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General Rules in English Grammar

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Shakti1432ss@yahoo.com

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Nouns

Q; - What is a noun?

A; - The definition of a noun is a word that is used to define a person, animal or living
object, place, thing or quality.

There are many different kinds of nouns in English.

1. Common Nouns - A common noun is a noun that refers to a person,


thing and place.

Examples:
dog, house, picture, computer.

 Common nouns are represented in the singular and plural form.


 Common nouns are represented by lower case letters.

Examples of the usage of common nouns: (The common nouns are


highlighted in blue)

 The red book is on the table.


 The black dog is in my yard.
 The computers are new.

General nouns such as cat, bowl, hand, tree, clock etc.

2. Countable Nouns - A countable noun is a type of noun that can be:


 presented in both the singular form and the plural form
 represented by a number, such as two cats, five books

Nouns that can be counted, such as car-cars, child-children etc.

Rules For Using Singular Rules For Using Plural


Countable Nouns Countable Nouns

1. A determiner must be used before 1.A determiner is optional before


noun(or adverb if adjectives are noun(or adverb if adjectives are used.
used, such as a, the, this, one, ours,
his etc.

2. The article "a" or: an" can be


2. The articles "a" or "an" can't be used.
used.

3.Only the number one can be used 3. Any number bigger than two can be
to state the amount. used to state an amount.

4. Possessive adjectives my be used 4.Possessive adjectives my be used


such as my, his, our etc. such as his, our, etc.

5. Quantifiers can be used, such as


5. Quantifiers can't be used.
some, any, many, a lot etc.

6. A demonstrative adjectives can be 6. A demonstrative adjectives can be


used such as this, those etc. used such as this, those etc.
Examples of Countable Nouns:

Nouns In The Nouns In The Nouns Represented By A


Nouns
Singular Form Plural Form Number

The dogs are There are six dogs in the


dog The dog is big.
big. room.

The boys are There are three tall boys in


boy The boy is tall.
tall. my class.

All the cars at There are six cars parked


car Our car is green.
work are white. on my street.

The windows are The room has three


window The window is big.
clean. window.

3. Uncountable Nouns - Nouns that cannot be represented in the singular form or


the plural form, such as water, air, coffee, tea are some examples of nouns that
can only be represented in the singular form.

Nouns that cannot be represented by a number are called uncountable nouns. It is not
possible to say I need 4 airs, or 6 sugars.

Uncountable nouns are nouns that cannot be counted. Examples of uncountable nouns
are: water, air, grass, paint, oil etc.

Rules for Using Uncountable Nouns:

Uncountable nouns only used in the singular tense.

A or an cannot be used with uncountable nouns. "The" can be used with uncountable
nouns.
Certain quantifiers can be used with uncountable nouns, such as some, any, much, a lot
are some examples of the quantifiers that can be used with uncountable nouns.

Quaintly of uncountable nouns is expressed by the expression "a. ....of......” (Examples:


a bag of sugar, a bottle of oil.

Nouns that can't be counted, such as water, fire, air etc.

4. Collective Nouns - Collective nouns are nouns that refer to things or people as
a unit. Examples: family, police, class, team, crew etc.

Collective nouns can be used in both the singular form and the plural form.

Rules for Using Collective Nouns:

Singular Collective Noun Plural Collective Nouns

1. Singular collective nouns refer to 1. Plural collective nouns refer to two


one unit of people or things. or more units of people or things.

2. Singular collective nouns are used 2. Plural collective nouns are used like
like singular nouns. plural nouns.

Nouns that refer to a group of things or people such as family, police, workers union
etc.

5. Proper Nouns - A proper noun is a specific name of a place, a person, or a


thing. The first letter of a proper noun is always represented by a capital letter.

Proper Nouns in English

1.Name of the Month and Day January, February, April etc.

2. Names of Company's Microsoft, Amazon, Nike, etc.

John, Mary, Bill, Mr. Brown, Mr. Lee,


3. Names of People
Mr. Tom Jones
Greentown Hospital, Town House
4. Names of Places
Hotel, City Park etc.

Dr. Kenny White, President Jimmy


5. Titles of People
Ayusso, Ms. Miri Thomas etc.

6. Names’ of Books, Newspapers, Plays The New York Times, War and
etc. Peace, Midnight Summer Dream

Nouns that refer to a specific name of a person, corporation, company, product, such as
IBM, Microsoft, Mr. David Green, Dr. Mary Jones.

6. Concrete Nouns - Concrete nouns can be touched, felt, held, something visible,
smelt, taste, or be heard. Concrete nouns are something physical.

Concrete nouns can be countable nouns or uncountable nouns, and singular nouns or
plural nouns.

Concrete nouns can also be a common noun, proper nouns and collective nouns.

Examples of Concrete Nouns

Common Concrete Nouns dog, cat, girl, plate air, water etc.

singular -chair, computer, song, window


Countable Concrete Nouns
plural - chairs, computers, songs, windows

Uncountable Concrete Nouns water, air, oil, sugar, salt, rice, cheese etc.

Proper Nouns Mr. Mike Jones, Tom Brown, Audrey Ryan


A noun that is a physical object, something that can be touched, seen, such as an
animal, window, table, computer etc.

7. Abstract Nouns - There are different types of nouns. All types of nouns follow
the same grammar rules. When most people think of nouns, they think of people,
places and things but abstract nouns are the opposite. Abstract nouns are
something that can't be sensed by our five senses (smell, tooth, hear, see or
taste).

Abstract nouns are nouns that:

 Abstract nouns are any nouns that can't be touched, tasted, seen, heard or smelt
or felt.

 Abstract nouns usually represent feeling, ideas and qualities.

 Abstract nouns can be singular nouns and plural nouns.

 Abstract nouns can be countable or uncountable.

Examples of abstract nouns: love, hate, violence, culture, taste

It is a noun is not a physical object, it can't be touched physically. They are ideas and
feelings such as intelligence, love, hate, bravery etc.
Pronouns

Q; - What are Pronouns?

A; - Pronouns replace the noun. A pronoun can be used as the sentences subject or the
object. Most of the time a pronoun refers to something already mentioned or understood
by the listener or reader.

The different kinds of pronouns are:

1. Personal Pronouns: - Personal Pronouns in English are used to replace nouns


that refer to people. Personal Pronouns can be used as the sentences subject or
objective. English doesn't have singular and plural forms of "you". "You" is used
for both male and female and singular and plural.

Example of Personal Pronouns

Subject Personal Objective Personal The


Subject Pronouns pronouns
are used to
replace the
I - I went to the Me -Is Mary going to come name of the
store. with me to the doctor. people or
person
You - You went to You - Did you & Mary eat all
store. the cookies.

He - He went to the Him - John is going to give


store. him the books soon.

She - She went to Her - Mary is going to give


the store her the books soon.

We - We went to the Us - When is Tom going to


store. give us the books.

They - They went to Them - Mary went to see


the store. them this morning.

It - It was a good It - I am glad it worked out in


cake the end.

2. Intensive Pronouns;-

Pronouns that refer to the noun or pronouns.

Intensive pronouns are used to emphasize the subject.

Intensive pronouns are used when the subject isn't performing the action.

It is common for intensive pronouns are usually next to the subject.

The intensive pronouns are not the subject.

Intensive Pronouns

Myself I

Ourselves We

Themselves Them

Yourselves You
Herself She

Himself He

Examples:

My sister herself is going to teach the undergraduate class.

I myself have two bachelor’s degrees.

We ourselves studied for the test.

3. Reflexive Pronouns;-

 Reflexive pronouns are pronouns that are used to state the subject is performing
the action.

 The reflexive pronoun can be used to emphasize the object or the subject.

Myself I

Ourselves We

Themselves Them

Yourselves You

Herself She

Himself He

Examples:
 I lived myself while I was studying for my bachelor’s degree.

 My sister paid for university herself. Our father didn't help her out.

 We wanted to travel to Europe by own after we finished university.

 Are you going to drive yourselves to school today?

4. Relative Pronouns;-

A defining relative clause states defining information about a person or a thing. It is


used to define one object/thing or a person from another. Without this information the
sentence would not be clear.

Note: The relative pronoun replaces the noun.

Examples:

 Who is that man in there street?

 Whose husband is that waiting in the car?

 Is that cake good?

 When are you going to call her?

 Why are you so tired?

 Which house is yours?

Relative Pronouns

- Time Reason Person Place Thing

Subject -- -- Who, That Where That, Which

Object When Why Who/Whom/That - That, Which

Possessive Whose - Whose - Whose


Adjectives

Q; - What are adjectives?

A; - An adjectives are used to clarify nouns.

Adjectives can be one word or a group of words.

Adjectives can also be used with certain verbs (such as the verb "to be"). Adjectives are
used to clarify the subject that is doing the action.

Adjectives are used to describe color, material, shape, size, amount, price, quality,
origin, personality, weight, temperature, weight, age, direction, etc.

Here is a guideline for using 2 or more adjectives in a sentence.

1. In most cases the adjective is placed before the noun.


2. There is an order that is used when using more than 2 adjectives together.
3. It is not common to used more than 3 adjectives together, but it is possible and
can be grammatically correct.
4. When there are 2 or more adjectives that are from the same group* "and" is
placed between the 2 adjectives.
5. When there are 3 or more adjectives from the same adjective group, then a
comma is placed between they are from the same group.*. A comma is not
placed between an adjective and a noun.
6. When an article is used such as "a", "an" or "the" the articles are placed before
the adverb. The article must agree with the noun grammatically.
7. The adjectives must agree with the noun grammatically.
The order of the adjectives is as followed:

1. Determiner - a, an, her, five, many, much several etc.


2. Opinion - pretty, ugly, smart, cheap, etc.
3. Size - big, fat, thin, tall, large, small etc.
4. Shape - circle, square, tall, short etc.
5. Age - old, young 10 years, a year, a week, new etc.
6. Color - yellow, green, pink etc.
7. Origin - American, English, Asian, Middle Eastern, African, European, Chinese
etc.
8. Material - cotton, wood, plastic, cloth, glass, gold etc.
9. Purpose/Qualifier -
10. Hat box, sleeping bag, computer table, Safe Island, football field. (The words in
green are the purpose/qualifier words.)

Examples:

1. The big black dog ate my food.


2. I like that pretty green sofa.
3. I want to go to a big, quit, safe.
4. We sleep in a small, pink and green room.

Adjective Usage

1. Adjectives are placed before the noun.

Adjectives can be used with all forms of nouns (see nouns).

Examples:

2. Adjective with Verbs:


Our English teacher is tall and thin.

Our professor is a really nice man.

3. Adjectives with Nouns:

My teacher is really nice.

I was teaching in a really big high school, while I was working on my master's degree.

The university that my oldest brother is going to is really nice.

The English teacher gave us a hard project to do this year.

It is very common to use adjectives with nouns. Adjectives are used to describe the
noun.

There are different groups of adjectives:

Option - this group of adjectives are used to describe an option of someone or


something. It is not a fact. It can't be proven to be correct or incorrect.

Examples:

I think that the store is great.

We like good books.

The girls like children's programs on the T.V.

Q; - How are adjectives used with verbs?

A; - There are times when an adjective is placed after the verb. This is more common
when the verb being used is a "linking verb". In this case it is common that an adjective
is used with the "linking verb", but the adjective doesn't describe the verb. The adjective
describes the subject that is performing the action. Adjectives are not used to describe
the verb.

Examples:

 The cake looks good.


 Your hair looks great. Where did you get your hair cut.
 My mother lost her keys.
 The boys play ball all the time.

When using a adjectives and verb together, the adjectives comes after the verb. There
are times when one adjective is not enough to describe the noun or the subject that is
performing the action. When 2 or more adjectives are used together then there is a
specific order of the adjectives that is usually followed. Please see multiple adjectives.

It is important is understand if an adjective is need or if a adverb is needed. There is an


easy way to tell. Do I need to define the verb of the sentence or do I need to define the
subject that is performing the action.

Example:

 Your hair grew slowly.


 The dog grew angry.
 The boys talk loudly.
 My brother talks big.

Q; - What are comparative adjectives?

A; - Comparative adjectives are used to clarify the difference between 2 objects/nouns. .

 Comparative adjectives are used to compare 2 nouns.


 To state that one noun has more of something then the 2nd noun.

 The black dog is older than the white dog.

 My house is bigger than my sister's house.

 The yellow hat is more expensive than the green hat.

The Rules for using Comparative Adjectives

How to Use Comparative Adjectives

"Than" is usually used after the comparative adjective.

 The winter is
colder than the
summer.
 cold - colder
 The green hat is
-er is added to the end of a
 small - smaller smaller than the
1-syllable adjective
yellow hat.
 tall - taller
 Most basketball
players are taller
than me.

 I came home
earlier than my
 early - earlier sister.
-er is added to the end of an
adjective with 2 syllables, if  happy - happier  I am happier now
the word ends in -y. than 1 year ago.
 crazy - crazier
 My friend is
crazier than me.

"more" is used for words that  honest - more


have 2 syllables, if the word honest
doesn't end in -y. adjectives
that end in -y, change the -y  difficult- more
to i and add -ed difficult

 modern - more
modern

 expensive -
more
expensive

"more" is used for words that  difficult - more


have 3 or more syllables difficult

 comfortable -
more
comfortable

adjectives that end in -e,  nice -nicer


only -r is added to end of the
adjective  safe -safer

 My house is
bigger than, my
sister’s house.
adjective that end in a  big -bigger
consonant, vowel,  My sister is fatter
 fat- fatter
consonant - the last than me.
consonant is doubled  hot -hotter
 The summer is
hotter than the
winter.

The structure of a comparative usually consists of the root of the adjective root of the
adjective plus the suffix -est. or "more" or "less" is added before the adjective in its root
form.

The amount of syllables the adjectives contain determents if -er is added to the end of
the adjective or if "more" or "less" is added before the adjective.
Note: "Than" is usually used after the comparative adjective.

Short words - words with 1 syllable or words with 2 syllables if the word ends in -y. -er is
added to the end of the word.

Notes:

 Adjectives ending in -y; change the -y to -i and add -er.

 Adjectives that end with a consonant, vowel, consonant - the last consonant is
doubled and -er is added to the end of the adjective.

Examples

 cold - colder  early - earlier  big -bigger

 small - smaller  happy - happier  fat- fatter

 tall - taller  crazy - crazier  hot -hotter

Long words - words with 3 more syllables, and words with 2 syllables that don't end in -
y. The word "more" is placed before the adjective.

Note: Adjectives that end in -e, only -r is added to end of the adjective.

Examples

 Examples honest - more  expensive - more


honest expensive

 difficult- more difficult  difficult - more difficult

 modern - more modern  comfortable - more


comfortable

Q; - What are superlative adjectives?

A; - Superlative adjectives are used to define the highest degree of a noun. Superlative
adjectives are used only if 3 or more things or people are being compared.
Examples:

The black dog is the biggest.

The house at the end of the street is the nicest.

My mother's pizza is the best.

The structure of a superlative usually consists of the root of the adjective root of the
adjective plus the suffix -est. or "most" or "least" is added before the adjective in its root
form.

The amount of syllables the adjectives contain determines if -est. is added to the end of
the adjective or if "most" or "least" is added before the adjective.

The chart below is a guide to help you understand the correct structure of superlative
adjectives.

English Superlative Adjectives Rules

 This winter is the coldest,


 cold - coldest that I can remember.

-est is added to the end of an  small -  The green hat is the


adjective 1-syllable word smallest smallest hat in the store.

 tall - tallest  I am the tallest, in my


class

 Today is the earliest that I


 early - earliest came home all week.
Change the y to an -i. And
add -est. to the end of an  happy -  She is the happiest, I
adjective with 2 syllables, if happiest have been seen her.
the word ends in -y.
 crazy - craziest  I have the craziest dog, I
have ever seen.

"most" or "least" are used for  honest - most  The policeman are the
adjectives that consist of two honest most honest people that I
syllables, if the word doesn't
end in -y. adjectives that end  difficult- most know.
in -y, change the -y to i and difficult
 The last test was the most
add -ed
 modern - more difficult.
modern
 Our generation is the
most modern.

 expensive -  That is the most


most expensive dress in the
expensive store.
"most" and "least" are used
 difficult - most  This problem is the most
for adjectives that contain 3
difficult difficult, that I have had to
or more syllables
solve in my life.
 comfortable -
most  These shoes are the most
comfortable comfortable.

 Your family is the nicest


If an adjective that ends in -e,  nice -nicest that I have ever met.
then only -r is added to end
of the adjective.  safe -safest  This car is the safest on
the market.

 My house is the biggest


Adjective that end in a on the block.
 big -biggest
consonant, vowel, consonant
 My sister is the fattest in
- the last consonant is  fat- fattest
the school.
doubled and -est is added to
 hot -hottest
the end of the adjective.  The summer is the hottest
time of the year.

Q; - What building structure of superlative adjectives?

A;- The building structure of superlative adjectives are divided into 2 groups "short
words" and "long words”. Short words - words with 1 syllable or words with 2 syllables if
the word ends in -y. -est is added to the end of the word.
Notes:

 Adjectives ending in -y change the -y to I and add -est.

 Adjective that end with a consonant, vowel, consonant - the last consonant is
doubled and -est is added to the end of the adjective.

Examples

 early - earliest  big -biggest


 nice -nicest
 happy - happiest  fat- fattest
 safe -safest
 crazy - craziest  hot -hottest

Long words - words with 3 more syllables, and words with 2 syllables that don't end in -
y. The word "most" is placed before the adjective.

Note: Adjectives that end in -e, only -r is added to end of the adjective.

Examples

 honest - most honest  expensive - most expensive

 difficult- most difficult  difficult - most difficult

 modern - more modern  comfortable - most


comfortable
Verbs
Q; - What is a Main Verb Tense?

A; - The main verb tense states the action of the subject. The main verb can be the only
verb in the sentence, but the main verb can also be used with an auxiliary verb or a
verb. The auxiliary verb and the modal verb must be used with a main verb tense.

The main verb tense is:

The main verb tense can be in its infinitive/basic form (simple past/v2), past
participle/v3.

The main verb tense states what the action of the subject.

-ed -ing -s -es are some common endings that can be added to the main verb according
to the tense.

It is common that the main verb doesn't change form, because the auxiliary words
change form.

When using the continuous tense and the perfect verb tense auxiliary verb(s) are used
with the main verb tense.

When an auxiliary verb is used the main verb doesn't change form according to the
subject.

The main verb tense can change form when an auxiliary verb is used to according to
the verb form.

Examples:

 The cat eats fish.

 The cats eat the fish

 The cat has eaten the fish.

 The cat ate the fish.

 The cat has been eating the fish.


Q; - What is a verb tense group?

A; - A verb tense group consists of a main verb tense and an auxiliary verb or a
verb.

Any combination on of verbs can be used to create a verb tense group.

Verb groups are needed in certain kinds of sentence structures according to the
type of verb.

Examples:

 I am going to the store.

 The teachers have been teaching for many years.

 The have sung for a long time.

Q;-What are auxiliary verbs?

A; - Auxiliary verbs are

1. Auxiliary verbs (sometimes known as helping verbs) are verbs that are used to
assist the verb.

2. Auxiliary verbs cannot be used without a main verb.

3. Auxiliary verbs cannot be used with modal verbs.

4. Auxiliary verbs are used to make sentences negative.

5. Auxiliary verbs are used to ask questions.

6. Auxiliary verbs are used in the sentence structure of the verb sentence.

1. The 3 most common auxiliary verbs are:

 Do - Does - Did

 Do is used with the present simple tense. Do-Does are used as part of the
sentence structure for negative statements/sentences with the present simple
tense

 Do- Does are used as part of the sentence structure for questions, with the
present simple tense.
 Did is used with the past simple tense.

 Did is used as part of the sentence structure for negative statements/sentences


with the past simple tense

 Did is used as part of the sentence structure for questions, with the past simple
tense.

 Be - Am - Is - Are -Was - Were

 Have - Has -Had

DO', 'BE' and 'HAVE' are the English auxiliary verbs used in a negative structure, a
question or to show tense.

DESCRIPTIONS OF ENGLISH AUXILIARY VERBS:

1. 'DO', 'DON'T', 'DOES' and 'DOESN'T' are used for questions and negatives in the
Present Simple Tense, and 'DID' and 'DIDN'T' are used in the Past Simple Tense.

2. 'BE' is used with the Present Participle in Continuous (Progressive) Verbs. It is also
used with the Past Participle in the Passive.

3. 'HAVE' is used with the Past Participle to form the Perfect Aspect.

Q; - What are Modal Verbs?

A; - Modal Verbs are also called auxiliary verbs, helping verbs and model auxiliaries.

Model verbs are not complete verbs, and they can only be used with a verb.

The usage of model verbs:

Model verbs stay in the base form - bare infinitive - the bare infinitive is the infinitive
without "to" before the verb.

The following model verbs are used to with the present tense:

Can, will, shall, ought to, must, need, may

The following model verbs are used in the past tense:

Would, should, could, might

Model verbs are used to answer questions in the short form


Yes, I do.

Yes, we can.

No, I don't.

Model verbs can be used as part of the grammar structure of the sentence, such as
when used with the perfect tenses.

When are model verbs used:

Prediction - Will and Shall

Will and shall can be used to state predict that an event or an action will take place or
will occur The model verbs can used to make a prediction about an event or action
about the future.

 I think we will be able to go and see the move tonight.

 My mother thinks we will not get home be it starts to rain.

Requests - Offers - Suggestions - Can - Could - May - Shall

To make requests, offers or suggestions can be stated with the model verbs

Permission - Can - Could - May - Might

Can, could, may and might are model verbs that can be used to give permission or deny
permission to do something or to someone.

Can I help you cook dinner?

You may not watch T. V. after dinner.

Certainty - Possibility - Can - Might - may- Could - Shall -Can, might


- and could are model verbs that can be used to state certainty and possibility.

Do you think it might rain tomorrow night?

I might be home before midnight.

You can come over tonight if you would like to.

Ability - Inability - Can - Could - Able to

My father hopes that we will be able to go to the moves.

I cannot go to Europe with you.


Q; - What is the English verb "to be"?

A; - The verb "to be" can be used as the main verb tense or as the auxiliary verb.

The verb to be is used as the main verb tense to state that something or someone
exists.

Rules for using the verb tense "to be":

The verb tense "to be" changes form according to the subject when used as both the
auxiliary verb and the main verb.

The verb "to be" changes form according to the subject when used as both the auxiliary
verb or as the main verb.

When the verb tense "to be" is used as a main verb tense it is used in the simple tense
only.

When the verb tense "to be" is the only verb, when used as a main verb.

When the verb tense "to be" is used as the main verb tense.

 Negative statements/sentence uses the word "not" without "do - does - did". - - -
Questions are formed by putting the verb "to be:" before the subject.

 The verb "to be" is an irregular verb.

Base Simple Past


Subject
Form Past/V2 Participle/V3

am was been

We, They,
You, Plural are were been
Nouns

He, She, It
Singular &
is was was
Uncountable
nouns
Q; - How is the verb tense "can" used?

A; - The verb tense "can" is used as both an auxiliary verb and a modal verb? Can is
almost always used with a main verb.

Can is used to: Can't is used to state:

 to state the something is


 to request something
not allowed

 to request something not


 to request a favor from someone
be done

 to state the inability of


 to ask for help
something or someone

 to state the possibility of an


 to deny permission
event/activity

 to state the ability of


someone/something

 to request permission from


someone or for something

 to ask for permission from someone


or for something

Examples of the verb tense "can":

 The cat can go to the store.

 Can I go to school late on Tuesday?


 You can't go to school late on Tuesday?

 We can't help you clean the house.

The structure of the verb tense "can":

1. When using as a verb or an auxiliary verb the verb tense "can" stays in its base
form.

2. Can doesn't change form according to the subject.

3. Can is followed by a main verb tense. The main verb tense also stays in its base
form. (The main verb tense that is used with can doesn't change form according
to the subject.)

- Subject "Can" "Main Verb" -

Positive I -All can go to


Sentences subjects* the
store

to
Negative We - All
can not go the
Sentences subjects*
store

to
Questions** Can they - go the
store

* All subjects is I, we, they, you, plural nouns, singular nouns and uncountable
nouns.

**Questions - Questions using the verb tense "can" the verb tense "can comes
before the subject.

Q; - How is the verb tense "could" used?

A; - The English verb "could" is used as both an auxiliary verb and a modal verb? Could
is almost always used with a main verb tense.
 Could is used as the past tense of "can".

 Could is used to is used to request something in the present tense.

 Usually when could is used in the present tense, it is used to ask a question.

Examples:

 Could the girls come with me to the store?

 I could not go to the moves last night, I had to study.

 We couldn't help you clean the house.

Structure of "could":

1. When using as a model verb or an auxiliary verb the verb "could" stays in its
base form.

2. Could doesn't change form according to the subject.

3. Could is followed by a main verb. The main verb also stays in its base form. (The
main verb that is used with could doesn't change form according to the subject.)

- Subject "could" - "Main Verb" -

Positive I could - go to the


Sentences store

Negative to the
We could not go
Sentences store

to the
Questions** Could they - go
store

* All subjects are: I, we, they, you, plural nouns, singular nouns and uncountable nouns.

**Questions - When could is used to ask a question, could comes before the subject.

The Structure of the Verb Tense "could".

1. When using as a verb or an auxiliary verb tense the verb "could" stays in its base
form.
2. Could doesn't change form according to the subject.

3. Could is followed by a main verb. The main verb tense also stays in its base
form. The main verb tense doesn't change form according to the subject.

the "Main
-- Subject verb - Verb -
"could" Tense"

Positive
I could - go to the store
Sentences

Negative
We could not go to the store
Sentences

Questions** Could they - go to the store

* The subjects are I, we, they, you, plural nouns singular nouns and uncountable nouns.

**Questions - When could is used to ask a question "could" comes before the subject.

Q; - How is the verb tense "Have" used?

A; - In all the simple tenses, the verb "have" can be used as the main verb.

In all the perfect tenses the verb "have" is used as an auxiliary verb.

When the verb "have" is used as the main verb, it is usually used only in the simple form
(static verbs).

The verb "have" can be used in the progressive tense, only in the present and future.

The verb have cannot be used in the past progressive tenses.

Have as the Main Verb in Positive Sentences

Subject Main Verb "Have" Continue the Sentence


I have /had/will have a car.

We have /had/will have a lot of homework.

You have/had/will have a nice house.

The cars have/had/will have new tires.

Natalie has/had/will have a great time in the States.

Her father has/had/will have a very good job.

*have is used in the present simple tense.

*has is used in the past simple tense.

*will have is used in the future simple tense.

Have as the Main Verb in Negative

Subject Auxiliary Main Verb


Not Continue the Sentence
verb "Have"

I do/did/will not have time to visit him.

to cook dinner when I got


We do/did/will not have
home.

They do/did/will not have a lot of time to visit Mary.

The car does/did/will not have a new paint job.


Our
does/did/will not have a hard time teaching us.
teacher

My father does/did/will not have me spent a lot of money on


candy.

*Do is used in the present simple tense with the following pronouns I. you, we, they, and
plural nouns.

*Does is used in the Present Simple Tense with the following pronouns he, she, it and
plural nouns and uncountable nouns.

Question with the verb "have" as the main verb

Wh - word (if Auxiliary Subject Main Verb


Continue the Sentence
needed) Verb "Have"

When do/did/will I have time to visit him?

- to cook dinner when we


Do/Did/Will we have
got home?

Why do/did/will they have little homework?

When does/did/will the car have to get a new paint job?

Does/Did/Will a hard time


our teacher have teaching
us?.

Why does/did/will your have so much candy in the


father car?.
Adverbs
Q; - What are adverbs?

A; - An adverb is a word or a group of words that are used to help define the action of
the verb. Adverbs can also be used to define adjectives, or other adverbs.

How to tell if a word is an adverb?

A word is an adverb if it answers one of the three questions, when, where or how.

Examples:

Examples of English Adverbs that state when, where and how

When Where How

I like to read under the I should exercise


I have to study today.
trees in the park. carefully.

My mother always Our teacher rarely gives us My brother study very


listens to the radio. a lot of worksheets to do. hard for all his exams.

We learned to play the The students and


Our teacher is really
piano quickly. We had a teachers work closely
good this year.
really good teacher. on the project.

In most cases adverbs are created by added -ly to the end of an adjective. Some
common adverbs are quietly, quickly, beautifully etc.

Spelling rules of adverbs:

Adjectives that end in y - change the -i to -y as easy-easily, happy-happily

1. Adjectives ending -y change to -ily; lucky-luckily


2. Adjectives ending -ble only -y is added; present -presentably, respectable -
respectably.

Q; - What are frequency adverbs?

A; - Frequency adverbs are adverbs that state how often something happens or
someone does something.

Q; - What is the grammatical structure frequency adverbs?

A; - In frequency adverbs are used just like any other adverb. They come before the
main verb, except if the main verb is the verb "to be" then adverbs comes after the verb.

Below is a chart a frequency adverb, the numbers after the adverbs will give you an
idea of the how often an event would take place.

Frequency Adverbs

Always

nearly/almost always 90%

Usually 80%

Very Often/Frequently 70%

Often 60%

Sometimes 50%

Occasionally 40%

Almost never/ever 20%


Seldom/Almost never 10%

Never 0%

Positive and Negative Sentences without the verb "to be".

Frequency adverbs are used in positive sentences and negative sentences. The
frequency adverbs are placed after the main verb (if the main verb is not the verb "to
be).

Examples:

 I always walk to school

 My cats sometimes like to play

 Our teacher almost never gives us a lot of homework.

 The teacher doesn't always come on time.

 My cats don't always like to play with my socks.

 I don't often walk to school.

Positive and Negative Sentence with the verb "to be"

Frequency Adverbs are used in positive sentences and negative sentences. The
frequency adverb is placed before the main verb if the main verb is the Verb "to be".

 The teacher is always on time.

 My sister is never lazy.

 Our house is sometimes a mess.

 My brother's house is never a mess.

 The sofa is always fun to sit on.

Questions without the verb "to be" as the main verb

When questions use the verb "to be" as the main verb the frequency adverb is placed
after the subject.
 Does she always walk to work?

 Why does the oven always stop working after 10 minutes?

 Do you always clean the sofa every day?

Questions with the verb "to be" as the main verb. In question when the main verb is the
verb "to be" the frequency adverb is placed after the subject.

 Is the food always so bad?

 Are your children ever late for school?

 Are the clocks always broken?

Usage of Frequency Adverbs:

Positive Sentences With Frequency Adverb

Auxiliary Verb Frequency


Subject Main Verb Continue the Sentence
(if need) Adverb

I - always walk to work.

We - often eat meat on Saturday night.

My cats - sometimes sleep in their beds.

She has never been to China.

He has always wanted live in Paris.

the old computers in the


They will never use
basement.

Adverbs of frequency are used in positive sentences. The frequency adverb is placed
after the main verb (if the main verb is not the verb "to be).
Examples:

 I always walk to school.

 My cats sometimes like to play.

 Our teacher almost never gives us a lot of homework.

Adverbs of frequency are used in positive sentences. The frequency adverb is placed
before the main verb if the main verb is the Verb "to be"

Positive and Negative Sentences without the verb "to be"

Frequency adverbs are used in positive sentences and negative sentences. The
frequency adverb is placed after the main verb (if the main verb is not the verb "to be).

Examples:

 I always walk to school

 My cats sometimes like to play

 Our teacher almost never gives us a lot of homework.

 The teacher doesn't always come on time.

 My cats don't always like to play with my socks.

 I don't often walk to school.

Positive and Negative Sentence with the verb "to be"

Frequency Adverbs are used in positive sentences and negative sentences. The
frequency adverb is placed before the main verb if the main verb is the Verb "to be".

 The teacher is always on time.

 My sister is never lazy.

 Our house is sometimes a mess.

 My brother's house is never a mess.

 The sofa is always comfortable to sit on.

Questions without the verb "to be" as the main verb

In question when the main verb is not "to be". the frequency adverb is placed before the
main verb.
 Does she always walk to work?

 Why does the oven always stop working after 10 minutes?

 Do you always clean the sofa every day?

4. In questions when the verb "to be" as the main verb. In question when the main verb
is the verb "to be" the frequency adverb is placed after the subject?

 Is the food always so bad?

 Are your children ever late for school?

 Are the clocks always broken?


Determiners
Q; - What are determiners?

A; - That are determiners in English

Determiners are words that are used with nouns to clarify the noun. They can clarify:

 to define something or someone

 to state the amount of people, things or other nouns

 to state possessives

 to state something or someone is specific

 to state how things or people are distributed

 to state the difference between nouns

 to state someone or something is not specific

There are different types of determiners. There type of determiner depends on the type
of noun. Singular nouns always need a determiner. Plural nouns the determiner is
optional. Uncountable nouns the determiner is also optional.

There are about 50 different determiners in the English language they include:

 Articles: a, an, the

Definite Article - "The" is a definite article, which means that it is used


to specify something specific. It refers to a noun the is either
understood (by the reader or listener) or has been previously referred
to by the writer or speaker.
Indefinite Articles - "A" and "An" are indefinite articles. The difference
between "A" and "An". "An”: is used is it comes after a word that
starts with a vowel.
 "A" and "an" are used the same way grammatically. They are used
before a singular noun, or before the adjective the represents the
noun. They can't be used with plural nouns or uncountable nouns.

Examples

There is a dog outside We don't know which dog the


A/An
the building. writer/speaker is referring to.

The black dog is It is understood to which dog the


The
outside the building. writer/speaker is referring to

A/An Do you know where The writer/speaker is not referring to


there is a post office? a specific post office

I am going to the post It is understood to which post office


The
office. the speaker/writer is referring to.

 Demonstratives: this, that, these, those.

There are 4 demonstratives that, this, these and those. Demonstratives are used
to state the distance from the speaker. The distance can be either psychological
or physical.

Demonstratives can be used as pronouns or adjectives. They are sometimes


referred to as demonstrative adjectives or demonstrative pronouns. When they
are used as adjectives they modify the noun.

What is the grammatical difference between that, this, these, those.

The difference between the demonstratives distance (near and far) and singular
and plural.

 "This" is used for singular nouns that are close to the speaker.

 "That" is used for singular nouns that are far from the speaker.

 "These" is used for plural nouns that are close to the speaker.
 "Those" is used for plural nouns that are far from the speaker.

- Singular Plural Close Far

This x - x -

That x - - x

These - x x -

Those = x - x

Examples of English Demonstratives

Demonstratives Demonstrative
Adjectives

That restaurant is really


That That is the place.
good.

This This is really good. This book is really good.

These games are a lot


These These are a lot of fun.
of fun.

Those are really good Those English books


Those
English books are really good.

 Quantifiers: few, a few, many, much, each, every, some, any etc.
Quantifiers are words that are used to state quantity or amount of
something without stating the actually number.

Quantifiers answer the questions "How many?" and "How much?"

Quantifiers can be used with plural countable nouns and uncountable nouns.

Quantifiers must agree with the noun. There are 3 main types of quantifiers.
Quantifiers that are used with countable nouns, quantifiers that are used
with uncountable nouns. and the 3rd type are quantifiers that are used with
either countable nouns or uncountable nouns.

Countable Uncountable
-
Nouns Nouns

much x I don't have much money.

many x - I don't have many apples.

We know few people in the area. I


few* x -
would like to get to know more.

We know a few people in the area.


a few** x - I know enough people to keep me
happy.

I know little English. I am going to


little* - x have a problem getting around
England.

I know a little English, at least


a little** - x
enough to get England.

enough x x I have enough money.

plenty x x I have plenty of money.


** a few/a little - means that there are not a lot of something, but there is
enough.

 There are a few apples. There are enough apples.


 There are a people at the meeting. There are enough people to hold a
meeting. There are not a lot people, at the meeting, but there are enough
 I know a little English. He know enough English to manage.
 I have a little money.

*few/little - means that is not enough of something.

 There are few apples. There are not enough apples.


 There are few people. There are not enough people at the meeting. We
can't hold a meeting, because there are not enough people.
 There is little money. We can't buy a lot of expensive food.
 If things for the holiday. I don't have enough money, then we will stay
home and have a great time.
 They know little English. They can't get around very well. They don't know
enough English to manage.

Q; - When to use some and any?

A;-Some and any are used to state the quantity, amount of something.
When using some or any the exact number is not stated. Some and any are
quantifiers.

Some and any can be used when:

 The exact number is not known.


 The exact number is not important or relevant.
 Some and any are used with countable nouns and uncountable nouns.
Any - Any is used with:

 Negative sentences
 When asking a question.
 Any is used when a sentence is grammatically positive, but the meaning of
the sentence is negative.

Examples:

 Do you have any ice cream left?


 I don't have any money today. I am getting paid on Friday.
 My brother never does anything good.

Some - Some is used with:

 Positive sentences. When asking a question, if the answer the expected


answer to be positive.

Examples:

 The children have so free time.


 Please buy some bananas.
 Can I have a glass of tea?

Q;-What is the difference between "that" and "which"?

A; - "That" is used with restrictive phrases. Restrictive phrases are phrase.


That is essential to the sentence.
Which - "Which" is used with nonrestrictive phrases. Nonrestrictive
phrases are phrases that state non-essential information. A phrase is
considered nonrestrictive phase if the phase can be omitted from the
sentence.

Examples:

 The shirt that you lent me is in my bag.


 The shirt, which is red, is in my bag.
 The house that I wanted to buy has been sold.
 The house, which I didn't want to buy, has been sold.
 The food store that I go to all the time is closed today.
 The store, which is near my house, is not open today.

Numbers: one, two, three, twenty, forty

Ordinals: first, second, 1st 2nd, 3rd, last, next, etc.


Prepositions
Q; - What are prepositions?

A; - Prepositions are words that specify place, direction, and time. There are three types
of prepositions.

1. The prepositions usually come before the noun.

2. Prepositions can be used with all forms of nouns (e.g. collective nouns, pronouns
etc.).

3. Prepositions can't come after a verb, but can be used before a gerund or verb in noun
form.

4. The rules above do not change and there are no exceptions to the rules.

1. Time Prepositions –

Time prepositions define time. Time prepositions - In - At - On For - During –


While. Time prepositions are used to define time. Prepositions usually come before
a noun or pronoun. Prepositions never come after a verb.

 After - I will be there after work.

 Around - We will be there around 3 PM

 Before - I will be there before I go to school.

 Between - I will be there

 By - I will be there by the time that you leave for work.

 During - I will be there during your class.

 For - I will be there for your birthday.

 Past - I wasn't there for the past 2 months.

 Since - I didn't see her since I was 10 years old.

 Until - I will not be home until 7:00 PM.

 Within - I will be there within 2 hours.


Time prepositions are used to clarity what time an event happened or will
happen. Time prepositions are used nouns and pronouns. Prepositions
usually come before nouns or pronouns. Prepositions never come before a
verb. List of Time Prepositions

At On In

a specific days and dates period of time - years,


time months, seasons

at 2:00 on my birthday in a few days

on the first
at
day of the in a couple of months
lunchtime
school year

at 4:00 AM on 11/10/90 in the summer

IMPORTANT: In English we say:

 in the morning -because it is considered a period of time


 in the afternoon
 in the evening
 at night -

Note: We say in the morning, in the afternoon, or in the evening BUT we say
'at night'

2. Place Propositions –

Place prepositions clarify the place someone or somebody. At Prepositions of


place are used to clarify a specific place. Place prepositions are used
with all nouns. The preposition usually comes before the noun or the
pronoun. The preposition never comes before a verb.

Common Place Prepositions:

Aboard - She is aboard the boat.

Above - The picture is above the sofa.

Across - My house is across the street.

Against - The desk is against the wall.

Around - My house is around the block.

At - Is your house at the end of the street.

At the back of - We are going to sit at the back of the theater.

At the bottom of - The coins are at the bottom of the lake.

At the top of - The books are at the top of the shelves.

Between - We sit between the two boys.

Behind - The girls sit behind the two boys.

Below - The desk is below the window

By - The books are by the door.

In - I live in the big green and white house.

Inside - I live inside the big green house.


3. Direction Prepositions –
Direction prepositions are used to clarify the direction of someone or something.
Examples: under, over, right, left etc.

On the corner of - We live on the corner of 3rd avenue

In the middle of - We live in the middle of the street.

Near - I don't live near the supermarket.

Next to - I live next to my best friend.

To the left of - The blue box is to the left of the green box.

To the right of - The orange box is to the right of the yellow box.

On - The sun heater is on the top of the building.

On the side of - There is a big sign on the side of the house.

On top of - There is a man on the top of the roof.

On the other side of - Do you see what is going on over there on


the other side of the roof?

Opposite - The post office is on the opposite side of the street.

Outside - The car is outside the garage.

Under - The blanket is under the bed in a box.

Underneath - The pen is underneath the box.


Q;-How are prepositions - for - while - during used?

A;-The 3 most common English prepositions that are used to represent time are:
for - while - during.

1. For - The preposition "for" is used to express how long something


or someone is doing something. "For" is used to state a period of
time and is usually used with a noun/pronoun (or any other form of
nouns) .
 I have been riding my bicycle for 2 hours.
 The dog has been barking for a long time.
 The traffic has been bad for the last three days.

2. While - The preposition "while" is used to represent the length of


time an action has been happening.
"While" is used when speaking about 2 actions that are happing at
the same time. The length of the action is not important.
"While" is used with a subject and a verb.
 While I was playing with my dog, my sister was doing her homework.
 While we are playing cards, the radio was playing.
 My mother doesn't like the T. V. on while we are eating dinner.

3. During -The preposition "during" is used to represent the length of


time of an action that is while the action is happening.
"During" is used with a noun/pronoun (or any other form of nouns).
 I will be really busy during the week.
 The kids were sleeping during the party.
 The lights went out during the storm.