostrophes, &
Capitalization, and Spelling. Correct any errors that you find. Note that many
sentences contain more than one error.

32. Mona lost Georges copy of the novel entitled light in August.

33. Very angry with us, Mrs. albertson screamed, Get yourselves dressed right

now. Were late.

34. Today the water flow of the deschutes river is carefully controlled.

35. My parents didnt want to send us away, but what else could they do.

36. My aunt likes to read womens magazines, like Redbook and cosmopolitan.

37. Sarahs children often ask to hear stories from her War experiences.

38. As a matter of fact, veterans day falls on november 11 every year.

39. My old High School is located at 2600 Arrowhead street, portland, Oregon.

Week #2: Punctuating Common Sentence Patterns


See Odyssey Chs. 19, 20, & Ch. 30 (p. 437)

PATTERN 1: (Ch. 19 Coordination: Compound Sentences; Ch. 30 p. 437


Commas)

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE , coordinating conjunction INDEPENDENT CLAUSE.

(FANBOYS: see list p. 265)

S V S V
The print looks very light , for the typewriter ribbon is old.

S V S V
The fishermen trolled for hours, but they caught nothing.

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PATTERN 2: (Ch. 19 - Coordination: Compound Sentences)


INDEPENDENT CLAUSE ; INDEPENDENT CLAUSE.

The print looks very light ; the typewriter ribbon is old.

S V S V
Don is an expert mechanic ; he intends to open a service center.

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PATTERN 3: (Ch. 19 - Coordination: Compound Sentences)

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE ; conjunctive adverb, INDEPENDENT


CLAUSE.
(see list p. 267)

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE ; transitional phrase, INDEPENDENT CLAUSE.

The typewriter ribbon is old ; therefore, the print looks very light.

The typewriter ribbon is old ; as a result, the print looks very light.

The fishermen trolled for hours ; however, they caught nothing.

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PATTERN 4: (Ch. 19 Subordination: Complex Sentences)

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE DEPENDENT CLAUSE


Subordinating conjunction + S + V
(see list p. 262)

The fishermen caught nothing although they trolled in the bay for hours.

The print looks very light because the typewriter ribbon is old.

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PATTERN 5: (Ch. 19 Subordination: Complex Sentences; Ch. 30 p. 437


Commas)

DEPENDENT CLAUSE , INDEPENDENT CLAUSE.


Subordinating conjunction + S + V
(see list p. 262)

Although the fishermen trolled in the bay for hours , they caught nothing.

Because the typewriter ribbon is old , the print looks very light.

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PRACTICE identifying the Patterns and Punctuating them Correctly:
1. Don is an expert mechanic in fact he intends to open a service center.

2. Because Don is an expert mechanic he intends to open a service center.

3. Don is an expert mechanic so he intends to open a service center.

4. Don intends to open a service center since he is an expert mechanic.

5. The fishermen trolled in the bay for hours unfortunately they caught nothing

Week #2: Sentence Analysis Skills


Sentence Analysis, Part I: Identifying Subject-Verb Combinations

To develop your sentence analysis skills in identifying subject-verb combinations,


explanations, with examples, are offered below. In the following example sentences, the
main Subject-Verb combinations have been identified: simple subject words are
labeled S, and their complete finite verbs are labeled V. Note that sentences may
contain more than one subject-verb combination.

A. Simple Sentences contain only one complete subject-verb combination.

1. Review Sentence Basics in Odyssey Ch. 17: Finite Verbs can


express action (action verb), or a condition or state of being (linking verb) (see p.
237); Simple Subjects can either be a noun or a pronoun (see p. 239).

Examples:

S V

Jane walked to the store.

S V

She bought some groceries.

S V

The typewriter ribbon is old.

S V

The print looks very light.

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2. It is often easier to locate the verb first and then look for its
subject (p. 239).

One sign of a finite verb is that its form can be changed to indicate a change in
tense (e.g. from past tense to present tense, or vice versa).
After you locate the verb, find the subject by asking yourself, Who or what is doing the
action or being discussed? The subject usually comes before the verb in normal English
word order (known as syntax).

Examples:

S V

Jane walks to the store everyday day.

S V

The typewriter ribbon was old.

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3. A complete finite verb can contain more than one word (known as a verb
phrase): that is, the main action or linking verb (labeled MV below) can be
accompanied by helping verbs (labeled HV below) to express some verb tenses or
conditions. (See pp. 237-238: list of Common Helping Verbs, p. 238.)

Examples:

S HV + MV

Jane has walked to the store everyday day for a month now.

S HV + HV+ MV

The typewriter ribbon must be getting old.

S HV + MV

Aunt Sarah should listen once in a while.

S HV+HV + MV

John may have missed the bus today.

To review Verb Tenses that require helping verbs, and hard-to-recognize Irregular To
Be Verb forms, see these Odyssey chapters:

Simple Future Tense (Ch. 22: Box, p. 312 & Recap, pp. 318-319)
Perfect Tenses (Ch. 22: Box, p. 315 & Recap, pp. 318-319)
Progressive & Perfect Progressive Tenses (Ch. 24, pp. 339-340)
Recognizing Forms of To Be (Ch. 23: Box, p. 327 & Recap, p. 335)

More Examples:

S HV+ MV

I will call my friends tomorrow morning.

SHV + MV

My brother has worked all summer long.

S HV+ HV + MV

By August, Juanita will have earned enough money for a new snowboard.

S HV+ MV

One of the boys was going to the carnival after school.

S HV+MV

My cranky old uncle is being very difficult today!

NOTE: Certain verbal phrases may fill out the meaning of a sentence but they
cannot serve as the finite verb of a complete subject-verb combination:

(a) infinitives = to + simple verb form (like to be, to walk, to think) and

(b) verbals ending in ing (like being, walking, thinking) without a helping verb.

Examples:

S V infinitive phrase

I plan to organize my study schedule tomorrow morning.

-ing verbal phrase S V

After organizing my study schedule, I feel more in control of my life.

*TIP: Avoid Verbal PHRASE FRAGMENTS (See Ch. 17, pp. 250-251) lacking a
complete subject-finite verb combination.

Example Verbal Phrase Fragment:

-ing verbal infinitive

Fragment: John organizing his study schedule to feel more in control of his life.
Example Corrections:

S HV+ MV

John is organizing his study schedule to feel more in control of his life.

S V

After organizing his study schedule, John feels more in control of his life.

*TIP: SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT problems (Ch. 21) can occur when words come
between a subject and its verbespecially

*Prepositional Phrases = a preposition + (introducing) a noun or pronoun (the object of


the preposition: see Ch. 17: list of Common Prepositions, p. 240).

The main (simple) subject of a sentence is never found in a prepositional phrase.

Examples:

S HV + MV

One of the boys was going to the carnival after school.

prepositional phrase prepositional phrase prepositional phrase

S HV + HV + MV

The list of books and magazines has been posted on the library door.

prepositional phrase prepositional phrase

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4. Compound Subjects and/or Verbs.

Compound Subjects (p. 241) are two (or more) subject nouns/pronouns (usually connected
by the words and or or) that share the same finite verb action or condition. Compound
Verbs (p. 238) are two (or more) finite verbs (usually connected by the words and or or) that
share the same subject.

Examples:

S + S V

Julia and Juan came to visit us this morning.


S V + V

Jane walked to the store and bought some groceries.

S V + V+ V

Jane walked to the store, bought some groceries, and then returned home.

S or S* V

Either the computers or the printer is in need of repair.

*TIP on SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT (Ch. 21): With a compound subject joined


by or, make your verb agree with the second/last subjectgiven (i.e. in the sentence
above, make the verb agree with the singular subject: printer is).

NOTE: A Simple Sentence may contain both a compound subject and a compound
verb:

S + S V + V

Julia and Juan came to visit us this morning and stayed for three hours.

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5. When the Verb Comes Before the Subject. As stated earlier, in normal
sentence order, the subject usually comes first and the verb comes after. However, in some
special kinds of sentences, like questions and there is type constructions, the verb--or
one of the helping verbswill comebefore the subject of the sentence.

Examples:

HV S MV

Where are you going after school?

V S

There are many problems to solve.

*TIPS: SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT problems (Ch. 21) may be caused because of


thisreversal of normal verb-subject order with questions and there is type
constructions. To help you identify the true subject with which you must make your
verb agree:

Restate a Question in Answer form to get the sentence back in normal word order.

Examples:
HV S MV

Question: Where are you going after school?

S HV+ MV

Restated: You are going to the library (answer to where?) after school.

Look for this pattern: There or Here + (followed by) a verb; then expect
to findthe subject (a noun and/or pronoun) after the verb. NOTE: There and
Here arealmost never the subject of a verb!

Examples:

V S

There are many problems to solve.

V S

Here is one possible solution.

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B. Looking Ahead: A sentence may contain more than one subject-verb


combination. If so, it is no longer a simple sentence(more on other
sentence types later). But you can still use the same procedures given above to
identify subject-verb combinations.

Examples:

S V S V

The print looks very light, for the typewriter ribbon is old.

S V S HV+HV+ MV

The print looks very light, so the typewriter ribbon must be getting old.

S HV+MV S V

George is going to college because he intends to become a nurse.

V S V S
There are many problems to solve, but here is one possible solution.

S + S V S HV + MV

Julia and Juan came to visit us this morning, but they did not stay very long.

S V S V

After John organizes his study schedule, he feels more in control of his life.

S HV +
MV S

One of the boys was going to the carnival after school, while the other boys

went to the movies.

S V S V S HV

The fishermen trolled for hours, but they caught nothing because they were

MV

using the wrong bait.

Sentence Analysis Ex.: Part


I Name_______________________________

Identify the subject-verb combinations in the following sentences. Note: Some sentences
contain more than one subject-verb combination.

1. The fishermen trolled for hours.

2. The fishermen trolled for hours, but they caught nothing.

3. I huddled against a wall.

4. Shivering and grumbling, I huddled against a wall on the street corner.

5. Susan is an expert mechanic.


6. Don and Susan are expert mechanics.

7. Where have you been for the last five hours?

8. I have been right here for the last five hours.

9. Here are the late assignments.

10. Sarah probably forgot to do her homework again.

11. The print looks very light because the typewriter ribbon is old.

12. Jane intends to become a doctor, so she is going to college.

13. The list of books is posted next to the bulletin board in the library.

14. After an exciting chase scene, the two lovers flee to Mexico at the end of the novel.

15. The tired old woman stopped and looked anxiously behind her.

16. The play had already started when we arrived.

17. Instinctively, the abandoned dog began to make his way home.

18. Airplanes should be inspected regularly and carefully, or they may not be safe to fly.

19. My new neighbors seem very kind and friendly.

20. The quartz wall clock looks beautiful, but it doesnt work.

21. In the1960s, the Beatles burst on the rock music scene and changed music forever.

22. Difficult situations on the playing field bring out the best, as well as the worst, in people.
Sentence Analysis Ex.#2, Part I:
Identifying Subject-Verb Combinations in Your Own Writing

DUE: Week #3 - TUESDAY, JAN. 23

Directions:

Review handout Sentence Analysis, Part I, and try to apply what you have
learned when doing this exercise with your own writing.
Prepare (or use) a clean, double-spaced copy of Paragraph #1.
For each sentence in your Paragraph, identify subject-verb combinations:

Underline simple subjects and label them with S;

Underline complete finite verbs and label them with V

Examples:

S V S V V
The holiday season is one of my favorite times of the year. Bright lights are sparkling on the
Christmas
S V
trees, and children eagerly wait for Santa Claus to come.

After you have identified subject-verb combinations in your sentences, check for Subject-
Verb Agreement. Correct any errors that you find.
If you cant find at least one complete subject-verb combination in each of your
sentences, then that sentence is probably a Fragment. Correct any sentence Fragments
that you find.
When you are finished identifying Subject-Verb combinations and checking for Subject-
Verb Agreement and Fragments, attach your Paragraph to this sheet.

Sentence Analysis, Part II: Identifying Clauses

In Sentence Analysis, Part I Exercises, you gained practice in identifying subject-verb


combinations. Now you are ready to learn how to identifyclauses.

A. A clause must have a complete subject-verb combination. This is the


identifying feature of a clause, although it may also contain many other sentence parts.
The number of subject-verb combinations = the number of clauses.

1. Each of the following example sentences contains one clause because it contains
only one complete subject-verb combination:

S V
The dog barks. (1 clause)

S V

Every morning at 7:00 a.m., the neighbors big black dog barks at the paperboy. (1
clause)

S V+V +V

John may have missed the bus today. (1 clause)

S + S V

Julia and John are coming to visit today. (1 clause)

(compound subject)

S V + V

Julia went to the store and bought some groceries. (1 clause)

(compound verb)

V S V

Where are you going after school? (1 clause)

S V+ V

You are going to the library after school. (1 clause)

V S

There are many problems to solve. (1 clause)

2. Sentences contain more than one clause if they contain more than one complete
subject-verb combination. To determine how many clauses that a sentence has, you
simply need to identify and count the number of complete subject-verb combinations that
it contains.
Examples:

S V

Julia went to the store. (1 clause)

S V V

Julia went to the store and bought some groceries. (1 clause)

(compound verb)
S V S V

Julia went to the store, and she bought some groceries. (2 clauses)

S V S V

The print looks very light, for the typewriter ribbon is old. (2 clauses)

S V + V S V S V

Jane is going to college and she studies very hard because she intends

to become a nurse. (3 clauses)

S V S V

After starting college, Jane always studied very hard because she wanted to

become a nurse. (2 clauses)

DO THIS Part II PRACTICE EX. Go back through Sentence Analysis Ex.: Part
I, and count the number of complete subject-verb combinations that you identified in each
practice sentence. Then write the number of clauses next to each sentence.

For More Practice: Go back through Sentence Analysis Ex. #2: Part I, in which you
identified complete subject-verb combinations in your own Paragraph #1
sentences. Count the number of complete subject-verb combinations that you identified in
each of your sentences. Then write the number of clauses next to each sentence.

Sentence Analysis, Part III: Identifying Types of Clauses &


Sentences, including Coordination & Subordination

In Sentence Analysis, Parts I & II Exercises, you gained practice in identifying subject-
verb combinations, and the number of clauses in sentences. Now you are ready to learn
how to identify different types of clauses and different sentence types.

There are two general types of clauses:

#1: Main or Independent clauses

#2: Subordinate or Dependent clauses


There are four general types of sentences, classified by the number and types
of clauses that the sentence has:

#1: Simple Sentence (Only 1 Clause, which must be a Main or


Independent Clause to be a complete, well-formed sentence)

#2: Compound Sentence (2 or more Main/Independent Clauses).

#3: Complex Sentence (At least 1 Subordinate/Dependent Clause, joined


to 1Main/Independent Clause)

#4: Compound-Complex Sentence (combines the two above: i.e. at least


2Main/Independent Clauses with at least one 1 Subordinate/Dependent
Clause)

A. Main Clauses, Simple Sentences & Compound Sentences


Clause Type #1. Main or Independent Clause expresses a main idea of a sentence;
it is also known as an independent clause because,grammatically speaking, it can stand
alone as a complete, well-formed sentence. See Odyssey Ch. 19, & Recap Box, pp. 272.

Examples:

S V

The dog barks. [1 Main/Independent Clause]

S V

Every morning at 7:00 a.m., the neighbors big black dog barks at the paperboy.

[1 Main/Independent Clause]

Sentence Type #1: Simple Sentence: A sentence that contains only one
main/independent clause is categorized as a Simple Sentence. SeeOdyssey Ch.
19, & Recap Box, p. 271. See also Sentence Analysis, Part I . A, handout p. 1.

Examples:

S V

The dog barks. [1 Main/Independent Clause = Simple Sentence]

S V
Every morning at 7:00 a.m., the neighbors big black dog barks at the paperboy.

[1 Main/Independent Clause = Simple Sentence]

Sentence Type #2. Compound Sentence: A sentence may contain more than
one Main/Independent Clause. If a sentence contains at least two main or independent
clauses, it is a compound sentence. See Odyssey Ch. 19, Recap Boxes, pp. 272 & 273;
& handout Punctuating Common Sentence Patterns: Patterns #1, #2, & #3.

Examples:

Pattern #1 (Compound Sentence):

S V S V

Every morning the dog barks at the paperboy, / but he delivers the newspaper anyway.

Main/Independent Clause + Main/Independent Clause

Pattern #3 (Compound Sentence):

S V S V V

Every morning the dog barks at the paperboy; / however, the paperboy doesnt mind.

Main/Independent Clause + Main/Independent Clause

Pattern #2 (Compound Sentence):

S V S V V

The print looks very light; / the typewriter ribbon must be old.

Main/Independent Clause + Main/Independent Clause

Coordination is a general principle of effective English sentence Style.


Odyssey Ch. 19 deals with one aspect of Using Coordination, dealing with how to
join two or more Main or Independent Clauses with correct punctuation to
form Compound Sentences. (See Odyssey Ch. 19 definitions given in Recap Boxes,
pp. 271, 272, 273.) So do Patterns #1, #2, & #3 in the handout Punctuating Common
Sentence Patterns. (See example sentences given in the handout for Patterns #1, #2, &
#3.)

*TIP: Avoiding COMMA SPLICES (CS) and RUN-ON


SENTENCES (RS) (See Odyssey Ch. 20): Major sentence errors CS & RS only occur
in Compound Sentences, when two or more main or independent clauses are joined
incorrectly with the wrong or no punctuation. ReviewOdyssey Chs. 20 & 19, and
the handout Punctuating Common Sentence Patterns to learn different ways to
correct CS & RS!!

Examples:

COMMA SPLICE: The print looks very light, the typewriter ribbon must be old.

RUN-ON: The print looks very light the typewriter ribbon must be old.

Two Possible Corrections:

The print looks very light; the typewriter ribbon must be old. [Pattern #2]

The print looks very light, so the typewriter ribbon must be old. [Pattern #1]

B. Subordinate Clauses & Complex Sentences


Clause Type #2. Subordinate or dependent clause expresses a subordinate idea
in a sentencean idea less important, that is, than the mainidea (expressed in a Main or
Independent Clause: see A above). Grammatically speaking, a subordinate
clause cannot stand alone as a complete, well-formed sentence: it is also known as
a dependent clause because it depends on--and must be joined to--a main (or independent)
clause to complete its meaning.

*Subordination is another general principle of effective English sentence Style.


Odyssey Ch. 19 presents one aspect of Using Subordination, dealing with how to
identify Subordinate or Dependent Clauses. *The key = being able
to identify Subordinating Conjunctions [SC] and Relative Pronouns [RP]
see Odyssey Lists, p. 262which introduce subject-verb
combinationsin Subordinate/Dependent Clauses.

Examples: Subordinate Clauses introduced by Subordinating


Conjunctions [SC]:

Pattern #4 (Complex Sentence):

S V SC S V

The fishermen caught nothing / though they trolled in the bay for hours.

Main//Independent Clause + Subordinate/Dependent Clause

Pattern #5 (Complex Sentence):

SC S V S V
Because the typewriter ribbon is old, / the print looks very light.

Subordinate/Dependent Clause + Main/Independent Clause

Pattern #5 (Complex Sentence):

SC S V S V V

If Sherman watches his diet vigilantly, / he will be able to keep his weight down.

Subordinate/Dependent Clause + Main/Independent Clause

Examples: Subordinate Clauses introduced by Relative Pronouns [RP]:

S V RP S V

I went to the airport to meet the woman / that I love.

Main//Independent Clause + Subordinate Clause

Subordinate Clause

S S&RP V V V

The clerk / who is wearing the red tie / is my uncle.

Main Clause

Sentence Type #3. Complex Sentence: A sentence that contains at least


one subordinate or dependent clause joined to a main or independent clause is known as
a complex sentence. See Odyssey Recap Boxes, pp. 271 & 272.

Examples:

Each of the sentence examples given above containing Subordinate/ Dependent


Clauses is a Complex Sentence, because each containsone Main/Independent
Clause and at least one Subordinate/Dependent Clause.

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There are two types of Subordinate or Dependent Clauses


which are distinguished in Odyssey Ch. 18, pp. 252-257:

Subordinate Clauses (Subordinating Conjunction introduces


aSubject-Verb Combination: see list of some common Subordinating
Conjunctions, Odyssey p. 262.)

Appositive Clauses (Relative Pronoun introduces the subject-


verb combination, or a Relative Pronoun serves as the Subject in
a subject-verb combination: see list of the key Relative
Pronouns, Odyssey p. 262; and Recap Box, p. 271.) An Appositive is a
group of words that is meant to rename or explain the noun or pronoun
that the appositive modifies (and should bepositioned next to in the
sentence). To be a clause, an appositive must contain a complete subject-
verb combination. Relative Pronouns are still Pronouns, and thus can be
the simple subject of a finite verb in a subject-verb
combination. (Seehandout Sentence Analysis, Part I . A .
#1; and Odyssey Ch. 17, p. 239.) APPOSITIVE Clauses are also discussed
in Odyssey Ch. 18 (pp. 255-257)

Sentence Type #4. Compound-Complex Sentence: A sentence that contains


at least one subordinate or dependent clause and at least two main or independent
clauses is known as a compound-complex sentence. See OdysseyRecap Boxes, pp. 271
273.

Examples:

S V S V V

Every morning the dog barks at the paperboy; / however, the paperboy doesnt seem

Main/Independent Clause + Main/Independent Clause

SC S V

to mind / because he delivers the newspaper anyway.

Subordinate / Dependent Clause

SC S V S V
Whenever the paperboy comes to deliver the newpaper, / our dog always barks at
Subordinate / Dependent Clause Main/Independent Clause

S V

him, / but the paperboy delivers the paper anyway.


Main/Independent Clause

Sentence Analysis Ex., Part III

Directions: Analyze these practice sentences: (1) identify subject-verb


combinations; (2) identify the number of clauses; (3) identify the types of clauses
(labelMain/Independent Clauses = MC; label Subordinate/Dependent
Clauses = SC. Tip: Look for Subordinate/Dependent Clauses first by identifying
anySubordinating Conjunctions and Relative Pronouns that introduce a subject-verb
combination).
If you find any Fragments, Comma Splices or Run-on Sentences, correct the errors.

1. The fishermen trolled for hours, but they caught nothing.

2. Don and Susan are expert mechanics even though they dont like to work on cars.

3. I bet that Sarah has forgotten to do her homework again..

4. Jane, who is now going to college, wants to become a doctor.

5. For any students who are interested, the list of books is posted on the library .

6. I loved the exciting chase scene in which the two lovers flee to Mexico.

7. The tired, old woman stopped before she looked anxiously behind her.

8. We arrived at the play too late; therefore, we missed the opening act.

9. Unless you help me, I will fail this writing class !

10. Airplanes should be inspected regularly and carefully, or they may not be safe to fly.

11. My new neighbors seem very kind and friendly, I am eager to meet them.
12. That quartz wall clock looks beautiful; however, it doesnt work.

13. After the Beatles burst on the rock music scene in the early 1960s, they changed the rock

music scene forever.

14. Even though Sonia doesnt know how to play chess.

15. My own feeling is that we should pass the proposal if it is the right thing to do.

16. He is the kind of student who never cheats on tests.

17. Before she came home from work, Julia went to the store and bought some groceries.

Textbook Exercise: Correcting Major Sentence Errors


DUE: Tuesday, January 30

In the following Explorations from Odyssey Ch. 18:

(1) identify subject-verb combinations & clauses, and

(2) then follow any additional textbook directions for:

Exploration 2a (p. 251): all

Exploration 3a (pp. 253-254): all

Exploration 4a (pp. 256-257): all

In the following Exercise from Odyssey Ch. 20:

(1) identify subject-verb combinations & clauses, and

(2) then follow any additional textbook directions for:

Summary Exercise (pp. 287-288): all

Attach your completed assignment to this sheet. You may choose to:

Zerox the completed textbook exercises & attach them to this sheet
Tear out the relevant pages from your textbook & attach them to this sheet

OR

Copy out the entire exercises on a separate sheet of paper. Be sure to label
Exploration number and page number

QUIZ #1 REVIEW EXERCISE

PART I: PARAGRAPH WRITING PRINCIPLES (Ch. 3).


To be discussed and illustrated in class, using this example paragraph:

Although pit bulls have been bred to fight, they can actually make very good
pets. Today many people are afraid of pit bulls. These dogs are sometimes mistreated, and if
so they become very aggressive. As a result, they are misunderstood and persecuted. In fact,
some municipalities have taken action against them. But pit bulls do not deserve their bad
reputation. Contrary to popular opinion, pit bulls can make good pets.

PART II: SENTENCE ANALYSIS & GRAMMAR REVIEW

A. Identifying Subjects and Verbs (Ch. 17 & Handouts Sentence Analysis, Part I and
Sentence Analysis, Part II): Identify the complete subject-verb combinations in each
sentence by doing the following tasks:

(a) Circle and write S over the Simple Subject words of each subject-verb
combination; and

(b) Underline once and write V over the finite verbs of each subject-verb
combination.

(c) Write the number of clauses in the space provided after each sentence.

Note some sentences contain more than one complete subject-verb combination to be
identified and, thus, more than one clause.

1. The weary old woman sat on the bench.

Number of Clauses:__________

2. Jane has walked to the store every day for a month now.

Number of Clauses:__________

3. Every morning at 7:00 a.m., the neighbors big black dog barks at the paperboy.
Number of Clauses:__________

4. Every morning the dog barks at the paperboy, but he delivers the newspaper anyway.

Number of Clauses:__________

5. The typewriter ribbon must be getting old.

Number of Clauses:__________

6. I plan to organize my study schedule tomorrow morning.

Number of Clauses:__________

7. One of the boys was going to the carnival after school.

Number of Clauses:__________

8. A list of required textbooks has been posted on the library door.

Number of Clauses:__________

9. Juanita and Frank came for Thanksgivings last year.

Number of Clauses:__________

10. Jane attends college and studies very hard.

Number of Clauses:__________

11. Julia and Juan came to visit us this morning and stayed for three hours.

Number of Clauses:__________

12. Did John miss the bus today?


Number of Clauses:__________

13. Where are you going after school?

Number of Clauses:__________

14. There is a bicycle by the fence at the schoolyard.

Number of Clauses:__________

15. The print looks very light, for the typewriter ribbon is old.

Number of Clauses:__________

16. Although the fishermen trolled in the bay for hours, they caught nothing because they

were using the wrong bait.

Number of Clauses:__________

17. After John organizes his study schedule, he feels more in control of his life.

Number of Clauses:__________

18. There are many problems to be solved, but here is one possible solution.

Number of Clauses:__________

B. Identifying Subordinate Clauses (Ch. 19 & Handout Sentence Analysis, Part


III): Each of the following sentences contains at least one subordinate clause. Use
your sentence analysis skills to help you perform the following tasks:

(a) Identify subject-verb combinations in each of the following sentences,


by writing S over Simple Subject words and V over Finite Verbs;

(b) Circle subordinating words (subordinate conjunctions and relative


pronouns) that introduce any of the subject-verb combinations identified;

(c) Underline the subordinate clause(s) in each sentence.


19. Because Aunt Martha is an expert seamstress, John asked her to hem his new pants.

20. Aunt Martha, who is an expert seamstress, hemmed Johns new pants.

21. I think that you are crazy!

22. The fishermen caught nothing although they trolled in the bay for hours because they

were using the wrong bait.

23. I went to the airport to meet the woman that I love.

24. When the paperboy comes to deliver the newspaper, our dog always barks at him.

25. If I were to inherit a million dollars, I would quit my job and move to Tahiti.

26. The room that I share with my brother is small, damp, and dark.

27. Even though it may seem difficult at first, anyone can learn to use a computer.

28. The teddy bear that my grandmother gave me for Christmas is one of my favorite

possessions.

29. After Jane told me that she couldnt go to the movies Friday night, I was really

depressed.

C. Correcting Fragments, Comma Splices, Run-On Sentences, and Subject-Verb


Agreement Problems
(Chs. 18-20, 21 & Handout: "Punctuating Common Sentence Patterns"): Use your
sentence analysis skills to help you proofread the following sentences carefully.
Then correct any errors that you find.

30. Many newcomers to Central Oregon dont know how to drive in winter conditions,
therefore the police department offers a class in safe winter driving every fall.

31. Donna and Albert is always arriving late to the meetings.

32. The print looks very light, the typewriter ribbon must be old.
33. All continuing students are given the opportunity to register for next terms classes in
advance students should take advantage of this opportunity.

34. If you would wait just a few more minutes.

35. One of the men have brought his two children to the meeting.

36. Bright reds, yellows, and blues appearing in every one of Rauls paintings.

37. My new neighbors next door seems kind and friendly.

38. There is many problems to be solved during the coming year.

39. After organizing his schedule to feel more in control of his life.

40. The firefighters who was involved in the rescue all received citations for bravery.

41. Extreme force, always very important in football.

42. My daughter always do her best to make the house cheerful.

43. At the sight of the bear in the polka-dotted dress.

44. In one unforgettable football game, I hit a quarterback in his hip with my helmet the blow
knocked him off his feet.

D. Sentence Combining and "Punctuating Common Sentence Patterns" (Handout &


Chs. 19-20): Combine the sentence pairs below into onesentence, joining them with
the transitional word given in parenthesis. In doing so, supply the correct
punctuation if needed for the Sentence Pattern that you have created.

45. The man did card tricks on the sidewalk. (and) A crowd soon gathered around
him.

___________________________________________________________________
___

46. He hopes to settle in northern Ontario. (because) The wilderness inspires him.

___________________________________________________________________
___

47. The wilderness inspires him. (therefore) He hopes to settle in northern


Ontario.
___________________________________________________________________
________

48. (although) The pictures looked identical. One of them was fake.

___________________________________________________________________
___

49. The pictures looked identical. (however) One of them was fake.

___________________________________________________________________
___

50. I have too many iris plants in my yard. (so) I will give some to my neighbor.

__________________________________________________________________
____

SENTENCE STYLE EXERCISES: CORRECTION TO p. 6.B, which should read:


READ ODYSSEY CH. 28 ON PARALLELISM AND DO THESE EXERCISES:

Exploration 1b (p. 406): do all

Exploration 2a (p. 407): do all

Exploration 3b (p. 410): do all

QUIZ #2 REVIEW EXERCISE - DUE for Credit at Final Exam.

PART I: PARAGRAPH WRITING PRINCIPLES (Odyssey Ch. 3)


Read this example paragraph: the topic sentence is underlined for you:

Even though the rules for both games are very similar, baseball and slow-pitch
softball are definitely different games. Baseball is played on a large diamond. Softball,
however, is played on a smaller field, more like a little league field. A baseball is pitched fast
, up to ninety miles per hour in the major league, and overhand. In contrast, a slow-pitch
softball is lobbed underhand. Because the speed of the pitching and the variety of pitches, a .
300 batting average for a baseball player is good. Because a softball is pitched more slowly,
though, batting averages of .500 or higher are common. Also, in baseball, players are
allowed to steal bases. In softball, however, a runner cant leave the base until the ball is hit.
(1) Evaluate the above paragraph for unity, and answer these two questions:

a. Is the above paragraph unified? _____________

b. Why or why not? (Briefly support your answer to 1a.)

(2) Arranging Ideas Effectively (Ch. 3 & Ch. 10, pp. 127-129): The above paragraph is an
example of comparison-contrast. Evaluate the organization of the paragraph, and
answer these three questions:

a. Is the above paragraph organized in Block or Alternating


format? ________________________________________________________________
_

b. Briefly explain why you think the above paragraph is or is not well
organized:

(3) Coherence: Transitions

a. What is a transition?

b. Circle two examples of transitions used in the above paragraph.

(4) Specific Development: A paragraph has the following topic sentence:

Mr. Elmo Norman, my high school English teacher, is a very nervous person.

Write one sentence giving a specific supporting example:

PART II: DEVELOPING AN ESSAY (Odyssey Ch. 14; see also Ch. 15)

1. Identify and briefly describe the three main parts that structure an essay:

a.

b.

c.

2. Every essay needs a clear thesis. The thesis must do two things to focus an essay
effectively. What are those two elements?

a.

b.
3. Evaluate the three statements given below as possible thesis statements for an
essay: For each statement, state whether or not it would be a good thesis statement
for an essay, and briefly explain why or why not.

a. I had a summer job at the Concord Hotel in 1996.

b. Working as a waitress in a large resort was the best job I ever had.

c. In this essay, I will discuss summer jobs.

4. Essay Unity: An essay entitled Breaking the Habit has this thesis:

Several strategies can help smokers quit smoking.

In this essay, the following body paragraph appears:

A third strategy to help smokers quit is to alter habits associated with smoking. For
example, people who associate cigarettes with drinking coffee might temporarily switch to
tea or another beverage with caffeine. Or people who generally smoke while talking on the
telephone might try writing letters or sending electronic mail rather than making local and
long-distance calls. Unfortunately, some smoking-associated habits are difficult to
eliminate. Smokers who habitually smoke while driving in their cars obviously cannot give
up driving. The point is, however, to alter as many activities as possible to eliminate the
times when one would normally reach for a cigarette.

a. Underline the topic sentence of the above body paragraph.

b. Essay Unity: Does the above body paragraph belong in the essay entitled Breaking
the Habit with the thesis given above? Explain why or why not:

PART III: SENTENCE ANALYSIS & GRAMMAR REVIEW

A. Identifying Subjects and Verbs (Odyssey Ch. 17 & Handouts Sentence Analysis, Part
I and Sentence Analysis, Part II): Identify the complete subject-verb combinations
in each sentence by doing the following tasks:

(a) Circle and write S over the Simple Subject words of each subject-verb
combination; and

(b) Underline once and write V over the finite verbs of each subject-verb
combination.

(c) Write the number of clauses in the space provided after each sentence.

Note some sentences contain more than one complete subject-verb combination.

1. My grandfather is an unusual character.

Number of Clauses:_________
2. He tells wonderful stories.

Number of Clauses:_________

3. One of his favorite childhood stories is about him and his brother.

Number of Clauses:_________

4. There were some nights on the family farm when my grandfather and his brother couldnt

sleep.

Number of Clauses:_________

5. Sometimes, they laughed and talked and talked and laughed until they heard the rooster

crow at dawn.

Number of Clauses:_________

6. One time after staying up all night, Grandpa and Uncle Jim dressed quickly, ran out into

the farmyard, and snuck up behind the rooster just before dawn.

Number of Clauses:__________

7. As the rooster started to crow, Grandpa and Uncle Jim screeched out, Cock-a-doodle-

doo! Cock-a-doodle-doo! Cock-a-doodle-doo!

Number of Clauses:_________

8. Their loud, unearthly cries woke up everyone in the house, and the surprised rooster

fainted in a state of shock.

Number of Clauses:__________
9. Needless to say, my great-grandparents were not amused by all this ruckus at 4:30 in

the morning.

Number of Clauses:__________

10. Would you be?

Number of Clauses:__________

11. They spanked the mischievous boys and sent them to bed without their breakfast.

Number of Clauses:__________

12. Fortunately, the poor rooster revived after a while, and my grandparents allowed the boys

to leave their room later that morning.

Number of Clauses:__________

13. There are still days when my grandfather screeches out Cock-a-doodle-do and

chuckles over that childhood incident.

Number of Clauses:__________

B. Identifying Subordinate Clauses (Ch. 19 & Handout Sentence Analysis, Part


III: Each of the following sentences contains at least one subordinate clause. Use
your sentence analysis skills to help you perform the following tasks:

(a) Identify subject-verb combinations in each of the following sentences, by


writing S over Simple Subject words and V over Finite Verbs;

(b) Circle subordinating words (subordinate conjunctions and relative


pronouns) that introduce the subject-verb combinations you identify;

(c) Underline the subordinate clause(s) in each sentence.

14. Sarah asked Uncle George to help with the new cabinets because he is an expert

carpenter.

15. Uncle George, who is an expert carpenter, installed Sarahs new cabinets.
16. Some people think that Grandpa is senile.

17. Those poor fishermen finally realized that they were using the wrong bait.

18. The next day after they changed to the right bait, the happy fishermen trolled the bay

and caught tons of fish within twenty minutes.

19. Sarah did not go to the airport to meet the man that she hated.

20. When the paperboy comes to deliver the newspaper, our dog never barks at him.

21. If I were to lose my current job, I think that I would start a new career.

22. The apartment that I share with my roommate is small but cheap.

23. Anyone can learn to use a computer even though it may seem difficult at first.

24. I have never liked the teddy bear that my grandmother gave me for Christmas in 1988.

25. After Jane told me that she couldnt go to the movies Friday night, I was relieved

because I never liked her much anyway.

C. Correcting Fragments, Comma Splices, Run-On Sentences, and Subject-Verb


Agreement Problems ( Chs. 18-20, 21 & Handout: "Punctuating Common Sentence
Patterns"): Use your sentence analysis skills to help you proofread the following
sentences carefully. Then correct any errors that you find.

26. Most long-time residents of Central Oregon know how to drive in winter conditions,
therefore they dont need to take a class in safe winter driving.

27. Donna and Albert, who are my best friends, is invited to the party.

28. The man did card tricks on the sidewalk a crowd soon gathered around him.

29. .My new neighbors next door seems cranky and unfriendly.

30. One of the students have brought his two children to class this morning.

31. Which was not a problem for me or the other students.


32. There is many returning students registering late this year.

33. After waiting too long and missing their chance to register in advance.

34. The firefighters, after arriving quickly at the scene, has rescued the child from the
burning building.

35. Because my daughter always does her best to make the house cheerful.

36. The computer in the Pioneer computer labs are not working properly today.

37. In one unforgettable football game, I hit a quarterback in his hip with my helmet, the blow
knocked him off his feet.

D. Sentence Style and Word Choice. (Handouts): List three ways that you can improve
the effectiveness of your sentence style and/or word choice. Then give a specific
example to illustrate each of the three ways that you describe.

38.

Example:

39.

Example:

40.

Example:

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WR 40 Syllabus|Course Plan|Assignments (1)|Assignments (2)|


Student Writing
WR 40 Course Competencies & Benchmarks - Winter 2001:
http://www.cocc.edu/cagatucci/classes/wr40/competencies.htm

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