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EXCAVATIONS

AT

SANGHOL
(1985-86 TO 1989-90)

DR. C. MARGABANDHU
PRADEEP KUMAR PANDEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA


NEW DELHI
EXCAVATIONS
AT

SANGHOL
(1985-86 TO 1989-90)

DR. C. MARGABANDHU
PRADEEP KUMAR PANDEY

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA


NEW DELHI
31 December 2014
PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The present Report represents the result of the excavations carried out by the
Archaeological Survey of India, during the years 1986-90 at Sanghol, District Ludhiana,
Punjab. The reasons for undertaking the work at the site needs a brief explanation.
Excavation carried out earlier by the Department of Archaeology and Museums,
Government of Punjab, though on a limited scale, but intermittently since 1969. While
digging was undertaken near the stupa during the field season of 1985, a startling
discovery of 117 sculptures elegantly carved in Mathura mottled red sand stone neatly
stacked in a regular excavated pit and meant for a Buddhist stupa, at once placed
Sanghol as an important religious establishment during the Kushana period.

As it required further work to be done in detail the involvement of Archaeological Survey


of India, became a necessity. It was decided that excavation will be carried out jointly by
Archaeological Survey of India, and the Department of Archaeology and Museums,
Government of Punjab.On Archaeological Survey of Indias part, Superintending
Archaeologist, Excavation Branch, Delhi, was entrusted with the responsibility of
carrying out the excavations as its Director. The work began in 1986 and completed in
1990. As per the understanding of the Agreement, the Report on the excavations will be
written by both of the work done in the area decided. There was a clear demarcation of
the areas of excavation by the Archaeological Survey of India and Punjab Archaeology
and the Reports will be self-contained and could be interconnected.

ThisReport substantially represents the total perspective of the excavated cultural


material. It further, in its entirety incorporates the stratigraphical, structural and
artifactual data and fixing in precise form, the chronology to a fairly reasonable extent by
a margin of two or three decades or so. Moreover the Report includes a large number of
illustrations, both figural and photographical to heighten the value and meaning of the
finds of everyday use that form the core of the cultural wealth of the people in all their
manifold manifestations.

It is indeed difficult to record the services rendered by numerous officers and technical
and non-technical staff who have contributed enormously, when the excavations were
carried out and subsequently at the time of writing the Report. As it spans nearly three
decades, it is a matter of remembering in sequence the unstinted cooperation of all, not
only those within the Survey, but also others of other organizations who have involved
in the work of collection of fauna and flora remains, when the excavation was under
way.

The work initially started with the staff members of the Excavation Branch which include
Sarva Shri G. S. Gaur, K.K. Sharma, Assistant Archaeologists, L.S. Mamani, Surveyor,
S.K. Sharma, Draughtsman, B.B. Sharma, Photographer, J.S. Bisht, Modeller, V.R.
Sharma, Foreman, Sham Lal Sharma, R.S. Srivastava and D.D. Dogra. In the third
season, (1987-88) excavation was jointly done with Shri J.P. Srivastava, Superintending
Archaeologist, of the Branchwho succeeded in the Branch, when I was transferred on
promotion as Director. Sarva Shri S.S. Naik and R. Krishnaiah, both Assistant
Archaeologists and S/ Shri J.S. Dubey and Chanderbhan, all of them joined from the
third season. In the fourth season Shri V.P. Verma, Draughtsman and VirendraKaul,
and in 1989-90 S/Shri Vinod Kumar and Keshar Singh, also formed part of the
excavation team. All of their contributions in the excavations are enormous and but for
their unstinted cooperation, the work could not have been completed, specially the
careful excavation and meticulous recording (in site note books) in Registers of all the
finds and the structural features and planning in general. I owe a personal thanks to
each one of them who bore all the inconveniences at a critical time in Punjab with great
patience and successfully completed the tasks with cheerful spirit. Further, I am also
indebted to my colleague Shri J.P. Srivastava, Superintending Archaeologist, of the
Branch who was present at the site in all the three seasons and personally involving
both in excavation and completing the documentation very methodically with a scientific
bent of mind.

As the excavations yielded vast collection of faunal and flora remains, a study of them
also involved specialised experts for which Dr. K. S. Saraswat, Sr. Scientist, Birbal
Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow and Shri A. K. Sharma S. A., ASI (Retd.) were
approved by D G, ASI for study and prepare a detailed Report on them. Dr. K. S.
Saraswat also visited Sanghol during excavations and collected the samples for study.
Both the Reports will be appended with the main Report, when received for publication.

Equally all through the seasons work, arrangements extended by the officers and staff
of the Archaeological Survey of India, Chandigarh circle at Chandigarh for easy
movement and also providing infrastructural facilities and in this respect personal thanks
goes to the Superintending Archaeologists S/Shri HariMahji, Dhanpat Rai and V.C.
Sharma. It should also be mentioned that the clearance and conservation of the main
stupa was ably and expertly handled by Shri Inderjeet Singh, C.A. of the circle, when
the excavation was in progress at the site.

The writing of the Report involved collecting the excavated material together in the first
instance and subsequently beginning the work of sorting, selecting and classifying them
for study. All these involved tremendous work for which the officers and staff of
Excavation Branch extended all the facilities and helped unhesitatingly which made
easy to write the Report. In this respect my grateful thanks goes to the former
Superintending Archaeologists of the Branch Dr. D.V. Sharma, MsMadhubala, Shri
Vikas Sharma, Dr. V.N. Prabhakar, including the present Superintending Archaeologist
Shri A.K. Pandey.

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In the course of writing the Report after completing the selection process, tremendous
help rendered by the working staff of the Section without whose devotion and careful
attention at all stages of the work, the present Report could not have been completed
within the time frame of work finalized.Shri Pradeep Kumar Pandey, Assistant
Archaeologist, posted in the section from the beginning took the arduous task of taking
all the ceramics, antiquities, drawings, other excavated sample collections in his
possession and worked patiently at all stages of work and ready to fulfill the tasks
cheerfully and ungrudgingly. The planning design, format and getup to have a better
finish of the Report also goes to his credit. Shri Pradeep Singh Foniya, Assistant
Archaeologist, (on contract basis)posted from the very beginning patiently carried out
the task of sifting the vast body of material viz; ceramics and antiquities and with
reasonable understanding sorted them for Report writing. His methodical perseverance
and attention to detail helped a great deal in classification and smooth selection for
photo documentation and Report preparation. Shri Satish Dwivedi, deftly handled the
computer from the beginning and typed the matter very systematically avoiding
mistakes of any type. His patient work and attention to detail and proper handling with
felicity is an aspect to be highly appreciated. He never tires and always ready to
execute and rectify at an instant notice. Shri Preetam, looked after the clean and orderly
functioning of the section and also helping in the work of classification and sorting of
pottery and antiquities.

The progress and continuity of the Report writing could not have been maintained
without the special interest taken by the Directorate. At every stage the work was
monitored and technical (drawing and photography) facility extended by not only direct
communication but also personally visiting and helping immediately. I will be failing in
my sincerity if I do not appreciate their efforts. I record my grateful thanks to the then
Directors, Exploration Dr. R.S. Fonia, Dr. (Smt.) Shubhra Pramanik and Dr. S.K. Mittra
for their continued interest and taking prompt action throughout. Haji Dr. Jamal Hasan,
Director, Exploration has been enthusiastic to personally monitor and boosting up by
providing the technical staff to complete the Drawing and photo documentation. My
grateful thanks also go to S/Shri S.K. Sharma, Chief Artist (Retd.)Shri Ramesh Kumar
Kaul, Drawing Officer, S/ShriBaldev Singh DraughsmanGr.II, and Puran Chand
Mukhiya, Marksman and S/ShriRavinderKumarand Virender Singh photographers of the
D.Gs office photo and Drawing section who have done the work with great personal
interest. Shri L.S. Mamani, Survey officer, D.Gs office efficiently coordinated the work in
providing technical expertise of a distinct nature. Equally my appreciation goes to S/Shri
Jagram and Satpal Singh,Information officers of the Central Archaeological Library,
New Delhi who were always helpful to provide the books needed for reference even at
short notice. Further Shri B. K. Chauhan Information officer of Library, Excavation
Branch II Purana Qila also provided books on request and for his various suggestions
during academic discussion.

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Similarly Shri A. K. Pandey, Superintending Archaeologist, Excavation Branch, apart
from providing logistic facility also deputed Smt. PreetiSandiyal and Shri Suresh Arya,
Draughtsman for preparation of ceramic drawings. Shri A.K. Pandey, of the Excavation
Branch and Shri S.C. Jha, Foreman, of Delhi circle also helped providing various
facilities to the section for which my grateful thanks are due.

There are specially some others who have supported the excavation from the beginning
and extended facilities and much needed encouragement. Directors-General Shri
Jagatpati Joshi and Shri M.C. Joshi took great interest for all the five years and later
also I place on record my deep sense of gratitude, reverence and respects to them. Shri
M.C. Joshi also visited the site when digging was in progress. It is sad that they are not
available to see the Report in final form.

From the outset when the matter of writing the pending archaeological Reports came up
in which Sanghol was also one of them, the tremendous efforts taken by the former
Directors General of the Archaeological Survey of India, to name them viz., Smt.
AnshuVaish IAS, Shri K.N. Srivastava IAS, Dr. Gautam Sen Gupta and Shri Prabin
Srivastava IAS, have to be highly appreciated. The matter was taken up and
arrangements were made so that the report writing could start. I once again convey my
grateful thanks to all of them. Dr. Rakesh Tewari, the present Director General took
personal interest in the matter to provide all facilities for completing the Report. His
deep concern in this matter is highly appreciated.

A special mention should be made of the academic output and valuable discussions
with Dr. B.R. Mani, Additional Director General that helped when the writing of the
Report in progress.

My ever good old colleagues and friends of more than half-a- century Prof.
Dr.Purushottam Singh and Prof. Dr. M.D.N. Sahi, shared very valuable moments of their
time in resolving problems of academic nature for which I am deeply beholden.

Finally my wife Smt. Prema stood by looking after and freed me from domestic
botherations so that the Report could be written in comfort.

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Preface andAcknowledgement i-iv

CONTENTS

Chapter 1 Introduction

1. Site location and previous work done 1


2. Brief details of excavations from 1985-90 2
3. Excavations: details of areas where
digging done: site locations and stratigraphy 5

Chapter 2 Cultural Sequence 9

Chapter 3 Structures, finds and stratigraphy, details

1. SGL-1 (Hathiwara) 10
2. SGL-6 33
3. SGL-8 41
4. SGL-10 45
5. SGL-12 52
6. SGL-13 55
7. SGL-5 (Main Stupa) 65
8. SGL-11 66

Chapter 4 Ceramics

1. General Introduction 68
2. Period I, Bara Chalcolithic Culture
(Late Harappan) 68
3. Period II, Overlap Phase (Painted Grey Ware,
Grey Ware and Black Slipped Ware) 70
4. Period III, Early Historic Period 73
5. Period IV, Kushana Period (Later part of the first
centuryBC and the end of the second century AD) 73
Chapter 5 Antiquities

1. Terracotta objects, A general introduction 83


2. Human and animal figurines of terracotta,
A general profile 83
3. Female figurines, standing in various poses both
flat plaques and those depicted on spouts 84
4. Human figurines, male female, flat and
physical parts and torsos 88
5. Human heads (face) of terracotta 92
6. Pinched male heads 93
7. Parts of human body, broken, terracotta 95
8. Mother and child figurines of terracotta 97
9. Person riding on an animals back 97
10. Bull 99
11. Horse 100
12. Elephant 103
13. Lion 103
14. Panther 107
15. Monkey 107
16. Dog 107
17. Cow 110
18. Goat 110
19. Tortoise 110
20. Rabbit 110
21. Onager 110
22. Ram 114
23. Snake 114
24. Bear 114
25. Birds 114
26. Owl 115
27. Crocodile 115
28. Whale 116
Chapter 6 Objects of everyday use

1. A brief profile 121


2. Skin rubber 121
3. Dabber 122
4. Crucible pots 124
5. Plumb-bob 126
6. Weights 126
7. Weighing cup 127
8. Sharpeners 127
9. Spindle whorl 130
10. Stamps 132
11. Dice 135
12. Disc 135
13. Gamesman 136
14. Rattle 138
15. Hopscotch 138
16. Cart frame 142
17. Wheel 143
18. Cosmetic boxes 148
19. Bangles 150
20. Pendants 152
21. Ear ornaments 154
22. Ear rings 161
23. Ink-pots 161
24. Feeding cups 161
25. Incense burners 163
26. Sankha (conch) 166
27. Votive tanks 167
28. Tablets 170
29. Cylindrical objects 173
30. Stool 177
31. Handles 177
32. Spouts 180
33. Lamp-bearer 180
Chapter 7 Objects of everyday use made in shell, bone and ivory, semi-
precious stones, faience and terracotta

1. A brief introduction 182


2. Shell objects 182
3. Bone and Ivory 183
4. Beads: An Introduction 187
5. Beads of semi-precious stones 191
6. Beads of faience 194
7. Beads of terracotta 194

Chapter 8 Coins, Seals and Sealings 199

Chapter 9 Conclusion 200

Appendix I Botanical studies of Sanghol excavations 208


CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

SITE LOCATION AND PREVIOUS WORK DONE

Sanghol (30047N, 76023E) locally called Ucha Pinda is situated 40 km west of


Chandigarh on the Chandigarh Ludhiana road in Tehsil Samrala, District Ludhiana,
Punjab. The place is approachable from Sirhind Railway Station situated at a distance
of 16 km from Sanghol.

As far as its archaeological potential was concerned, it was bought to the notice of Shri
M.S. Vats, former Director General in 1933. A formal and regular excavation was
carried out from 1969-73 by Shri R. S. Bisht of the Department of Archaeology and
Museums, Government of Punjab and now of the Survey. The work was continued by
Shri G. B. Sharma and his team of the same department from 1978 with intermittent
breaks and in1983 which lead to the discovery of 117 sculptures, exquisitely and
elegantly carved in mottled Mathura red sandstone, railing pillars, crossbars, etc.,
surrounding the stupa, which at once placed Sanghol, as an important Buddhist
establishment during the Kushana period.

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The Archaeological potential of the site of Sanghol attracted the attention of the
Government of India and lead to the decision that a larger excavation was necessary
and the involvement of Archaeological Survey became a necessity. Hence it was
decided in the mid part of the year 1985 that the excavation work will be done as a joint
programme with the Punjab Department of Archaeology and Museums with Survey as a
major participant with Excavation Branch II of the Survey to carry out the work. The
excavation programme was approved commencing from 1985-86 and the work was
continued for six seasons until May 1990.

BRIEF DETAILS OF EXCAVATIONS FROM 1985-90

In 1985-86 the main objectives of the programme are (a) expose horizontally the main
mound Hathiwara the remains of the planning of the Sunga-Kushana settlement; (b) get
clear idea of the overlap between Bara-chalcolithic, the Painted Grey Ware and the
Black and Black Slipped Ware and also to expose further remains of the Stupa
complex. Trenches were laid on the north western part of Hathiwara designated as
SGL-1 and also at Stupa. Another site SGL-10 situated on south-west area was taken
up which revealed in earliest level evidence of two phase of Bara-chalcolithic followed
by early Kushana settlement. The upper level was disturbed by the medieval grave
yard. In the next year season of 1986-87 the programme of excavation included to
expose the already revealed structures in SGL-1 comprising of large almost palatial
remains of Kushana settlement, understand clearly the overlap of the Bara chalcolithic
and Painted Grey Ware and also to know the later deposits of the upper level ascribable
to the third and fourth centuries AD. Some significant details of excavations include,
excavating the larger brick structures of a palatial complex and exposed new structural
complex. On the south-east, a series of rooms connected by brick platforms, water
connected brick drains and consistent firing and remains of charcoal, burnt grains, ash
at frequent intervals and repeated layers of black deposit and also antiquities are the
major finds at the religious area at Hathwara.

A new area called SGL-8 was taken up for excavations to expose the cultural
components of subsequent to the Kushana occupation datable to the third and fourth
centuries AD. The Department of Archaeology and Museums Punjab took up

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excavations at SGL-2 to expose the remains of Bara-chalcolithic and understand the
overlap features, and at SGL-9 being the top deposit at highest level down to 18 m
depth excavated the cultural strata of the remains of first century BC to the end of
second century AD.

At SGL-6opened up trenches which brought to light the earliest Bara chalcolithic


complex to a certain extent with the pottery and antiquities. Subsequent work exposed
overlap phase with Painted Grey Ware and Black Slipped Ware.SimilarlySGL-12 also
revealed the earliest occupation with Bara-chalcolithic cultural complex without
structures. In the third season of 1987-88 further expanded the excavations on a
horizontal scale exposing many new interesting structures. The seasons main
objectives included expose greater area at SGL-1 consisting of the Palatial remains, the
non-domestic religious or ritualistic establishment, to understand the Bara chalcolithic
and the relative link with the Painted Grey Ware and Black Slipped Ware and to
ascertain the general planning of the site and the sequence of different periods in detail.
For this further trenches were laid at SGL-6 and a new area SGL-13 was taken up for
excavations and further digging kept apace at SGL-2 and SGL-9 Horizontal excavations
at SGL-1 revealed the structural details of the building remains with specific
characteristics. Two large contiguous massive rectangular, squares cistern like
structures, by the side of a brick platform suggested to be a ritualistic complex yielding
ashy material, charcoal and burnt grains. A few animal remains were also found inside
one of such rooms or a brick enclosure. On the northern side of this structure were
found inscribed objects datable to the fourth-fifth centuries AD. Some of them were
depicted with female figures possibly of royalty and nobility, seated lion or couchant bull,
motif of elephant and dharma chakra specially of the second and third centuries AD.
Further a house complex was excavated at the residential area with five structural
phases to the south of Hathiwara which represented an area with groups of residential
buildings. Further excavations continued in SGL-2 to expose the remains of Bara-
chalcolithic and two phases were identified. The upper horizons yielded Grey Ware and
Black Slipped Ware with little structural remains. At SGL-9 exposed upto the lowest
level at a depth of 18 cm identifying the habitation of Bara chalcolithic remains with a
mud structure. Continued digging at SGL-13 known more about the time period of the

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pre Christian cultural strata. The work was done and the earliest Bara-chalcolithic
settlement identified with ceramics and in addition painted and incised designs, the
overlap phases were also recognized with the evidence of Painted Grey Ware, Grey
Ware and Black Slipped Ware occurring simultaneously in mid-levels of the stratigraphic
sequence. A distinct two phase remains on top clearly revealed the habitation of the first
and second century AD. In the next season 1988-89 extensive digging undertaken at
SGL-1 to know more details at the earlier phase of the building of the palatial complex
with the lowest level yielding a stray habitation of Bara-chalcolithic times and further
exposing the residential buildings on the south. The palatial structures were further
exposed on a large scale revealing significant data of the finds and the purpose of the
complex built. The buildings on the south east associated with non-domestic purposes
exposed further to know the main characteristics. A number of fire circles or altars were
found running in series built with brick courses and offsets on a regular pattern further
the cultural antiquities found of a variety of objects and specially found in large number.
Some other cistern type brick structures were also exposed. Some animal remains were
also collected on the north side and some fresh remains revealed in connection with fort
wall leading out to the Stupa complex.

Excavations at main Stupa and monastic buildings area called SGL-5 exposed the
features, more or less clearance undertaken to further conserve the whole portion of the
Buddhist structures. Further area about 600m away a fresh evidence of monastic and
stupa complex excavated designated as SGL-11. In the final excavation season of
1989-90the aims and objectives to be achieved for which the work was suitably done at
SGL-1 to expose the remains of the structural buildings on the palatial vestiges
including connecting the mud rampart excavated earlier, obtain full exposure on
removal of baulks, the ritualistic complex and also to expose at SGL-11 the stupa and
monastic building, to clear the entire area of SGL-5 main stupa group for conservation.
Finally to get clear stratigraphy of all the areas excavated and correlate them together.
At SGL-1 some interesting evidence revealed of the building designated as mint of the
finding of Kuninda coin moulds and in situ details of their furnaces and other remains.
Further exposed the traces of fort wall on the south and west to ascertain the

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stratigraphic horizon with the details indicating the foundation was laid in the latter part
of the first century BC.

At SGL-5 some area beyond the main stupa and monasteries trenches were laid
yielding remains of cells brick floor, pillar bases etc. As it extends in cultivated area
much of them have been lost. A hoard of kota and kappa coins were retrieved. At SGL-
11 various monastic cells along with a circular small stupa were exposed earlier. This
season more structural evidence found including a stupa on Dharma chakra pattern
along with a third stupa having tiers and spokes but merges with cultivated fields further.
The Department of Cultural Affairs Archaeology and Museums Punjab also participated
in the excavations at the stupa areas of SGL-5 and SGL-11 and exposed the remains of
stupa and monastic complex.

EXCAVATIONS, DETAILS OF AREAS WHERE DIGGING DONE, SITE LOCATIONS


AND STRATIGRAPHY

While planning the programme of excavations it was decided initially to undertake


excavations at SGL-1 the mound familiarly known as Hathiwara situated to the north
west of the village Sanghol. Hathiwara is just part of the village without any difference.
The area was fairly well identified with its marginal portion, sloping down thereby
suggesting its circular boundary with a limit of possibly well bounded. A great advantage
of its undisturbed nature is due to the fact that the burial ground of the village was
situated hence, its isolated existence proved to be a boon for planning the work. The
prevalence of a moat and defenses have been identified earlier when limited digging
was done by Department of Archaeology, Government of Punjab in 1969-70. The
topographical feature of the mound with its 6m deposit had a low height and a leveled
ground as the habitation of the upper levels fairly removed and hence there is an
advantage that no further damage has taken place and hence excavation was planned
in the area on an horizontal scale. Excavations have brought to light a group of 2
buildings of enormous, yet compact size identifying as Administration building and a
mint. On the south was exposed a planned settlement of houses divided by lanes and
further ahead a separate area where a series of rooms in compartments built and
identified possibly as a centre for carrying out rituals and other functions bearing

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religious affiliations.The settlement at Hathiwara goes back to about early first century
BC and continued its existence as a Kushana fortified town ship during the first and
second centuries AD. The earliest level here has yielded remains of a stray evidence of
the Bara chalcolithic pottery but this could not be properly ascertained as clear
stratigraphy could not bes in evidence.

SGL-6

While moving around the village and locating the vacant areas of the ancient mound
specially the slops some strategic vintage spaces were identified for excavations which
could yield the early remains prior to the fourth fifth century BC upto the Bara
chalcolithic SGL-6 was selected for excavations and two trenches were laid and
exposed upto the natural soil. The stratigraphy of the site consisted of an early Bara
chalcolithic followed by overlap phase with Painted Grey Ware plain Grey Ware, Black
Slipped Ware and at the upper early Historic phase with buildings built of mud and burnt
bricks and the latest remains of the first and second century AD identifiable to the
Kushana times. Special mention is to be made of the structures well-built and also
uncovered a lane divided by house on both sides datable to the second and first century
BC.

SGL-8

Slightly hinging on the village periphery to the east SGL-8 was taken to excavate mainly
because on surface is had remnants of ceramics of Late Historic and Medieval times. It
was also a problem to understand whether the site continued to be occupied after the
second century AD. Hence a trench was laid of 10m square and excavated to the
natural soil all the portions were exposed to get cultural details. There are two periods of
stratigraphy identified. The upper part of 2m deposits comprised of the habitation of
medieval times represented by brick structures and ceramics of red ware, such as
sharp-edged bowls sprint glass, glazed ware and burnt brick walls and platforms. The
lower level yielded the settlement occupation of the third to fifth centuries AD. The main
ceramics are Red polished ware represented by sprinklers and large terracotta figurines
ear-studs, shell bangles and terracotta arecanut beads. Remains of brick structures on

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upper phase could well compare specially the size of bricks with upper level buildings at
SGL-1 all datable to the second century AD.

SGL-10

This small mound is also a part of Hathiwara originally but subsequently it was cut for a
road coming from Maheshpura going to Sanghol. As its was not occupied hence it was
decided to excavate the nature of habitation four trenches of 10m square each were laid
and excavated upto natural soil. Two cultural periods were identified. The top level
yielded remains of the habitation of the first and second century AD and the lower levels
yielded evidence Bara chalcolithic complex with a total deposit of 2.90m.Upper area has
been highly disturbed by the burials as it was used as a graveyard by the Muslims.

SGL-12

For getting more details of the overlap phase, areas around Sanghol were probed
specially on the western fringes since excavations were being carried out at SGL-12
and SGL-6. Some portion of unoccupied area in the same alignment was selected for
conducting excavation. A single trench was laid and exposed upto the lowest level and
reached natural soil. No structures were found and the stratigraphy was clear to
understand the phase of overlap of cultures. Layers are quite horizontal except the
pottery are significantly occurring in the overlap phase which is almost prevalent from
(2) onwards. A fact has to be mentioned some ceramics being dominant at
chronological levels do occur in large number such as for instance the Black Slipped in
(3) to (5) where there do are found sherds of Bara chalcolithic and Grey Ware. Further
the latter two do increasingly occur in subsequent layers of (6) to (10) Black Slipped and
red ware do continue in limited quantity.

SGL-13

While exploring the area of the village on the periphery part of a vacant plot identified
without disturbance on an even level of SGL-6, hence trenches were laid and excavated
an area of 10m square. Though the entire portion of the trench was exposed only in two
quadrants digging was done reaching upto the natural soil. The stratigraphy of the

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cultures revealed broadly the upper level going down upto the first century BC, with
cluster of structures in mud and burnt bricks. The lower levels upto the natural soil
yielded the remains of Bara Chalcolithic culture (Period I)

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CHAPTER 2

CULTURAL SEQUENCE

Excavation at Sanghol has been carried out in different periods of time and the cultural
sequence has not been much altered as there has been consistence in diggings without
much deviation in the chronology of the site. The work done by Archaeological Survey
of India, in association with Dept.of Archaeology Punjab revealed the sequence in the
following order.

Period I Bara-chalcolithic culture other wise called Late Harappan Culture.

Period II An overlap phase between the Late Harappan or Bara chalcolithic,


Painted Grey Ware and Black Slipped Ware.

Period III Early historic period (Pre-Kushana,circa fourth third century BC and first
century BC)

Period IV Kushana Period (first century AD to the third century AD)

Period V Historical Period or the Gupta and Post Gupta Period (circa the third and
the fifth century AD)

Period VI Medieval Period

Modern Sanghol continue to be occupied on the ancient settlement (mound) of the


village.

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CHAPTER 3

STRUCTURES, FINDS AND STRATIGRAPHY, DETAILS

SGL-1 (HATHI WARA)

Situated to the north of the present village of Sanghol, it is an oval shaped mound with
slope or all sides having a separate entity or its own. Hathiwara fairly well being
compact without much disturbance and hence it was planned to excavate horizontally
so that the settlement planning and the cultural sequence could be well understood.

Survey Plan

So far as the sequence of cultures are concerned, it was essentially a single culture
development and the early remains could be traced to about the first century BC. It was
planned and built together as a fortified town ship and the cultural artefacts revealed
from the excavations could be dated from about the early first century BC and the latest
could go back to the third century AD.

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In other words it is the Kushanas who planned and established the town ship and the
core period of its existence could be dated to the early first century AD and the late
second century AD. This is attested by the cultural and planning evidence and also on
the basis of coins, seals, sealings and other artefacts revealed from excavations.

In the residential area four structural phases have been identified mainly on the basis of
the remains of floor levels and rebuilding of rooms of houses, though the planning
remained unchanged. The upper levels revealed that there was evidence of the area
continued to be occupied after the town was deserted. In this phase there is evidence of
the use of the old material and such an existence of occupation continued for some time
and heavy disturbance at the upper level discount assessment of how long Hathiwara
continued to be in existence.

HATHIWARA: THE UPPER PHASE

A series of trenches were laid on the north-western side in a continuous row of east-
west alignment viz., ZA1, ZA2, ZA3, ZA4, ZA5 and ZA6 to begin with. Surface clearance
in some of these trenches exposed mixed material of modern and the late medieval
structures of the reused bricks. Nothing could be understood.

These consist of loose deposits of debris and local digging done for robbing of the
bricks. Such was the position in the surface clearance upto a depth of 50 cm. The
humus material also found with the ceramics of the second and third century AD which
confirmed that regular deposits could be possible as excavations are carried out further.
The deposits consisting of layers (1) and (2) of 0.50m to 0.75m consisted of mixed
matter of the pit material and loose earth and sections showed voids or gaps indicating
the robbing of walls and the fallen material. This was the position in nearly all the areas
of the site.

11
Hathiwara mound (SGL-1), before excavation

Upper phase brick floor, A view

12
UPPER PHASE DETAILS

The excavations undertaken of this cultural phase consisted of about 1.00m to 1.5m
depending upon the nature of the habitation level in places. The evidence consisted of
two features as observation of the section and remains revealed layers (2) (3) (4) (5)
and (6) consisted of the deposit that contained the structural phase. The brick walls are
not uniform since at many places they have been removed but the evidence or floor
revealed their continuity. The walls formed rooms and the rooms indicated their
existence floors are prepared of earth pottery and brick pieces and kankar nodules laid
and covered after solidifying them with a clay coating above.

The walls were traced without remains of the missing portions so that the nature and
width and turning of them and rooms formed could be planned and understood.
Evidence of ovens or hearths are another interesting feature of this phase.It is found
prepared and used on the floors of rooms. At least this is found well bounded by clay
linings coated and perhaps regularly done to keep the hearth in use. These are long
lined ones and some others are small ones. Both of them have been found together
also.

PLANNING OF BUILDINGS: DETAILS OF EXCAVATION AND STRATIGRAPHY

Observations of the site revealed that there was a regulated planning and burnt bricks
used in building walls and floors. Since on the above level some disturbance has taken
place, but on clearance of the layers (5) and (6) brick walls started emerging and floors
and leveled area gave an indication of systematic planning and building activity. Further
fresh areas were taken for digging and extended the trenches viz., YA1, YA2, YA3, YA4
and YA5. All these represent the continuation of the already exposed portions and the
extension of walls beyond the sectional alignment on the same level lead to further
planning of digging in fresh laid trenches.

In the beginning bigger walls were traced 0.75 to 100m width of well sized burnt bricks
built in a regulated manner.

13
Upper phase two hearths on floor

A brick wall

14
Section with details up to natural soil

15
They had more than 10 courses of bricks with 1.50m depth with clearly well-defined
brick floors walls were found with two three or four sides forming rooms and traces of
brick robbing properly identified and retained the portions with voids for understanding
the complete nature of the building. The laying of bricks and the constructional nature
indicated that bricks laid horizontally one above the other. Sometimes edges of the
building were filled with half sized bricks and adjusting the spaces by small brick bats.
The walls were found with neatly built floors and perfectly leveled base the floors were
found laid with 2 brick courses uniformly without any gaps very systematically. No half,
sized or broken bricks were used and the alignment was on a horizontal course of
bricks. There is a gap between one brick course and the other and this space was filled
with a thick 0.5cm to 0.10cm clay and mud combine and strengthened for getting an
even level. In one such room this evidently in the view of the floor on making a waiting
laying of the brick floor. It perhaps indicates the significance of the use of the building
for an important purpose.

Though there is some slight damage and the connecting walls are not in order, but there
are a series of walls reveal different rooms were built of which at least two phases could
be identified. They may be local repairs and remodeling or altering the plan of the rooms
suiting to the requirements. There are extensions of walls joined with earlier ones,
possibly changed due to more space or for open verandah.

In one of them, digging of two phases visualize either they are totally changed or altered
by removing the earlier and making way for fresh rebuilding. The post-holes cut through
on the bricks also indicate such an eventuality. Another interesting feature of this
building with many rooms is an identification of a bath room when the area was cleared
for getting the total perspective of the plan of the building. These are some of the
aspects of planning that could be observed as and when the area was excavated in this
whole complex.

16
Huge brick wall Brick built floor

Brick built floor

17
EMERGENCE OF BRICK BUILT BUILDING WITH FLOORS OF SUCH A HUGE SIZE
OTHERWISE CALLED AS PALATIAL PLANNING FOR USE FOR COMMON
PURPOSES

Excavations exposed in brief extensive rooms well built with floors, entrances and
pathways including a special area within the building for public transactions. There has
been changes in building and altering the rooms, extending further by constructing new
rooms and adding more space as and when necessary for public purposes. This
inference also leads to the conclusion that it is not meant for residential purposes but
was put to more significant use and the very size support such a contention.

Digging and further removal of the baulks joining the trenches revealed, on very close
observation some interesting details that support the purpose and utility of this palatial
building complex.One is an entrance path way that led to the interior passing through
many rooms and finally entering the main portion that perhaps formed part of the seat of
authority. This part of the building is brick built with a chamber amidst rooms and a
place which was found provided with a raised seat with four large post- holes. To view
further the details. Excavation revealed a path way, brick built 1.95m wide provided with
sides raised by bricks perhaps a parapet mostly now lost and the path way leads to the
interior with rooms on both sides but later removed and replaced by new planning. On
the sides are also found with raised brick built floors. Some post holes are also on
view.There is evidence of a four sided room forming part of a chamber, but this was
replaced by another which was adjacent to it with similar proportions.

OUTER COVER OR CANOPY OF THE RAISED SEAT OF AUTHORITY

The entrance to the chamber is clearly in evidence by the provision of a brick built door
sill. On passing through the earlier chamber, the main room is on view and some bricks
have been removed and now there is a cavity exposed covered by four brick built sides.
This place is provided with four post-holes for raising a cover or canopy and the whole
building part and the rooms are provided with strong brick built floors. It is also
interesting to add that this is the toe of the main wall of the palatial building overlooking
the area of open space outside

18
Excavated portion, a view of the palatial complex

Palatial remains, brick floor and the pathway

19
Brick lined floor, entrance details for going to the interior of the palatial remains

Palatial remains, a close view Another view

20
Entrance to the interior with door axis View of the post-holes for canopy

A close view

21
IDENTIFICATION OF THE MINT IN THE PALATIAL COMPLEX

The excavated area is covered by trenches YA2, YA3, YA4 and YA5. This is also built
with the other building together. It has a separate identity of its own. The orientation of
the plan is in continuation of the earlier one. It is a compact building with clean and well
laid out floors and neatly built walls and nearly 20 rooms have been exposed and
identified. The floors are even, and apart from lime coated floors most of them are
having floors with two courses of brick. This block has been identified as a mint. The
rooms at least two of them contained coins and coin mould of Kunindas in very large
number. More over in one of the rooms there exposed a factory or a foundry with a
large number of burnt and unburnt coin moulds and the gadgets for manufacture of
coins, seals and sealings. Except coins not many objects of daily use were found.

HATHIWARA: RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

To the south of the two buildings 30m away were identified residential structures in an
orderly pattern and well-built in an area of 30 m chosen to lay trenches and exposed
buildings built of brick. The trench Nos, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4 revealed well built houses
divided by a lane which was also cleared together. The house plan consisted of an
entrance from the lane leading to the interior and provided with opening to at least for
two of the rooms and floors consisted of murrum, kankar and clay.

There are provisions for entering the bath room from both. An interesting aspect of the
house is the provision of a burnt brick drain leading out and connecting it in the lane
passing through the lane which measured 1.75m or so and the plan clearly gives the
various portions of the house. The residential area further extends to south but much
damaged due to later removal of the deposits of the mound for a road built to the
village. An exploratory survey on surface revealed there is an entrance gate that led to
the ancient village, Sanghol from Hathiwara.

A BUILDING POSSIBLY MEANT FOR RELIGIOUS AND RITUAL PURPOSES

To the south-east was an area of even level selected for excavations to understand the
planning of Hathiwara and also to verify there was any entrance going out of the town.
For this about 40 m square trench laid and exposed the remains to begin with. The

22
details of the trenches are ZE9, ZE10 and ZG8 and ZG9. Initially excavations revealed
at least a group of rooms or cistern like structures of four of them upto a depth ranging
from -1.50m to -2.00m and further extended with brick walls continuing on all sides.

Section of the religious complex, a part with details

23
Mint, view of the rooms brick built

Mint, another view of the rooms

24
Mint, a close view

A residence with entrance from the lane

25
Residence built of brick, details of entrance and rooms inside

Details of brick built drain leading out in the lane, view of bathroom

26
Detailed plan of the house

Religious area brick-built structure of a cistern type

27
Plan of the ritual complex, brick built rooms for use in the functions

Details of brick built rooms with provision of water for functions


and the various compartmented spaces for rituals

28
They did not reveal their utility of a house plan or for residential purposes. The small
box-like cisterns contained ash, charcoal, black earth-all consisted of burnt
materials. Digging inside the chambers or cister-like formations further down
indicated there have been deposits in layer features, i.e. there is a gap in such type
of activities and further repeated the use again. These type of deposits were found in
all the trenches, wherever excavations were done.

In order to understand further trenches were extended on all directions where ever
brick walls have been found further. New trenches were laid which include ZF9,
ZF10 ZH9 ZH10 and ZG10. In brief the elaborate brick structures found with careful
planning indicate a system of rituals of an organized character. Its stratigraphy
reveals the early level with antiquities found datable to first century AD and the later
levels goes back to the end of the second century AD. Some others found also
reveal the structure was continued to be used during the beginning of the third
century AD. Excavations exposed the erection of brick platforms and brick box like
structures surrounded with circular pits on the floor of about 30cm depth which
contained ash and charcoal. There are more than 15 such pits were traced. A series
of closed brick drains were built for the water to be carried through. Several
antiquities were found including seals and sealings.

ENTRANCE GATE WALL WITH RIVETMENT

Further exposed a built in structure with many rooms over a platform towards north
of this portion. A ramp and a gate were provided with the platform nearly a mud
fortification riveted with burnt bricks in various stages were found.

29
Circular uniform pits containing burnt materials
for religious and ritual functions

Another group of circular plans with built in spaces


more strengthened for performing rituals

30
Details of circular fire pits all around
a raised brick structure

Brick built drain for removing water in the ritual place

31
Brick built drain circular in shape
for water removal in the ritual area

32
SGL-6

NATURE AND LOCATION

The area representing a vacant undisturbed part of the ancient mound occupied by the
present village, situated to the south-west side was taken up for excavations to know
more details about the Early historic to the Chalcolithic cultural remains,mainly
represented by Black Slipped and Grey Ware and the earlier Bara remains.

EXCAVATION PLANNING

Two trenches A1 and ZA1 consisting 10m square were laid for deep digging and also to
lay bare structures to understand the house plans. Out of the two, ZA1 was extensively
excavated and also exposed up to the natural soil. The details are as below.

ZA1. Qdt.1

(1) -90cm surface remains and mixed pottery of historic and medieval fabrics
(2) 1.37m. debris layer 40cm deposit
(3) 1.75m. loose earth with Kushana bricks, brick-bats and pot-sherds and the pit
has disturbed part of the layer
(4) -2.10m. Consist of yellow earth and patched of ash with typical Kushana
ceramics. Part of the layer is disturbed by pits, 1 and 2 on the western and
eastern sections. A structure was a mud brick wall with 2 courses, exposed built
in header and stretcher style of 2.20m length; the width of the wall is 63cm.
(5) -2.70m. A wall was exposed running east - west.
(6) -2.71m to- 2.80m. Early Kushana ceramics and some grey ware pieces do
occur. The layer consists of black compact earth. A ghost wall was traced
running upto -1.85m. Another such a wall was observed on the northern section
but devoid of bricks. At a depth of -2.95m, a floor level was exposed

33
(7) -3.00m black compact earth. A wall on east-west orientation was found 1.85m
length sealed by (6) made of mud bricks. Hence a room complex emerged
measuring -1.85mx-2.35m. Beyond was traced a drain with its direction to the
west. A corn-bin was excavated on the north-east corner of the floor. Early
Kushana ceramics continue.
(8) -3.40m with ashy patch and loose earth. It consists of exposed water borne
material indicating the place is open. In this layer, black slipped ware occurs for
the first time. A possible gap could be reasoned i.,e 1st century BC-AD to 2nd
and 3rd century BC.
(9) -3.50m. Pottery fabrics continue with early features (1st century AD); compact
black earth. A wall traced with brick size 35x25x5cm; the total length of the wall
is -3.15m in north-south alignment. It has 4 courses. This layer is the ground
level for this plan. There appears to be levelling of the area and it contained tiny
potsherds
(10) -3.65m
(11) -3.80m to -.90m Black loose earth with pottery shapes tiny and sherds of black
slipped and grey ware also occur.
(12) -4.10m to -4.20m; consists of yellow and black compact clay.
(13) -4.30m. Large number of ceramics found of the type of black slipped and grey
ware and the contemporary red ware. The layer consists of loose grey earth
having some ashy patches. Some pieces of charred bones were collected.
(14) It is an ashy layer with grey colour of -4.50m depth with mixed pottery of black
slipped and grey ware and with associated red ware.
(15) -4.85m -5cm thick, a sandy layer. Apart from black slipped and grey ware, Bara
type of sherds do occur.
(16) -4.90m;-35.m thick deposit. Tiny sherds-15 cm thick, consists of mixed
ceramics specially increasing presence of grey ware and Bara-chalcolithic. An
oven is traced and collected charcoal and the layer was exposed upto-5.10m.
(17) -5.25m and is 10cm thick; the layer contains black compact earth with yellow
patches. A hearth of large size is observed in the section.

34
(18) Upto-5.45m, one sherd of PG ware was found along with others. The layer
consists of compact yellow clay and bone pieces. Some bones were collected.
A pit cut below was cleared which contained Bara-painted pottery, black slipped
ware and charred bones. Some pieces were collected for observation. The
layer seems to be a platform to build walls and mud bricks form the material.
The thickness of the layer is 50cm or so; the contents of the filling used was
dug out from the natural soil.
(19) -6.18m excavated upto-6.25m the layer is compact yellow earth yielding Bara
ceramics. Further digging continued upto -6.33m till the natural level is reached
and upto -7.14m depth and further excavated for check of any habitation.

ZA1. Qdt.2

A part of the quadrant was taken up for digging measuring -4.25m in north-south
direction and -2.15m towards east-west.

(1) Upper deposit of -0.55m exposed yielding the second century AD pottery.
(2) It is (-0.55m to -0.70m) composed of loose earth with debris of the upper deposit.
A pit was removed of its material upto -1.05m and another exposed up to -1.42m
and cleared as both are dug from the surface level.
(3) Excavated upto -0.95m.Two pits were cleared at depths -1.25m and -1.50m
respectively.

(3A) -1.25m to-1.47m. A banded agate bead is a find from this level. Below a brick
floor was noticed scattered with brick -bats all around. Two pits were traced and
the contents isolated and removed upto a depth of -1.80m and -2.10m.

(4) -1.70m. It consists of yellow clay bands with ashy patches, pottery of typical
shapes of early second century AD and the late 1st century AD. A bull head and a
paste pendant are special to mention.
(5) -2.00m to -2.25m and comprise of loose earth with black soil; above was traced
at a depth of 2m, a burnt brick wall with 7 courses. Below this layer another
contemporary wall with 2 courses was exposed. Possibly a floor of bricks above

35
which, the upper wall was built. The floor is situated at a depth of -2.25m, and the
thickness of the brick floor is 7cm.
(6) -2.43m, compact yellow clay with ashy patches.
(7) -2.78m, loose grey earth mixed with kankar.
(8) -2.92m, compact earth having blackish tinge.
(9) -3.06m, a debris layer mixed with ash and loose earth.
(10) -3.25m to -3.75m, a compact brown layer. The ceramics include early
characteristics of the first century BC shapes, the pots are small with thin rims,
and some bone pieces were also collected.
(11) Excavated upto -4.08m and the layer consists of black loose earth.
(12) -4.08m to -4.50m. The pottery shapes are small. A platform was traced of a
compact nature.
(13) Typical black slipped ware dominate the layer from -4.50m to -4.80m. In
addition to small red ware shapes, grey ware including a piece of Painted grey
ware were collected. Some charred bones were taken for examination.
(14) -4.85m to -5.00m, consists of brownish loose earth. The pottery are
comparatively large in number and also representative types of all the ceramics
were observed and collected; Black slipped and grey ware are more in number,
along with contemporary red ware. Painted Grey ware, though few, but
significant. Bara chalcolithic shapes also occur.
(15) -5.05m to-5.25m. Pottery are typical of the Bara-chalcolithic ceramics; some
charred bones were also collected. The finds include bone stylus, faience bangle
pieces and a terracotta bull figurine. A pit no.2 occurs in -4.43m -5.70m on the
northern corner; the pit yielded a mixture of pre first century BC ceramic sherds
of black slipped ware and Bara chalcolithic pottery indicating the pit had a local
phase in (13)and (14) above. Another pit 3 was also cleared of similar mixed
ceramics. A barrel agate bead and an arecanut-shaped bead of terracotta are the
finds.
(16) -5.35m to-5.80m. Bara chalcolithic pottery and copper objects were recorded.
(17) -5.90m to -6.23m An yellow compact earth of mixed debitage which yielded
Bara ceramics, and some bone pieces were collected. The finds include faience

36
bangle pieces, hubbed wheel, an agate barrel bead, a circular faience bead with
three segments and beads of jasper and banded agate.
(18) Starts at a depth of -6.35m and -6.50m and the ceramics are Bara chalcolithic in
content; the finds are bi-conical terracotta beads and a faience bangle piece. The
layer was exposed upto -6.78m and below which is the natural soil. The content
of the basal level was dug upto 7.08m to ascertain the deposits.

Sectional cutting details of layers

37
SGL-6

STRUCTURES

The upper two phases, ascribable to second-first century AD have revealed walls
forming rooms with floors and hearth and are mentioned in order beginning from the top
level.

The upper level (phase) has exposed a structure running east-west with 20 courses of
brick. Its available length is -0.77m

The next earlier level below has more details of walls with floor levels. The walls are
built of mud and burnt bricks. The mud bricks measure 35x20x6cm and burnt bricks
35x23x6cm. Three walls were exposed which formed a room complex measuring -
1.60m and -2.15m.

Another structure of mud brick on north-south direction measuring -2.55x-2.30m with


corresponding portion on the other has been robbed and only ghost wall fills up the part
of a room complex. A corn-bin with -80cm dia (inside) exposed on the north-east corner.

Some more details of mud and burnt brick walls were exposed, but not with clear plans
of rooms. On the eastern side was a wall running to the west with seven courses of
brick. The floor is of solid bricks but these have been cut by a pit and brick-on-edge
feature indicates a corn-bin nearby. Another plan on the north-south side direction of -
2.60m built of mud brick was traced and yet another brick wall had a length of -3.17m.

38
Brick built rooms, first century BC

A brick floor first century AD

39
Brick built rooms of a house 1st 2nd century AD

Brick built room with bricks robbed with portion in plan


and a corn bin nearby

40
SGL-8

NATURE AND LOCATION

The area of the mound forming part of the ancient village Sanghol, is situated on the
east near the hospital. An earlier clearance and digging has yielded habitation of the
medieval period with an earlier level datable to third and fourth century AD with the
beginning of the habitation dating back to the latter part of the second century AD.

To understand clearly the chronology and the cultural assemblage, it was planned to
excavate horizontally to get clear results and properly finalise the cultural phases and
stratigraphy.

EXCAVATION PLANNING

An area measuring 10X10m was laid out in cardinal directions of 10m square

ZA1 for digging and following are the details of strata and cultural evidence

ZA1 Qdt.2

(1) -25 cm black soil of loose composition


(2) A pit content removed upto -85cm and the layer exposed upto -1.05m. A copper
piece was recovered
(3) A structure is traced with six brick courses. A brick drain having a depression
appears at a depth of -1.05m. Another structure was also exposed at a depth of -
1.20m. Ceramics reveal a mixture of medieval pot shapes and early fifth-fourth
century AD., pot forms and shapes.
(4) -1.35m; change in ceramic features is quite significant. A few sherds have
painted surface. Red Ware is found decorated with horizontal linings with
applique designs. Antiquities include a stone grinder, ink-pot and a copper finger
ring
(5) Excavated upto a depth of 2m; typical Gupta (5th -4th century AD) ceramics,
painted pottery and an ivory bangle piece are the finds. The pit from top level

41
was cleared with its base at this layer. The brick structure from (3) is
contemporary to (4) and (5) upto -2.10m; the wall earlier identified continues
(6) -2.25m. The wall is traced upto 18 courses and exposed on the west and the
layer removed to -2.20m. The finds worthy to mention are a terracotta bead, ivory
bangle and in addition are the fourth century AD ceramics
(7) Exposed upto -2.45m and it consists of yellow earth mixed with compact clay and
slopes to the west. A pit (3) is also isolated. The ceramics are of the 4th century
AD types; some Red Polished Ware are the typical shapes found for the first
time. An ivory dice with 4 sides marking is a notable find. In addition a bone and
ivory bangle piece, a human figurine and a clay sealing with inscription and
Swastika design are to be mentioned. The base of the wall was traced upto base
-2.55m; (4), (5) and (6) are the contemporary layers to the structure. These are
ascribable to Gupta period. The brick wall has 19 courses forming a corner of the
house
(8) Excavated to a depth of -2.85m consisting of yellow earth mixed with sand. A
terracotta ear-stud is an interesting find. Ceramics are few. A local pit yielded
Gupta pottery and Red Polished Ware pieces (RPW). An ivory bangle piece, toy
cart wheel and a copper bangle piece are the finds worth mention. The bottom of
the pit is at -3.05m
(9) The layer is sandy with a brownish tinge extends upto-3.25m. Some Red
Polished Ware sherds were also found, apart from the bones
(10) The contents were removed upto -3.55m; ceramics of the fourth century AD
continues. The soil is loose with some clay scattered in section
(11) The deposits extends upto -3.60m; pottery of the early second century AD are
quite interesting and the finds include a copper antimony rod, an agate bead and
a carnelian ring stone, and some pottery found with lines and stamping on rim.
(12) -4.00m is a mixture of black soil and sand; ceramics are of the typical second-
first century AD type and ascribable to the Kushanas
(13) -4.20 to-4.30m; it consists of sand, kankar mixed with debris

42
(14) Exposedupto -4.47m A few sherds of Kushana ceramic collected. It comprises
of compact clay with a black tinge. It is -23cm thick at the eastern section; some
bones were collected
(15) Deposit removed upto a depth of -4.90m. It comprises of black earth and
brownish sand and is -32cm thick. The ceramics of the 1st century AD are quite
small in size and in pieces. A structure (wall) appears running towards north-
south, east-west.
(16) Extends to a depth of -4.97m. It consists of rain bearing deposit on the north
sloping down as revealed in the section. The contents of this layer include rolled
ceramics, kankar, brick-bats, sand and loose yellow and black earth. Pottery of
early Kushana types and those belonging to the latter part of the first century BC
are typical to mention and excavated upto a depth of -5.30m
(17) It is composed of yellow earth and kankar and ceramics of the latter first century
AD occur. In addition, some stamped sherds were also recorded. At this layer
excavated further to a depth of -5.67 m below which is the natural soil; for proof
and clarity, digging was done further to a depth of -20cm and ascertained there
was no habitation existing.

ZA1 Qdt.4

(1) -0.25m. Medieval ceramics such as sharp-edged bowls, sprint glass, an ear- stud
and a sling ball
(2) -0.35cm medieval pottery ; a shell bead and a broken bull figurine were recorded in
the corner being part of the pit in Qdt.2; excavated upto -0.97m. two terracotta
beads were recovered. At a depth of -0.60m, a brick platform was traced and
removed the layer debris upto-1.10m
(3) -1.30m A compact yellow deposit which yielded medieval ceramics. A toy cart
wheel was recorded and some bones collected
(4) -1.50m consists of loose black soil with brick bats. A copper rod was the only find.
It is special to mention medieval ceramics mixed with 5th -4th century AD pottery
shapes occur. An iron piece and a gamesman of ivory are the finds

43
(5) -1.95m; the contents of the deposit -30cm thick is fairly compact yellow in colour;
ceramics of the Gupta (fourth century D) period were identified. A copper piece and
a terracotta ear-stud are the finds
(6) Deposit upto -2.10m; pottery are similar. Antiquities are ear-stud , gamesman and
a pulley shaped bead of terracotta, copper coins (3) and an antimony rod of copper
(7) Exposed the layer upto -2.35m. A few later ceramics also occur. A bone stylus and
two gamesman are notable finds
(8) Exposed upto -2.60m; ceramics are of the fourth century AD. Two pits were
isolated and material properly analysed; both of them are of the same period and
contemporary
(9) The deposit extends upto -3.25m; pottery of the 4th century fabric occurs and
include stamped pottery also. Apart from ear-stud and hopscotch, an interesting
male head was found with thick lips, socketed eyes, chubby cheeks, and hand
modeled. Two local pits were exposed of their contents upto a depth of -3.38m and
-3.40m respectively; the Gupta ceramics found limit the time-span of the pits.
Excavated upto -3.35m on the south-west corner, exposed upto depth -3.66m in
total. The layer has deposit of 40cm and prolonged in terms of time. A local pit
extends upto-3.75m. and it contained contemporary pottery.

ZA1. Qdt.3

(1) upto a depth of -40cm. Humus deposit


(2) Similar debris upto -42cm; it is a loose soil having slightly blackish tinge.
Medieval ceramic and two broken horse figurines are the finds.
(3) Excavated upto-1.00m; it is -45cm thick with loose soil mixed with yellow and
clay ceramics of medieval times occur while a few sherds of fifth fourth century
AD are also found
(4) Exposed to a depth of -1.25cm
(5) Excavated upto a portion of -1.35m. A structure was traced running north-south
with a length of -2.55m and extends further to the west in the section. Its
connecting wall was also exposed extending towards the eastern end for-45cm
length. Typical fourth century AD ceramics including Red Polished Ware sherds

44
were recovered. It is interesting, at a depth -1.20m a deep cut (or break)
observed on the sections running north-south layers and differ in content on both
sides. A division or a straight void in between is found which a ghost wall is
(bricks robbed resulting in a vacuum) filled with debris. This structure is sealed
with layer content as observed on digging further. A significant observation is,
there seems to be a desertion layer between the contents of the habitation above
and the features which follow at the lower level. Possibly datable to the fourth
fifth century AD; ceramics found are of this type in chronological range. The
clearance was done upto-1.50m
(6) Exposed upto -1.65m on the western side and ceramics of 5th-4th century AD
along with some bones constitute the finds. Antiquities include a terracotta ear-
stud and bead each, a bird figurine, shell bangle piece, sling ball and an ivory
dice. The layer deposit traced upto-2.05m. The ghost wall which was found in (5)
was traced to its base and the connecting floor has yielded two sprinklers and a
copper coin
(7) Removed the deposit which is compact clay with black streaks of ashy soil and at
times turning yellow on removal of the contents upto -2.10m; a brick wall was
lying on edge as if it has fallen on the floor which was cleared. It yielded 4 th
century AD ceramics including Red Polished Ware and a bone bangle along with
some animal bones. Further excavation in the quadrant upto -2.15m yielded a
terracotta toy cart frame and a sling ball. On the eastern portion exposed upto -
2.30m The deposit of this layer ends at -2.60m. A paste micro bead and the
Gupta ceramics continue and other antiquities include terracotta skin rubber and
a horse figurine

(7A)Removed the layer on the western portion upto -2.45m. A wall was traced
running in north-south direction and two courses have been brought to light. A
pit was also traced and isolated at the level to a depth of -2.70m. It yielded an
arecanut and ghata-shaped beads, a bull figurine along with the Gupta
ceramics revealing it as a local pit.

45
(8) Exposed the contents upto -2.80m. Typical Gupta ceramics occur. A terracotta
bull figurine is the find worth mention

ZH1. Qdt.2

(1) Exposed upto a depth of 10cm; mixed pottery dominated by medieval ceramic
shapes
(2) Upto 20cm. A soft stone piece, perhaps a stone sharpener was the find worth
mention
(3) Excavated upto 45cm. A few bone pieces collected. At level -60cm and below,
there is an increase of the ceramics of fifth fourth century AD. A terracotta sling
ball was the find. Debris in heavy thickness with brick bats were noticed and
some of them are complete bricks. Apart from the mix of ceramics, though the
earlier pottery (4th-5th century AD) are more in number, the find of Red Polished
Ware sherds confirms its historic level assigned to the Gupta political lineage
(4) Exposed further (upto 1.20m) and collected antiquities such as a copper ring, toy
cart wheel, bead pendant, a bird figurine all of them of terracotta. A pit was
traced sealed by (3) upto -1.42m; the layer is yellow earth with mixture of kankar.
A terracotta ear-stud, a carnelian bead and a bull figure are the finds
(5) Exposed to a depth of -1.50m in the portion on north-west section and recovered
a terracotta ear-stud, three sling balls, a hub-wheel and a cowrie shell. The
ceramics of fourth century AD continue to occur. A pit was traced on the north
east corner and removed the deposit sealed by (3) at a depth of -1.60m. The pit
yielded Gupta type of ceramics. Further traced two more pits all of them are local
and contemporary ones. The layer has been exposed upto -2.45m. A terracotta
stamp bead, play balls and a micro-bead apart from a shell bangle piece are the
finds.

46
SGL-10

NATURE AND LOCATION

This low, yet compact portion of the mound to the west of Hathiwara, rises to a height of
3 metres was identified for excavations, since ancient bricks were exposed, when
villagers were digging the soil for road construction. Through this, passes a road to the
village coming from Maheshpura. The area assumes an artificial circular shape but the
portion on the northern and western sides were removed for increasing the cultivable
land.

PLANNING OF EXCAVATIONS

In all, four trenches of 10m square each were excavated and numbered ZA1, ZA2, YA2,
and YB2. In general, the habitation of this mound has an uniform sequence of
stratigraphy with the upper portion settled in a larger area in historical times, ascribable
to first and second century AD and an early level belonging to the Bara cultural remains
(chalcolithic).

STRATIGRAPHY AND CULTURAL DEPOSIT: DETAILS

A comparative stratigraphy of the remains reveal the following layers in succession from
the top ground level. The trench ZA2 has exposed the sequence up to the natural soil.

ZA2

(1) Have pits and removal of the upper soil shows in the section brick -bats of the
upper walls and voids created by the bricks robbed or carried away.
(2) //
(3) Is a compact floor with brick -bats rammed and evenly laid.
(4) Floor with clay, pottery and brick bats and the section reveals ashy bands
running all through.
(5) Floor level.
(6) Floor with brick bats cover the wall above.
(7) Loose, ashy layer contemporary to the wall.

47
(8) Floor of brick bats
(9) //
(10) //
(11) A floor level with a mud and burnt brick wall, in the shape of an L angle
(12) Floor with ashy patch and in section
(13) Pieces of pottery on floor, ash and clay and a pit made up of semi-loose
brownish earth
(14) //
(15) //
(16) semi- compact floor with pottery of the Bara fabric (chalcolithic).
(17) semi- loose earth in brownish colour which form the floor content.
(18) //
(19) On top is found a mud brick structure with remains of a single brick course.
(20) semi- loose clay below the brick wall
(21) A cross- wall opposite the earlier one
(22) Contemporary to the wall on (21)
(23) Mud brick wall, below which are found animal remains

YA2

Two different stages of cultural development observed. The upper habitation with (1)
(9) of Historical phase and below is (10) with early element of Bara ceramics and the
mud brick wall just on the natural soil.

YA2: STRATIGRAPHY AND CULTURAL DEPOSIT

(1) surface soil


(2) loose earth and pit cut on the floor
(3) habitation floor with brick bats
(4) ashy layers
(5) //
(6) //
(7) A lime floor and remains of hearth and one of which is brick- lined

48
(8) Floor material ashy and loose. It is yellow semi -compact soil with marks of
burning activity running all through. Ceramics are of a mixed variety with some
early fabrics and shapes emerging. Traces of a mud brick wall with only one
course of brick
(9) //

YB2

It has revealed 2 cultural levels viz; Historic and Bara chalcolithic remains.

YB2:STRATIGRAPHY AND CULTURAL DEPOSIT

(1) Has floor material


(2) //
(3) //
(4) //
(5) Has in addition ashy streaks including charcoal pieces, brick bats on floor of 20-
30cm thick.
(6) //
(7) Floor remains and with charcoal streaks
(8) //
(9) Remains of floor with charcoal pieces
(10) //

Ceramics occur with new shapes not reported earlier. Some grey ware pieces were also
found below which is the natural soil

An interesting feature observed viz., that below (9) on the north-west corner of the
quadrant, the uniformly laid floor with brownish semi-compact earth yielded Bara
Chalcolithic ceramics and one faience bangle. The total cultural deposit is 3.60m.

49
ZA1

Excavation has exposed details of house plans of the upper phase, though much of
them have been robbed for bricks

(1) Pit on upper surface highly disturbed.


(2) To the south east are found stable and undisturbed strata, loose debris with
pottery.
(3) similar loose earth and potsherds
(4) Compact earth and a leveled rammed floor. In the mid-part, runs a burnt brick
wall with three brick courses. It also passes through the section with seven
courses possibly joined with another on the north- east corner.

On the western side is found thin brick- chips laid uniformly, possibly a floor,
contemporary to the wall.

50
Burnt brick wall and rammed Mud brick wall, Period I
floor upper phase, Period IV Bara chalcolithic

Neatly laid floor with clay and kankar nodules

51
SGL-12

NATURE AND LOCATION AND PLANNING OF EXCAVATION

An open unoccupied part of the mound on the western fringes of the village adjacent to
SGL-2 was chosen for excavation as it is on the same alignment of other sites viz.,
SGL-6, SGL-9 and SGL-13. The habitation deposit was quite intact and likely to yield
complete data especially the cultural connectivity of the overlap phase viz., occurrence
of ceramics of the cultures simultaneously together in layers in varying proportions. A
trench A1 of -10m square laid and one quadrant (2) was taken up for excavations.

A1. Qdt.2

(1) -0.60m humus deposit heavily disturbed with pits and brick bat and loose soil and
upper debris
(2) -1.60m An accumulated disturbed deposit with dark patches and some layer
material are also found in section and mixed in floor. Ceramics are of a type quite
disproportionate to the cultural level of typical second century AD deposit, some
early partly such as Black Slipped Wareare found. Other fabrics occur without
any regularity.
(3) An uneven floor with wall built of reused bricks of the mid second century AD.
Two pits have disturbed the remains of layer and the ceramics are not clear in
situ shapes. There are increasing occurrence of Black Slipped Ware coupled
with Grey Ware.Some Bara chalcolithic shapes were also identified in the late
level consisting of a defined upper phase.
(4) -1.26m. A loose deposit with brick bats and mixed pottery including Black Slipped
Ware and Grey Ware of thin shapes more refined in quality, ceramics of the first
century BC do occur. In all these, proper layer sequence could not be
ascertained as the ceramic shapes does not coincide with the normal occurrence
of pot-shapes and forms found in general sequence. They are missing or dis-
continuous. A number of shapes found in the upper layers are actually be
considered to belong to early levels for instance a majority of the Bara
chalcolithic ceramics that are recovered from (2) and (3) actually should not be

52
present, since the phase represent a time span of the second-first century AD.It
could be mentioned that (3)and (4) perhaps represents overlap phase
considering the occurrence of variety of ceramics. In this overlap phase the
significant variations of increase and decrease of the ceramics reveal the
presence and concentration of different groups. This could be visualised by
different fabrics and Wares such as Bara chalcolithic, Painted Grey Ware Grey
Ware, Black Slipped Ware and plain Black Ware.
(5) -3.40m to -4.05m quite compact deposit

(5A)-4.10m leveled surface, all the ceramic shapes are found in proportions, though it
is just an inference. It is found, the ceramics are evenly distributed and prevalence
of the shapes in all wares. It is notable to mention the Red Ware of the following
types occur without much difference: Bara chalcolithic medium vessels in limited
number, Pre-Kushana and early Historic Red Ware shapes, more in number; few
early Kushana shapes and decorated incised designs. Painted Grey Ware is not
found.

(6) -4.05m to -4.30m the deposit is quite compact earth and the ceramics comprise
of Black Slipped Ware viz., plain black ware shapes of small bowls in different
sizes. The ceramics with buff colour perhaps is an off shoot of the Black Slipped
Ware. There is a tinge of Grey colour in black ware but the shapes are normal
ones
(7) -4.30m to -4.60m. From this layer the Bara chalcolithic habitation is revealed by
ceramics upto (10) preponderance of Bara chalcolithic ceramics are in evidence
They are medium sized vessels
(8) -4.70m to -5.40m. A large number of shapes of Bara chalcolithic occur. The
cooking vessel with roughened surface below is also a typical shape. Big shapes
are in evidence and along with them is Red Ware associated with Painted Grey
Ware and black ware in limited number. A Painted Grey Ware shape is the first of
its kind found in this layer.
(9) -5.20m
(10) -5.30m, Typical Bara chalcolithic Ware with many shapes

53
Sectional cutting upto the natural soil, the grey and black deposit below yielded
Bara chalcolithic ceramics, Period I

54
SGL-13

NATURE, LOCATION AND EXCAVATION PLANNING

It is an intact and unoccupied portion of the mound on the southern side of the village
about 40 m south-east of SGL-6 and 60m south west of SGL-9. An area of 10m square
was laid and excavated all the four quadrants of A1.1, 2, 3and 4. In Quadrant 3
excavation was done with intact strata of habitation upto the natural soil to a depth of
8.20m. The stratigraphical sequence of all the quadrants are described, which furnish
complete details of cultural chronology of the settlement.

A1.Qdt.1

(1) Highly disturbed. Burnt bricks of the walls robbed with the pits found
indicating a void or ghostly appearance
(2) //
(3) //
(4) Compact floor laid with kankar and clay, bounded by presently robbed walls
upto a depth of -2.10m to2.20m.
(5) Floor material
(6) The wall continues. The content of the floor consist of ash mixed with yellow
earth from 2.20m to -2.30m. A mud structure is traced on the east, after
clearance

A1. Qdt.2

(1) Highly disturbed surface on top. A pit dug goes upto -1.20m
(2) Debris layer
(3) A brick structure sealed by (2). It forms a small room 1.43x1m; the
contents of the layer is compact yellowish clay with a few brick bats;
ceramics are bowls, stamped pottery and designs on body surface. A
kharosthi sealing is found depicting a bull standing to right. At a depth of
1.75m was exposed a brick structure up to 1.2m with 8 courses and joins a
platform in the front. The bricks of the wall are robbed and the rooms

55
measures 1.50m to 1.90m. A floor found below with a dish vessel well fixed
on the floor.
(4) 1.70m to 1.80m; the platform (robbed) was traced in alignment and was
exposed on both sides of the structure up to 2.20m to 2.30m
(5) Debris removed upto 2.30m. A wall was exposed at 2.40m. A bi-hubbed
wheel and blue glass beads are the finds. The wall is joined by another
forming a small room.
(6) -2.60m to -70m. Some shapes of the early Kushana bowl varieties occur.
(7) -2.80m to -2.90m, compact debris.
(8) Compact mud with ashy patches on floor.
(9) -3.10m to -3.20m, consists of ashy clay and debris.
(10) Compact ash mixed with clay and the pottery include black slipped ware, a
few Bara fabric pottery, possibly debris brought and filled (-3.30m to -3.35m)
(11) -3.80m to-3.60m , contents are more blackish
(12) Pit seals the layer and the filling removed up to 4.15m; the pit yielded mixed
ceramics pre-Kushana bowls, black slipped ware, Bara potsherds including
faience bangles. The layer is a compact yellow debris.
(13) -4.30m, it is loose earth mixed with ash in yellow colour and black clay
earth. It revealed early historic potsherds, black slipped ware, grey ware
and a few Bara chalcolithic pottery.
(14) A layer with black slipped ware occurring in numbers. The contents consist
of loose ash mixed with layer of habitational deposit.
(15) -4.60m, a black slipped ware layer.
(16) A blackish layer -4.60m to -4.15m with evidence of grey ware and black
slipped ware.
(17) A compact yellow layer -4.90m to -5.00m Bara chalcolithic.
(18) Loose ash and earth mixed chalcolithic pottery of the Bara fabric
(19) -5.15m, chalcolithic ceramics and antiquities. A hearth with 2 horns.

56
A1. Qdt.3

The contents of the quadrant and the habitational layers go down up to Bara-chalcolithic
to the natural soil in layers (1) to (31) upto a depth of -8.20m. But the Bara pottery is
recorded below (31) at a depth of -8.60m in a pit. The habitation starts on yellow virgin
soil locally known as pili mitti.The layers and their contents and structures:

(1) Removed yellowish earth on upper portion with a brick platform exposed and
excavated upto a depth of -2.10m
(2) //
(3) //
(4) Dark layer of black colour with the ceramics of early levels of the Kushana phase.
Coins found assigned to Gondapharnes. The layer coeval to platform depth -
2.50m to -2.70m revealed six courses of a mud brick wall, partly damaged by a
pit. This is the earliest example of structural activity. The pits depth extends -
4.40m. At -3.00m, a compact surface exposed.
(5) //
(6) //
(7) Consisting of a blackish layer with yellow patches. The ceramic evidence
indicates 1st century BC (pre-Kushana) with traits such as rounded bowls and
small and miniature vessels. A few sherds of black slipped ware add the changed
position.
(8) -4.60m to-4.70m. A kankary layer, -3.10m above. The black slipped ware
increases. The pit measures -1.25mx-3.35m-4.55 (at B1). The stratigraphy upto
(8) (1) mud wall (structure) 25 cm (2) yellow compact level. 27 cm (3) loose
yellow earth Ashy (4) 20 cm; (5) yellow earth 22cm;(5) (6) Ashy earth and clay
25cm;(7) Kankar floor 60cm. Ashy layer mixed with clay (8). It yielded ceramics
of Bara chalcolithic, except a few pieces of bowls with rounded edge and grey
ware.
(9) -4.30m to -4.60m, compact with ashy patches.
(10) -4.60m to -4.70m, ash mixed with yellow earth. The pottery consist of a mixed
type of black slipped and grey wares and associated red ware with Bara sherds.

57
(11) Ashy layer upto-4.80m with black slipped ware and red ware. The finds include
ivory stylus, ghata bead, ear-stud, wheel and arecanut bead with flat surface.
(12) -4.80m to -5.00m, with some fresh finds of a changed habitational phase.
Typical Bara shapes and painted sherds, cooking vessels with rusticated
surface at bottom, incised designs, and finds include faience bangle piece, a
terracotta cake and a chert stone. Two mud structures traced.
(13) -5.00m to -5.20m, a kankar floor with some burnt patches with ash.
(14) -5.30m to -5.35m, burnt layer yielded thick rusticated pottery. A good quantity
of charcoal collected. A faience bangle piece and a hubbed wheel are worth
mention.
(15) Black and yellow earth and less compact from -5.45m -5.52m. Bara ceramics
and faience bangles including a steatite decorated piece are the finds.
(16) -5.60m to-5.65m, a barrel shaped faience bead is the find, apart from Bara
pottery.
(17) Kankary level mixed with yellow earth and quite compact.
(18) -5.80m to -5.85m, two faience bangles are the finds.
(19) -5.90m to -5.95m, Bara ceramics.
(20) -5.96m to -6.09m , thick
(21) -6.10m to -6.17m, is blackish mixed loose earth. Bara ceramics and finds are
bangles of faience, etched agate bead and a hubbed wheel
(22) Yellow earth mixed with kankar and pottery is less in number and kankaris in
large proportions after -6.40m, ceramics (Bara) are not found.
(23) A habitational layer, ceramics increases. At -6.30m a small wall traced and
excavated upto -6.42m. A faience bangle is worth mention.
(24) Compact kankar mixed with yellow earth. A few Bara pottery (-6.60m). A
hubbed wheel and three faience bangle pieces are the finds.
(25) -6.80m to -6.90m, loose black layer mixed with sand and there is a change in
layer formation.
(26) Loose ash mixed with earth (6.97m to 7.15m) charcoal pieces collected and
the finds are four bangle piece of faience, etched bead, ivory stylus and an
agate barrel bead.

58
(27) -7.27m to -7.40m, blackish ashy in colour
(28) -7.40m to -7.50m, loose earth, yellow in colour
(29) -7.50m to-7.80m.
(30) -7.84m to -8.10m both yielded Bara pottery, a faience segmented bead is an
interesting find.
(31) -8.13mto-8.20m. seven cm thick Bara pottery. A bicone bead and a faience
bangle piece are the finds and below is natural soil which was exposed upto -
8.60m.

A1, Qdt.4

(1) Upper debris removed. A mud wall traced forming a room shape (2.60mx-
2.50m)
(2) //
(3) The wall continues in section upto -1.80m. An yellow layer below with ashy
earth was exposed on both sides of the wall.
(4) The room emerges clearly 2.55m. A mud wall was traced sealed by (3)
exposed the mud structure on all sides. A hearth was traced adjacent to the
wall nearby.
(5) Compact yellow earth mixed with ash. A baked and a mud brick structure both
were exposed and further extending (2.55m-2.65m) and the base of the mud
brick wall was also traced. A floor level was found at -2.05m. A hearth was
built found with a few stone pieces and inverted bowl lying on surface. An iron
hook is found embedded in section. A small lane on the east emerges and
removed from -2.65m to -2.80m depth. Ashy layer in the room removed
exposing the early 1st century BC pottery (pre-Kushana)
(6) -2.80m to -3.00m, ash mixed with clay. It forms the base level of the exposed
structures.
(7) -3.15m to-3.20m, an ashy layer
(8) Mixed layer with sherds of black slipped ware, pre-Kushana pottery; a compact
kankar deposit
(9) -3.50m to -3.60m, finds are an etched agate bead and a faience bead.

59
(10) - 3.80m, an ashy layer
(11) -4.00m to -4.15m, yellow compact earth. Two faience bangles were recovered;
pre-Kushana pottery including black slipped ware. A hearth was exposed
(4.20m) and charcoal pieces collected.
(12) -4.35m to -4.51m
(13) -4.60m to -4.70m
(14) -4.80m to -5.05m
(15) -5.10m to 5.15m Ceramics include pre-Kushana pottery black slipped ware
and some sherds of Bara fabric. A terracotta bangle and an ear-stud were
recorded.

Section details upto natural soil, structures of the upper level Period IV

60
A mud wall with an hearth, Period IV

A mud brick and well laid out floor, a hearth built with stone pieces,
first century AD

61
SGL-13 STRUCTURES

A structure of unbaked and baked bricks run on north-south direction upto -2.48m with -
60cm width. It is sealed by (1). It was raised over an underlying mud brick structure. The
earlier level below the cleared upper surface seems to be the settlement planned during
the firstsecond century AD. It continued without much change in living and also altering
the residential areas. Hence the structures reveal an uniformity and utilize the space to
the best advantage. The main features that follow below has the total conception of
which one group house complex built with spacious rooms with platform in front
adjoining a lane into which let out drainage built of burnt bricks. The lane is -2.75m wide
and the jutting out platform seems to be an encroachment. Two rooms are found on
western side measure -2.65x-2.35m.

The bricks are both mud and burnt ones. The brick size is -34x23x6cm and the width of
the wall is -47cm and extant height is -1.05m with 14 courses. The unbaked bricks size
is -40x23x7cm; the layers contemporary to the structure include (3), (4) and (5) with (6)
as a base. An oven clay lined is found on the west. Another adjoining structure
measures -2.55mx-2.55m and is running east-west upto a length of -3.15m with 17
courses with a height of 1m sealed by (2) with base at (6). Another structure is on north-
south direction -2.90 length with 12 courses with -0.75m height. It has an oven with size
-1.40x-0.75m while the other nearby is -1.38x-0.65m. A wall of burnt brick -0.65 length
by the side of which is the drain charging out to the lane and the width is -65m. The
other room with a platform measures -5.70mx-2.10m which runs to a length of -6.65m to
the south with 17 brick courses. Both baked and mud bricks were used. The structure
on the east has -2.15m long with 6 courses with -0.35m height connecting to that is the
wall of -2.10m length with 3 courses of burnt bricks and five courses of mud bricks.A
huge pit has disturbed the other wall with -0.90m length as such on both sides. Both the
compartments measure -3.50x-2.01m and -1.50x-1.85. Adjoining to the wall is a
platform of baked bricks -3.50x-1.05m with nine courses on the south partly robbed of
bricks. It has complete bricks on outer ends and brick-bats filling inside. Two more walls
were traced on the north, but much damaged. The mud brick platform is visible but in
the baulk section all the rooms has base in (5) and sealed by (2).

62
House built on both sides with burnt and mud bricks, first century AD

Another view, the platform from the room side extended on the lane

63
Details of the houses divided by a lane, during exposition

A close view of the brick platform Brick walls forming rooms, inside view

64
SGL-5 (MAIN STUPA)

EARLIER EXCAVATIONS

The area has yielded in earlier excavations remains of a large stupa, brick built and a
basal platform with space for pradakshinapatha, brick built pathways, votive stupas and
at least three monastic complexes. But the far more significant discovery of 117
sculptures consisting of railing pillars, crossbars, coping stones and other carved pieces
in mottled Mathura red sand stone including lid of a casket with an inscription in
kharosthi characters brought to the fore, the significance of Sanghol as an important
Buddhist centre. So far as its chronology is concerned it is clear that it was built and
existed during the period of the ancient town of Sanghol upto the mid-second century
AD. A find of 178 copper kota and kappa coins of the sixth century AD at the stupa site
could prove its terminal date, though the evidence could not be confirmed.

EXCAVATIONS: 1986-1990

Excavation was undertaken on the northern and eastern side of the monastic complex
which yielded remains of two brick-built pillars measuring 1.30x1.30m possibly
suggesting an entrance. Further exposed two more masonry pillars in front of the main
entrance, leading to the courtyard of the monastery. These possibly formed part of a
verandah. Further digging in the courtyard brought to light brick flooring, lime mixed
kankar floor, covered drains and basement consisting of three rooms. In front of the
main entrance was a big hall, square in plan and having square brick-built pillar in the
centre, with an entrance to the south. To the east and west were found square and
rectangular rooms. On the eastern side of monastery and adjacent to the verandah, a
room was located. A square brick pillar was noticed at a distance 16m away on the
eastern side. Some extension of the brick pradakshinapatha was noticed (about 6.60m
wide). Some rectangular masonry pillars, near the votive stupa were also recovered. In
front of the pillar, a 2.60m wide pathway surrounded by three rooms was also traced.

Further it was felt that the area beyond the monastery exposed towards the north of the
stupa is still traced continuing across the main baulk in the fields, a portion of which is at
elevated part of the land. Trenches were further extended to the north of the excavated
stupa and the remains of some structures like cells, brick floor, verandah and pillar
bases were exposed. This area was under cultivation and much of the remains are
therefore lost. At places, a well laid out drainage system was also noticed. A hoard of
178 copper kota and kappa coins datable to the sixth century AD were recovered. Other
antiquities include copper coins of Kuninda and Kushana rulers, a few terracotta animal
figurines, beads, ball, etc.

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SGL-11

A NEW STUPA AND MONASTIC COMPLEX

Details of excavation and remains exposed 1986-1990

In order to know the extent of the stupa expansion, traces of remains were found further
about 400m away on the northern side. (called SGL-11). Already a portion of a stupa of
dharmachakra pattern and part of monastery were exposed revealing the two-tiered
plan with 4 spokes in the inner ring and the outer 8 of them with interspaces filled with
kankar and rammed earth.

A flight of steps was also exposed on the south. The square platform was strengthened
with three base walls on each side filled with rammed earth. Around were found some
cells and a verandah.

Fresh excavations on the south revealed remaining portion of the monastic complex
including several cells. The dharmachakra-shaped stupa rested on a square platform
(8.5m sq) which was built for strengthening the stupa from outside. A flight of steps was
found on the south. Further there were four cells, two on each side of 2.4m wide
pathway leading to the stupa. The second pradakshinapatha measuring 1.50x3.50x3m
enclosed within a brick-on edge was also exposed.

In the monastery, cells of varying sizes were excavated. An interesting feature in


construction is, while there was a single row of cells on three sides, on the east there
were only two rows. The monastery is rectangular in plan and measures 39x36 meters.
Remains of ghost walls exposed features which can at best be conjectured, but
presently lost. Another stupa was excavated to the south of the monastery (S-2) on the
dharmachakra pattern. It is built of baked bricks (36x22x6cm) and has three tiers
intersected by 24 and 12 spokes in the outer ones, while the inner tier could not be
exposed, since it has been damaged hence walls were recorded and the plan
completed. This stupa is situated 20 meters away from the earlier stupa (S-1) on the
south-east. On this same direction, a third stupa (S-3) on plan of the dharmachakratype
was found, while some parts of the stupa and spokes were exposed, but could not be
continued further as the area was under cultivation. As the surface remains reveal, the
whole portion is flat with built in stupa establishment with feeble foundation which could
be removed easily. What is significant is the planning of the vast area and the extent of
the complex in existence that could be visualized of its enormous nature.

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Dharmachakra stupa, details

Exposed stupa and monasteries

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CHAPTER 4

CERAMICS

GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Ceramics or pottery forms and shapes at Sanghol are found from the Bara
chalcolithic (Late Harappan) culture to the Late Medieval times. Each of the pottery
found in the time of such a long period had specific characteristics that distinguish
them and this therefore enable to classify them in accordance with their availability in
the respective periods concerned. More over they are found in shapes and fabrics
including various types of uniformity that solidify and these are separated and
categerised to begin with and subsequently compared with similar finding in similar
settlements and arrive at with some tentative shapes and finialise the probably
nature of frequent occurrence and list them with the culture concerned.

At Sanghol, the sequence of cultures clearly demonstrate the pottery shapes found
and following are the details of ceramics and their occurrence in site in a broad
based definition from the earliest horizon to the latest period of time at Sanghol.

PERIOD I, BARA CHALCOLITHIC CULTURE (LATE HARAPPAN)

The pottery is of the Red Ware variety very well made and had a clear finish. The
fabric is quite sturdy and the mixture with clay ordegraissant, well balanced and the
ceramic is of uniform nature. Mostly they have an outer coating of slip which is very
typical and characteristic of this ware. It had an outer decoration on body neck and
rim with black paintings. The designs and patterns and depiction of animals and
other scenes and geometric devices are all quite numerous and sumptuous to the
core. Apart from that are the incised designs of plain bands, wavy lines and zig-zag
patterns. The bands are often chequered by vertical or diagonal lines. These
qualities of ornamentation isolate them as the very genre repertoire that immediately
is recognized as an unique combination in the whole range of chalcolithic spectrum.

Among the common shapes mention could be made of big storage jars with variety
of rims such as collared, beaked or beaded rims, big lota shaped vases, some with
carination, dish-on-stand, large bowls with various rims, ring-based jars some with
lids of bowl, shaped and having a central knob and other cooking vessels had rough
ended up surfaces with rounded bottom. Miniature and small vessels include bowls
with and without lids, beakers etc. Some of the typical shapes are drawn and found
represented in the following pages and they are in order of shapes, paintings and
designs.

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Bara chalcolithic, Late Harappan big storage jars, Red Ware

Big storage Jars, Red Ware, Bara chalcolithic

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PERIOD II, OVERLAP PHASE (PAINTED GREY WARE, GREY WARE AND BLACK
SLIPPED WARE)

In this phase some significant pottery found included Grey Ware and Painted Grey
Ware and Black Slipped Ware. A few shapes of Bara-chalcolithic also occur.
Dominant shapes and wares occur mostly in Grey and Black wares. These have
been identified and some of the shapes chosen are drawn and the illustrations follow
in the subsequent pages.

PAINTED GREY WARE AND GREY WARE

There are very few shapes and are of an uniform nature and continue through out.
Some Red Ware also occur. The shapes include straight sided bowls, and basins
the largest among them. Some of the shapes are illustrated.

Black slipped Ware, bowls and a dish, Period II

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Painted Grey Ware, bowls and dish, Period II

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PERIOD III, EARLY HISTORIC PERIOD

The ceramics are dominantly Red Ware of utilitarian types. These are generally
simple red fabric and most of them have rough exterior. They represent cooking and
storing vessels. The shapes are small and bigger shapes are not many the shapes
include bowls with incurved rims storage jars, vases and basins very few better
made pottery found which or slip applied over the body of the vessel.

PERIOD IV, KUSHANA PERIOD (LATER PART OF THE FIRST CENTURY BC AND
THE END OF THE SECOND CENTURY AD)

The fabric of the pottery is a simple Red Ware. Some times for a better surface, slip
was applied. But this is not common and only the application is restricted to some of
them when there is a specific demand and for use on special occasions. The pottery
is essentially utilitarian and for their use in kitchen. The need of the shape depended
upon their use such as for drinking storing, cooking and eating purposes. Large
small and miniature vessels do constitute a special additions in the house holds.
Some types of pottery shapes that are of common occurrence include bowls with
incurved rims, large and medium storage jars, button knobbed lids, sprinklers,
basins, plates, cooking vessels with rough end surfaces at bottom, sometimes
containing soot stains inside, small vessels of miniature shapes in varieties; spouts,
lids and plain stunted cups, plates of small and medium sizes, stem base pots and
long storage jars and also drinking cups and saucers handis and kadhais with dark
contents inside and lamps of different shapesand others. Some of the shapes are
drawn which follow in the subsequent pages.

Red Ware, basins of small size, Period IV

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Red Ware, medium size storage jars, with incised design
on the body of the vessels, Period IV

Red Ware, basins with cardon rims with designs, Period IV

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Red Ware, storage jars, medium fabric, incised lines on neck, Period IV

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Red Ware, Pans kadhai with club handles, Period IV

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Red Ware, dish and pans (kadhai) with handles, Period IV

Red Ware, basins with spouts, Period IV

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Red Ware, small and miniature pots, in different shapes and sizes, Period IV

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Red Ware, lamps with wicks in many shapes, Period IV

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Red Ware, spouted basins, sprinklers, Red Polished Ware, Period IV

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DECORATIONS ON VESSELS

The outer body or the face of the vessels were decorated profusely. A part from the
vessels of everyday use some others of a special type were decorated with a variety
of designs. They are incised as well as stamped with symbols and specific patterns
hearing religious and non-religious designs and this was found repeated
enonmously. Sometimes they were afficed in the form of pellets. These
characteristics decorations could be divided into separate forms. Some are simple
decorations of floral patterns, leaf, and diamond designs an S pattern and circles,
some others have an ornamental feature in the form of mala or a harasimulating a
necklace, with pendants and this has a wide range of manifestations adding dots ,
dashes commas un motif, diamonds and circle and other independents designs. A
particular motif is a star stellate pattern in half and full feature with tiara and gem
enhance the art of designs enormously and it is repeated in a variety of ways. Some
auspicious or religious motifs are triratna, Srivatsa and tretoil forms are designed in
a manner that are more artistic in a way having individual artisans handi work
seldom found in other pot fabrics.

Red Ware, Decoration on ceramics incised and stamped, Period IV

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Designs and decoration, incised S-pattern, triratna and strings
with circular pellets, Period IV

Designs and decoration, details, Red Ware, Period IV

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Designs and decoration, more details, Red Ware, Period IV

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CHAPTE R 5

ANTIQUITIES

TERRACOTTA OBJECTS, A GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Preparing an object in clay or modeling by hand or by a mould and on firing turns into
terracotta and thus becomes usable. It is the desired object that was made. Similarly
objects were prepared in terracotta all of which were to be utilized for a specific
purpose. In like manner objects of everyday use are prepared, whichever is feasible,
and amenable in clay modeling. There is an added advantage that it could be easily
made by artisans, and considering the low cost and mass production by mould, it
becomes an established practice that variety of objects are selected and prepared in
this process and hence emerges that almost all the objects could be prepared in clay
medium. Not only the continuity of such objects increase in popularity, as it is distributed
on commercial basis and new demands lead to new innovations on an endless scale.
The craft technology of clay modelling is increasingly becoming a specialized industry
as the evidence revealed by the enormity of the cultural finds from the first century BC
and the second century AD. More bigger objects were found popular in the time span of
the third and fourth centuries AD. These are the factual gleanings that could be inferred
by the ceramic antiquities found at Sanghol.

HUMAN AND ANIMAL FIGURINES OF TERRACOTTA, A GENERAL PROFILE

The various ways by which representations are visualized and created by a process is
an area of study in Early Historic Period- particularly from about the beginning of the
third century BC, and the early centuries of the Christian era extremely interesting and
significant. Apart from other materialistic objects of everyday use created the visual
rendering of human and animal shapes constitute a special theme in which craftsmen
created the figures instilling beauty and pois of original nature and as near as possible
reality. Sanghol has yielded the prime features in representations of a large variety of
them in all meanings and caricatures of forms. Some of the foremost of them could be
identified and classified as realistic themes and could be listed as of the following
Human figurines male and female are the largest of them. A few motifs are also quite
significant one could trace out new elements specially of fresh ethnic features and also
new themes compared to the local ones. The finest among them include the figurines
specially female on handles, spouts and flat modeled figurines. They are shown in

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standing posture in a dancing mode. Mostly they are mould made and directly applied
when the pot form is in leather hard stage. This type of applying on the ceramic is a
process that has already been in vogue from about the mid first century BC. A typical
variety of terracotta human heads in round depicting the complete features attracts
ones attention in the findings at Sanghol. They form into at least three types so far
known. One is a complete portrayal possibly of a decorative type. Another has a
perforation at neck for attachment to a completely made model with body hands and
legs. The third type is a very special form of heads with pinched face, nose, ears and
heads. Some are having perforation similar to the first type for attachment to the body
prepared independently and later united to form a complete figure. Some others are
made without prepared with minute care and the use may be decorative and the
possibility of other functional purpose if any could be known only if they occur in situ in
excavation. So far no evidence as such is known. The other types that are known
include mother and child together feeding or fondling, representation of human figure
seated on horseback and lamp bearers complete in the form of holding lamps with
hands in gesture. This is a typical rendering known from other sites in contemporary
contexts.

FEMALE FIGURINES, STANDING IN VARIOUS POSES BOTH FLAT PLAQUES AND


THOSE DEPICTED ON SPOUTS

1. Female figurine, lower part of legs damaged, standing, right hand raised up, left
hand bent down but damaged slim body, one leg forward to the right, head dress
bunch of hair, braided and tied above, oval back red ware.
2. Female figurine, oval back, complete, standing above on top possibly flower motif
in thick bun in tribanga right hand touching left breast horizontally in a pose with
right leg foot in front slim body, well modeled below leg perhaps a figurine not
clear, R. No. 10005 ZA5 (2)
3. Female figurine, much eroded red ware, body above broken right hand placed
across slim features, flat back, R. No. 12299 YB3 (2)
4. Female figurine, tall well ornamented slim body modeling very expressive, right
leg across possibly in move or dance pose, right hand across touching breast,
left leg in akimbo, forming part of a vessel, hair is florid and combed in bun tied
above, red fabric, R. No. 833 A1 (3)

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5. Female figurine, face is oval perhaps longish eroded neck ornament, leg anklets
are in view, slim body fine modeling, with a graceful touch right hand touching the
left breast, left down akimbo, right leg across well placed embossed on the
vessel or handle, red fabric, R. No. 295 A1 (3)
6. Female figurine, a complete figurine and a robust portraiture with the modeling
realistic, standing, good buxom physique, erect, right, hand raised above, left
holding a flag, a hamsa raising looking at the damsel full erect, nudity expressed,
face damaged, oval back, perforation at top for hanging, brown fabric, R. No.
13765, ZH9(6).
7. Female figurine, similar to that of R. No. 14004 and 295, red slipped ware,
possibly attached to a vessel, full view complete standing, tender slim, high
spread out hair braided in semicircular fashion bunched at back, right hand
raised up holding a flower bud, right leg akimbo in tribangha left leg thrown
across, face full of expression, R. No. 146 B1 (1)
8. Female figurine, forming part and attached to a vessel, lower part below navel
extant, right leg across perhaps in moving pose, nudity expressed at back a big
perforation, R. No. 9340 ZF10 (1)
9. Female figurine, flat plaque, lower part extant, only legs are visible, left leg across
slim and tender modeling legs have anklets thin and single chain, clothing spread
out due to movement, R. No. 12433 ZH10 (3)
10. Female figurine, depicted on the spout of a vessel, has criss cross dashes
around at bottom at joining portion of the vessel, almost similar to R. No. 295 with
right hand placed on right breast, slim body, nudity expressed right leg across
neck ornament in view head dress in a big bun tied above, two circular pellets
depicted on the side of the figurine above the criss cross design. The spout is
complete, a well modeled one, mould made, R. No. 12298 ZG9 (8)

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Female figures, moulded with flat back, sometimes on handles and spouts

Female figurines, mould made, flat back, Period IV

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Female figures, mould made, flat back, broken above waist, Period IV

Female figure, mould made spout, in cross legged position

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HUMAN FIGURINES, MALE FEMALE, FLAT AND PHYSICAL PARTS, TORSOS IN
DEPICTION

1. Human figurine, female, flat front and back, legs and hands lost breasts
prominently shown, red fabric, R. No. 536 ZB1 (1)
2. Human figurine, female, tall face, ear neck and nose, pinched but in a real
depiction, slit ear, beck like nose, one hand lost but the right hand has a cup like
feature at end a red fabric, R. No. 12965 ZE10 (2)
3. Human figurine, male(?) bent right hand, pinched face, legs lost red fabric
effected with water, flat back, R. No. 10990 SGL-6 ZA1 (3)
4. Human figurine, female, torso and only a bust frame with well-developed breasts,
good physique, heads hands, and legs lost, flat back, R. No. 2089 ZP12 (3)
5. Human figurine, male (?) only body below navel and legs (though) broken, extant
flat front and back, R. No. 1864 ZE1 (4)
6. Human figurine, male, black fabric, well pinche parts of face, eyes, nose and
mouth, at navel there is a perforation dotted details indicate a solder clad in
armour, flat back, R. No. 14187 SGL-8 (8)
7. Human figurine, female good modeling face, left hand and above navel extant,
the part face roughened on the left eye, nose and mouth well made, hand with
fingers incised across thread in the body, though quite bulky but there is grace in
modeling flat back, red ware, R. No. 2638 E1 (10)
8. Human figurine, model made from mould, full complete features, unlike others it
is a human figurine in a bent manner probably a gana motif, well ornamented
face typical Kushana features and back ground, possibly a dancing pose, R. No.
12966 ZB4 (5A)
9. Human figurine, male, well modeled, almost all features preserved, an
expressive face, pelleted all over indicating eyes, ears, covering overhead, fully
dressed, seems to be a warrior, his grim face has an aura of strength and
command hands broken, navel has flat belt in the girdle fashion, a very rare type
including designed portrayal, R. No. 13766 ZG9 (4)

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Male and female torsos, partly damaged, Second Century AD

Male figurine below body broken expressive face, Period IV

89
A soldier clad in armour, Period IV

Figurines with details in torso form, pinched face and pelleted decoration, Period IV

90
10. Human figurine, male, tall figure, hands legs lost, only expressive face made by
slit design giving an idea of his strength and vitality possibly a soldier, though
other indications are not done nose, eyes and mouth very realistically made oval
back, red brown fabric, R. No. 4763 SGL-12 A1 (2)
11. Human figurine, male tall, good gait, legs and hands broken, face modeled and
only part remains, pelleted eyes mouth and pinched nose, hair arranged and
flowing back navel ornamented by a flat beaded necklace, a realistic depiction on
the face, R. No. 5297 SGL-8 ZA1 (6) late third century AD

HUMAN FIGURES OF TERRACOTTA

These are figures without realistic shapes but stylized in nature with pinched face, ears,
nose and eyes and extended hands and legs delineated broadly extended, these are in
different ways represented, mostly broken

1. Human figurine, male pinched mouth and face extended arms and legs, red
fabric, R. No. 1491 ZB2 upper surface
2. Human figurine, female breasts indicated vertical face pinched features, hands
and legs damaged, flat back, R. No. 9229 ZB4 (2)
3. Human figurine, male eroded features water affected red fabric, SGL-13 A1 (3)
4. Human figurine, male, broken both hands and right leg, face lost, R. No. 11711
ZG9 (3)
5. Human figurine, male head lost, hands in forward position in embracing style,
other parts remain, a perforation and leveled space for head to insert to the other
end red ware, oval back, R. No. 13262 ZB4 (5)
6. Human figurine, male, bulky, black fabric, legs damaged face lost, flat back a
symbolic presentation, R. No. 10169 SGL-13 A1 (5)
7. Human figurine, unbaked clay, parts damaged head, hands and legs, oval
features, R. No. 1253 SGLYA2 (7)
8. Human figurine, male black fabric, one hand extant with the torso, legs and head
lost, almost a torso, flat back, R. No. 11203 ZG9 (8)
9. Human figurine, female, much portions lost, prominent breasts, almost a torso,
red fabric, flat back, similar to R. No. 9229 and R. No. 6686 SGL-8 (9)

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10. Human figurine, male, almost a torso perforation on the face to insert at neck,
hands, legs damaged, brown fabric, flat back, R. No. 14715 ZF9 (11) (compare
R. No. 13262) having perforation
11. Human figurine, female, well made, pinched face nose and mouth grooved eyes,
good depiction and a realistic presentation, breasts indicated, hands and legs
damaged, flat back, R. No. 4022 ZB1 (12)
12. Human figurine, female, well made, body features have a tenderness and grace,
head right hand and legs lost bent features possibly seated, back well made,
proverbial depiction in a natural pose and style, a rare delineation, red fabric, R.
No. 13630 ZF9 (13)
13. Human figurine, male, fine modeling, almost oval, back part well depicted giving
a real touch and grace, hands and head lost, a perforation at neck for fixing the
head, (similar to R. No. 3262 and 11203) red fabric, R. No. 8623 ZG10 (1)
14. Human figurine, male, good physique unbaked clay, well-made with an
impressive realism, head legs and hands lost navel and stomach portions
revealed in a tender and graceful rendering broad back indicates a sturdy
personality, perhaps bent and possibly seated, R. No. 5514 SGL-12 A1 (1)
15. Human figurine, male (?) un burnt clay, face indicated with eyes and nose, very
mildly depicted, soft rendering, possibly fully clad, perhaps a soldier indicated
with perforated dots from back to back legs and hands lost, R. No 6081 SGL -12
A1 (1)

HUMAN HEADS (FACE) OF TERRACOTTA

These representations with only the face (head) is extant and all of them have been
typically modeled with sensitive gestures and expressive feelings. These are typical and
some of them having foreign ethnic features; most of them are known from levels of the
first and second centuries AD and one of them perhaps datable to the third century AD

1. Human head / face, male head(?) expressive gestures, open mouth, pelleted
eyes, hair well coiled and rolled in two tiers overhead, perforated ears, R. No.
14594 ZG10 (17)

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2. Human head / face, a well modeled face but made from mould well expressed
eyes, mouth well proportioned, chubby look, brown / chocolate colour, R. No.
8581 ZG10 (1)
3. Human head / face, expressive pelleted features, a female, flat back, black
brown fabric, fleshy in appearance, R. No. 14259 ZJ11 (1)
4. Human head / face, a good figure, male head, drooping moustache, well
pelleted eyes and mouth, eye brows, back indicates taken from mould perhaps a
foreign feature indicated. R. No. 12671 ZJ10 (3)
5. Human head / face, male head, complete in round, perforation at centre of neck
to attach to a figure made with full form separately, a well modeled chubby face,
mould made the face and hair style have some foreign ethnic features, half
closed eyes and mouth have some local features, a good figure of perfect
composition, chocolate colour, R. No. 2041 ZG1 (3)
6. Human head / face, male head (?) decorated on face with a central ornament
affixed, round features mould made oval back R. No. 3965 ZC9 (5)
7. Human head / face, a male, mould made, eyes open nose and mouth are well
delineated, expressive face has some non Indian features black fabric, small
perforation below for attachment, R. No. 5217 ZB1 (5)
8. Human head / face, damaged face, male, mouth, right eye extant face, oval
chubby cheeks and made from mould, R. No. 6156 SGL-8 ZA1 (9) first century
AD
9. Monkey head / face, of a monkey mould made possibly part of a vessel, though
reversely depicted naturally rendered mouth open, expressive eyes head with
disheveled hair, red ware, R. No. 647 ZA1 (2)

PINCHED MALE HEADS

Male heads prepared by pinching the parts and manually shaping the ears nose mouth
and eyes. Some of them bear holes at centre below at neck for inserting to the body,
though none has been found in full form. The modeling is expressive and forceful with a
natural rendering. A few have some features of foreign ethnic types.

93
Human face, male flat back with expressive features

Monkey, mould made fixed on a pot, a basin,


well made with expressive features, Period IV

94
1. Pinched male head, broken below, oval back thin front with nose and face,
mouth indicated sunken eyes but not defined, dull red fabric, R. No. 14137 ZH11
(2)
2. Pinched male head, fabric dark black, flat back perhaps forming part of an object
deep sunk eyes, slit open mouth, weird looking posture, R. No 10694 ZA5 (3)
3. Pinched male head, well modeled more details, and well set features reaching to
a realistic visual all proportionate nose, slit mouth ears well delineated possibly a
hole below now lost hair combed and tied above at back, red ware, R. No. 9748
SGL-13 A1 (3)
4. Pinched male head, realistic portrait, grooved eyes mouth, nose rounded, on
head two perforations at forehead and the other at back of the head, perhaps for
adding a jewel component or attachment for hanging, black fabric, R. No. 6163
ZA2 (4)
5. Pinched male head, oval features round head, small mouth parts are not
indicated, a perforation at head, R. No. 1649 ZQ4 (H)
6. Pinched male head, modeling in round, well made parts, visually made realistic,
very minute hairy moustache indicated, sunken mouth possibly a langhing
gesture, oval eyes quite impressive, sharp nose, 2 perforations on the face just
between eyes and above possibly has some fresh ethnic features, perforation
below at neck, R. No. 7080 SGL-8 ZA1 (8)
7. Pinched male head, A solid handle curved with the circular flat base or which a
human face, impressive moulded well made parts damaged at side of the face
prominent upraised eyes, sharp evolved nose, piercing the nose with 2 holes,
sides with thick curves (possibly snake) enveloping the borders handle
decorated, R. No. 8850 ZA5 (1)

PARTS OF HUMAN BODY, BROKEN, TERRACOTTA

Human body parts, representing original figurines are found and they form a category
by themselves, some of them quite realistically done and also proportionate to certain
measurements. Those that are easily breakable are now pieced together a few of which

95
excel in depiction and finished with a realistic touch. Most of them occur in the time
range of first and second century AD.

1. Human foot, part of a well made male figure, flat back, and possibly left foot with
toes indicated by deep incisions, black fabric, R. No. 12402 YA4 (2)
2. Human foot, part of a well proportioned robust body as the thickness indicates
broken above leg jointly indicated by incised lines, well modeled, R. No. 9305
ZB4 (2)
3. Human foot, right leg lower part, toes finely depicted fully dressed with heavy
boot, foot toes well shown, realistic modeling, black fabric, possibly an individual
of medium height, perforation across in the leg, possibly for attaching to a full
figure, R. No. 12999 ZJ10 (3)
4. Human foot, A huge left foot perforation at centre of leg, well indicated toes,
broad leg deeply incised, well modeled but slightly heavy in finish, red fabric, R.
No. 12434 ZF9 (5)
5. Human foot, possibly an entwined rope design decorative feature of a big
figurine, black fabric, R. No. 13620 ZA3 (9)
6. Human foot, navel leg, a tall figure legs joined together, upper body face and
head lost broken leg toes possibly Jaina saint or Tirthankara. At back a
decorated border in conical shape, rope design at centre, or a plant feature
impressive modeling red fabric, R. No. 13572 ZF9 (11) first century AD
7. Human foot, straight leg with toes incised deeply possibly a soldier covered with
boot at bottom is designed with crisscross lines an impressive realistic tendering
red fabric, R. No. 4995 YE9 (1) second century AD
8. Human head decorated, tall crown with circular bun at centre, tied at back
combed hair face in shown by punched features of nose and eyes broken at neck
flat back possibly a well balanced tall female figurine, R. No. 487 SGL-10 XB1
ZA1 (1)
9. Human foot, prepared model with a pedestal led base, over which are pair of
feet, broken possibly forms part of a tall figure, rough rendering incised toes, R.
No. 13762 ZG9 (4)

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10. Human foot, grey fabric all the toes with incised lines visible, R. No. 5636 SGL-12
A1 (1) fourth- fifth century BC
11. Human foot, and leg, part of a tall figure possibly a Jaina saint, legs closely
linked, lower toes lost flat back erect posture red fabric, R. No. 11793 SGL-13 A1
(6) first century BC

MOTHER AND CHILD FIGURINES OF TERRACOTTA

A very significant motif in which a lady holding child or children either single or two
seated in easy pose, feeding them with the hands fondly shielding them a motif
familiarly depicted in the time span of first and second century AD

1. Mother and child or children motif, lady at ease seated in a chair, with legs
outspread head and part hands and legs lost or damaged flat motif softly done at
back indicating the cushioned chair, symbolically depicted child on the lap, a
realistic rendering, R. No. 13302 YA2 (4)
2. Mother and child or children motif, lady seated in a chair cross legged embracing
two children (possibly twins ?) breast feeding, face damaged neck ornament
clearly rendered, neatly combed hair falling at back threaded and hanging lied in
bunch, well designed and also realistically modeled R. No. 12287 ZB3 (5)

PERSON RIDING ON AN ANIMALS BACK

1. A good designed terracotta, rendering a male figure on an animals back riding,


the animal could be a bull or an horse ? The lower part of the animals legs
broken, stylistically rendered human figure slit mouth, face and hands broken, R.
No/ 3794 SGL-10 XB2 (7) first century BC
2. Human figure, upto body portion intact and modeling very rough, parts of the
body not indicated, a lump of clay represent face, slit mouth not precisely
indicated, oval frame SGL-6 ZA1 (20)
3. Miniature pot in the anthropomorphic frame broken, legs are extant body and
above lost, good modeling, R. No. 1591 ZE1 (3)
4. Human figure, stylized slit mouth, provided at base with a pedestal, eyes are
indicated, a perforation on top of head R. No. 12344 ZB3 (3A)

97
Modelled figures with flat back, broken torsos parts of legs with details

Mother and child motif seated, one with A rider on an animals


2 children, first century AD back, Period IV

98
BULL FIGURINES

1. Bull, black fabric, slightly damaged, indented dots in body possibly the rope to tie
realistically shown, R. No. 952 ZE1 (1)
2. Bull, red fabric, complete, legs damaged, mica-dusted, good anatomy, R. No.
323 SGL-10 ZA1 (1)
3. Bull, complete, nose perforated, long body elegant features thin and slim, all
details well shown, R. No. 10987 ZA3 (2)
4. Bull, red ware, speck and dots all over body possibly the variation of the body
features nose perforated, slit mouth indicate its pasture in field, R. No. 12232
YA6 (2)
5. Bull, red ware, complete hind leg damaged nose, perforated good anatomical
features and well depicted, R. No. 10988 ZA3 (2)
6. Bull, red ware, legs broken, robust and bulky body, nose perforated, mouth split,
realistic portrayal, R. No. 9482 SGL-13 A1 (2)
7. Bull, fine modeling, middle aged as indicated by the mane, face is well depicted
amounting to a spirited feel, legs damaged, small tail is nicely indicated and a
fine creation, R. No. 8691 ZG10 (1) the third fourth century AD
8. Bull, red ware complete buxum body, heavy equally visually strong as modeling
done by hand to increase the realistic feel, a sense of free style of portrayal circa
the fourth century AD R.No. 8710 ZG10 (1)
9. Bull, grey ware, all the anatomical parts equally proportioned, long tail, peeled of
legs and the horn nose and eyes are indicated with the last by pellets, straight
face and erect mane also well shown, a refined production early third fourth
century BC (?), R. No. 9774 SGL-6 ZA1 (2)
10. Bull, red fabric, fine modeling, small but portraiture is very real, dots in body in
line of the rope high energetic mane, nose and eyes very much original, though
miniature in style, complete except hind legs damaged, R. No. 2088 ZP12 (3)
11. Bull, red ware, broken mane, hind legs sturdy, strong and rope horizontally
thrown over body including centrally tying below the 1tail, R. No. 13148 ZB4 (3)

99
12. Bull, greyish fabric tall, slim with equipoise modeling with a majestic feel, curved
horns, stunted mane, tall legs possibly, very proportionate in production, R. No.
2401 ZP12 (3)
13. Bull, grey fabric, good anatomical features though back part including tail
damaged, a ferocious bull because of the rope shown tied round the perforated
nose, eyes quite bold, the very face emits its brutal quality even legs are tied
together perhaps the red in the shed, R. No. 9682 SGL-13 A1 (3) early features
of third fourth centuries BC
14. Bull, red ware complete well-made and best modeling so far known, thin slim,
long body, mane of proportionate size, nose perforated tail attached as shown
by perforation round eyes and split mouth, damage to the fore leg, R. No. 10968
ZA3 (4)
15. Bull, face of a bull, upto neck remains, a clear depiction, with horns naturally
curved, thick pellet eyes, nose perforated rope goes in the nose threaded visually
clear, a natural anatomical depiction, ears quite clearly isolated, R. No. 11528
SGL-6 ZA1 (4) c the third- second century BC
16. Bull, black fabric complete, heavy and long body mane and even straight neck, a
noval depiction, perforated nose, pelleted eyes split mouth and tethering by rope
as found in neck R. No. 14041 YA2 (4c)
17. Bull, red fabric, well made a very sturdy and strong animal with all parts
indicated, well refined mane a bell chain over the animals neck, intact legs, face
damaged, R. No. 4961 ZB1 (1) c third century AD and later

HORSE FIGURINES OF TERRACOTTA

1. Horse figurine, grey fabric, only face and part neck extant, dotted face pelleted
eyes, split mouth, realistic depiction, R. No. 5941 J1 (4)
2. Horse figurine, small well, modelled red fabric, roughened features, upto next
extant, feathery head shown by scratches, R. No. 9078 SGL-6 ZA1 (6) (circa first
century BC)

100
Bull figurine, an expressive head, Period IV

Bull, standing, modelled solid, Period IV

101
Bull figurines, well modelled, Period IV

Bull figurines, complete, first century AD

102
3. Horse figurine, red fabric, similar features of the preceding figure, excepting the
hind legs and the front leg, anatomy is complete, traces of trapping in the body
across thrown over on both sides and around body at centre clearly visible
except bride bits thick eyes, split mouth lengthy body, R. No. 7434 SGL-6 ZA1
(6)
4. Horse figurine, grey fabric, face well done, mouth and mane all clearly indicated,
long neck, extant upto shoulder, R. No. 8746 ZA4 (1)
5. Horse figurine, un burnt clay, face damaged, robust body, in fast pacing
movement, neck poised and legs on the move, body at back is also in position of
running, mane clearly indicated, a good model, legs are lost, R. No. 7793 ZP4 (8)

ELEPHANT FIGURINES OF TERRACOTTA

1. Elephant figurine, well modelled and realistic, face and trunk nighly incised
decorated with lines, pellet eyes, only face remains, a rare depiction, red ware,
R. No. 9830 ZA3 (2)
2. Elephant figurine, a buxom figure, big and robust body, small trunk other portions
lost, fine red ware, perforation vertically from top head to mid neck and another
between front and hind legs, possibly attached to a model cart, R. No. 12573
ZJ10 (4)
3. Elephant figurine, front 2 legs damaged, trunk body and back part extant, neck
on top broken long trunk, red ware, R. No. 1285 YA2 (3)
4. Elephant figurine black ware, body and trunk extant, legs lost good modeling with
even proportions, R. No. 7797 ZP4 (8)

LION FIGURINES OF TERRACOTTA

1. Lion figurine, majestic posture, flowing mane in semi-circular fashion mouth with
effect of roaring, broken legs and back, erect attitude, R. No. 7784 ZP4 (9)
2. Lion figurine, quite enormous size, pelleted and grooved eyes and nose face is
only extant attached to a cart model, horizontal perforation covering solid front
legs, R. No. 13367 ZG8 (15) first century BC

103
Horse head, expressive depiction, first century BC

Horse figurines, first century AD

Horse figurines, one of them is on the move, Period IV

104
Elephant, well modelled, Period IV

Elephant figurines, well made, Period IV

105
Lion, mould made in the form of a plaque, first century AD

Lion, in a roaring style, Lion, visually well modelled, Period IV


first century BC

106
3. Lion figurine, highly visual impression of a majestic lion, well portrayed with
expression of a roaring nature, overflowing mane fine and graceful modeling
mouth split and pelleted eyes, R. No. 13445 ZG8 (17) first century BC
4. Lion figurine, face in front very well modeled with bent face mouth in attitude of
waiting for the bait, quite a new modeling as originally it was in a squatting
position black fabric, R. No. 2712 ZB1 (5)

PANTHER IN TERRACOTTA

Panther, an animal in the wild, heavy body, in ferocious moving position, long robust
size including face and grumbling and howling expression, parts broken, but in general
the frame in full view, a good modeling specially in the wild, black ware, looks over burnt
and the colour fits the animal presented as such, R. No. 10809 ZG9 (5)

MONKEY FIGURINES

1. Monkey figurine, red ware, moving up with all 4 legs climbing up, expressive
face, small tail, complete, red ware, R. No. 8950 ZA4 (3)
2. Monkey figurine, complete slit mouth damaged, but well depicted, medium size,
Red Ware, R. No. 6725, ZA4 (3)
3. Monkey figurine, lower legs broken, face is clearly depicted, eyes in circular
pellets, slit mouth ears are all very realistic, yawing mouth possibly a warning
expression, grey fabric, R. No. 12401 ZB3 (3b)
4. Monkey figurine, brown fabric, legs damaged, long neck, gaping mouth, sharp
eyes, R. No. 14209 YB1 (4)
5. Monkey figurine, long body and legs, spread apart in fast pace, face damaged,
long tail, a good, modeling a list one if complete, R. No. 7768 ZP4 (8)

DOG FIGURINES OF TERRACOTTA

1. Dog figurine, front and hind legs each broken, robust features, leg and ear are
damaged, eyes are indicated, good modeling, brown fabric, R.No. 13507 ZA3 (3)
2. Dog figurine, small with features clearly indicated, open mouth, hind leg
damaged, R. No. 5405 SGL-8 ZA1 (6) third century AD

107
Panther, in full form, on the move well modelled, Period IV

Monkey in varying moods and postures, second and third century AD

108
Dog standing, complete third century AD, Period IV

Figure of a dog, third century AD

109
COW FIGURINE OF TERRACOTTA

Cow figurine, part of a vessel or an attachment to a model, details not clear, part of the
front face and body damaged back part with tail and udders extant.An effective robust,
yet tender delineation of the features, in squatting position, one rear and two front legs
are extant, udders are indicated, back is plain with the stamping effect of the model,
from mould, red ware, base has six perforations, R. No. 4776 J1 (1)

GOAT FIGURINES OF TERRACOTTA

1. Goat figurine, complete, red fabric, water effected, face naturally depicted,
shaggy ears with upturned tail, extended body, R. No. 13122 ZB6 (2A)
2. Goat figurine, grey brown fabric, face extant, eyes and mouth are clear, R. No.
14718 ZG8 (17)

TORTOISE FIGURINES OF TERRACOTTA

1. Tortoise figurine, possibly a mould made figure, broad body and bent face,
effective modeling, black-brown fabric, R. No. 7107 SGL-6 ZA1 (1)

RABBIT FIGURINES OF TERRACOTTA

1. Rabbit figurine, black fabric, broken legs, open mouth, grooved eyes, bent body
bearing a design and is on the move, R. No. 638 A1 (9)
2. Rabbit figurine, red fabric, a complete one, deep curved lines on body and tail
face raised up and legs shown moving fast, a realistic modelling R. No. 14136
ZG10 (3) baulk removal.

ONAGER

Onager, body and face extant, black fabric, pelleted eyes, open mouth,
damaged quite expressive in appearance. As the animal is on the move, the
gesture is clearly indicated R. No. 638, A1 (1)

110
Cow figurine, in squatting position circa third century AD

Figure of a Goat head, well modelled, Period IV

111
Goat complete, well modelled, first century AD

Tortoise, complete with outer shell, third century AD

112
Rabbit, complete, well modelled, Period IV

Figure of a Onager, circa third century AD

113
RAM OF TERRACOTTA

A bulky figure, very realistically modelled, robust depicted in naturalistic style forming
part of a model cart, provided at legs with perforation diagonally, the frame is compact
in itself. The face and horns are indicated with designs by pellets and dots. The horns
are curved depicted with crossed lines and the modelling has a natural poise that is very
realistic. There is a perforation at the tail end. The fleshy hair on body are indicated by
incised lines with a central line and spread out with a natural look, red ware, R. No.
13286 upper level

SNAKE FIGURINE OF TERRACOTTA

Snake figurine, black fabric bent on both sides, face is shown pinched with eyes
and mouth complete, flat in middle and oval end, R. No. 14712 ZB3 (8)

BEAR FIGURINE OF TERRACOTTA

Bear figurine, unburnt clay, grooved eyes, erect body, one front and rear leg
missing, small tail, R. No. 5809 SGL-8 ZA1 (1)

BIRD FIGURINES OF TERRACOTTA

1. Bird figurine, Red Ware, lower part and a part of beck damaged, good modelling,
R. No. 8998 SGL-13 A1
2. Bird figurine, Red ware, seems to be a duck, bent beck, bottom damaged, R. No.
220 B1 (3)
3. Bird figurine, Red ware bottom portion broken, wings are well depicted, R. No.
5733 J1 (3)
4. Bird figurine, black ware, feathered body in a circle and globular shape, cock
variety, ethnically a foreign model, R. No. 12104 ZB3 (3b)
5. Bird figurine, brown colour, beck bent with eyes indicated, a perforation below for
keeping it for viewing, R. No. 5205 SGL-12 A1 (4)
6. Bird figurine, wings upwards as it is about to fly, lower part broken, lines indicated
on both the portions of wings, good modelling, R. No. 6287 SGL-8 ZH1 (4) third
century AD

114
7. Bird figurine, realistic depiction, soft modeling, red ware feathers upward
indicated by vertical lines neck is in a mood to pick up its food, sharp eyes, lower
part of legs damaged, R. No. 7495 ZJ5 (6)
8. Bird figurine, small bird, sensitive modeling, tiny beck, partly damaged at lower
portion and feather part is not shown, R. No. 13150 ZF9 (10)
9. Bird figurine, possibly a cock, standing in full side view on a pedestal beck and
back part damaged, a realistic portraiture, R. No. 4115, ZB1 (14)
10. Bird figurine, complete, the body, beck, feather and tail end all are well modelled
and sensitively depicted, wings spread out horizontally lines indicating feathers,
realistic creation, R. No. 548 ZB1 (1)
11. Bird figurine, black ware, beck and legs lost though clearly shown tail end,
realistically made, healthy body part with sensitive modeling R.No. 13301 ZE1 (1)

OWL FIGURINES OF TERRACOTTA

1. Owl figurine, the bird peeping out standing on a pedestal the nest or the hole
being general hide-out it, grooved eyes, R. No. 6733 ZA1 (9)
2. Owl figurine un burnt clay, deep sharp eyes, erect view, bent body and tail part
having a natural curved projection, R. No. 4779 ZA1 (9)

CROCODILE FIGURES OF TERRACOTTA

1. Crocodile figure, face long, neck and part of body extant, pelleted to indicate
outer skin, flat underside, red ware, R. No. 4599 J1 (1)
2. Crocodile figure, unburnt clay, broken in mid part, long neck and mouth, realistic
portrayal, side wings indicated, oval in section, R. No. 9341 ZB4
3. Crocodile figure, black fabric, broken neck part extant, pinched mouth, R. No.
843 SGL-10 YA2 (6) circa third century BC
4. Crocodile figure, lengthy body, back broken, the outer part shown very
realistically, mouth and teeth expressive in view, on the move proportionate
features, brown fabric, R. No. 8712 ZG10 (1)

115
5. Crocodile figure, fine modeling cut design with ripple effect showing outer skin,
equally the long neck with pelleted features, red fabric, nose extended and part
pierced, horizontal perforation, back oval and plain, broken in mid part, R. No.
9530 ZF10 (1) circa third century AD

WHALE OF TERRACOTTA

Made in the form of a spout, representation of whole is quite natural and the
rendering is more nearer to reality of the marine creature. It is mode in the form of
gaping wide open mouth and there are two grooves below mouth. The teeth is
indicated by incised lines. The modelling is very expressive and the soft parts of the
body made to a perfect finish, Red Ware, R. No. 13809, YA4 (3).

116
Complete Ram figurine part of a model for a cart, well made,
circa third century AD

Snake figure, Period IV

117
Bird figures, common modelling complete well-made expressive features,
first century BC to third century AD

Bird figures, complete with feather and tails, Period IV and V

118
Figure of an Owl, circa first century BC

Crocodile figures, Red fabric

119
A Whale in the form of a spout, realistic modelling, Period IV

120
CHAPTER 6
OBJECTS OF EVEREYDAY USE

A BRIEF PROFILE

A classification of the terracotta objects reveal the basic utility and they form a pattern
that evolve round the everyday functioning and ways of life of the people be they in
village, town or city. Some of their uses are, though remain a continuity but the only
difference is the variety that is special to mention and lead to new ways of use. This is
apt to state in case of the finds at Sanghol.

The various crafts practiced and technology utilized as found by the objects include,
some of them such as skin rubber, dabber, crucible, plumb-bob, weight and weighing
balances, sharpener stones, spindle whorl, stamps of various sizes and designs and
decorations, moulds and others. Some of the objects of the category of spending leisure
time in sports and game activities are found include, dice, gamesman, rattle, hopscotch,
toy-cart frame and wheels and ring, to mention a few. Some of the objects both in
complete and pieces found reveal the existence of stone and gem cutting industry and
of the smithy and jewelers workshops by the finds of caskets, cosmetic and perfume
boxes, toilet cases, bangles, rings, beads in varieties, pendants, ear rings, ring and
ornamental pieces and so on. In addition, ink-pots and feeding cups infer use of such
objects of specialized nature. There are more varieties of objects that are put to use
some of which are difficult to interpret but possibly had some ritualistic or religious
connotations and practice and the main source of their inner meaning have not been
traced. These are described and illustrated in the subsequent pages in order.

SKIN RUBBER

Skin rubber is used as a convenient object for cleaning the body, almost equivalent to a
bath-soap. It has a roughened surface in the form of specks or porphyritic nature which
could be used by rubbing during bath. It is made with square, rectangular or oval shape.
Skin rubber is found in all the cultural periods.

1. Skin rubber, broken, portions have been rubbed away, R. No.13806, ZJ9 (1)

121
2. Skin rubber, rectangular, broken, on both sides portions extant, R. No. 1026, A1
(5)
3. Skin rubber, rectangular, complete, rectangular, working part on both sides, R.
No. 6339, ZA1 (6)
4. Skin rubber, small, rectangular fully extant edge, R. No.6340, ZA1 (6)
5. Skin rubber, complete, rectangular, partly extant on all sides, R. No. 6340, ZA1
(6)
6. Skin rubber, complete, rectangular, intact edges, sound device inside, R. No.
10107, SGL- 6, ZA1 (11)
7. Skin rubber, complete, rectangular with intact edges, R. No. 12572, YA6 (1)
8. Skin rubber, complete, rectangular, worn out edges, R. No. 3010, ZQ4 (upper
humus)
9. Skin rubber, square, red sand-stone, broken, one side un worked, R. No. 7995,
ZG10 (1)

DABBER (SOLID TERRACOTTA)

Dabber is tool made of solid clay and subsequently fired and well made, soft oval base
with a grip and equally over top being smaller than the working base. Holding the
dabber the pots in leather hard stage, before firing, tapped steadily and tenderly by it, to
get it, shape without any bend or shallow spots. An uniform feature of the pot shape is
brought out by the use of dabber slowly beating and bringing the pot to the desired
shape. The complete dabber without damage found clearly reveal its identity, purpose
and function.

1. Dabber, solid, scratches peeled off at lower side, upper part intact rough fabric,
medium size, R. No. 10317 Zm4 (1)
2. Dabber, solid, complete, small fine fabric, red ware worked portion intact, use is
evident, R. No. 1712 ZA1 (1)
3. Dabber, solid, broken only a part extant, a swastika mark on the side of the
dabber, R. No. 11788 SGL-13 A1 (7) early 1st century BC
4. Dabber, solid, intact, blackish incrustation, pre first century BC working part intact
R. No. 3002 A1 (7)

122
Skin rubbers, circa first-second century AD

Dabbers, circa first century BC Dabber, complete, Period IV

123
5. Dabber, solid, a very big and heavy one in complete shape, intact working
portion in good condition, R. No. 2726 SGL-10 (4)
6. Dabber, solid, much damaged portions, peeled off and removed part working
portion extant, R. No. 14897 ZF10 (9)
7. Dabber, solid, of medium size easy to handle, complete, two circular lines in
body all around R. No. 3529 SGL-10 YB2 (7)

CRUCIBLE POTS OF TERRACOTTA

The function and purpose of these small, yet tiny miniature vessels could be gauged by
comparing those larger vessels which were used in melting of metals in manufacture of
copper and iron objects. In some, the dark soot and the surfaces hardened due to
burning indicate the possible use in such process, but what is interesting these small
vessels could have been utilized also for the preparation of precious objects of gold and
silver. The uniform shape of the vessels and black and thick concreted surfaces suggest
they were put to such use may be one of the possibilities.

1. Crucible, of pan shape, small, well made, R. No. 14906 ZA4 (1)
2. Crucible, miniature pot, red fabric, R. No. 5641 SGL-8 ZA1 (1)
3. Crucible, of pan shape, small, well made, red fabric, R. No. 10314 SGL-13 A1 (1)
4. Crucible, miniature shape, red fabric, R. No. 11473 ZG9 (3)
5. Crucible, miniature shape, R. No. 9451 SGL-13 A1 (3)
6. Crucible, small, a vessel with thin upper portion, R. No. 12067 YA3 (4)
7. Crucible, small, a complete globular vessel, black fabric, R. No. 9703 ZG10 (5)
8. Crucible, broken, upper part handmade used for the metal heating incrustation
inside, R. No. 11147 SGL-13 A1 (6)
9. Crucible, small, of miniature form, red fabric, R. No. 13587 ZF9 (8)
10. Crucible, miniature vessel handmade, complete, R. No. 13587 ZF9 (8)
11. Crucible, small, handmade, complete, R. No. 12258 ZG9 (10)
12. Crucible, flat bottom, square, broken on one side, shallow depth, R. No. 13323
ZF10 (10)
13. Crucible, miniature, black fabric, handmade, R. No. 7320 ZJ5 (19)

124
Dabbers, complete, circa first century BC

Crucible pots, Period IV

125
PLUMB-BOB OF TERRACOTTA

This is an instrument or a device meant to be used by a mason in building construction.


The shape resembles a sharp cone with flanged central part and a perforation at centre
up to the lower end and tied bellow and used in hanging position. The purpose of this
device is to keep control of the straightness of the wall during construction. At every
stage the device is used to check by releasing the thread from top as to the walls
deviation if any and alter accordingly. It is reported in all cultural levels. The device is
used without change in modern times by the masons.

1. Plumb-bob, flat on both top and bottom, pot shaped with adjustment level for
alignment of wall being a masons instrument, vertical perforation, R. No. 643
ZA1 (3)
2. Plumb-bob, pot shaped with broad body, perforation at top to a limited depth for
thread, R. No. 13191 ZE10 (3)
3. Plumb-bob, pot shaped with oval bottom, decorated with circular pellets at neck,
R. No. 7965 ZJ5 (3)
4. Plumb-bob, cone shaped with a broad base, perforation at centreupto bottom for
thread, R. No. 13807 YA3 (3)
5. Plumb-bob, a typical shape, oval top and conical base, flanged upper part for
alignments to measure, perforation a top on the bob-knob R No. 6258 ZJ5 (4)

WEIGHTS OF TERRACOTTA

These consist of mould-made square or rectangular tablets, neatly finished conforming


to certain standard sizes of similar nature in shape. A few of them are plain. But most of
them bear distinct designs in the form of incised pattern. Many of them bear the design
almost equally similar. It is being considered that similar designs found have some
standard weight thereby suggesting that these could be weights.

1. Weight, square broken corner, one side with 2 curved incisions, R. No. 4723 ZB4
(1)
2. Weight, complete, square, one side incised with three curved lines, R. No. 6734
ZP4 (1)

126
3. Weight, complete, square, incised with u-shaped three lines, well made, R. No.
9203 SGL-13 ZA1 (1)
4. Weight, broken, incised with u-shaped three lines, R. No. 13670 ZH10 (3)
5. Weight, small, square, well made, black fabric R. No. 12451 ZF9 (3)
6. Weight, square, partly damaged, details obliterated, R. No. 7968 ZA1 (8)

WEIGHING CUP USED IN BALANCE OF TERRACOTTA

1. Weighing cup, complete intact with straight sides, handmade, R. No. 7218 J1
(13)
2. Weighing cup, complete, with holes on the sides but not uniformly made,
handmade, R. No. 8625 ZG10 (1)
3. Weighing cup, complete holes evenly made with two on each side for tying the
thread to have the balance cup on even level, well made, hand prepared, R. No.
9350 ZF10 (1)
4. Weighing cup, fine vessel prepared on wheel, slight inward slope, flat base,
partly damaged, side perforation on even level, one of which visible but broken,
R. No. 14923 ZB3 (2)

SHARPENERS

These are in stone and most of them are small pieces with both sides used as
the surface features reveal. The deep channel-like conditions on the face of the
stones possibly indicate the strong grains that with stood the constant sharpening
of the objects and hence such stones were required to be used to the full set
extent. These are found in all the cultural periods, but more in the time span or
first and second centuries AD.
1. Sharpener, white stone, rectangular damaged, worked on both sides, R. No.
5280 ZJ5 (1)
2. Sharpener, sand stone, worked on both sides indicating deep channels on both
sides, R. No. 12048 ZH9 (4)

127
Plumb-bobs, circa second century AD

Weights, circa second-third century AD

128
Weighing balances, Period IV

Sharpeners, Period III and Period IV

129
3. Sharpener, stone, sloppy centre indicating worked out portion, complete, R. No.
6508 ZA2 (4)
4. Sharpener, flat, schist, rectangular but damaged, smooth portion indicating use
on both sides, R. No. 11628 ZG9 (5B)
5. Sharpener, schist, small, curved part indicating use, R. No. 1297 SGL-10 YA2 (6)
6. Sharpener, red sand stone, worked on both sides, R. No 133326 ZB3 (6)

SPINDLE WHORL OF TERRACOTTA

Spindle whorl in terracotta is generally limited to its availability in the Early Historic
Period of first and third century AD. It consists of a circular or oval size (used for play by
children) with upper size made flat and piercing a hole to sufficient depth for insertion of
a stick for use as a spindle. The stick is generally made from bamboo is of thin size, so
that it could go easily in the hole. So far no in situ example of a spindle whorl with
thread is found in any excavation of a site, its use in recent times of such a shape testify
to its identity.

1. Spindle whorl, pot shape, hole in centre, R. No. 13628 ZG10 (1)
2. Spindle whorl, flat, small in button shape, hole in centre, R. No 14730 ZH10 (2)
3. Spindle whorl, pot shape, perforation at centre, R. No. 12608 ZE10 (2)
4. Spindle whorl, pot shape, hole at centre, R. No. 8996 SGL-13 A1 (2)
5. Spindle whorl, circular flat similar to that shape in modern times, hole complete,
R. No. 14731 YA2 (3)
6. Spindle whorl, circular, ribbed design in vertical row completeR.No12303 ZF9 (3)
7. Spindle whorl, circular, ribbed design in vertical row complete R.No. 1790 ZP12
(3)
8. Spindle whorl, flat circular, slightly bigger, similar to modern one, hole at centre,
R. No. 4016 YB2 (7)
9. Spindle whorl, pot shape with central hole, R. No. 6948 SGL-8 ZA1 (7)
10. Spindle whorl, globular and bulbous, dotted pattern emerging in specks in a
circular way, black fabric complete, R. No 10695 ZF10 P. S.by (1)
11. Spindle whorl, flat round shape as in modern one with complete hole, R. No.
3049 ZB2 P. S.by (humus),

130
Spindle whorls, circa first and third century AD

Spindle whorls, circa first and third century AD

131
SMALL STAMPS OF TERRACOTTA

Stamp is a plain decorative device of a simple nature to be used for ornamental


purposes and heighten the beauty of the pots and variety of utensils and other objects
of daily use in general. Apart from the simple designs subsequently develop more
decorative patterns of a religious nature, geometric designs, birds, flowers and other
vegetative motifs, a pattern of web motif intricate in nature enlarging the scope of
beautification. These are found, though from Bara chalcolithic levels, but in the first
century AD to the third century AD they become prolific and there is no ethnic
boundaries since all these are used in households and could not be classified as to
belonging to any religious groups as such. Stamps could be divided into two groups viz.,
those small ones of simple nature used by hand direct on any surface preferably of a a
solid nature. Second type of stamp is an elaborate device and the motif is also equally
large. These have narrow centre with lower and upper quite large especially the part of
the decorative device done with care as it a functional working end. The narrow centre
is for having grip to hold for using the stamp. These are meant to be used on larger
surfaces specially served as textile designs and also for other specific purposes. Most
of them are reported from the time of the first century AD and continues to the fourth-
fifth century AD.

1. Stamp, bearing an u-curved decoration for ear-ring, well made, red fabric, R. No.
6155 ZA2 (1)
2. Stamp, on both sides, motif possibly a flower petal, long handle, R. No. 7365 ZA4
(2)
3. Stamp, handle, channel-like central part, flower bud, R. No 12417 ZA6 (4)
4. Stamp, motif extant, flower motif, R. No. 6994 SGL-8 ZH1 (5)
5. Stamp, only motif extant, flower motif, R. No. 10203 SGL-13 A1 (6)
6. Stamp, more or less complete with handle curved for good grip star-stellate
pattern, good fabric, R. No. 7573 ZB1 (7)
7. Stamp, very well designed with both sides stamp design intact with good grip in
centre, pattern is a pendant with dot and chain motif, R. No. 1577 SGL-10 ZB2
(9) early level

132
8. Stamp, cone-shaped with handle, dot and speck pattern, complete R. No. 4762,
SGL-12 A1 (2)
9. Stamp, one side is the decoration of petal motif and on other cone-shaped oval
finish, R. No. 5423 SGL-8 ZA1 (8)

STAMPS (WITH HANDLES)

Stamp is a convenient device to use for a repeat item to print on depth, and on leather
hard clay for a decorative motif and complete in itself. The motif is varied such as a
decorative pattern, geometric combination or floral and vegetative devices and made in
parts or together. The stamp is either a single pattern on it which is repeated on the
other end with a slightly narrow mid-rib to handle without difficulty. The larger motif is
made with a circular handle for easy stamping on a larger space perhaps much used in
textile industry preparing clothes.

1. Handled stamp, part of it broken, indented design in four rows in circle, R. No.
12418 ZB3 (3b)
2. Handled stamp, partly broken on edges, triangle and indented features in circle 4
rows, oval shape, R. No. 12073 YA2 (4A)
3. Handled stamp, broken handle, speck pattern in circles, R. No. 1435 E1 (5)
4. Handled stamp, broken handle, triangle and hatching patterns R.No 13354 ZF10
(6)
5. Handled stamp, partly broken design, curved pattern uniformly done in circular
rows, R. No. 7566 ZB1 (6)
6. Handled stamp, broken handle including design part, star stellate pattern, R. No.
3116 E1 (7)
7. Handled stamp, handle and part of design damaged, circular pattern all through,
R. No. 7553 ZP4 (7)
8. Handled stamp, Handle and part design lost, thick circular pattern with dot at
centre R. No. 4019 ZC9 (8)

133
Stamps with handles, Period IV

Stamps with handles, Period IV

134
9. Handled stamp, part of design lost, hatchings in circular mode all through with
hollow centre R. No. 6764 SGL-8 ZA1 (9)
10. Handled stamp, handle and design part of them lost, circular lines all through
with a central hollow, quite large, R .No. 14583 ZG7 (11)

DICE OF TERRACOTTA

The shape and the dots in each of the four sides in number of 1, 2, 3 and 4 are found in
all cultural periods suggesting its antiquity and a game is perhaps going back the
chalcolithic times. They have square section and the length is quite marginal for
comfortable use. The numbers on each is designed in simple circle either single or more
than one and sometimes they are made with an artistic taste like star or stellate pattern.
They do not suggest any chronological implications.

1. Dice, square, broken, circular dots, black colour, R. No 8884 ZA4 (2)
2. Dice, square, broken, circular dots, R. No. 2080 SGL-10 (8)
3. Dice, small, square, complete 1, 2, 3, and 4 dots on 4 sides, R. No 12501 ZF10
P. S.by (1)
4. Dice, small complete, square, well-made red ware (fabric) 1, 2, 3, and 4 markings
in dots, R. No 8692 ZG10 P. S.by (1)
5. Dice, standard size, complete, black fabric, 1,2,3,and markings in dots, R. No.
6602 SGL-8 ZA1 P. S.by (1)
6. Dice, broken on both sides, markings in dots, R. No 2891 SGL-10 YB2 (8)

DISCS OF TERRACOTTA

Flat circular disc plain and decorated in terracotta

1. Disc, flat circular, dia 1.90 cm red fabric, R. No. 13089 ZE10 (2)
2. Disc, 1 cm dia, red fabric well made, R. No. 13059 ZF9 (2)
3. Disc, 2cm dia, well-made red fabric, R. No. 13090 ZE10 (3)
4. Disc, well made , decorated with dotted specks, 1.5 cm dia, R. No. 14761 ZB2
(3B)

135
5. Disc, broken, circular, with border indentations decorated at one side with a
design of small curves, R. No. 2840 ZQ4 (4)
6. Disc, semi dome shaped small, flat base, star design on the upper part, R. No.
13387-1 ZE10 (4)
7. Disc, semi dome shape decoration similar, R. No. 13387-2 ZE10 (4)
8. Disc, circular, 3 cm dia, decorated on both sides with stellate pattern with a circle
at end peeled of partly R. No. 12064 ZG9 (6)
9. Disc, semi dome with flat base dia at base 4.2 cm dotted specks on dome portion
(holes without any pattern) R. No. 10140 ZG10 (1)
10. Disc, dome shaped, decorated at base irregular lines, 1-8 cm dia R. No. 12963
ZE10 (2)
11. Disc, dome shaped decorated with stellar pattern, R. No. 12631 ZB4 (3)

GAMESMAN OF TERRACOTTA

Generally the shape suggest the use in the game of chess. They are of cone shape with
bottom enlarged for comfortable use. They are plain without any other feature.
Sometimes they possess thick upper part for steady hold. It may be an animal head or a
flower design. But at Sanghol they are simple objects in the form of a cone. It is largely
reported in levels of the first and second centuries AD and a few of them are also known
from fourth century AD

1. Gamesman, upper part broken, broad base, R. No. 12205 ZF10 (1)
2. Gamesman, complete cone ending with flat bottom, R. No. 8988 ZG-10 (2)
3. Gamesman, cone shaped, upper part broken, black fabric, R. No. 12653 ZJ-10
(2)
4. Gamesman, cone shaped, slightly damaged upper part, soft surface indicating its
use, R. No. 12777 ZF8 (3)
5. Gamesman, cone shaped, top damaged, R. No. 12853 ZF8 (3)
6. Gamesman, complete, soft much used, well made, small, R. No. 14736 ZH9 (3)
7. Gamesman, sharp ending, cone shaped, well made, long tapering, soft fabric, R.
No. 5262 SGL-8 ZA1 (7)
8. Gamesman, cone shaped, complete, R. No. 12259 ZG9 (10)

136
Stamps with handles, Period IV

Dice, Period III and Period IV

137
RATTLES OF TERRACOTTA

This is a simple toy and made in a shape that perhaps remains unchanged. It is meant
to create sound and for that during preparation of the model, small stone balls, kankaror
thick nodules were place inside before it is closed for firing. It has in frame a tummy-like
round feature and ending on top spread out exfoliating. Sometimes this part is
designed with invariably an animal head for perhaps better grip and hold.Most of the
global portions have been broken and only the upper part has been identified and very
few in complete form have been recovered. It is found in all cultural levels.

1. Rattle, upper portion extant, broken, R. No. 10410 ZA5 (2A)


2. Rattle, upper part, broken, R. No. 5962 ZG10 (4)
3. Rattle, complete, bull head on top, lined design in body, hole to put small pellets
to make sound, R No. 1787 ZP12 (4)
4. Rattle, complete with pinched inward for hold, round in shape, nodules inside to
make sound, R. No. 1730 ZB1 (5)
5. Rattle, broken, upper part and body, R. No. 7221 ZA2 (1)
6. Rattle, broken, body and upper part extant, R. No. 14910 ZG9 (10)
7. Rattle, broken, pinched inward upper part, R. No. 4259 B1 (12)
8. Rattle, complete, bulbous body, shape of a lid covering the vessel, with driblets
inside to create sound, well-made R. No. 1713 SGL-5 (stupa mound)
9. Rattle, broken, extant upper part, R. No. 14738 YA1 (4)
10. Rattle, broken, upper top in the shape of a bull head, R. No. 7144 J1 (5)

HOPSCOTCH OF TERRACOTTA

These are circular in shape. They are prepared from a mould with round edges for
specific use. They vary in sizes from small to large but not too large as to not to hold in
hand. Most of them found are generally prepared from broken pots and potsherds by
chipping the edges and preparing in round form. A general function and purpose of their
use meant for games is the only reasoning that could hold good. It is reported from all
cultural levels.

138
Rattles, only upper part remains, Period IV

Rattles, Period IV

139
A complete rattle with the head of a bull, Period IV

Rattles with upper part, Period IV

140
1. Hopscotch, circular, small incised on one side with lines and cross hatching , R.
No. 10171 ZF10 (1)
2. Hopscotch, circular, big size, potsherd as a material, R. No. 14631 J2 (1)
3. Hopscotch, small, thin, potsherd complete, R.No. 292 E1 (2)
4. Hopscotch, medium size, circular, prepared from a potsherd, R. No. 2559 ZE1
(3)
5. Hopscotch, medium size, prepared from clay mould, R. No 1655 ZB1 (5)
6. Hopscotch, larger size, circular made from potsherd, R. No. 14637 ZF7 (6)
7. Hopscotch, medium size prepared from potsherd, ZG8 (7)
8. Hopscotch, medium size made from a potsherd, R.No. 4642 YA3 (10)
9. Hopscotch, small size, circular made from a potsherd, R. No 14643 ZB1 (11)
10. Hopscotch, small, circular, prepared from a potsherd, R.No. 3570 E1 (12)
11. Hopscotch, medium size, prepared from a potsherd, R. No. 14650 ZQ4 (13)
12. Hopscotch, thin medium size made from a potsherd, R. No. 14654 ZG8 (14)
13. Hopscotch, small, well made from a potsherd, R. No 14658 ZJ5 (15)
14. Hopscotch, medium size, soft and rolled, prepared from a pot sherd, R. No.
14660 ZH8 (17)
15. Hopscotch, thin, made from a pot sherd, R. No. 14667, ZJ3 (19)
16. Hopscotch, well prepared from potsherd, R. No. 667 YA2 (3)
17. Hopscotch, tiny well made from a potsherd,, R. No. 3527 SGL-10 XB2 (4)
18. Hopscotch, medium size made from a potsherd, R. No. 848 SGL-10 XB2 (4)
19. Hopscotch, small, well made from a potsherd, R. No 7220 SGL-6 ZA1 (6)
20. Hopscotch, thin, small, mica-dusted potsherd, R. No. 922 SGL-10 YA2 (6)
21. Hopscotch, big size made from a potsherd, R. No. 14683 SGL-8 ZA1 (7)
22. Hopscotch, big size made from a pot sherd, mica dusted, R. No. 1301 SGL-10
YB2 (9)
23. Hopscotch, made from black slipped ware pot sherd, thin, R. No. 14670 SGL-6
(10)
24. Hopscotch, medium size, made from a potsherd of Bara fabric well prepared,
soft, R. No. 2900 SGL-10 YB2 (11)

141
25. Hopscotch, small size, made from a Bara fabric pot sherd; R. No. 14678 SGL-6
ZA1 (19)
26. Hopscotch, big size, made from a Bara fabric, pot sherd, R. No. 14691 SGL-10
ZA2 (21)

TOY CART FRAMES OF TERRACOTTA

The fact that they are meant for play-objects does not inhibit the makers of these doll
like creations to move away from the real carts but actually include every aspect of the
physical parts so that they could evidently be the original frame in near absolute form.
This reveals in a way the transport vehicles of the times to understand in a better way.

These frames are reported in all the cultural levels at Sanghol. Generally the models are
simple and the bases of many of them found reveal the angle position possibly dragged
by single or two animals. The bases have perforations parallel lines possibly an upper
cover above fitted with the grassy material or cloth.

The side perforations across indicate thick wooden poles and planks were used for
carrying people and also for the goods. Bulls were the animals used since a large of
figurines with sturdy built body reveal variety of carts of larger nature formed the
transport vehicle. Mostly of the cart frame are broken, but some of them are in good
condition to understand the frame and their proper function.

1. Cart frame, wagon model with sides provided and holes for wheels and animal,
R. No. 5680 ZG9 (2)
2. Cart frame, seat frame with holes on sides, R. No. 208 SGL-10 YA1 (2)
3. Cart frame, wagon without sides, holes below the frame, R. No. 803 SGL-10 YA2
(4)
4. Cart frame, broken without sides, R. No. 7567 ZP4 (4)
5. Cart frame, decorated inside, plain, R. No. 12654 ZJ10 (4)
6. Cart frame, broken extended part for animals to tie, holes for a seat, R. No.
13681 YA4 (3)
7. Cart frame, small plain with holes, across for wheels, R. No. 12502 ZG10 (5)
8. Cart frame, square, plain, flat side holes across for wheels, R No. 13322 YA3 (5)

142
9. Cart frame, broken for animals to tie hole, remains, small, R. No. 4045 B1 (11)
10. Cart frame, broken end part with vertical hole, R. No. 3780 ZB1 (13)
11. Cart frame, broken, end portion extant, R. No 1856 SGL-10 (4)
12. Cart frame, broken, part seat extant, holes for stick to cover above, R. No.
14784 ZH8 (8)
13. Cart frame, seat portion partly broken with holes, R. No. 6817 SGL-8 ZA1 (7)
14. Cart frame, seat part available, but broken, the portion across for wheel pole is
visible but it is damaged, R. No 14905, ZH8 (7)
15. Cart frame, partly available seat, broken, but holes are found for seat cover
above and for cart wheels, R. No. 923 SGL-10 YB2 (9)
16. Cart frame, clay model of the seat platform, holes for wheels on both sides-
across, damaged, R. No. 14785 ZF10 (10)
17. Cart frame, complete, holes for poles and wheels, R. No. 11741 SGL-13 (25)
18. Cart frame, clay model holes across for poles, R. No. 4772 SGL-12 (2)
19. Cart frame, complete frame holes for sticks for cover above, solid, R. No. 10494
ZM4 (2)
20. Cart frame, complete with holes 5 of them for cover and 2 holes across for
animals, solid, R. No 3759 SGL-10

WHEELS OF TERRACOTTA (FOR TOY CART MODELS)

Wheels of terracotta are reported from all cultural periods. A distinguishing feature of
the chalcolithic finds consists of a single hub with the other side flat. Excepting this
difference in the preparation of the wheels, all others found in later periods are all of
them with hubs on both sides known as bi-hubbed wheels.

Wheels at Sanghol have some other characteristics that could be mentioned according
to which they are divided, keeping in view the chronology of the finds. One type is the
large size of wheels well made and better finish meant for fitting to large vehicles. The
second one has a rounded oval type wherein the hub is less prominent. The wheels
were much better made and medium to small size to fit into smaller carts. Yet another
made with prominent hubs on both sides but of medium size.

143
Hopscotch, big and small, Period IV

Hopscotch, medium size, circa first-second century AD

144
Cart frames, wagon base for seats Cart frames, with the parts in front
for travelers, first century AD for the animals, Period IV

Cart frames, both big and small, perforations for poles to cover
and for tying animals, first century AD

145
A different wheel type is a thin flat wheel on both sides without hub. Another type has
decorations of a refined nature, simulating real wheels provided with spokes by incised
designs. An unique wheel is recorded from Bara chalcolithic with painted surfaces
suggesting spokes.

1. Cart wheel, complete, big size, red fabric, bi-hubbed, slightly damaged on the
hole portion, R No. 1332 YA3 (2)
2. Cart wheel, broken on the side, rough fabric, bi-hubbed, R. No. 1394 E1 (4)
3. Cart wheel, bi-hubbed, complete, well prepared, red ware, purple lines on the
wheel body, R. No. 14611 ZG11 (5)
4. Cart wheel, damaged, bi-hubbed, medium size, R. No. 1814 E1 (7)
5. Cart wheel, biggest size, heavy well made, red ware bi-hubbed, R. No. 13539
ZB4 (8)
6. Cart wheel, medium size heavy, well prepared but porous surface, bi-hubbed R.
No. 7145 ZG10 (1A)
7. Cart wheel, rounded on both sides, complete, R. No. 5482 J1 (3)
8. Cart wheel, rounded, black fabric, R. No. 12901 YA5 (4)
9. Cart wheel, rounded to the rim end on both sides, near complete, R. No. 649 E1
(5)
10. Cart wheel, rounded complete well prepared, R. No. 12478 YA4 (5)
11. Cart wheel, rounded, black fabric, R. No. 7570 Zb1 (6)
12. Cart wheel, rounded, small size, grey fabric complete R. No. 6451 SGL-8 (9)
13. Cart wheel, rounded, broken part near perforation un burnt of clay, R. No. 5417
SGL-12 A1 (1)
14. Cart wheel, well prepared, rounded features, complete, R. No. 5573 J1 (2)
15. Cart wheel, decorated with radiating lines on both sides of the wheel, complete,
R. No. 4860 J1 (2)
16. Cart wheel, design of radiating spokes, red fabric, near complete, R. No. 7635
ZA4 (3)
17. Cart wheel, design of radiating spokes, webbed ridge on end, bi-hubbed and
broken into half one part extant well prepared, R. No. 6290 SGL-8 ZH1 (4)
18. Cart wheel, red fabric, with irregular spokes bi-hubbed, R. No. 618 E1 (5)

146
19. Cart wheel, black grey fabric, radiating spokes, well-made bi-hubbed at wheel
end with dots perhaps the nail head indicated only on one side, R. No. 755 E1
(6)
20. Cart wheel, bi-hubbed, one side damaged, spokes on both sides, black fabric,
R. No. 13489 ZB3 (7)
21. Cart wheel, black fabric, rough surface, spokes on both sides, R. No. 14795
ZG8 central baulk (3)
22. Cart wheel, well made, rounded on both sides upto perforation, thick end of rim,
radiating spokes incised black fabric, a circle at centre on both sides perhaps a
flat strip to tighten so that to make it stronger, R. No. 4194 B1 (14)
23. Cart wheel, well-made, spokes on one side, small, R. No. 5697 ZA4 (1)
24. Cart wheel, big size, broken into half one part extant, flat and thick with spokes
on both sides, R. No 5428 J2 (1)
25. Cart wheel, plain without hub, thin, red fabric, R. No. 10311 ZM5 (1)
26. Cart wheel, plain without hub, sloppy tapering sides, well made, R. No. 4946
YE9 (1)
27. Cart wheel, plain, flat thin red fabric, complete medium big size, R. No. 6657
ZA4 (2)
28. Cart wheel, plain flat, medium thin size, damaged on side, red fabric, R. No.
9286 ZB4 (2)
29. Cart wheel, plain, flat slightly thick damaged on rim, rough red fabric, R. No.
13386 ZE10 (4)
30. Cart wheel, plain flat, red fabric, slim, R. No. 7930 ZP4 (4)
31. Cart wheel, plain flat, well-made, red fabric, R. No. 6589 ZP4 (6)
32. Cart wheel, single hub, slightly damaged on the hub-part, R. No. 9936 SGL-13
(8) Bara type
33. Cart wheel, single hub, big size tapering to the end in slope, very thick at the
hole at centre horizontal lines, painted in black possibly indicating spokes,
damaged only half Bara chalcolithic remains R. No. 14902 SGL13 A1 (12)

147
34. Cart wheel, Single hub, protruding centre at perforation with flat end, R. No.
10067 SGL13 A1 (12) Bara chalcolithic
35. Cart wheel, Single hub, much damaged, hub at centre flattened, dull brown, R.
No. 100967, SGL13 Bara chalcolithic
36. Cart wheel, very small, well-made, red fabric, flattened near hub, near
complete, R. No. 7867 SGL-6

COSMETIC/ TOILET/JEWELLERY/CASKET/BOXES IN SOAPSTONE

The use and purpose of these small containers or vessels with lid are varied and utilized
for specific functions or occasions to hold perfumes and other toilet based liquids and
powders. These are so small that can be carried for use on either daily or for a few
days. Apart from this, the larger ones are used as containers for keeping personal
jewellery which could be kept or can be taken for functions and other occasions. These
smaller vessels have a lower box part with provision for holding the lid above. The lid is
either plain with oval shape or provided with a knob and sometimes they are carved with
a designs or simple circular incised lines. The box has a plain base or with a pedestal
led part for better placement.

1. Box, base part, oval in shape, R. No. 6050 ZA4 (2)


2. Box, part of the vessel with upper hold to the lid, soft and polished, R. No. 7991
ZP4 (2)
3. Box, lid with inward part intact, slightly damaged, R. No. 10445
4. Box, container, broken part flat circular with base, black stone, R. No. 14289 YA1
(4)
5. Box, container damaged with inward part for lid, white colour, R. No. 13325 ZA6
(4)
6. Box, lid, with upper part decorated / incised with a flower pattern, damaged,
crimson colour, R. No. 5638 ZP4 (4)
7. Box, container, damaged base flat, R. No. 544 E1 (5)
8. Box, part of the vessel, oval base, inward projection for lid, R. No. 10893 ZG9 (5)
9. Box, lid, black stone with design circular lines and rib type design broken, R. No.
5130 ZA1 (6)

148
Cart wheel, big size bi-hubbed, Period IV

Cart wheels, medium to small size, Period IV

149
10. Box, with base, straight sides, broken, rosy soap stone, R. No. 2333 A1 (8)
11. Box, lid with inward part to fit in the vessel, partly damaged possibly terracotta,
R. No. 4144 SGL-10 YA2 (10)
12. Box, vessel part, damaged, R. No 14765 ZG8 (10)
13. Box, part of a vessel, slightly big, container decorated body in circular lines, R.
No. 2037 ZB2 (1)
14. Box, lid, of a small vessel well-made knob damaged, R. No. 2693 ZP12 (1)
15. Box, lid well made, complete with extant knob, partly broken lower part, R. No.
2782 ZE1 (3)
16. Box, container, damaged, flat base, straight sides, R. No. 4065 ZC9 (2)

BANGLES OF TERRACOTTA

These medium and bigger pieces mostly broken are found in all cultural periods.
Bangles are both plain and decorated. Decorations include incised lines, dots and
specks on the outer part and in bas-relief neatly executed. Decorations are found in
most of the bangles in levels of Bara chalcolithic. Many of them found perhaps
indicating the popular use in general of those prepared from clay.

BANGLE PIECES (OF TERRACOTTA)

1. Bangle broken, channel on upper part for insertion of a plate of metal or a


decoration, R. No. 5211 ZJ5 (1)
2. Bangle broken, round section, red fabric, R. No. 12831 ZG8 (3)
3. Bangle broken, flat channel on upper part for insertion of decoration or design,
red fabric, R No. 262a A1 (4)
4. Bangle broken, (2 pieces) channel shaped, black fabric, R. No.12415 ZH9 (4)
5. Bangle broken, dot speck on all portions, uneven shape, red fabric, R. No. 262b
A1 (4)
6. Bangle broken, broad horizontally very wide, broken, Red fabric, R. No. 14410
ZG9 (7)
7. Bangle broken, circular, Red fabric, R. No. 4716 SGL-12 A1 (2)

150
Cosmetic boxes and caskets the box portion with upper space for lid cover,
second and third century AD

Casket boxes, lid covers details

151
8. Bangle broken, decorated with dot pellets in a row of 2 lines, R. No. 11293 SGL-
6 (2)
9. Bangle broken, broad medium size, black fabric, R. No. 14912 SGL-13 A1 (8)
10. Bangle broken, small round section broken, R. No. 7415 SGL-6 ZA1 (9) Bara
chalcolithic
11. Bangle broken, circular section, Red fabric, R No. 11648 SGL-13 A1 (14) Bara
chalcolithic
12. Bangle broken, decorated with indentations, R. No. 11650 SGL-13 A1 (15) Bara
chalcolithic
13. Bangle broken, circular, red fabric, R. No. 10825 SGL-13 A1 (15) Bara
chalcolithic
14. Bangle broken, decorated with row of curved lines, red fabric, R. No. 10826,
SGL-13 A1 (15) Bara chalcolithic
15. Bangle broken, decorated with lines without a design, red fabric, R. No. 7651,
SGL-6 ZA1 (18) Bara chalcolithic
16. Bangle broken, decoration curved lines as above (S.L. No.15), R. No. 7665
SGL-6 ZA1 (18)
17. Bangle broken, decoration curved lines as in sl. No. 15,16, red fabric, R. No.
10797 SGL-13 A1 (15)

PENDANTS OF TERRACOTTA

These are simple in form without decorations. But those bearing designs are also
equally aesthetic having lines and geometric patterns to enhance the value of the
objects. The only feature that differentiates them consist of the perforations at top meant
for hanging and connecting to a thread of beads forming chains or bead-necklaces.
Many of them are cone-shaped with horizontal perforation.

1. Pendant, broken, circular with perforation on top decorated with hatched lines,
back side flat, R. No. 10496, SGL-13 A1 (4)
2. Pendant, complete, axe type, two perforations on top, well made, R. No. 12343
ZA1 (4)

152
Bangles, broken, Periods III and IV, bangle second row
last on the right, Bara chalcolithic

Bangles, broken, Period I, Bara chalcolithic

153
3. Pendant, goat headed, bottom flat, horizontal (head to mouth) and at neck, well-
made, complete, R. No. 14208 ZG11 (5)
4. Pendant, cone shaped flat at bottom, rounded perforation at top, R. No. 4978
SGL-8 ZA1 (6)
5. Pendant, broken, decoration not clear, rectangular section, R. No. 7263 ZB1 (7)
6. Pendant, cone shaped circular, perforation at top, R. No. 12694 ZG8 (12)
7. Pendant, flat long rectangular with oval at end, irregular, slate stone, top
perforated at centre perhaps for tying at animals neck, R. No. 9674 ZG10 (5)
8. Pendant, rounded, cone shaped, small with perforation at top, black fabric, R. No
14734 ZE10-ZF10 (3)
9. Pendant, small human head, pinched nose, rounded head, perforation at top,
human shaped amulet, R. No. 12824 ZF8 (3)
10. Pendant, rectangular, flat 3.8cm length, decorated with designs, all sides in
horizontal lines, perforation at centre horizontally, R. No. 2650 ZE1 (3)
11. Pendant, oval, with a pinched knob at top shape of the pendant in the form of a
shield (amulet), R. No. 9635 A1 (4)
12. Pendant, oval with broad base, perforated from top to bottom at centre dark
grey fabric, R. No. 1329 E1 (4)
13. Pendant, shape of a frog, (amulet) well-made indented features of a realistic
nature complete, black fabric, R. No 14205 YB1 (4)
14. Pendant, oval with broad base, perforation at top horizontally, R. No. 5643 ZP4
(4)

EAR PLUGS, STUDS AND RINGS

These are the largest number reported at Sanghol from the first century BC to the fourth
century AD. This type is more popular by way of occurrence in levels of the first and
second centuries AD. These are of different varieties and types, though there is
marginal difference and overlap as there is reason to inter piespecially of its use and its
choice by the wearers. The simple type is that with a circular flat base on both sides
with a slopy depth at centre for inserting in to the ear.

154
Pendants with upper end perforated, Periods IV and Period V
(circa the second and third century AD)

Pendants, some with knob-like upper end bearing


perforation for hanging, Period IV

155
The other type is a groove or a channel in the centre for inserting into the extended ear
lobes. These are also called pulley-shaped ear-plugs. These are made some times
lengthy the third type is a decorated ear-plug. The motif is invariably and a floral or a
decorative pattern. The designs include circular lines, criss-cross dashes forming a star
stellate feature, vegetiative motif or simply curved dots and dashes just for ornamental
purposes. The decorative device occurs invariably on one side.

Ear rings in terracotta are of the shape that are characteristic. They are crescent
shaped in appearance with thick centre and a pointed end. There are two small holes
reinforced on both ends for wire rings (copper or gold) possibly for a hook and hung in
ear conveniently. The thick central part is decorated with a pattern or device to enhance
the beauty of the ring. It is done on one side that is in front visible when the ear ring is
worn.

EAR STUDS OR EAR PLUGS OF TERRACOTTA

1. Ear stud, complete, mild slope at centre, 5cm dia, big size, R. No. 11202 ZH4 (1)
2. Ear stud, complete smooth surface, mild slope at centre, dark brown fabric, 5.2
cm dia, big size, R. No. 11390 ZG9 (2)
3. Ear stud, complete black colour soft on both faces, deeper slope at centre, 4.8
cm dia, R. No. 13028 ZJ9 (2)
4. Ear stud, slightly damaged, un burnt clay, well prepared slight curve at centre,
SGL-10 YB2 (3)
5. Ear stud, small size, complete, deep curve at centre, smooth surface, 2.3 cm dia
R. No. 10373 ZM4 (1)
6. Ear stud, small size, smooth surface, complete chanel-shaped scratched and
peeled off, 2.2 cm dia R. no. 6930 ZG10 (1A)
7. Ear stud, medium size well made, smooth surface, channel shaped, 3.6 cm dia
R. No 10374 ZG11 (1B)
8. Ear stud, very small, black fabric, channel at centre R. No. 9285 SGL-13 (2)
9. Ear stud, complete, broad centre, moderate cavity in channel shape dark fabric
2.5 cm dia R. No. 5360 SGL-12 A1 (2)
10. Ear stud, complete, black fabric deep channel at centre, well made sharp ends,
2cm dia R. No. 9483 SGL-13 A1 (4)
11. Ear stud, red ware, slightly damaged at corners, black coating on one face,
sharp corners deep channel R. No. 7030 SGL-6 ZA1 4
12. Ear stud, well prepared slightly rough fabric mild channel at centre R. No. 10233
SGL-13 A1 (5)

156
13. Ear stud, small, medium fabric, red ware deep channel, 1.8 cm dia, R. No. 738
E1 (7)
14. Ear stud, broad faces, smooth surface deep channel, fine fabric red ware, 3 cm
dia R. No. 13468 ZF10 (10)
15. Ear stud, chipped off corners, well made, red fabric, deep channel R. No. 1327
E1 (10)
16. Ear stud, complete, black fabric deep channel well made, smooth surfaces
2.8cm dia, R. No. 4101 ZB3 (13)
17. Ear stud, smooth, complete mild curve at centre conical in shape R. No. 9201
SGL-13 (1)
18. Ear stud, small, complete conical in shape channel with feature, red fabric 2.1
cm dia, R. No. 12286 ZF10 (2)
19. Ear stud, smooth conical in shape, 2.2 cm dia and 1.9cm dia, R. No. 8670 ZA1
(4)
20. Ear stud, smooth, conical in shape, black and red fabric R. No. 5899 SGL-8
ZA1 (6)
21. Ear stud, black fabric, mild slope at centre, small size, R. No. 2458 E1 (8)
22. Ear stud, small size mild channel, long shape R. No. 12342 YA3 (2)
23. Ear stud, small size mild curved at centre, well made R. No. 9634 SGL-13 A1
(3)
24. Ear stud, small size small channel at centre, well-made R. No. 10548 ZG11 (3)
25. Ear stud, red fabric, medium size channel, well made, 2.9 cm dia SGL-8 ZH1
(5)
26. Ear stud, very small, mild channel, well made good fabric, R. No. 13120 ZF9
(10)

DECORATED EAR ORNAMENTS OF TERRACOTTA

1. Decorated ear ornament, circular shape, but broken, black ware, designs on both
sides star stellate pattern on one side and the other a central decoration of a
flower, but damaged, medium channel for insertion in ear lobe, R. No. 4985 ZB2
(1)
2. Decorated ear ornament, complete face front decorated with an elephant in bent
trunk, a well made design in a natural rendering chocolate colour, flat back, R.
No. 8585 ZG10 (1)
3. Decorated ear ornament, black colour, channel shaped, dot pattern fine lines star
or a flower design on both sides, R. No. 9786 ZA3 (2)
4. Decorated ear ornament, channel in centre, one side decorated with symbolically
shown curved lines raising above, R. No. 5900 ZB2 (2)

157
Ear studs, big and medium size, Period IV and V

Ear studs, big and small size, channel shaped, circa first century AD

158
5. Decorated ear ornament, circular, red fabric soft in surface edges, on both sides
decorated in dot-dash design, 4.2 cm dia, R. No. 9040 ZB4 (2)
6. Decorated ear ornament, black brown colour, both sides decorated with different
designs and criss-cross lines forming a pattern, channel shapped, R. No. 14304
YB2 (3)
7. Decorated ear ornament, made of un burnt clay channel shaped curved forming
pattern with pinching and dotted ends, R. No. 6593 SGL-8 ZH1 (5)
8. Decorated ear ornament, broken, channel shapped, circular pattern triangular
design in an order and mounting one upon the other in depth indicated good
modeling, R. No. 4243 ZE1 (5)
9. Decorated ear ornament, deep channel, front decorated with a central gem (?)
pointed design, black fabric R. No. 10313 ZA3 (2)
10. Decorated ear ornament, deep channel, front designed with a central gem, inset
within a concave groove, dull brown fabric broken at back, R. No. 13505 ZA3
(2)
11. Decorated ear ornament, un burnt clay, inset with a dot in circle, mild channel R.
No. 6363 ZP4 (2)

EAR ORNAMENTS OF TERRACOTTA WITH A CENTRAL PERFORATION ON BOTH


ENDS

1. Ear ornament with diagonal perforation, deep channel, thin well-made fabric,
central perforation, R. No. 12176 YA3 (2)
2. Ear ornament with diagonal perforation, 4cm long mild channel well made both
sides decorated 1.7cm dia at face, R. No. 4934 SGL12 A1 (3)
3. Ear ornament with diagonal perforation, deep channel in centre, around four
perforations in an disorderly manner possibly for inserting beads or gems, black
colour R. No. 14207 ZA5 ZA5 (5)
4. Ear ornament with diagonal perforation, deep channel, perforated diagonally at
centre, R. No. 13280 ZB4 (5A)

EAR ORNAMENTS FROM BARA-CHALCOLITHIC LEVELS

1. Ear ornament, ear plug, sloped at centre, softly prepared, decoration rubbed
away, R. No. 10002 SGL-13 A1 (11)
2. Ear ornament, big size, 3cm dia, mild slope at centre dull brown colour, soft front,
a well made one with mica dusted R. No. 10442 SGL-6 ZA1 (12)

159
Ear ornaments, decorated, Period IV

Ear ornaments decorated, big and small, Period IV

160
EAR RINGS OF TERRACOTTA

These have oval shape ending in an u-shape with metal pins attached for ear ring.
Presently the end portions have been lost to know any perforation made for metal pin
insertion.

These are found both plain and with decoration, one has been incised with deep vertical
lines creating a wavy design and another has a single ladder impression.

1. Ear ring, plain, oval shape, portions broken on both ends, R. No. 6590 SGL-12
A1 (5A)
2. Ear ring, red ware fabric, decorated on end with horizontal lines forming a ladder
feature. Both the toe ends broken, R. No. 6591, SgL-12 A1 (1)
3. Ear ring, broken only the mid part extant, vertical deep design forming a pattern
of rib, black fabric, R. No. 5836 SGL-8 ZA1 (7)

INK-POTS OF TERRACOTTA

The utility and function of such shapes cannot be limited to its present use in the
modern context. However it could be emphasized that similar findings in other sites
have revealed the naming of Ink-pot has some reference in content. Both the finds are
datable to the first century AD. The details are mentioned below:

1. Ink-pot, oval shape with cone feature, flat bottom, above enlarged vessel with
deep cup and side cavity on top for the spill of ink or any substance inside and
not damage the floor, white encrustation possibly caused by the ink, oil or any
other liquid contained inside, R. No. 12618 ZJ1 (4)
2. Ink-pot, of the shape of a pot, tapering body, short neck curved rim and stemmed
base, small good fabric red ware, R. No. 13240 YA6 (6)

FEEDING CUPS OF TERRACOTTA

Feeding cup is a classic object by itself that its model continues right upto modern times
without much change. The channel type feeding cup is so typical to recognize its use.

161
Ear-rings, crescent shaped bearing incised designs, Period IV

Ink-pots, circa first century AD

162
But there are cups also found that attempts were made to prepare new features that
speaks of the innovative sprit to cater to the tastes of the people., though the function of
the cup remains the same.

1. Feeding cup, the cup part of the object is broken, feeding portion of channel like
park is in good state, well-made red ware, resembles modern ones, R. No. 13491
ZG11 (2)
2. Feeding cup, handle pinched vertically to hold with a better grip, cup is broken
hence the feeding part is not clear, well-made red fabric, oval bottom, R. No.
13801 ZG9 (5)
3. Feeding cup, plain cup ending in pointed shape of a goblet, handmade red ware,
a small one feeding from rim, slightly curved R. No. 4129 SGL-10 YA2 (8)

INCENSE BURNERS OF TERRACOTTA

Made solidly for purposes of a special nature for rituals and auspicious functions, these
are prepared with great care and fine finish. There are two types of them known one
has the shape of a vessel of small pan or a dish with extended handle of a novel nature.
It has an additional extention for better grip the second variety is to hold straight upward
with vessel part above. The vessels are similar. One other type has a long stem hike
handle with the vessel smaller in comparison. One of them is rare type for holding the
aroma sticks with perforation on the small round plate not bigger than the size of a coin.

1. Incense burner, complete, with slight broken part on rim, with a club handle
ending with a lid knob decorated with three lines on handle and on base part of
the club handle, bottom evenly flat made in good fabric, R. No. 6319 J1 (1)
2. Incense burner, damaged burner part of the vessel, handle with hold intact, with
a well-made bull overlooking the container (presently lost), flat even base, R. No.
12131 ZA6 (2)
3. Incense burner, centre hold, flaring vessel (burner) part, cut-star-stellate lid, base
slightly broken vertical in make, R. No. 13005 ZJ10 (2)
4. Incense burner, vertical shape of working part complete, well-made flat circular
base, hole in narrow centre, broad vessel, fine fabric, R. No. 9705 ZG10 (4)

163
Feeding cups, one of them broken, circa the first century AD

Incense burner, complete, circa second century AD

164
Incense burner, broken, Period IV

Incense burner, different shapes, Period IV

165
5. Incense burner, long cylindrical handle, with base, upper vessel is small but rim
part not in good condition, a different type, but a simple one, R. No. 10003 SGL-
13 (4)
6. Incense stick, a very typical shape but rarely known. It is like a modern carom
coin used in play, with perforations for holding sticks, holes found, R. No. 13739
ZF10 (13)

TERRACOTTA SANKHA (CONCH)

Terracotta sankha is quite an interesting object prepared similar to a conch shell with all
the parts and it also produces identical sound of a conch shell when it is blown, R. No.
3462, ZQ4 (6). It is found from one of the clusters of brick buildings built on the south
side of the fortified citadel of Hathiwara. This forms part of a large residential area and a
brick building with many rooms of which two phases of building activity were recorded
provided with an entrance from the street and also from the lane.

The terracotta sankha was found in the debris along with other household objects and
domestic vessels from the floor of the house datable to the beginning of the second
century AD. It is of a normal size as any other object shaped in original. It measures at
length or height side 8 cm. approx., with a thickness of 0.3.-0.4. cm. at the anterior end.
It consists of two parts, the body whorl and the spire with apex on top and the tip of
siphonal canal or the anterior end. The body whorl consisting of the larger part has a
circular feature in an ascending order from the apex side to the anterior with max. and
min. dia of 8 cm. to 2 cm. respectively. It has an expanding conical or revolving shape
with three deeply indented ridges on one, two and three cm. from apex to anterior
respectively. On the apex end, it has a knobbed feature of a stem with a pin-hole at
centre, possibly for the release of air, when the conch is blown. A small perforation has
been made on whorl-ridge representing the outer periphery, for tying a thread for hold-
grip or for hanging. The outer margin on the lip of sankha including the raised ridge of
the body whorl and spire has been broken. The tip on the apex has also been damaged.
At the anterior end within the body whorl, there is a large air vent of 0.5. dia for release
of air, similar to the hole on the apex for blowing the conch.

The terracotta sankha is of medium fabric, wheel-made and then modeled by hand. No
slip has been applied, but the outer core was finished with light red wash mixed with
mica-dust. The body whorl made in three indented edges in descending fashion almost
simulating a rippled surface is not a feature found in original sankha. While preparing
the sankha, some features found in original material were altered to suit the shape in
terracotta.

166
When the sankha was modeled in terracotta with changes in its features of shape, one
of the main reasons was perhaps to retain the typical quality of the object, when used
as blowing instrument. Possibly many experiments were made by the artists and
craftsmen to get the required sound effect for which the sankhawas tested time and
again and then only the shape was finally achieved.

VOTIVE TANKS OF TERRACOTTA

As the name suggests these are votive in purpose and use. They are known in Early
Historic levels and at Sanghol, they are found from first century B.C to the third and
fourth centuries AD. They are found in large number. Some of them found with intact
base with interior revealed many interesting portions. They include ladder to go up,
animals and fish species that could be identified. On the rim portions of the straight
sides on top are attached series of lamps for light. Animals are also found depicted as
attachments.

1. Votive tank, broken, upper part attached with the figure of fish with sprawing
feather portion, the fish posture indicates moving in water, vertical portion
represents a part of the square tank, R. No. 13820, ZH10 (2)
2. Votive tank, broken, one part of an upper portion extant, lamp fixed on top,
internally fitted with a ladder from base to top, the ladder steps are completely
available but bottom totally lost, R. No. 7927 SGL-8 ZA1 (4)
3. Votive tank, broken, one lamp fixed on top, ladder from base to top extant with 6
steps visible white encrusted, R. No. 9934 ZF10 (4)
4. Votive tank, broken, part of vertical wall with 2 lamps attached on rim, R. No.
3362 E1 (5)
5. Votive tank, broken, part of the upper portion with a lamp, R. No. 11797 ZA9 (8)
6. Votive tank, broken, only a stem with lamp forming part of a tank extant, R. No.
12675 ZF9 (8)
7. Votive tank, broken, good part extant of base portion and walls on L- Angle with a
lamp on the joint turning, good fabric, R. No. 3665 SGL-10 YA2 (9)
8. Votive tank, broken, a part consisting of 2 box type extension in the interior with
wall intact, good fabric, R. No. 7788 ZP4 (9)

167
Terracotta conch

Votive tank, broken, upper portion, Period IV

168
Votive tank, broken, upper portion, Period IV

Votive tank, broken, upper portion, Period IV

169
9. Votive tank, damaged, an upper wall with lamp on rim, R. No. 3492 E1 (9)
10. Votive tank, broken, a vertical portion extant, a bird depicted perched on the rim
with its wings shown with two deep incised lines, good fabric R. No. 13473
ZF10 (10)
11. Votive tank, broken, a long wall of a big tank extant, with base remains and a
lamp affixed on rim, fine fabric, R. No. 7506 ZB1 (11)
12. Votive tank, broken, a part of the walls with joint and extension with a little of
base remains, R. No. 4043 ZE1 (11)
13. Votive tank, broken, a part of wall with joint and extension, a lamp on rim, R.
No. 13803 ZF8 (12)
14. Votive tank, broken, base or bottom of the tank depicting a fish perhaps fixed by
preparing from mould. The fish is quite realistically represented with its eys and
wings in deep incised lines, R. No. 6939 SGL-8 (8)
15. Votive tank, broken, at bottom of the tank are found depicted a serpent in
movement and a frog with eyes and back clearly indicated, perhaps water was
filled on a regular basis, R. No. 6222 J1 (5)

SQUARE, RECTANGULAR AND CIRCULAR TABLETS WITHOUT AND WITH


DECORATIONS

These are flat tablets or plaques small and handy in size and found datable to the Early
Historic period of the first century AD to the third century AD; co-eval to the beginning of
the Kushana period and the Gupta period levels in political parlance. This is inferred by
the designs-both geometric and floral on the tablets which are also found represented in
other objects of every-day use including ornaments. The designs follow a select pattern
depending upon the size and shape of the plaques divided into equal compartments
which adhere to some purposive use calculated to a set pattern as similar features on
other tablets reveal. Two types of them are to be mentioned. One is a type with
decoration on one side with the back plain. The other one has decoration on both sides.
Some others are plain, but the purpose of them is not clear. It is a fact to emphasize the
larger occurrence of them in particular areas possibly indicate its special use in some

170
ritual functions, but require more data to confirm. Some select ones are listed keeping in
view their large availability from all the areas without any difference in distribution.

1. Tablet, broken, worn out on both sides, R. No. 14760 A1 (1)


2. Tablet, small, square, greyish and worn out, R. No. 4062 ZB2 (2)
3. Tablet, rectangular, both side plain, R. No. 658 E1 (5)
4. Tablet, square, faded on both sides, R. No 11085 SGL-13 A1 (7)

SQUARE RECTANGULAR TABLETS WITH ONE SIDE DECORATION

1. Tablet, rectangular, chequer pattern, damaged, (R. No 13492 YA6 (3)


2. Tablet, square, broken, geometric flower design, well prepared, R.No. 12374 ZB3
(3B)
3. Tablet, rectangular, broken, chequer design, R. No. 11627 ZG 10 (4)
4. Tablet, circular, broken, flower design, greyish, small, R.No. 12204 ZG9 (4)
5. Tablet, damaged, geometric design R.No. 13704 YA4 (5)
6. Tablet, circular, damaged chequer pattern R. No. 13413 ZA4 (5)
7. Tablet, damaged chequer pattern, R.No. 14905 ZH8 (7)
8. Tablet, damaged, rectangular design R.No. 11719 ZG9 (7)
9. Tablet, circular, damaged, rectangular design, defaced R. No. 9636 ZG10 (5)
10. Tablet, circular, damaged, R. No. 11930 YA4 (2)
11. Tablet, circular, damaged, R. No. 4208 ZA1 (5)
12. Tablet, circular, damaged, R. No. 3393 A1 (12)

DECORATION ON BOTH SIDES

1. Tablet, rectangular, damaged, flower design, R. No. 12724


2. Tablet, circular, damaged, flower design R. No. 9132 ZB4 (2)
3. Tablet, damaged, flower design, R. No 13605 ZG8 (2)
4. Tablet, square, flower design, R. No. 12178 YA4 (2)
5. Tablet, broken, flower design, R. No. 12941 ZB4 (3)
6. Tablet, square, flower design, R. No. 5143 ZA2 (3)
7. Tablet, square, rectangular lines in chequer pattern, R. No. 9704 ZG10 (4)

171
Votive tank, details of animals on floor, side walls,
(circa first and third century AD)

Tablets, rectangular and square, one side decoration, Period IV

172
1. Tablet, circular, broken, flower design, R. No. 1368 YA2 (4C)
2. Tablet, square chequer pattern, R. No. ZG10 (5)
3. Tablet, square vertical and horizontal lines with boxes, R. No. 13341 ZF10 (5)
4. Tablet, circular flower design with punches forming a pattern, dividing into 2
portions R. No. 7572 ZB1 (6)
5. Tablet, rectangular boxes by lines vertically and horizontally reverse details
peeled away, R. No. 9676 ZG10 (6)
6. Tablet, rectangular, flower design, reverse damaged, R. No. 14040 ZF9 (6)
7. Tablet, square, chequer pattern, R. No. 11280 ZG9 (6)
8. Tablet, square, flower design in nine compartments, three each in three rows,
R. No. 10706 ZM5 (6)
9. Tablet, circular, designs consist of wavy pattern on one side, with a petalled
flower on the other, R. No. 14482 ZG1- (9A)
10. Tablet, boxes divided by vertical and horizontal lines, broken, R. No. 13799
ZF10 (12)
11. Tablet, flower pattern, broken, R. No. 297 ZA1 (1)
12. Tablet, broken, chequer pattern, R. No. 8647 SGL-6 ZA1 (2)
13. Tablet, broken, circular, flower design, R.No. 5220 ZA4 (1)
14. Tablet, calcareous white, flower design, broken, R. No. 5261 SGL-8 ZA1 (6)
15. Tablet, square, flower design, peeled off on reverse, R. No. 3104 A1 (9)

CYLINDRICAL OBJECTS OF TERRACOTTA

These are group of large number of them identified from specific portions of the site.
These are of cylindrical shape with length ranging from 6.2 cm to 10.5 cm. They are well
prepared smooth surface with flat or cone end sometimes in a point. They are so soft
and typical shapes and cannot be a toy and the care with which they have been
prepared with fine finish suggest their special use. A number of them found
concentrated in the area of the ritual complex, otherwise they occur at other residential
portions sporadically.

173
Tablets, more details, Period IV

Tablets, circular and square, Period IV

174
Tablets, circular, decorated obverse, Period IV

Tablets, circular, decorated reverse, Period IV

175
1. Cylindrical object, rough fabric, -5.3cm length extant complete, R. No. 14917 A1
(1)
2. Cylindrical, complete, black fabric -5.1cm, R. No. 14769 YA6 (2)
3. Cylindrical, complete, black fabric, 10cm, oval end nearing cone shape, R. No.
12153 ZA6 (2)
4. Cylindrical complete, grey fabric -8.2cm, flat at ends, R. No. 13802 ZG8 (3)
5. Cylindrical, broken, but complete, un burnt clay, -5 to cm, R. No. 4458 SGL-12
A1 (3)
6. Cylindrical, complete, uniform features, well-made and flat at ends, -8.3cm, R.
No. 2838 ZE1 (4)
7. Cylindrical, complete, black fabric, -4 to 6cm, oval on one side, R. No. 6150 ZA2
(4)
8. Cylindrical complete, grey fabric -6.2cm, flat at ends, R. No. 2495 E1 (4)
9. Cylindrical, broken at one end, -6.3cm extant, R. No. 1865 ZE1 (4)
10. Cylindrical, broken, un burnt clay, oval on one end, other damaged -4.9cm
extant, R. No. 14770 ZG9 (5)
11. Cylindrical complete, oval and cone shape at ends, -10.2cm, R. No. 6728 ZA1
(5)
12. Cylindrical complete, cone end on both sides, solid well made, R. No. 14711
ZG7 (5)
13. Cylindrical, slightly damaged, 7.2cm, red fabric, R.No. 14918, SGL-13 A1 (9)
Bara chalcolithic
14. Cylindrical of un burnt clay, slightly damaged, 4.1 cm complete, R. No. 3419
E1(10)
15. Cylindrical, complete, slightly damaged at end, length 11cm, R. No. 6952 ZP4
(1)
16. Cylindrical, complete, broken but joined together, 9.2cm, solid, Red fabric, R.
No. 6345 ZP4 (1)
17. Cylindrical, complete, red fabric 10.6 cm uniformly good features and finely
made, R. No. 6951 ZP4 (1)

176
18. Cylindrical, complete, in sharp point ending on both ends, complete fine red
fabric, solid, R. No. 12747 ZG8 (1)
19. Cylindrical, complete, black fabric solid, flat at both ends, 5.6cm R. No. 11525
ZN5 (1)
20. Cylindrical, complete, well prepared, long shape, good fabric flat on both sides
9.9cm, R. No 6950 ZP4 (1)
21. Cylindrical, complete, broken, but joined, complete, slightly peeled at one end,
9.9 cm, R. No. 2784 ZE1 (3)

A STOOL OF TERRACOTTA

A Stool, four legged and quite sturdy, small and short to seat direct comfortably,
rectangular, 6.6cmx4.7cm hand modeled rough surface, but well prepared perhaps a
toy in a group to use, R. No. 4164 B1 (14)

HANDLES OF TERRACOTTA

These are found mostly in the time span of the first and second centuries AD. The
preparation of the handles reveal the variety and one of which is a pattern of the chain
twisted in intricate style and prepared with great care. Some of them have the twisted
ends for properly holding attachment to the vessels, prepared in such a way for a
convenient grip. These are mostly cooking vessels and those intended to be used
during serving food of both solid and liquid contents.

1. Handle, horizontal attachment to a vessel, circular, oval top cylindrical shaft, R.


No. 7440 ZJ5 (1)
2. Handle, of a large vessel curved part in a twisted shape, horizontal cut design on
the part to be attached to the vessel in three parts broken, R. No. 8928 ZG10 (3)
3. Handle, forming an extended portion, decoration damaged, R. No. 14762 ZH10
(3)
4. Handle, rope design in broad three threads linked in the shape of a chain broken
at attachment, R. No. 12655 ZB3 (3A)
5. Handle, attachment to a vessel, broken, rope design in three distinct thread
knotted pattern, both sides extant in three parts, R. No. 13514 ZE10 (5)

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Cylindrical objects, smoothened,
circa first and second century AD

Cylindrical objects, Period IV, fourth row first on


left is from, Bara chalcolithic levels

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Stool, four legged, small, modelled,
rough fabric (red ware), first century AD

Handles, in curved and twisted designs,


rope pattern, well modelled, Period IV

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SPOUTS-DECORATED WITH ANIMAL AND OTHER CREATURES

Spouts are attached to the vessels served with liquid or for water, oil and milk and other
ingredients meant for pouring in. Generally spouts are simple prepared with upward
projection so that liquid could be poured without spilling and direct to the container.
Some others have horizontal shape with a slight bend or curve so that liquid could pass
through smoothly this type is the one which bears decorations of a particular nature that
require special study. These are made in the shape of animal mouth or imitating a
mammals with the features very realistically depicted. These are found in the time span
of the first and third centuries AD.

1. Spout, complete, with crocodile form, three dimensional extending mouth for
water exit, finely depicted, R. No. 14610 ZH11 (2)
2. Spout, complete, beck of a bird, all the features of eyes, beck and neck part
including feathers indicated by circular dots and lines, water exit clearly done, R.
No. 13513 ZE10 (5)
3. Spout, complete, curved attachment to a vessel animal possibly in wild state,
decorated, R. No. 5767 SGL-8 ZA1 (1)
4. Spout, complete with a spirited whale possibly robustly manifested with all its
anatomy particularly its yawning and gaping mouth, nose, eyes including its
gnawing teeth creating a fearful look, depicted very realistically, fine fabric, R.
No. 13809 YA4 (3)
5. Spout, well-made, complete, bull attached above the water channel, the device is
not properly done as the object to fit in the vessel yet to be adjusted, R. No.
14719 YD9 (1)

LAMP-BEARERS

These are human figurines standing with both hands holding an object. On the
basis of comparative motif at other sites, it is conveniently named as lamp-
bearers. There is no change in the preparation of these figurines and only the
difference is of the size. Moreover the modelling is done by pinching the face,
nose, ears and grooved eyes and legs and hands ending in a point or flat tip.
They are found in the time-span of the first and fourth centuries AD.

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Spouts animal headed, Lamp-bearer, hand modelled,
second and third century AD rough fabric

Lamp-bearer, with fixed bottom, Period IV

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CHAPTER 7

OBJECTS OF EVERY DAY USE MADE IN SHELL, BONE AND IVORY, SEMI-
PRECIOUS STONES, FAIENCE AND TERRACOTTA

A BRIEF INTRODUCTION

Sanghol excavation has yielded a large number of objects of everyday use prepared
from various raw materials. The materials used in the preparation of them include, shell,
bone, ivory, semi-precious stones of different varieties of colours, soapstone in
particular, metals such as copper and iron, gold and silver and prepared pastes of
refined quality viz., steatite, faience and mica mix and lastly terracotta.

The manufactured and the prepared objects from these consist of cosmetic and toilet
utilities, ornamental pieces for wearing, accessories and objects used in personal
adoration. The range of objects prepared covers every aspect of use in day-to-day life
and many of them are essential in nature while others used occasionally on special
functions. What is quite significant to mention is, the decorative patterns and incised
designs including minute carving of aesthetic nature spell out the many-sided aspects of
personal attention to such small objects and creative aspirations of the persons to wear
the finest of them excelling in beauty and grandeur. Equally simple objects without any
special features were used by the common folk in large number, since the purpose of
use and adoration is similar and the point is to be emphasized that all sections of
society had a craving to adorn in one form or the other. Following this are the various
objects prepared from materials discussed taking into count the most popular of them to
begin with and others in order of their use with emphasis on the variety and range one
by one.

SHELL OBJECTS

Shell comprise of the popular material used in the preparation of a variety of objects of
personal wearing, quite apart from using it for other domestic purposes. Objects
prepared from it include, bangles, beads, crescent shaped ear ornaments and rings,
pendants of a variety of types, other than those used as a central decoration of
necklace or a mala or hara, cosmetic holders, hair pins, styluses, buttons, and columela
and cut pieces. Sanghol had a thriving industry in the preparation of shell objects.

Shell bangles, the largest number recovered and it comprised of full and broken pieces.
Simple bangles without decoration constitute the maximum. The full ones reveal, how
they were cut from the columela as the latter indicate the overlapping nature of the joint.

The decorations found on the bangles also show how they were prepared. The outer
portion was flattened and a channel-like space was made possibly for insertion of a

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metal plate to add to its aesthetic beauty and look graceful with yellow or green metal
having the shell in white back ground. More over the outer part of the circular bangle
was also well painted in black to add beauty. Carving in bangles made include, rope,
wavy, channel, dot, dash and cut designs including chevrons, diamonds and broad
grooves and sometimes the channel was filled with gold foils or copper and bronze.
Many pieces were found repaired and revetted by nails (second row, last one) for re-
use. In addition small, flat and polished plaques have carved details of flower, star and
stellate designs including a carved human -shaped figure of a rare type.

Pendants and amulets in shell are also objects mostly for personal wearing. Pendants
include those which have a perforation at top for hanging. Some of the pendants were
used as a central gem in necklaces. Some others formed part of a hara joined at
intervals, to add elegance and beauty in bead necklaces. The shapes of them are also
quite aesthetic such as thick dot at top and ending in a point, a popular type occurs in
large numbers.Some others found include ball and club pendants and shapes such as
vase and bud ones, though not found in large numbers. Most of them are found in
Period IV datable to the first and second century AD.Beads comprise of the bulk of them
prepared in shapes such as globular and circular and spherical, being quite frequent
and others are bicone, long cylindrical and collared beads. (second row, first
one).Simple spherical beads are also found in Period I,II and III, but in limited numbers.

BONE AND IVORY OBJECTS

Objects prepared from both represent, the more better ones, since they were used
for personal wearing finishing and polishing of a sophisticated type. At Sanghol
almost every house- hold in the Early Historic times yielded a few of them specially
in Period IV. They also occur in the early Bara Chalcolithic layers and continue in the
overlap levels.

Objects in bone require more labour in preparation, as they have to be done from
the raw bones. Many of the objects found with the end part unworked and the
porphyritic bone contents are in evidence. No doubt the working end and body
portion were made with care and also smoothened and polished. Objects prepared
from bone are points, styluses, antimony rods, needles, pendants, combs, hairpins
and plaques prepared with geometric and floral designs. Dice were also made with
the number of circular dots carved on all the four sides.

Points with small medium and quite big ones comprise the largest among them.
They are of the nature of thick mid part ending in a point.

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Bangles of shell, plain

Bangles of shell, decorated

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Bangles of shell, complete, big size, one bearing copper nail

Bangles of shell, decorated

185
Pendants of shell

Pendants of shell, a collared Long barrel bicone beads of shell


barrel and a bicone bead

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The complete shape worked out to begin with and then smoothened. They are put to a
variety of uses and the more popular one is that its function as a hair pin, similar to that
used in modern times. There are also other functions: such as using them as writing
objects, kohl sticks, unguent mixers and cleaners, ear and tooth cleansers.

Some of them were found with the end decorated with figures of bird or animal motifs.
Apart from these, bones were used for preparation of needles and quite a few of them
are found from Period IV.

A few pendants are found with the upper part decorated and ending in a point. The
larger bones were flattened and used for making devices of a different type such as
plaques for bigger frames adopting floral and geometric designs.

Ivory objects are also found equally in large numbers. Most of them are recorded
datable to the first and second century AD and a few of them are known from the
third and fourth century AD. In view of the precious nature of the material and being
used by the gentry and sophisticated of them, among the people, the use and
function of ivory are of a limited nature. Ornamentation and decoration and creation
as objects of art are some of the uses of ivory as known from Sanghol.

Preparation of combs and carving them for use in dice games are more well-known
and decorative devices of circular discs, miniature models in the stupa designs are
also some other uses of ivory as known from the finds. Some cosmetic or jewellery
boxes were also found with lids and side parts made with carvings testifying to the
other uses of ivory known so far.

BEADS: AN INTRODUCTION

Beads comprise of the bulk of objects known from Sanghol occurring at all cultural
periods. They are individual pieces recovered from the floors and other areas of
excavations and it is difficult to pin point the reason and purpose of their availability at
the places found. The raw material used in the preparation of beads are indeed
numerous to list, but the range of varieties of beads manufactured does clearly reveal
the ingenuity of the craftsman to select a wide range of basic materials that could be
worked out, however hard the core substance is. Such a conclusion could be arrived, on
analytically classifying and studying the beads of a large number of them prepared in
various shapes. One special aspect has to be emphasized, unlike objects of larger size
which could be made with easy felicity object of small and tiny nature such as beads,
preparing the core and uniformly cutting them and shaping and making perforation of
each of them require expert skill and takes more time since they have to be made in
larger numbers. Evidences reveal the industrial manufacture at Sanghol do indicate
bead workshops, wherein the collection comprise of waste flakes, cores, partly worked
beads in various stages of preparation.

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Bone points, complete

Bone points, long, complete

188
Bone points, close up details

Bone styluses, complete

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Ivory, dice Ivory, model of a stupa, upper portion

Ivory, disc

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RAW MATERIAL

The raw material used comprise of varieties of semi-precious stones, to mention in


detail, carnelian, agate, chalcedony, garnet, amethyst, quartz-crystal, jasper of both red
and green- colours, schist, slate, limestone, and lapis-lazuli. Moreover some mixed
minerals were used to create paste adding degraissants and beads were made and
they are to name a few paste, faience, steatite etc., Beads were made also from basic
materials such as metals- copper bronze, gold and silver, glass, shell, bone and ivory.
The largest of them were made in terracotta.

The variety, shape and types of beads prepared are indeed numerous to mention. It is
indeed necessary to emphasise, some materials were easy to work, whereas there are
others which are hard to chisel and entails longer duration. Hence the shapes made
depended upon the raw material used.

SHAPES OF BEADS

The shapes of beads are quite interesting and also emphasise the aesthetic taste of the
people eager to wear and adorn themselves in bead necklaces. Some of the common
and popular shapes include circular, globular and spherical shapes, cylindrical, barrel,
tubular and triangular shapes. Some others are more geometrical and mixed shapes
such as, bicone, square, hexagonal, long and short barrel, cylinder circular, tablet,
faceted and prism, shaped, and so on. Some typical, but of rare occurrences of shapes
include gadrooned segmented collared beads and spaces beads.

BEADS OF SEMI-PRECIOUS STONES

The largest number of beads are in this variety of stones and the more significant
aspect is the natural colours and blending variety of them attracted the craftsman to
innovate shapes and patterns resulting in alsthetic charm and beauty and a collection of
them in beads necklaces formed a veritable source of attraction both to the viewer and
possessor. The more popular shapes made in this group include globular and spherical
ones, bicone beads long cylindrical beads and faceted beads in varieties. Some etched
beads were also found and the popular stones used are agate, carnelian and
chalcedony. The bands in agate beads created an attractive back ground for bead
design and preparation of them leading to very fine beads.

The popular of the semi-precious stones used in order are agate and carnelian,
chalcedony and quartz-crystal, garnet and jasper, amethyst, schist and lapis-lazuli. The
largest of the beads made are in agate and carnelian. Beads of chalcedony, garnet and
jasper are found in spherical, barrel and cylinder shapes in white, green, yellow and
blood red colours.

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Beads of semi-precious stones

Beads of semi-precious stones

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Beads of crystal, agate, chalcedony and carnelian

Beads of crystal, long and short barrel, bicone and disc beads

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All of them are known in levels of first and third centuries AD. Beads of quartz and
crystal are also found in largest numbers. They are mostly barrel, spherical and
cylindrical shapes and perforated horizontally. Their attractive white colour added more
luster and grace and the purer ones are preferred than the pale ones. Beads with
surfaces etched with dots and geometric features were done mostly on agate, carnelian
and chalcedony stones. Most of them occur in levels of first and third centuries AD.

BEADS OF FAIENCE

Faience is a term originally applied to all types of glazed pottery made in Faenza, Italy
during the Middle Ages, but now has been used to describe a large number of ceramic
products. It is prepared by breaking up quartz into small grains adding a small amount
of lime and fusing them until the surface of the quartz had flowed and cemented the
whole into a solid mass. The quality depended upon the fineness of the grains and the
degree of fusing. The main colours of faience consist of blue- green, milky yellow, and
white, but the more popular were different kinds of light blue green.

Faience had a long history and its antiquity goes back very early. At Sanghol, the
earliest of them are known from Bara Chalcolithic levels. The shapes are spherical,
bicone barrel and circular and some are gadrooned and collared. After this there seems
to be a long gap during which period faience does not appear or worked, until about the
beginning of the Christian era.

In the level of period IV there is a proliferation of faience beads at Sanghol with lapidary
work for manufacture of faience beads.

Globular or spherical beads with plain surfaces are popular. Many of them are also
granulated. In addition a special type is the collared beads beautifully executed and the
bead necklaces in pale green colour-a variety known at Sanghol and equally popular.

BEADS OF TERRACOTTA

As an ornament of common wearing, Beads made from clay constitute the popular form
of decoration and worn in bead-necklaces of terracotta in all times as revealed by their
occurrence. Some of the typical shapes continue unchanged throughout. Terracotta
beads are made from moulds and then hand modeled. The beads are well made and
had smooth surfaces the availability all throughout in the excavations could postulate its
populous use and was preferred better than beads made from other materials. In spite
of its use among large number of people, the shapes preferred for preparation are
limited in number. It is more due to the fact of its use without difficulty and could be worn
comfortably. The spherical nature of the shape gives an elegance without the effect of
its heaviness felt when it is worn in the neck. The smoothness of the beads affords easy
wearing and also does not cause any uneasiness.

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Beads of crystal

Beads of faience, plain and gadrooned beads

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Shapes are quite distinct and specific in nature. They are spherical or globular ones
whorl or annular, tablet, arecanut shape with all its sub types ghata or pot shaped,
faceted, segmented, collared and granulated beads. By far the well-known among them
the spherical or globular ones.

They have at one end a dip of finger pinch or an everted extension. These features are
intended to comfortably join when the beads are threaded in back-to-back fashion the
beads necklace, will have an artistic appearance and its wearing will be quite appealing.
Arecanut shape is another common type though it is found in terracotta modeling as a
specific feature. The very name suggest the shape of the nut and it is found in all
variants prepared on a larger scale.

As it is made from mould, it was smoothened and fabric wise it had varying colours,
pale chocolate, white grey and with darker shades sometimes in light black also.Ghata
or pot shaped bead is also found to be a special type in terracotta. As the name would
have it, it has a spherical or globular vessel shaped body with a rim everted in
appearance. The fabric is red or pale grey or sometimes light black in colour. Mostly it is
found popular in Period IV and continues to be known upto the third and fourth centuries
AD.

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Beads of terracotta ghata shaped

Beads of terracotta ghata and arecanut shaped

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Beads of terracotta

Beads of terracotta

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Chapter 8

Coins, Seals and Sealings

These are distinct type of finds which primarily support in chronologically determining
the floors, the structures and also fix the stratigraphical base apart from their intrinsic
value as datable finds. As a matter of fact coins continue to be found in habitation areas
and also outside at random even long after they cease to be of value as legal tender.
Coins generally prepared in copper does not value much of a metal hence their
prevalence and availability as an antique find with other objects, help in fixing the
chronology on a comparative basis.

At Sanghol, coins occur from the beginning of the second-first century BC. Many of
them are known from early first century AD. They proliferate from latter part of the first
century AD and occur in varieties subsequently. Some listing and identification are to be
done. They will be included in the form of an Appendix.

Kuninda coins and coin moulds occur at many areas in Hathiwara. Some of them, quite
a number were found stacked near a furnace remains, in the building identified as Mint.
It consisted of small chambers with a circular furnace built over a platform made up of
very compact clay and forty terracotta moulds of Kuninda coins were found. These
pertain to Amoghabhuti type coin moulds of Kunindas bear on obverse the portrait of
the ruler Amoghabhuti with the reverse a lady figure. At the area of the palatial building
adjacent to the above occur at lowest level coin moulds of Kunindas with clear details.
At least twenty five of them were found representing on the obverse a deer in front of a
standing female figure, holding a lotus in her hand (possibly goddess Lakshmi) and
bearing on the circular margin a Brahmi legend rajnokunindasyaAmoghsbhutisya and
on the reverse showing the symbols such as tree in railing srivatsa swastika arched hill
and river represented by many lines. In the brick built complex for performing rituals at
many places of the square and rectangular rooms were found Kushana copper and gold
coins including those of Vima Khadphises, Indo-Parthian coins and that of
Gondopharnes.

Similarly at the far end of the religious area where remains of the entrance gate traced
with the fort wall revetted with bricks, many Kuninda coins were found along with Indo-
Parthian coins. In addition to mention the finding of a miniature pot containing one
hundred copper coins of Gondopharnes. In this same area has also been found a
standard type gold coin of Samudragupta bearing the legend SamarasataVitata
Vijayojitaripurajitodivam Jayati and Samudra on the obverse and parakramah on the
reverse.

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It is also interesting to mention at SGL.13 in the levels of the mid first century BC a large
number of coins of Gondopharnes were found. Similarly at SGL.6 coins of Parthian
rulers were found near the mud and burnt brick structure datable to
early first century BC.

Seals and sealings in copper and terracotta comprise a large number of them. They are
both in Brahmi and Kharosthi script. They occur in all areas of the site. They are small
circular or oval shapes. In some of them only the script is found without any other
design or decoration. Some others are figural and decorative in composition. Some
seals found bear an inscription in Kharosthi with a couchant bull in the centre. Some of
the Brahmi seals read Sri Jeebiya, Sri Darasya, Sri Rudrasaramasya, Sri Haridattasya,
SriNandikasya datable in characters of the fourth century AD. On the top of these
sealings are depicted couchant bull, facing left or right, lion seated on its haunches and
motifs such as triratna, srivasta etc. Some others have been found in Brahmi script
bearing Mahasenapati, Sridandanayaka etc. They are oblong and round shapes made
of baked or unbaked clay, depicting in relief of intaglio type standing women figures of
royalty and nobility, seated lion or couchant bull, head of an elephant, motifs such as
dharmachakra,Vedi etc.

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Chapter 8

CONCLUSION

Sanghol or Ucha Pinda is known locally is an impressive mound which could be visible
over long distances in the near and far off surroundings. Perched on top and on all
sides and periphery is the present village and looks like a small hill and buildings built
on it. As the very name would have it, the accumulated height of the mound itself is
quite rich with habitation deposit of 18m thick and the beginning of the settlement could
be traced back to the latter part of the second millennium BC and on a conservative
estimate Sanghol village has been existing for nearly four thousand years or so. In other
words, the village is still continued to be occupied up to the present day-an aspect that
is quite eventful and significant.

The beginning of the settlement and its continuous occupation to the early first
millennium BC has been termed Late Harappan or Bara chalcolithic culture in content.
The ceramics are typical Bara shapes (a site excavated in detail situated nearby).
Important pottery shapes include jars with typical rims, large lota shaped vase, dish-on-
stand, storage jars, bowl-like lids with or without knobs. The houses were built of mud;
floors are formed of rammed earth. Important objects found consist of beads of agate,
jasper, faience, terracotta bangles, toy cart wheels, animal figurines and play balls.

Then comes a period of Overlap phase in which a number of ceramic wares are
encountered. This is characterized by pottery of Late Harappan or Bara ceramics,
Painted Grey Ware, and Black Slipped Ware, in varying proportions including Red
Ware. Notable objects found include terracotta beads, ear studs, shell beads, bone
points, ivory styluses and play balls.

The meaning and content of this cultural term needs an explanation. This is a time
period of nearly more than five hundred years or so and the area of Haryana and
Punjab such type of situation persist in the settlements. Generally there are no building
features are available except floors and kitchen ovens. But what is more significant to
mention the profuse pottery forms are available of almost any shapes from the Bara
chalcolithic Painted Grey Ware, Grey Ware, Black Slipped Ware including Red Ware of
the normal types. These are found in various proportions in the layers but all of them
are found and hence the term overlap used in the context since there are not much
remains in the form of ash, charcoal or carbon found, hence no scientific dating could
be done for proper assessment.

The beginning of the Early Historic Period ushers in an orderly way of life and could
tentatively be placed from about the fourth and third century BC. The habitational
structural remains were found mostly on the southern fringes of the village, presently
occupied with built, in area. Though it was not larger, but in a limited area exposed two

202
house plans separated by a lane of two metres. In all four phases of built walls were
exposed, the earlier two represented by mud and unbaked walls. In the next two phases
both baked and unbaked bricks were used for building of houses on an extended scale.
The mud and burnt reused bricks measure 32x22x6-8cm and 24x22x6 cm respectively.
So far as the features of the structural nature inside rooms, mention could be made of
several occupational floors, a few irregular or oval shaped hearths, etc. At some places
also there was a sort of workshop or industrial activity as the finds included, crucibles,
clay lumps, corn bins and ceramics scatter all around. Post holes were also traced
indicated poles created for thatched roof. A larger number of objects of everyday use
were also found apart from the ceramic types. The pottery include red ware both slipped
and unslipped, in shapes such as bowls, storage jars and other utilitarian vessels.
Antiquities are skin rubber, terracotta beads, bangles, pendants, rings of shell, beads of
semi-precious stones, bone points etc. Kuninda coin moulds and coins of Indo Parthian
rulers (Gondopharnes) are the worthy finds to mention.

The long duration of the settlement of Sanghol since the second millennium BC does
bespeak of its continued existence basing upon the availability of local resources and
possibly on its being situated along the route connecting to distant places. This much
could be reasoned by the existence of the nearby contemporary settlements, though
none of them is larger in size than Sanghol. There are some advantages that it enjoyed
such as being situated nearby a river, agricultural and pastoral area with a leveled
surface near the silt basin, situated on the connecting route and possibly a station for
storage and halting place for agricultural produce and industrial raw material, albeit in a
very limited scale. Some of these inferences could be drawn on the eve of the first
century BC or so, mainly on the basis of the archaeological evidence on surface.

Some fresh developments takes place and the exposed remains indicate several
interesting features that could be understood and the details follow further. This is
attributed to the coming in of the Kushanas and selecting the site at Hathiwara for
building a new settlement or a township.

There does not seem to have been any immediate change in habitational features nor
any destruction, when the site was settled by the Kushanas. The early first century BC
remains at Hathiwara which consist of mud and brick- built houses were replaced by a
systematic planning in the form of new extension and fresh building activity. Sufficient
open space possibly facing the river to the north and north-east was chosen for this
purpose. There is evidence at the town site of large scale leveling wherever such area
was available, also those dwellings that are falling and vacant.

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Presently known as Hathiwara, this area represents the major structural remains of the
Kushanas, who dominated the scene, for more than a century and a half.

The Kushan remains revealed by the excavations at Hathiwara are

A. The citadel
B. Buildings within the defences
C. Fort-wall and the available features
D. Development of the area outside the fort-wall and some distance away for
religious edifices.

A mud rampart was traced with basal width of 29 metres whereas at the upper levels, it
was quite less. The middle portion was filled up with earth and kankar though it was not
quite distinct. There was evidence that the mud wall was raised further during the
middle period of occupation when the buildings were built inside. The moat also was
excavated and survived for a longer period as the portion yielded the Red Polished
Ware, terracotta figurines identifiable to the fourth century AD and many sealings of
which one with a lagend in Late Gupta Brahmi belonged to the fifth century AD.

The citadel measured approximately 340m east-west and 210m north-south with some
slope, in varying forms adding the ground area further. So far excavations have
revealed three major buildings, axially situated inside and built in close proximity, but
leaving sufficient space in the centre. They are a complex of two buildings closely built
on the northern side serving the public for official transactions, otherwise designated for
convenience an administrative building and a place for public audience built on an east-
west facie and second a non-domestic brick-built establishment of religious and
ritualistic nature with an east-west orientation and third, a planned residential area with
a number of houses regular streets and side lanes on the south and south-east. These
represent the core remains so far excavated in the heyday of Kushanas and the town
inside remained in regular use for nearly one-and-a-half centuries of the time of the
Imperial Kushana rulers who dominated most parts of North India.

To the north of Hathiwara, 500m away was situated the cluster of establishments
religious in nature, revealed an extensive complex of stupas, residential monasteries
and votive stupas. Already in earlier excavations a major stupa was exposed yielded the
famous Kushana sculptures and other votive stupas and the work was extended a little
away on the same direction. Excavations undertaken exposed a monastery (27 cells of
various sizes), a small stupa of the Dharmachakra pattern and other small structures
built over an extensive brick floor. A third stupa was also partly exposed with tiers and
spokes but further action could not be taken due to the fact, the area is under private
possession. Moreover this part of the site has been leveled off for cultivation purposes.

204
At Hathiwara, excavations revealed that the latest phase of occupation represents reuse
of the old building materials such as bricks, and raising the walls of houses and also
increasing the levels of floor for habitation. It is also observed when the palatial
buildings fell out of use or abandoned, the site was not completely vacated but the
habitation continue in some areas and there is a change of cultural milieu replacing the
Kushana material remains; at least two structural phases along with floor levels have
been observed in the undisturbed areas.

There is also a change in the way of life of the people and their objects of daily use.
There are traces of further extension of their living areas especially to the south-east of
Hathiwara about 500m away. There is also continuity of habitation for more than a
century or so. In this area excavation conducted reveals at least two groups of houses
and the objects found include large and big size terracottas and ivory objects and
different types of beads of semi-precious stones and terracotta and the well-known
ceramics such as Red Polished Ware, stamped pottery, kaolin ware and other
associated pottery. Aptly this phase has been called the Gupta and post-Gupta period
synonymous to the period in Ganga valley sites. The site was abandoned sometime in
the sixth century AD and habitation shifts from Sanghol. possibly for more than seven or
eight centuries or so.

Evidence of the remains of early medieval period has been traced from the area to the
south of Hathiwara and the main town (present-day Sanghol). Antiquities and ceramics
of the period are well represented specially the domestic pottery and other objects of
daily use. There is continuity of habitation of modern Sanghol from late medieval period.
Large number of objects specially coins and ceramics of the last two centuries or so
testify to the undisturbed occupation of the main mound from eighteenth century
onwards

205
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the excavations at Sanghol and Chandigarh, in (ed) UdaiVir Singh, Archaeological
Congress and Seminar papers: 1972, Kurukshetra, 1976.

Gupta, S.P., (ed), Kushana sculptures from Sanghol, New Delhi, 1985

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pp. 31-32, PLS XLVII-LXVIII, 1970-71, pp. 30-31, PL XLVIII A,B, 1971-72, pp. 39,41, PL
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95-99., PL XXII- XL., 1988-89, pp. 69, 71-73, PL XXIX- XL, 1989-90, pp. 88-94, PL
XXV- XXX.

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trends in Indian Art, and Archaeology, S.R. Raos 70th Birthday felicitation volume, New
Delhi, 1991, pp. 183-192, PL. III, 7, I-XIII.

------------ Terracotta Conch- Shell from Sanghol, in (ed) Ajay MitraShastri,


DevendraHanda and C.S. Gupta, Visvambhara, Probings in Orientology, Prof. V.S.
Pathak, festschrift, New Delhi, 1995, pp. 28-33, PL. II and III.

------------- Female figurines on ceramic handles and spouts in the Early Historic Period-
Some new evidence, in (ed) AsokDtta, Asok K. Ghosh and C. Margabandhu, India at
the Dawn of History, Essays in memory of Shri Y.D. Krishnaswami, New Delhi, 1995,
pp. 241-246, figs. 1 and 2.

------------- Planning and development of the Kushana settlement at Sanghol, in (ed)


HimanshuPrabha Ray, Sanghol and the Archaeology of Punjab, New Delhi, 2010, pp.
106-127, figs. 1-29.

------------- Architectural and cultural facets of Kushana settlement at Sanghol, District,


Ludhiana, Punjab, in (ed) VidulaJayaswal, Glory of the Kushans, New Delhi, 2012, pp.
255-272, fig. 12.

Margabandhu, C. and G.S. Gaur, Some fresh evidence from Sanghol excavations:
1986, Puratattva, 16, 1985-86, pp. 73-78, PL. 16, I-X; Sanghol excavations, 1987:
Some new evidence, Puratattva, 17, 1986-87, pp. 1-4,

Margabandhu, C. and Pradeep Kumar Pandey, Kushana ceramic Art of Mathura and
Sanghol- A study of the art- cultural trends in the light of Kushana settlement expansion
in the region, in (ed), C. Margabandhu, A. K. Sharma, B.R. Mani and G.S. Khwaja,

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PuraJagat- Indian Archaeology, History and culture, in honour of Late Shri JagatPati
Joshi., New Delhi, 2012, pp. 426-439, figs.1-17; PL. 1-30.

Margabandhu, C., Pradeep Kumar Pandey, Pradeep Singh Foniya, Tracing the
Kushana elements in the Planning of the settlements in Ganga valley in the light of data
revealed from excavations at Sanghol, Punjab, Bharati, 37, 2012-13, pp. 1-26, PLS. I-
XXVI.

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Harappan Civilization, A contemporary perspective, New Delhi, pp. 141-165, fig.13. 1-
18, PL. 1-9.

Sharma, Y.D. and G.B. Sharma, Bara culture and its housing remains with special
reference to Sanghol, in ed. R.K. Sharma, Indian Archaeology- New perspectives,
Delhi, 1982, pp. 71-82, PL. 10.1-7.

Sharma G.B. and Manmohan Kumar, Coins, Seals and Sealings from Sanghol,
Chandigarh, 1986.

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APPENDIX-I
Botanical studies of Sanghol excavations

DR. K. S. SARASWAT

The bulk of organic material recovered from Sanghol excavations has yielded one of the
largest botanical finds ever recovered from any other site uncovered in the Indian
subcontinent. Collection was made during the working season from 1987 to 1990. The
present author carried out systematic collection during three working seasons from
1988 to 1990. Besides, the collection was also made by the excavators in 1987-88,
which were passed on to the author. Plant economy of two cultural periods
(Harappan/Baran and kushna periods) is proposed to be published in a volume
incorporating animal and plant remains from Sanghol excavations. Four papers on
Sanghol plant economy have already been published in Prgdhr( Volumes No.7,
1996-97; No.8, 1997-98; No.9, 1998-99; &No. 10, 1999-2000), Jour. U.P. state
Archaeology Dept., edited by Dr. Rakesh Tewari. The captivating contents of the text
are already in hand by and large. Some additional information made available
successively is being generated on examining more samples obtained from the
excavators. It is of particular interest that the wealth of data has now become more than
double in the case of Kushns. It is expected that the exploitation of botanical wealth,
local and from distant regions, would make Sanghol a prominent site not only in the
Archaeological Atlas of India but in the Asian frame. The brief divulgence on the
botanical wealth, exploited by the Harappans/Barans and the illustrious Kushna
Empire, which enjoyed a position of central importance, in the contemporary world
history, is given as under.

1. Harappan/Baran period (ca.2000-1400BC)

An impressive array of botanical data from 12 samples recovered from different


horizons of more than 4 meter thick deposits of rural farming community, which gave
birth to Sanghol settlement, includes incidentally carbonised grains and seeds of the
crop plants. The crops included hulled barley (HordeumVulgre), naked barley (H.
vulgarevar.nudum), bread wheat (Triticumaestivum), dwarf wheat
(Triticumsphaerococcum), jowar millet (Sorgum bicolor), Italian millet (Setariaitalica),
Khesari (Lathyrussativus), field pea (Pisumarvense), lentil (Lens culinaris), chick
pea/gram (Cicerarietinum), horsegram/kulthi (Macrotylomauniflorum), barseem
(Trifoliumalexandrinum) and til (Sesamumindicum). The setters practiced the cultivation
of sem-bean (Lablab purpureus) as a garden crop, for green vegetable. The seeds of
grape (Vitisvinifera), lemon (Citrus cf. limon), Karaunda (Carissa carandas) and nwala
(Emblicaofficinalis), are indicative that the knowledge of arbori-horticulture was also
highly advanced.

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The evidence of opium-poppy (Papaversomniferum) seeds is by far the most important
one, discussed for the first time in the archaeological context of India. A good deal of
information on the use of this plant is available in ancient Sumerian, Babylonian and
Assyrian Civilizations of Mesopotamia, as early as 3000 BC. Opium-drug does not leave
its bones to be dug up. There is every likelihood that Sanghol settlers might be knowing
the use of opium as analgesic medicine also.

About 400 wood charcoal pieces were studied


anatomically to assess the environmental
characteristics and the consequent climatic
orientation, peculiar to some of the species
identified. Out of 14 taxa identified, Babul
(Acacia nilotica), Kareel (Capparis decidua) and
Farash (Tamarixarticulata), are elements of
deciduous forests and Palash (Butea
monosperma), Sheesham (Dalbergiasissoo),
Gular (Ficusglomerata), Dahia (Streblus asper)
and Jhau (Tamarixdioica), Heens
(Capparissepiaria) are elements of mixed Opium popy seeds
deciduous forest. Bamboo (Bambusa sp.)
occurs in well drained regions. These elements
indicate semi-arid conditions. Hinna/Mehndi
(Lawsoniainermis) was cultivated, for its leaves,
which are powdered and made into a paste to
give the Henna dye to colour the hand palms
and nails. Harsingr/Prijt
(Nyctanthesarbortristis) and Jasmine (Jasminum Lemon seeds
sp.) evidenced by their charcoals, were grown
for fragrant flowers.

It appears that assured irrigation and intrinsic soil fertility would have been maintained
for growing fruit-trees and shrubs, vegetables and ornamental plants in the gardens,
close to the inhabited areas of Sanghol settlements This aspect in archaeological
context is to be reckoned with.

2. Kushna Period (100-300AD)

The need of taking up an exhaustive study of plant economy of Kushns at Sanghol in


early historic times, was realized for the reason that only a limited data from a few site
has remained confined only to the scattered evidences. Further, these evidence have
been limited in archaeology for their authenticity, abundance and integration. The
increased academic efforts have been due to the direct interest of a number of modern

209
nations which were connected with Kushna Empire. Although much wider
geographical involvement of Kushna has been well known, Indian studies in many
cases did not place the problems in the proper perspectives of botanical data. Being in
the close contact with the important political and cultural centres of the ancient world the
Kushna Empire could not keep its destinies in India, unaffected by other kingdoms.
Ignorant of the hazards of literary information, there has been much temptation in
making vehement statements. It was, therefore, felt desired to attempt the generation of
some direct evidence of plant products which would be a source for the confirmation or
otherwise. Sanghol excavations provided a welcome opportunity in this context. The
bulk of organic material recovered illustrated interaction of ancient settlers with the
economic exploitation of vegetational resources from the surrounding and for distant
regions in India and abroad. The botanical information is expected to narrow down
some gaps in the literary information. The beginning has however been made at
Sanghol.

Our information on the complex problem of religious and ritualistic aspects in


archaeology has normally been based on seals, terracotta figurines and few stone
images.

At sites like Kalibangan and Lothal, the importance of sacred fire is obvious by the
presence of fire-altar ritual (Agnihotra), but no botanical material was known to perform
the ritual. For the first time the information on the plant products used in the
performance of ritual, from the organic material recovered from ashy contents filled
inside a fire-altar. These elaborate studies at Sanghol appear to uphold the botanical
evidence about the progress of urban trends in the direction of managing the surplus
grain produce by the farmers, thriving of the quality plant products for commerce and
trade, and about the religious establishments, rituals of secular tendencies by foraging
of the unity and syncretism in the Buddhist ruling aristocracy and followers of earlier
Vedic traditions of fire-sacrifice from Harappan times.

A. Plant Economy

An impressive array of botanical data published in 1998-99 and 1999-2000, during 1st
3rd centuries AD, was based on exhaustive analysis of 259 cumbersome samples of
organic remains collected from different horizons in 28 trenches. Remains of grains and
seeds mixed with wood charcoal pieces, furnished the evidence of 17 types of crops, 4
spices and condiments, 11 wild and cultivated fruits, 1 dye plant, 28 weeds and wild
taxa, wood charcoals of 22 taxa of trees and shrubs. The overall information was based
on total 83 species of plants, from Kushna Period.

Now after including 50 more samples, the present information is based on 309 samples.
Continued analysis during last three years has increased our data exorbitantly. It

210
includes 32 types of crop plants, 10 spices and condiments, 16 types of vegetable and
edible fruits, 1 dye plant, two plants used as detergent, 55 weeds and wild taxa and
charcoals of 40 tree and shrubs. Now, the information is based on 156 species.

With the intensification of agricultural activities onward from Harappan times, the
Sanghol settlers gradually developed an advanced ingenuity in commercial and trade
activities.

Spices and condiments of the Kushns include cumin (Cuminumcyminum), coriander


(Coriandrumsativum), fenugreek / Menthi (Trigonellafoenum-graecum), garlic (Allium
sativum), onion (Allium cepa) and black cumin / Kalonji (Nigella sativa) of West and
Central Asia; blackpepper (Piper nigrum) clove (Syzygiumaromaticum) and cardamom
(Elettariacardamomum) of south Indian region; long pepper (Piper longum) of
Himalayan-Tarai region; Ginger (Zingiberofficinale) and nutmeg or jaiphal / mace or
javitri (Myristicafragrans) of East Asia. Betal nut (Acacia catechu) came from south
India, as a masticatory.

In addition to custard apple (Annona squamosa) already reported from Sanghol, a few
seeds of tobacco (Nicotianatabacum) have further led to sum-up the discussion at
length on Asia-American contacts in pre-Columbian times.

Coriander Cumin

Arbori-horticultural practices of Kushns have come to reckoning by the evidences of


the cultivation of torai (Luffacylindrica), brinjal (Solanummelongena), bitter gourd
(Momordicacharantia), okra (Hibiscus esculentus), sem-bean (Lablab pupureus) and
parwal (Trichosanthesdioca) for the vegetables. Fruit trees and shrubs grown in
gardens are evidenced by the seeds and charcoals of custard apple (Annona
squamosa), lemon (citrus limon), pomegranate (Punicagranatum), grape-vine
(Vitisvinifera), mulberry (Morus alba), jamun (Syzygiumcumini) and mango
(Mangiferaindica).

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Amazingly, a stone of olive (Oleaeuropiana) is to be reckoned with. The tree is native to
eastern Mediterranean zone. The production of olive oil became a big business in the
Mediterranean world by the last centuries BC, which saw the empire of Alexander the
Great, the rise and fall of Hellenistic Kingdoms from Greece to India and the rise of
Rome.

B. Evidence of Fire-sacrifice

Remnants of botanical material used in offerings to sacred fire during ritualization of fire-
sacrifice, have been discussed by the present author in Prgdhr (1997-98). Seven
types of grains used for the purpose, included rice, barley, wheat, mung, urad, masoor
and til. Besides, the fruit remains of wild and cultivated jujebe, date, almond, raisin,
chilgoz, pistachio-nut and gular-fig have been recorded. Inclusion of herbal medicines
in the offerrings is evidenced by the fruit and seeds of nwal, haritiki, jaiphal, holy
basil, black pepper and phok (Ephedra). A few nuts of Cyperus sedge, which is
regarded as sacred in rituals, have been found.

Grape seeds Almond fruit-shells

The woods of pipal, gular, palsh, kaith, deodar and chandan were used as fuel in
sacrificial ritual. The discussion on the use of these botanical products has already been
substantiated in the light of ancient Sanskrit literature. Medicinal properties and the
chemical nature of the material have also been touched upon, and an attempt has been
made to signify the importance of the act of fire-sacrificial ritual in warding off infection
and maintaining the cleanliness in the surrounding atmosphere.

However, I wish to emphasize the role of Ephedra which is a Soma plant of Vedic age. I
suspect the use of this Soma plant would also be strengthened further, if the
identification of a few micro-charcoal pieces is confirmed by Scanning Electronic
Microscopy. Attempts are on the way in the desired direction.

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