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CE00055-3Power Electronics Individual Assignment Page1 of 27

Table of Contents
QUESTION 1........................................................................................................... 2
QUESTION 2........................................................................................................... 7
QUESTION 3......................................................................................................... 14
QUESTION 4......................................................................................................... 19
QUESTION 5......................................................................................................... 21
REFERENCES........................................................................................................ 25

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QUESTION 1

AIM

This experiment is about study of power diodes. Following are the aims which are required to
be completed by the researcher in this experiment.
Study the operation and characteristics of power diodes.
Study of circuit using proteus software.
Analyzing the hardware and software result..

THEORY
A diode is a semiconductor device which has two characteristics, P type and N type. The
P type and N type semiconductors represent positive and negative type semiconductors.
The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction
(called the diode's forward direction), while blocking current in the opposite direction (the
reverse direction).

Name of major types of diodes and their symbol is shown in below figure:-

Figure 1:- diodes & symbols

Power diodes or semiconductor diode, has a much larger PN junction area compared to its
smaller signal diode cousin, resulting in a high forward current capability of up to several
hundred amps (KA) and a reverse blocking voltage of up to several thousand volts (KV).

A diode has two terminals: a cathode and an anode. Power diodes are of three types: general
purpose, high speed, and schottky. General-purposes diodes are available up to 6000v,
4500A, and the rating of fast recovery diodes can go up to 6000V, 1100A. the reverse

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recovery time varies between 0.1 and 5s. (Rashid.H.M.power electronics,third


edition,pearson,2006)

Below given diagram shows the classification of all semiconductor, which are made of either
silicon or silicon carbide.

Figure 2:- classification of the power semiconductor

Operation of Power Diode:


When Anode is Positive with respect to the Cathode, then the Diode is said to be Forward
Biased. It has small forward voltage drop. The conduction of current happens obviously due
to PN Junction action. Hence, this is the Turn on mode of the Diode Switch.

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When Cathode is Positive with respect to Anode, then the Diode is said to be Reverse
Biased. There is no conduction, if it is an Ideal Switch. But, practically speaking the diode
will conduct at Small Reverse leakage current due to Minority carrier action present in the
diode. It increases slowly and at a certain point the Avalanche Breakdown will occur. This
leads to large Reverse current.
Steady State V-I Characteristics of the Diode:

Figure 3:- V-I characteristics of diode.

Most of the time diode is considered as ideal switch.

V-I Characteristics of Practical Diode also can be interpreted from the Shockley
Diode Equation, under steady state operation,

ID=IS(eVd/nVt -1)
Where,
ID = Current through the Diode, in Amperes (A),
IS = Leakage current through the Diode, (Usually fro 10-6 to 10-15 A),
VD = Voltage across Diode when Anode is Positive with respect to Cathode,
n = Emission coefficient (For Ge (n=1), Si (n=1.1 to 1.8),
VT = Thermal Voltage=kT/q,
Where,
K-Boltzmann Constant=1.380610-23J/K,

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T-Absolute Temperature in Kelvin (273+0C),


Q-Charge of an electron = 1.602210-19C.
Diode operation consisting of Three Regions:
Forward Biased-VD>0,ID=IS(e(Vd/nVt)

Reverse Biased-VD<0,ID=-IS

Break Down ( VR>VBD) Diode may get damage.

OBSERVATION
S.No. Forward Bias Reverse Bias

Voltage (V) Current (mA) Voltage (-V) Current (-uA)

1. 0.1 0 1 3

2. 0.2 0.5 2 7

3. 0.3 0.8 3 10

4. 0.4 1 4 12

5. 0.5 1.1 5 18

DESIGN OF SIMULATION CIRCUIT USING PROTEUS

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Figure 4:-proteus simulated circuit, diode

SIMULATION RESULTS

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HARDWARE RESULT

CONCLUSIONS
This experiment was to study the operation and characteristics of power diodes. As we all
know that the diodes conduct in two way forward bias conduction and reversed biased
conduction. In the hardware part and software part researcher has shows the conduction in
both forward and reversed biased.

RESULTS
As results we have got the mathematical value of conduction in both reversed biased and
forward biased which is shown in the observation table. Also graph has been plotted in both
hardware and software which is shown in simulation part.

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF RESULT


Following are the points which have comes after critically analyzing the results.
The value of voltage in forward biased is comparatively low with that of reversed
biased.
In forward biased value of current is in mili ampere where as in reversed biased it is
in micro ampere.
Short and long wavelength of the graph can also be noticed.

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QUESTION 2

AIM

This experiment is about study of bridge rectifier. Following are the aims which are required
to be completed by the researcher in this experiment.
Study the operation of single phase half wave, full wave, fully/half controlled bridge
rectifier with resistive load & inductive load.
Study of circuit using proteus software.
Analyzing the hardware and software result.
THEORY
A rectifier is an electrical device composed of one or more diodes that converts alternating
current (AC) to direct current (DC). A diode is like a one-way valve that allows an electrical
current to flow in only one direction. This process is called rectification.

Single phase half-wave rectifier is the simplest type, but it is not normally used in industrial
applications. In this rectifier during positive half cycle of the input voltage, diode D 1 conducts
and the input voltages appears across the load. During the negative half-cycle of the input
voltage, the diode is in blocking condition and the output voltage is zero.

(Rashid.H.M.power electronics,third edition,pearson,2006)

Figure 5: - sinlge phase half wave rectifier and waveform.

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Operation of single phase half controlled bridge rectifier

Figure 6:- configuration 1

The circuit in Configuration 1 contains two SCRs and two diodes. When source V in is
positive, SCR S1 can be triggered at a firing angle called a and then current flows out of the
source through SCR S1 first, then through the load and returns via diode D3. If

then SCR S1 and diode D3 conduct during a < wt < p. When p < wt < 2p, Vin is negative and
SCR S2 is normally triggered when wt = p + a. During p < wt < (p + a) , the output of the
bridge circuit would have been negative if we had used a fully-controlled bridge rectifer and
if the current flow was continuous. But here we have two diodes D 3 and D4 instead of two
SCRs. When the output of the bridge tends to becomes negative just after wt exceeds p, diode
D4 tends to get forward-biased and it starts conducting. Then diode D3 is reverse-biased and it
stops conducting. During p < wt < (p + a) , the devices in conduction are SCR S 1 and diode
D4 and the output of the bridge is clamped at zero, assuming that the on-state drops across
devices in conduction is zero. During ( p + a) < wt < 2p , the devices in conduction are SCR
S2 and diode D4. SCR S2 and diode D3 would conduct during 0 < wt < a

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Operation of single phase full controlled bridge rectifier

Figure 7:-single phase full controlled

One component flows when thyristors T1 and T2 are fired and connects the supply voltage to
the load and the other component flows when thyristors T3 and T4 are turned on again
connecting supply voltage to the load. Since both components of current are identical, only
one component will be studied. For the interval t ( + ) the load current is given by
(at t = , iL = IL0 )

The current magnitude at the end of the first component of load current is the same as that at
the beginning of the second component of load current, that is at t = + , iL = IL0 and the
current IL0 can be obtained by substituting this condition in the above equation which yields

The value of firing angle at which current I L0 = 0 can be obtained for known values of the
parameters in the above equation, using an iterative method. The rms value of thyristor
current is given by

The rms output current is given by

OBSERVATION
Below given is the observation table. Parameters are ac voltage, dc voltage and the ripple
factors.

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S No. DC Voltage AC Voltage Ripple Factor


(V) (V)
1. 2.81 4.28 1.523

2. 3 4.5 1.5

3. 3.34 4.74 1.419

4. 3.67 4.98 1.356

5. 3.91 5.3 1.355

CALCULATION
For First observation

Vac 4.28
=1.523
Ripple Factor = Vdc = 2.81

For Second observation

Vac 4.5
=1.51
Ripple Factor = Vdc = 3

For Third Observation

Vac 4.74
=1.419
Ripple Factor = Vdc = 3.34

For Forth Observation

Vac 4.98
=1.356
Ripple Factor = Vdc = 3.67

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For Fifth Observation

Vac 5.3
=1.355
Ripple Factor = Vdc = 3.91

DESIGN OF SIMULATION CIRCUIT USING PROTEUS

Figure 8:-proteus simulated circuit, diode

SIMULATION RESULTS
This graph shows half wave conduction of rectifier.

Figure 9:-half wave rectification

This graph shows full wave conduction of rectifier.

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Figure 10:-full wave rectification

HARDWARE STIMULATED RESULT


Single phase Half wave controlled bridge rectifier with R load

Single phase Full wave controlled bridge rectifier with R load

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CONCLUSIONS
This assignment was to Study the operation of single phase half wave, full wave, fully/half
controlled bridge rectifier with resistive load & inductive load. Researcher has successfully
established the relation using both software and hardware results. Graphs in the hardware and
software for full wave rectifier and half wave rectifier are almost same.
RESULTS
We have found that the dc which we got from the rectifier is not full ac it is pulsating ac and
thus have some ripple factor. In the calculation part researcher has calculated ripple factor as
1.51, 1.419, 1.356, and 1.355 respectively.

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF RESULT


This assignment was to Study the operation of single phase half wave, full wave, fully/half
controlled bridge rectifier with resistive load & inductive load. To analyze the result
researcher performed the experiment on both software and hardware. Theoretically all know
that the dc which we get from rectifier is not a simple dc rather it is pulsating. Thus it has
some ripple factor. And in the calculation we also got some ripple factor. The graph for both
full wave and half wave was also compare with both the hardware and software simulation.
Which shows the full wave conduction and half wave conduction.

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QUESTION 3

AIM

This experiment is about study of single phase bridge inverter. Following are the aims which
are required to be completed by the researcher in this experiment.
.study the operation of single phase bridge inverter
Study of circuit using proteus software.
Analyzing the hardware and software result.
THEORY
Single Phase Bridge Inverter: Bridge circuits are commonly used in DC-AC conversion.
Moreover, an output transformer is not essential in a bridge circuit.
1- Half Bridge Inverter
The output voltage volt

The main drawback of half-bridge inverter is that it requires 3-wire DC supply.


1- Full Bridge Inverter

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The output voltage

Where, n = order of harmonic


=2f, is frequency of the output voltage in red/sec
Key Points
The load impedance (Zn) at frequency

Phase angle, rad


Output current or load current at the instant of commutation

Fundamental load power

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Where, Vo1 = rms value of fundamental output voltage.

Io1 = rms value of the fundamental component of load current.


Note: In case I0 > 0, forced commutation is essential if I0 > 0, no forced commutation is required.

OBSERVATION
S No. AC Current (A) DC Current (A) AC Voltage (V) DC Voltage (V)

1. 0.0625 1 5.15 30

2. 0.10 1.8 6 55

3. 0.125 2.8 7 135

4. 0.15 3.2 8 160

5. 0.175 3.4 9 185

CALCULATION
PAC = IAC VAC
PDC = IDC VDC
Power of AC
100
Power efficiency = Power of DC

1. PAC = IAC VAC = 1.26


PDC = IDC VDC =8.5
Power of AC
100
Power efficiency = Power of DC = 15.18

2. PAC = IAC VAC = 5.8


PDC = IDC VDC = 16.25
Power of AC
100
Power efficiency = Power of DC = 35.7

3. PAC = IAC VAC = 17.55


PDC = IDC VDC = 18
Power of AC
100
Power efficiency = Power of DC = 97.5

4. PAC = IAC VAC = 23.52


PDC = IDC VDC = 24.1
Power of AC
100
Power efficiency = Power of DC = 97.6

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5. PAC = IAC VAC =31.45


PDC = IDC VDC = 31.92
Power of AC
100
Power efficiency = Power of DC = 98.52

DESIGN OF SIMULATION CIRCUIT USING PROTEUS

Figure 11:- bridge inverter.

SIMULATION RESULTS

Figure 12: simulated result

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Figure 13:- simulation result 2

CONCLUSIONS
This assignment was to the study the operation of single phase inverter. In this assignment
researcher has discussed various parameters of bridge inverter, and has also calculated the
power efficiency. Power of ac and power of dc has been also calculated. After comparing all
the results it is concluded that inverter converts the dc in to smooth ac with maximum power
efficiency.

RESULTS
As result researcher has calculated various mathematical results. In mathematical analysis
power efficiency is calculated as 15.8, 35. 8, 97.6, 97.5. Also graph has been plotted using
proteus software.

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF RESULT


After critically analyzing all the results following are the points that come out.

Converted ac is smoother.
Power efficiency has been increased.
Graph relation is showing the smooth and efficient behaviors of signal.

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QUESTION 4

AIM

This experiment is about study of three phase fully controlled converter. Following are the
aims which are required to be completed by the researcher in this experiment.
Study the operation of three phases fully controlled converter with resistive and
inductive load.
Study of circuit using proteus software.
Analyzing the hardware and software result.

THEORY
The three-phase fully controlled converter has three-legs, each phase connected to one of the
three phase voltages. Alternatively, it can be seen that the bridge circuit has two halves, the
positive half consisting of the SCRs S1, S3 and S5 and the negative half consisting of the
SCRs S2, S4 and S6. At any time when there is current flow, one SCR from each half
conducts. If the phase sequence of the source be RYB, the SCRs are triggered in the sequence
S1, S2 , S3 , S4, S5 , S6 and S1 and so on.
The operation of the circuit is first explained with the assumption that diodes are used in
place of the SCRs. The three-phase voltages vary as shown below.

Three-phase voltages be defined as shown below.

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DESIGN OF SIMULATION CIRCUIT USING PROTEUS

Figure 14:- proteus simulated circuit

SIMULATION RESULTS

Figure 15:- simulated result

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CONCLUSIONS
This experiment is about study of three phase fully controlled converter. The controlled
rectifier can provide controllable out-put dc voltage in a single unit in its place of a three
phase autotransformer and a diode bridge rectifier. The controlled rectifier is obtained by
replacing the diodes of the uncontrolled rectifier with thyristors.

RESULTS
As result we have got some graphs at different angles at 15, 35 and 75 degree. The nature of
graph show the rectified dc signal is controllable out-put dc voltage in a single unit.

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF RESULT


After critically analyzing the result. Following point comes out.

Graph nature varies with the phase.


Output dc voltage is controllable in place of theree phase autotransformer.
The controlled rectifier is obtained by replacing the diodes of the uncontrolled
rectifier with thyristors

QUESTION 5

AIM

This experiment is about study of SCR firing circuit. Following are the aims which are
required to be completed by the researcher in this experiment.
To study the operation of SCR firing circuit.
Study of circuit using proteus software.
Analyzing the hardware and software result.
THEORY
Triggering:-
The turning on Process of the SCR is known as Triggering. In other words, turning the SCR
from Forward-Blocking state to Forward-Conduction state is known as Triggering.The
various methods of SCR triggering are discussed here.\
Forward Voltage Triggering
Thermal or Temperature Triggering
Radiation or Light triggering
dv/dt Triggering

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Gate Triggering
Gate Triggering:-
This is most widely used SCR triggering method.
Applying a positive voltage between gate and cathode can Turn ON a forward biased
thyristor.
When a positive voltage is applied at the gate terminal, charge carriers are injected in
the inner P-layer, thereby reducing the depletion layer thickness.

OBERVATION

S.NO SCR Off time (ms) Alpha ( in Degree) Output voltage DC (Volts)

1 4 72
64.82

2 5 90 49.51

3 6 108 34.21

4 7 126 20.41

5 8 144 9.45

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CALCULATION
when Off time is 4ms
4
Then, 1.8
0.1
72

2 110
Vo (1 cos 72)


Vo 64.82 Volts

2nd Observation:
when Off time is 5ms
5
Then, 1 .8
0 .1
90
2 110
Vo (1 cos 90)


Vo 49.51 Volts

DESIGN OF SIMULATION CIRCUIT USING PROTEUS

Figure 16:- stimulated circuit

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SIMULATION RESULTS

Figure 17:- software result

HARDWARE CIRCUIT SIMULATION

Figure 18:- hardware circuit

CONCLUSION
This experiment was about the study of SCR firing circuit. In this research researcher has
discussed various triggering methods. He has also performed the experiment on most widely
used turn on method of thyristor. He has also compared the off times.

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RESULT

As result researched has calculated some numerical values.

When off time is 4ms then alpha= 72 degree and voltage = 64.82v
When off time is 5ms then alpha= 90 degree and voltage = 49.51v

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF RESULT

After critically analyzing the result. Following point comes out.

With increase in off time voltage is decreasing and alpha is increasing


Variation in wavelength can also been seeing in graph.
Gate triggering method provide the efficient turn on method.

REFERENCES

Electronics Tutorial. (2016). Single Phase Full Bridge Inverter. [online] Available at:
http://www.electronics-tutorial.net/dc-to-ac-inverter/single-phase-full-bridge-inverter/
[Accessed 31 Oct. 2016].

Futureelectronics.com. (2016). What is a bridge rectifier, half wave rectifiers, semiconductor


diodes, diode - Future Electronics. [online] Available at:
http://www.futureelectronics.com/en/diodes/bridge-rectifiers.aspx [Accessed 31 Oct.
2016].

Gradestack.com. (2016). Single Phase and Three Phase Inverters. [online] Available at:
http://gradestack.com/gate-exam/electrical/power-electronics/single-phase-and-three-
phase-inverters/ [Accessed 31 Oct. 2016].

Hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu. (2016). Varieties of Diodes. [online] Available at:


http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electronic/diodecon.html [Accessed 30 Oct.
2016].

Pantechsolutions.net. (2016). Introduction of Three Phase Half/Full Wave Converter. [online]


Available at: https://www.pantechsolutions.net/power-electronics/introduction-of-three-
phase-half-full-wave-converter [Accessed 31 Oct. 2016].

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CE00055-3Power Electronics Individual Assignment Page27 of 27

Pantechsolutions.net. (2016). Single Phase Full Converter with R and RL. [online] Available
at: https://www.pantechsolutions.net/power-electronics/single-phase-full-converter-with-
r-and-rl [Accessed 31 Oct. 2016].

Power Electronics A to Z. (2016). SCR Triggering (Turn-on) Methods - Power Electronics A


to Z. [online] Available at: http://www.completepowerelectronics.com/scr-triggering-
turn-on-methods/ [Accessed 31 Oct. 2016].

Powerconverters.blogspot.in. (2016). Static Characteristics of Power Diode. [online]


Available at: http://powerconverters.blogspot.in/2010/11/static-characteristics-of-power-
diode.html [Accessed 30 Oct. 2016].

Protorit.blogspot.in. (2016). Single-Phase Full Converter with RL load. [online] Available at:
http://protorit.blogspot.in/2013/02/single-phase-full-converter-with-rl-load.html
[Accessed 31 Oct. 2016].

Protorit.blogspot.in. (2016). Three-phase full-wave Controlled Rectifier. [online] Available at:


http://protorit.blogspot.in/2013/02/three-phase-full-wave-controlled-rectifier.html
[Accessed 31 Oct. 2016].

Technik-emden.de. (2016). OPERATION OF A 3-PHASE FULLY-CONTROLLED


RECTIFIER. [online] Available at: http://www.technik-
emden.de/~elmalab/projekte/ws9899/pe_html/ch05s1/ch05s1p1.htm [Accessed 31 Oct.
2016].

Techopedia.com. (2016). What is a Rectifier? - Definition from Techopedia. [online]


Available at: https://www.techopedia.com/definition/681/rectifier [Accessed 31 Oct.
2016].

www.quora.com. (2016). What is a power diode?. [online] Available at:


https://www.quora.com/What-is-a-power-diode [Accessed 30 Oct. 2016].

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