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CHAPTER 1 A View of Life

adaptation domain
Speciess modification in structure, function, or Largest of the categories, or taxa, used by
behavior that makes a species more suitable to its taxonomists to group species; the three domains
environment. are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.

animal domain Archaea


Multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryote that One of the three domains of life; contains
undergoes development to achieve itsfinal form. In prokaryotic cells that often live in extreme habitats
general, animals are mobile organisms, and have unique genetic, biochemical, and
characterized by the presence of muscular and physiological characteristics; its members are
nervous tissue. sometimes referred to as archaea.

binomial domain Bacteria


nomenclature Scientific name of an organism, the One of the three domains of life; contains
first part of which designates the genus and the prokaryotic cells that differ from archaea because
second part of which designates the specific they have their own unique genetic, biochemical,
epithet. and physiological characteristics.

biodiversity domain Eukarya


Total number of species, the variability of their One of the three domains of life, consisting of
genes, and the communities in which they live. organisms with eukaryotic cells; includes protists,
fungi, plants, and animals.
biology
The branch of science that is concerned with the ecosystem
study of life and living organisms. Biological community together with the associated
abiotic environment; characterized by a flow of
biosphere energy and a cycling of inorganic nutrients.
Zone of air, land, and water at the surface of the
Earth in which living organisms are found. emergent property
A function or trait that appears as biological
cell complexity increases.
The smallest unit of life that displays all the
properties of life; composed of cytoplasm energy
surrounded by a plasma membrane. Capacity to do work and bring about change;
occurs in a variety of forms.
class
One of the categories, or taxa, used by taxonomists eukaryote
to group species; the taxon above the order level. Type of cell that has a membrane-bounded nucleus
and membranous organelles; found in organisms
community within the domain Eukarya.
Assemblage of species interacting with one another
within the same environment. evolution
Genetic change in a species over time resulting in
conclusion the development of genetic and phenotypic
Statement made following an experiment as to differences that are the basis of natural selection;
whether or not the results support the hypothesis. descent of organisms from a common ancestor.

control experiment
Sample that goes through all the steps of an A test of a hypothesis that examines the influence
experiment but does not contain thevariable being of a single variable. Often involves both control and
tested; a standard against which the results of an test groups.
experiment are checked.
experimental design
data Methodology by which an experiment will seek to
Facts or information collected through observation support the hypothesis.
and/or experimentation.
experimental variable
deductive reasoning Factor of the experiment being tested.
The use of general principles to predict specific
outcomes. Often uses if . . . then statements.
extinction natural selection
Total disappearance of a species or higher group. Mechanism of evolutionary change caused by
environmental selection of organisms most fit to
family reproduce; results in adaptation to the environment.
One of the categories, or taxa, used bytaxonomists
to group species; the taxonlocated above the genus observation
level. Initial step in the scientific method that often
involves the recording of data from an experiment
fungi or natural event.
Eukaryotic saprotrophic decomposer; the body is
made up of filaments called hyphae that form a order
mass called a mycelium. One of the categories, or taxa, used by taxonomists
to group species; the taxon located above the
gene family level.
Unit of heredity existing as alleles on the
chromosomes; in diploid organisms, typically two phenomenon
alleles are inheritedone from each parent. Observable natural event or fact.

genus photosynthesis
One of the categories, or taxa, used by taxonomists Process, usually occurring within chloroplasts, that
to group species; contains those species that are uses solar energy to reduce carbon dioxide to
most closely related through evolution. carbohydrate.

homeostasis phylum
Maintenance of normal internal conditions in a cell One of the categories, or taxa, used by taxonomists
or an organism by means of self-regulating to group species; the taxon located above the class
mechanisms. level.

hypothesis plant
Supposition established by reasoning after Multicellular, photosynthetic, eukaryotes that
consideration of available evidence; it can be tested increasingly became adapted to live on land.
by obtaining more data, often by experimentation.
population
inductive reasoning Group of organisms of the same species occupying
Using specific observations and the process of logic a certain area and sharing a common gene pool.
and reasoning to arrive at general scientific
principles. prediction
Step of the scientific process that follows the
kingdom formulation of a hypothesis and assists in creating
One of the categories, or taxa, used by taxonomists the experimental design.
to group species; the taxon above phylum.
principle
law Theory that is generally accepted by an
Universal principle that describes the basic overwhelming number of scientists; also called a
functions of the natural world. law.

metabolism prokaryote
The sum of the chemical reactions that occur in a Organism that lacks the membrane-bounded
cell. nucleus and the membranous organelles typical of
eukaryotes.
model
Simulation of a process that aids conceptual protist
understanding until the process can be studied The group of eukaryotic organisms that are not a
firsthand; a hypothesis that describes how a plant, fungus, or animal. Protists are generally a
particular process could possibly be carried out. microscopic complex single cell; they evolved
before other types of eukaryotes in the history of
multicellular Earth.
Organism composed of many cells; usually has
organized tissues, organs, and organ systems. reproduce
To produce a new individual of the same kind.
responding variable base
Result or change that occurs when an experimental Molecules tending to lower the hydrogen ion
variable is utilized in an experiment. concentration in a solution and thus raise the pH
numerically.
scientific method
Process by which scientists formulate a hypothesis, buffer
gather data by observation and experimentation, Substance or group of substances that tend to
and come to a conclusion. resist pH changes of a solution, thus stabilizing its
relative acidity and basicity.
scientific theory
Concept, or a collection of concepts, widely calorie
supported by a broad range of observations, Amount of heat energy required to raise the
experiments, and data. temperature of one gram of water 18C.

species compound
Group of similarly constructedorganisms capable of Substance having two or more different elements in
interbreeding andproducing fertile offspring; a fixed ratio.
organisms thatshare a common gene pool; the
taxon at the lowest level of classification. covalent bond
Chemical bond in which atoms share one pair of
electrons.
standard deviation
A statistical analysis of data from an observation or electron
experiment; measures how much the data varies. Negative subatomic particle, moving about in an
energy level around the nucleus of an atom.
systematics
Study of the diversity of life for the purpose of
understanding the evolutionary relationships electronegativity
between species. The ability of an atom to attract electrons toward
itself in a chemical bond.
taxonomy
Branch of biology concerned with identifying, electron shell
describing, and naming organisms. The average location, or energy level, of an
electron in an atom. Often drawn as concentric
unicellular circles around the nucleus.
An organism comprised of a single cell, as in the
bacteria. element
Substances that cannot be broken down into
CHAPTER 2 Basic Chemistry substances with different properties; composed of
only one type atom.
acid
Molecules tending to raise the hydrogen ion formula
concentration in a solution and thus to lower its pH A group of symbols and numbers used to express
numerically. the composition of a compound.

atom hydrogen bond


Smallest particle of an element that displays the Weak bond that arises between a slightly positive
properties of the element. hydrogen atom of one molecule and a slightly
negative atom of another molecule or between
atomic mass parts of the same molecule.
Average of atom mass units for all the isotopes of
an atom. hydrogen ion (H+)
Hydrogen atom that has lost its electron and
atomic number therefore bears a positive charge.
Number of protons within the nucleus of an atom.
hydrophilic
atomic symbol Type of molecule, often polar, that interacts with
One or two letters that represent the name of an water by dissolving in water and/or by forming
elemente.g., H stands for a hydrogen atom, and hydrogen bonds with water molecules.
Na stands for a sodium atom.
hydrophobic salt
Type of molecule, that is typically nonpolar, and Solid substances formed by ionic bonds that usually
therefore does not interact easily with water. dissociate into individual ions in water.

hydroxide ion (OH) solute


One of two ions that results when a water molecule Substance that is dissolved in a solvent, forming a
dissociates; it has gained an electron and therefore solution.
bears a negative charge.
solution
ion Fluid (the solvent) that contains a dissolved solid
Charged particle that carries a negative or positive (the solute).
charge.
surface tension
ionic bond Force that holds moist membranes together due to
Chemical bond in which ions are attracted to one the attraction of water molecules through hydrogen
another by opposite charges. bonds.

isotope valence shell


Atoms of the same element having the same The outer electron shell of an atom. Contains the
atomic number but a different mass number due to valence electrons, which determine the chemical
a variation in the number of neutrons. reactivity of the atom.

mass number CHAPTER 3 Chemistry of organic molecule


Mass of an atom equal to the number of protons ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
plus the number of neutrons within the nucleus. Nucleotide with two phosphate groups that can
accept another phosphate group and become ATP.
matter
Anything that takes up space and has mass. amino acid
Organic molecule composed of an amino group and
molecule an acid group; covalently bonds to produce peptide
Union of two or more atoms of the same element; molecules.
also, the smallest part of a compound that retains
the properties of the compound. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Nucleotide with three phosphate groups. The
neutron breakdown of ATP into ADP + P makes energy
Neutral subatomic particle, located in the nucleus available for energy-requiring processes in cells.
and assigned one atomic mass unit.
biomolecule
nonpolar covalent bond Organic molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids,
Bond in which the sharing of electrons between carbohydrates, and fats.
atoms is fairly equal.
carbohydrate
octet rule Class of organic compounds that typically contain
The observation that an atom is most stable when carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio;
its outer shell is complete and contains eight includes the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and
electrons; an exception is hydrogen which requires polysaccharides.
only two electrons in its outer shell to have a
completed shell. cellulose
Polysaccharide that is the major complex
pH scale carbohydrate in plant cell walls.
Measurement scale for hydrogen ion concentration.
Based on the formula log[H+]. chaperone protein
Molecule that directs the proper folding of
polar covalent bond polypeptides.
Bond in which the sharing of electrons between
atoms is unequal. chitin
Strong but flexible nitrogenous polysaccharide
proton found in the exoskeleton of arthropods and in the
Positive subatomic particle located in the nucleus cell walls of fungi.
and assigned one atomic mass unit.
coenzyme glycerol
Nonprotein organic molecule that aids the action of Three-carbon carbohydrate with three hydroxyl
the enzyme to which it is loosely bound. groups attached; a component of fats and oils.

complementary base pairing glycogen


Hydrogen bonding between particular purines and Storage polysaccharide found in animals;
pyrimidines; responsible for the structure of DNA, composed of glucose molecules joined in a linear
and some RNA, molecules. fashion but having numerous branches.

dehydration reaction hemoglobin


Chemical reaction in which a water molecule is Iron-containing respiratory pigment occurring in
released during the formation of a covalent bond. vertebrate red blood cells and in the blood plasma
of some invertebrates.
denatured
Loss of a proteins or enzymes normal shape so hexose
that it no longer functions; usually caused by a less Any monosaccharide that contains six carbons;
than optimal pH and temperature. examples are glucose and galactose.

deoxyribose hydrolysis reaction


Pentose sugar found in DNA. Splitting of a chemical bondby the addition of water,
with the H+ going toone molecule and the OH-
disaccharide going to the other.
Sugar that contains two monosaccharide units; e.g.,
maltose. hydrophilic
Type of molecule, often polar, that interacts with
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) water by dissolving in water and/or by forming
Nucleic acid polymer produced from covalent hydrogen bonds with water molecules.
bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the
sugar deoxyribose; the genetic material of nearly all hydrophobic
organisms. Type of molecule, that is typically nonpolar, and
therefore does not interact easily with water.
enzyme
Organic catalyst, usually a protein, that speeds a inorganic chemistry
reaction in cells due to its particular shape. Branch of science that studies the chemical
reactions and properties of all of the elements,
fat except hydrogen and carbon.
Organic molecule that contains glycerol and three
fatty acids; energy storage molecule. isomer
Molecules with the same molecular formula but a
fatty acid different structure, and therefore a different shape.
Molecule that contains a hydrocarbon chain and
ends with an acid group. lipid
Class of organic compounds that tends to be
fibrous protein soluble in nonpolar solvents; includes fats and oils.
A protein that has only a secondary structure;
generally insoluble; includes collagens, elastins, monomer
and keratins. Small molecule that is a subunit of a polymere.g.,
glucose is a monomer of starch.
functional group
Specific cluster of atoms attached to the carbon monosaccharide
skeleton of organic molecules that enters into Simple sugar; a carbohydrate that cannot be
reactions and behaves in a predictable way. broken down by hydrolysise.g., glucose; also,
any monomer of the polysaccharides.
globular protein
Most of the proteins in the body; soluble in water or nucleic acid
salt solution; includes albumins, globulins, histones. Polymer of nucleotides; both DNA and RNA are
nucleic acids.
glucose
Six-carbon monosaccharide; used as an energy
source during cellular respiration and as a
monomer of the structural polysaccharides.
nucleotide protein
Monomer of DNA and RNA consisting of a 5-carbon Polymer of amino acids; often consisting of one or
sugar bonded to a nitrogenous base and a more polypeptides and having a complex three-
phosphate group. dimensional shape.

oil ribose
Triglyceride, usually of plant origin, that is Pentose sugar found in RNA.
composed of glycerol and three fatty acids and is
liquid in consistency due to many unsaturated RNA (ribonucleic acid)
bonds in the hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids. Nucleic acid produced from covalent bonding of
nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar ribose;
organic chemistry occurs in many forms, including: messenger RNA,
Branch of science that deals with organic molecules ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA.
including those that are unique to living things.
saturated fatty acid
organic molecule Fatty acid molecule that lacks double bonds
Molecule that always contains carbon and between the carbons of its hydrocarbon chain. The
hydrogen, and often contains oxygen as well; chain bears the maximum number of hydrogen
organic molecules are associated with living things. possible.

pentose starch
Five-carbon monosaccharide. Examples are Storage polysaccharide found in plants that is
deoxyribose found in DNA and ribose found in composed of glucose molecules joined in a linear
RNA. fashion with few side chains.

peptide steroid
Two or more amino acids joined together by Type of lipid molecule having a complex of four
covalent bonding. carbon ringse.g., cholesterol, estrogen,
progesterone, and testosterone.
peptide bond
Type of covalent bond that joins two amino acids. trans-fat
Unsaturated fatty acid chains in which the
peptidoglycan configuration of the carbon-carbon double bonds is
Polysaccharide that contains short chains of amino such that the hydrogen atoms are across from each
acids; found in bacterial cell walls. other, as opposed to being on the same side (cis).

phospholipid triglyceride
Molecule that forms the bilayer of the cells Neutral fat composed of glycerol and three fatty
membranes; has a polar, hydrophilic head bonded acids; typically involved in energy storage.
to two nonpolar, hydrophobic tails.
unsaturated fatty acid
polymer Fatty acid molecule that contains double bonds
Macromolecule consisting of covalently bonded between some carbons of its hydrocarbon chain;
monomers; for example, a polypeptide is a polymer thus contains fewer hydrogens than a saturated
of monomers called amino acids. hydrocarbon chain.

polypeptide wax
Polymer of many amino acids linked by peptide Sticky, solid, water-repellent lipid consisting of
bonds. many long-chain fatty acids usually linked to long-
chain alcohols.
polysaccharide
Polymer made from carbohydrate monomers; the CHAPTER 4 Cell Structure and Function
polysaccharides starch and glycogen are polymers actin filament
of glucose monomers. Component of the cytoskeleton; plays a role in the
movement of the cell and its organelles; a protein
prion filament in a sarcomere of a muscle, its movement
Infectious particle consisting of protein only and no shortens the sarcomere, yielding muscle
nucleic acid. contraction.
archaean chromatin
Prokaryotic organisms that are members of the Network of DNA strands and associated proteins
domain Archaea. observed within a nucleus of a cell.

bacillus chromoplast
A rod-shaped bacterium; also a genus of bacteria, Plastid in land plants responsible for orange, yellow,
Bacillus. and red color of plants, including the autumn colors
in leaves.
basal body
A cytoplasmic structure that is located at the base chromosome
ofand may organizecilia or flagella. The structure that transmits the genetic material
from one generation to the next; composed of
capsule condensed chromatin; each species has a
A form of glycocalyx that consists of a gelatinous particular number of chromosomes that is passed
layer; found in blue-green algae and certain on to the next generation.
bacteria.
cilium
cell Short, hairlike projections from the plasma
The smallest unit of life that displays all the membrane, occurring usually in larger numbers.
properties of life; composed of cytoplasm
surrounded by a plasma membrane. coccus
A spherical-shaped bacterium.
cell envelope
In a prokaryotic cell, the portion composed of the conjugation pili
plasma membrane, the cell wall, and the In a bacterium, elongated, hollow appendage used
glycocalyx. to transfer DNA to other cells.

cell theory cristae


One of the major theories of biology, which states Short, fingerlike projections formed by the folding of
that all organisms are made up of cells; cells are the inner membrane of mitochondria.
capable of self-reproduction and come only from
preexisting cells. cyanobacteria
Photosynthetic bacterium that contains chlorophyll
cell wall and releases oxygen; formerly called a blue-green
Cellular structure that surrounds a plant, protistan, alga.
fungal, or bacterial cell and maintains the cells
shape and rigidity; composed of polysaccharides. cytoplasm
Region of a cell between the nucleus, or the
central vacuole nucleoid region of a bacterium, and the plasma
In a plant cell, a large, fluid-filled sac that stores membrane; contains the organelles of the cell.
metabolites. During growth, it enlarges, forcing the
primary cell wall to expand and the cell surface- cytoskeleton
area-to-volume ratio to increase. Internal framework of the cell, consisting of
microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate
centriole filaments.
Cell structure, existing in pairs, that occurs in the
centrosome and may help organize a mitotic endomembrane system
spindle for chromosome movement during animal Cellular system that consists of the nuclear
cell division. envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus,
and vesicles.
centrosome
Central microtubule organizing center of cells. In endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
animal cells, it contains two centrioles. System of membranous saccules and channels in
the cytoplasm, often with attached ribosomes.
chloroplast
Membrane-bounded organelle in algae and plants endosymbiotic theory
with chlorophyll-containing membranous thylakoids; Explanation of the evolution of eukaryotic
where photosynthesis takes place. organelles by phagocytosis of prokaryotes.
eukaryotic cell microtubule
Type of cell that has a membrane-bounded nucleus Small, cylindrical organelle composed of tubulin
and membranous organelles; found in organisms protein around an empty central core; present in the
within the domain Eukarya. cytoplasm, centrioles, cilia, and flagella.

fimbriae mitochondrion
Small, bristle-like fiber on the surface of a bacterial Membrane-bounded organelle in which ATP
cell, which attaches bacteria to a surface; also molecules are produced during the process of
fingerlike extension from the oviduct near the ovary. cellular respiration.

flagellum (pl., flagella) motor molecule


Long, slender extension used for locomotion by Protein that moves along either actin filaments or
some bacteria, protozoans, and sperm. microtubules and translocates organelles.

gene nuclear envelope


Unit of heredity existing as alleles on the Name for the phospholipid double membrane that
chromosomes; in diploid organisms, typically two separates the contents of the nucleus from the
alleles are inheritedone from each parent. cytoplasm.

glycocalyx nuclear pore


Gel-like coating outside the cell wall of a bacterium. Opening in the nuclear envelope that permits the
If compact, it is called a capsule; if diffuse, it is passage of proteins into the nucleus and ribosomal
called a slime layer. subunits out of the nucleus.

Golgi apparatus nucleoid


Organelle consisting of sacs and vesicles that Region of prokaryotic cells where DNA is located; it
processes, packages, and distributes molecules is not bounded by a nuclear envelope.
about or from the cell.
nucleolus
granum Dark-staining, spherical body in the nucleus that
Stack of chlorophyllcontainingthylakoids in a produces ribosomal subunits.
chloroplast.
nucleoplasm
intermediate filament Semifluid medium of the nucleus containing
Ropelike assemblies of fibrous polypeptides in the chromatin.
cytoskeleton that provide support and strength to
cells; so called because they are intermediate in organelle
size between actin filaments and microtubules. Small, membranous structures in the cytoplasm
having a specific structure and function.
leucoplast
Plastid, generally colorless, that synthesizes and peroxisome
stores starch and oils. Enzyme-filled vesicle in which fatty acids and amino
acids are metabolized to hydrogen peroxide that is
lysosome broken down to harmless products.
Membrane-bounded vesicle that contains hydrolytic
enzymes for digesting macromolecules and plasma membrane
bacteria; used to recycle worn-out cellular Membrane surrounding the cytoplasm that consists
organelles. of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins;
functions to regulate the entrance and exit of
matrix molecules from cell.
Unstructured semifluid substance that fills the
space between cells in connective tissues or inside plasmid
organelles. Extrachromosomal ring of accessory DNA in the
cytoplasm of prokaryotes.
mesosome
In a bacterium, plasma membrane that folds into plastid
the cytoplasm and increases surface area. Organelles of plants and algae that are bounded by
a double membrane and contain internal
membranes and/or vesicles (i.e., chloroplasts,
chromoplasts, leucoplasts).
vacuole
polyribosome Membrane-bounded sac, larger than a vesicle;
String of ribosomes simultaneously translating usually functions in storage and can contain a
regions of the same mRNA strand during protein variety of substances. In plants, the central vacuole
synthesis. fills much of the interior of the cell.

prokaryotic cell vesicle


Cells that generally lack a membrane-bounded Small, membrane-bounded sac that stores
nucleus and organelles;the cell type within the substances within a cell.
domains Bacteria and Archaea.
CHAPTER 5
ribosome active transport
Site of protein synthesis in a cell; composed of Use of a plasma membrane carrier protein to move
proteins and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). a molecule or ion from a region of lower
concentration to one of higher concentration; it
rough ER opposes equilibrium and requires energy.
Membranous system of tubules, vesicles, and sacs
in cells; has attached ribosomes. adhesion junction
Junction between cells in which the adjacent
secretion plasma membranes do not touch but are held
Release of a substance by exocytosis from a cell. together by intercellular filaments attached to
button-like thickenings.
signal peptide
Sequence of amino acids that binds with a signal aquaporin
recognition particle (SRP), causing a ribosome to Channel protein through which water can diffuse
bind to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). across a membrane.

smooth ER bulk transport


Membranous system of tubules, vesicles, and sacs Movement of substances, usually large particles,
in eukaryotic cells; site of lipid synthesis; lacks across the plasma membrane using vesicles.
attached ribosomes.
carrier protein
spirillum Protein in the plasma membrane that combines
Long, rod-shaped bacterium that is twisted into a with and transports a molecule or ion across the
rigid spiral; if the spiral is flexible rather than rigid, it plasma membrane.
is called a spirochete.
cell recognition protein
spirochete Glycoproteins in the plasma membrane that identify
Long, rod-shaped bacterium that is twisted into a self and help the body defend itself against
flexible spiral; if the spiral is rigid rather than pathogens.
flexible, it is called a spirillum.
cell wall
stroma Cellular structure that surrounds a plant, protistan,
Region within a chloroplast that surrounds the fungal, or bacterial cell and maintains the cells
grana; contains enzymes involved in the synthesis shape and rigidity; composed of polysaccharides.
of carbohydrates during the Calvin cycle of
photosynthesis. channel protein
Protein that forms a channel to allow a particular
surface-area-to-volume ratio molecule or ion to cross the plasma membrane.
Ratio of a cellsoutside area to its internal volume;
therelationship limits the maximum size of a cell. cholesterol
A steroid found in the plasma membrane of animal
thylakoid cells and from which other types of steroids are
Flattened sac within a granum of a chloroplast; derived.
membrane contains chlorophyll; location where the
light reactions of photosynthesis occur. concentration gradient
Gradual change in chemical concentration between
vector two areas of differing concentrations.
In genetic engineering, a means to transfer foreign
genetic material into a celle.g., a plasmid.
crenation hypertonic solution
In animal cells, shriveling of the cell due to water Higher solute concentration (less water) than the
leaving the cell when the environment is hypertonic. cytoplasm of a cell; causes cell to lose water by
osmosis.
desmosome
Intercellular junctions that connect cytoskeletons of hypotonic solution
adjacent cells. Solution that contains a lower solute (more water)
concentration than the cytoplasm of a cell; causes
diffusion cell to gain water by osmosis.
Movement of molecules or ions from a region of
higher to lower concentration; it requires no energy isotonic solution
and tends to lead to an equal distribution Solution that is equal in solute concentration to that
(equilibrium). of the cytoplasm of a cell; causes cell to neither
lose nor gain water by osmosis.
endocytosis
Process by which substances are moved into the junction protein
cell from the environment; includes phagocytosis, Proteins in the cellmembrane that assist in cell-to-
pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. cellcommunication.

enzymatic protein osmosis


Protein that catalyzes a specific reaction; may be Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable
found in the plasma membrane or the cytoplasm of membrane.
the cell.
osmotic pressure
exocytosis Measure of the tendency of water to move across a
Process in which an intracellular vesicle fuses with selectively permeable membrane; visible as an
the plasma membrane sothat the vesicles contents increase in liquid on the side of the membrane with
are released outside the cell. higher solute concentration.

extracellular matrix (ECM) phagocytosis


Nonliving substance secreted by some animal cells; Process by which cells engulf large substances,
is composed of protein and polysaccharides. forming an intracellular vacuole.

facilitated transport pinocytosis


Passive transfer of a substance into or out of a cell Process by which vesicle formation brings
along a concentration gradient by a process that macromolecules into the cell.
requires a protein carrier.
plasmodesmata
fluid-mosaic model In plants, cytoplasmic connections in the cell wall
Model for the plasma membrane based on the that connect two adjacent cells.
changing location and pattern of protein molecules
in a fluid phospholipid bilayer. plasmolysis
Contraction of the cell contents due to the loss of
gap junction water.
Junction between cells formed by the joining of two
adjacent plasma membranes; it lends strength and receptor-mediated endocytosis
allows ions, sugars, and small molecules to pass Selective uptake of molecules into a cell by vacuole
between cells. formation after they bind to specific receptor
proteins in the plasma membrane.
glycolipid
Lipid in plasma membranes that contains an receptor protein
attached carbohydrate chain; assembled in the Proteins located in the plasma membrane or within
Golgi apparatus. the cell; bind to a substance that alters some
metabolic aspect of the cell.
glycoprotein
Protein in plasma membranes that has an attached selectively permeable
carbohydrate chain; assembled in the Golgi Property of the plasma membrane that allows some
apparatus. substances to pass, but prohibits the movement of
others.
sodium-potassium pump chemical energy
Carrier protein in theplasma membrane that moves Energy associated with the interaction of atoms in a
sodium ions out of and potassium ions into cells; molecule.
important in the function of nerve and muscle cells
in animals. chemiosmosis
Process by which mitochondria and chloroplasts
solute use the energy of an electron transport chain to
Substance that is dissolved in a solvent, forming a create a hydrogen ion gradient that drives ATP
solution. formation.

solution coenzyme
Fluid (the solvent) that contains a dissolved solid Nonprotein organic molecule that aids the action of
(the solute). the enzyme to which it is loosely bound.

solvent cofactor
Liquid portion of a solution that serves to dissolve a Nonprotein assistant required by an enzyme in
solute. order to function; many cofactors are metal ions,
others are coenzymes.
tight junction
Junction between cells when adjacent plasma competitive inhibition
membrane proteins join to form an impermeable Form of enzyme inhibition where the substrate and
barrier. inhibitor are both able to bind to the enzymes
active site. Only when the substrate is at the active
tonicity site will product form.
The solute concentration (osmolarity) of a solution
compared to that of a cell. If the solution is isotonic denatured
to the cell, there is no net movement of water; if the Loss of a proteins or enzymes normal shape so
solution is hypotonic, the cell gains water; and if the that it no longer functions; usually caused by a less
solution is hypertonic, the cell loses water. than optimal pH and temperature.

turgor pressure electron transport chain (ETC)


Pressure of the cell contents against the cell wall; in Process in a cell that involves the passage of
plant cells, determined by the water content of the electrons along a series of membrane-bound
vacuole; provides internal support. electron carrier molecules from a higher to lower
energy level; the energy released is used for the
CHAPTER 6 synthesis of ATP.
active site
Region of an enzyme where the substrate binds endergonic reaction
and where the chemical reaction occurs. Chemical reaction that requires an input of energy;
opposite of exergonic reaction.
ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
Nucleotide with two phosphate groups that can energy
accept another phosphate group and become ATP. Capacity to do work and bring about change;
occurs in a variety of forms.
allosteric site
Site on an allosteric enzyme that binds an effector energy of activation
molecule; binding alters the activity of the enzyme. Energy that must be added in order for molecules
to react with one another.
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
Nucleotide with three phosphate groups. The entropy
breakdown of ATP into ADP + P makes energy Measure of disorder or randomness in a system.
available for energy-requiring processes in cells.
enzyme
ATP synthases Organic catalyst, usually a protein, that speeds a
Complex of proteins in the cristae of mitochondria reaction in cells due to its particular shape.
and thylakoid membrane of chloroplast that
produces ATP from the diffusion of hydrogen ions enzyme inhibition
across a membrane. Means by which cells regulate enzyme activity; may
be competitive or noncompetitive inhibition.
exergonic reaction
Chemical reaction that releases energy; opposite of noncompetitive inhibition
endergonic reaction. Form of enzyme inhibition where the inhibitor binds
to an enzyme at a location other than the active
free energy site; while at this site, the enzyme shape changes,
Energy in a system that is capable of performing the inhibitor is unable to bind to its substrate, and
work. no product forms.

heat oxidation
Type of kinetic energy associated with the random Loss of one or more electrons from an atom or
motion of molecules. molecule; in biological systems, generally the loss
of hydrogen atoms.
induced fit model
Change in the shape of an enzymes active site that oxidation-reduction reaction
enhances the fit between the active site and its A paired set of chemical reactions in which one
substrate(s). molecule gives up electrons (oxidized) while
another molecule accepts electrons (reduced);
kinetic energy commonly called a redox reaction.
Energy associated with motion.
potential energy
laws of thermodynamics Stored energy in a potentially usable form, as a
Two laws explaining energy and its relationships result of location or spatial arrangement.
and exchanges. The first, also called the law of
conservation, says that energy cannot be created product
or destroyed but can only be changed from one Substance that forms as a result of a reaction.
form to another; the second says that energy
cannot be changed from one form to another reactant
without a loss of usable energy. Substance that participates in a reaction.

mechanical energy redox reaction


A type of kinetic energy associated with the A paired set of chemical reactions in which one
position, or motion ( such as walking or running) of molecule gives up electrons (oxidized) while
an object. another molecule accepts electrons (reduced); also
called an oxidation-reduction reaction.
metabolic pathway
Series of linked reactions, beginning with a reduction
particular reactant and terminating with an end Gain of electrons by an atom or molecule with a
product. concurrent storage of energy; in biological systems,
the electrons are accompanied by hydrogen ions.
metabolism
The sum of the chemical reactions that occur in a ribozyme
cell. RNA molecule that functions as an enzyme that can
catalyze chemical reactions.
mole
The molecular weight of a molecule expressed in substrate
grams; contains 6.023 X 1023molecules. Reactant in an enzyme-controlled reaction.

NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) vitamin


Coenzyme in oxidation-reduction reactions that Organic nutrient that is required in small amounts
accepts electrons and hydrogen ions to become for metabolic functions. Vitamins are often part of
NADH + H+ as oxidation of substrates occurs. coenzymes.
During cellular respiration, NADH carries electrons
to the electrontransport chain in mitochondria. CHAPTER 7
absorption spectrum
NADP+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide For photosynthetic pigments, a graph of how much
phosphate) solar radiation is absorbed versus the wavelength
Coenzyme in oxidation-reduction reactions that of light.
accepts electrons and hydrogen ions to become
NADPH + H+. During photosynthesis, NADPH ATP synthase
participates in the reduction of carbon dioxide to a Complex of proteins in the cristae of mitochondria
carbohydrate. and thylakoid membrane of chloroplast that
produces ATP from the diffusion of hydrogen ions electron transport chain
across a membrane. Process in a cell that involves the passage of
electrons along a series of membrane-bound
autotroph electron carrier molecules from a higher to lower
Organism that can capture energy and synthesize energy level; the energy released is used for the
organic molecules from inorganic nutrients. synthesis of ATP.

C3 plant grana (sing., granum)


Plant that fixes carbon dioxide via the Calvin cycle; Stack of chlorophyllcontainingthylakoids in a
the first stable product of C3photosynthesis is a 3- chloroplast.
carbon compound.
heterotroph
C4 plant Organism that cannot synthesize needed organic
Plant that fixes carbon dioxide to produce a compounds from inorganic substances and
C4molecule that releases carbon dioxide to the therefore must take in organic food.
Calvin cycle.
light reactions
Calvin cycle reactions Portion of photosynthesis that captures solar
Portion of photosynthesis that takes place in the energy and takes place in thylakoid membranes of
stroma of chloroplasts and can occur in the dark; it chloroplasts; it produces ATP and NADPH.
uses the products of the light reactions to reduce
CO2to a carbohydrate. noncyclic pathway
Light-dependent photosynthetic pathway that is
CAM used to generate ATP and NADPH; because the
Crassulacean-acid metabolism; a form of pathway is noncyclic, the electrons must be
photosynthesis in succulent plants thatseparates replaced by the splitting of water (photolysis).
the light-dependent and Calvin reactions by time.
photorespiration
carbon dioxide (CO2) fixation Series of reactions that occurs in plants when
Process by which carbon dioxide gas is attached to carbon dioxide levels are depleted but oxygen
an organic compound; in photosynthesis, this continues to accumulate, and the enzyme RuBP
occurs in the Calvin cycle reactions. carboxylase fixes oxygen instead of carbon dioxide.

carotenoid photosynthesis
An accessory photosynthetic pigment of plants and Process, usually occurring within chloroplasts, that
algae that are often yellow or orange in color; uses solar energy to reduce carbon dioxide to
consist of two classesthe xanthophylls and the carbohydrate.
carotenes.
photosystem
chemiosmosis Photosynthetic unit where solar energy is absorbed
Process by which mitochondria and chloroplasts and high-energy electrons are generated; contains
use the energy of an electron transport chain to a pigment complex and an electron acceptor;
create a hydrogen ion gradient that drives ATP occurs as PS (photosystem) I and PS II.
formation.
RuBP carboxylase
climate change An enzyme that starts the Calvin cycle reactions by
Recent changes in the Earths climate; evidence catalyzing attachment of the carbon atom from
suggests that this is primarily due to human CO2to RuBP.
influence, including the increased release of
greenhouse gases. stomata
Small openings between two guard cells on the
chlorophyll underside of leaf epidermis through which gases
Green photosynthetic pigment of algae and plants pass.
that absorbs solar energy; occurs as chlorophyll a
and chlorophyll b. stroma
Region within a chloroplast that surrounds the
chloroplast grana; contains enzymes involved in the synthesis
Membrane-bounded organelle in algae and plants of carbohydrates during the Calvin cycle of
with chlorophyll-containing membranous thylakoids; photosynthesis.
where photosynthesis takes place.
thylakoid during cellular respiration, FAD then delivers
Flattened sac within a granum of a chloroplast; electrons to the electron transport chain.
membrane contains chlorophyll; location where the
light reactions of photosynthesis occur. fermentation
Anaerobic breakdown of glucose that results in a
CHAPTER 8 gain of two ATP and end products such as alcohol
aerobic and lactate; occurs in the cytoplasm of cells.
A chemical process that requires air (oxygen);
phase of cellular respiration that requires oxygen. glycolysis
Anaerobic breakdown of glucose that results in a
anabolism gain of two ATP and the production of pyruvate;
Chemical reaction in which smaller molecules occurs in the cytoplasm of cells.
(monomers) are combined to form larger molecules
(polymers); anabolic metabolism. metabolic pool
Metabolites that are the products of and/or the
anaerobic substrates for key reactions in cells, allowing one
A chemical reaction that occurs in the absence of type of molecule to be changed into another type,
oxygen; an example is the fermentation reactions. such as carbohydrates converted to fats.

catabolism mitochondrion
Metabolic process that breaks down large Membrane-bounded organelle in which ATP
molecules into smaller ones; catabolic metabolism. molecules are produced during the process of
cellular respiration.
cellular respiration
Metabolic reactions that use the energy from NAD+
carbohydrate, fatty acid, or amino acid breakdown Coenzyme in oxidation-reduction reactions that
to produce ATP molecules. accepts electrons and hydrogen ions to become
NADH + H+ as oxidation of substrates occurs.
chemiosmosis During cellular respiration, NADH carries electrons
Process by which mitochondria and chloroplasts to the electron transport chain in mitochondria.
use the energy of an electron transport chain to
create a hydrogen ion gradient that drives ATP preparatory (prep) reaction
formation. Reaction that oxidizes pyruvate with the release of
carbon dioxide; results in acetyl CoA and connects
citric acid cycle glycolysis to the citric acid cycle.
Cycle of reactions in mitochondria that begins with
citric acid. This cycle breaks down an acetyl group substrate-level ATP synthesis
and produces CO2, ATP, NADH, and FADH2; also Process in which ATP is formed by transferring a
called the Krebs cycle. phosphate from a metabolic substrate to ADP.

cytochrome CHAPTER 9
Any of several iron-containing protein molecules anaphase
that are members of the electron transport chain in Fourth phase of mitosis; chromosomes move
photosynthesis and cellular respiration. toward the poles of the spindle.

deamination angiogenesis
Removal of an amino group (NH2) from an amino Formation of new blood vessels; rapid
acid or other organic compound. angiogenesis is a characteristic of cancer cells.

electron transport chain (ETC) apoptosis


Process in a cell that involves the passage of Programmed cell death; involves a cascade of
electrons along a series of membrane-bound specific cellular events leading to death and
electron carrier molecules from a higher to lower destruction of the cell.
energy level; the energy released is used for the
synthesis of ATP. asexual reproduction
Reproduction that requires only one parent and
FAD does not involve gametes.
Flavin adenine dinucleotide; a coenzyme of
oxidation-reduction that becomes FADH2 as aster
oxidation of substrates occurs in the mitochondria Short, radiating fibers produced by the centrosomes
in animal cells.
benign cytokinesis
Mass of cells derived from a single mutated cell that Division of the cytoplasm following mitosis or
has repeatedly undergone cell division but has meiosis.
remained at the site of origin.
diploid (2n)
binary fission Cell condition in which two of each type of
Splitting of a parent cell into two daughter cells; chromosome are present.
serves as an asexual form of reproduction in
bacteria. growth factor
A hormone or chemical, secreted by one cell, that
cancer may stimulate or inhibit growth of another cell or
Malignant tumor whose nondifferentiated cells cells.
exhibit loss of contact inhibition, uncontrolled
growth, and the ability to invade tissue and haploid (n)
metastasize. Cell condition in which only one of each type of
chromosome is present.
cell cycle
An ordered sequence of events in eukaryotes that histone
involves cell growth and nuclear division; consists A group of proteins involved in forming the
of the stages G1, S, G2, and M. nucleosome structure of eukaryote chromatin.

cell plate interphase


Structure across a dividing plant cell that signals Stages of the cell cycle (G1, S, G2) during which
the location of new plasma membranes and cell growth and DNA synthesis occur when the nucleus
walls. is not actively dividing.

centriole kinetochore
Cell structure, existing in pairs, that occurs in the An assembly of proteins that attaches to the
centrosome and may help organize a mitotic centromere of a chromosome during mitosis.
spindle for chromosome movement during animal
cell division. malignant
The power to threaten life; cancerous.
centromere
Constriction where sister chromatids of a metaphase
chromosome are held together. Third phase of mitosis; chromosomes are aligned at
the metaphase plate.
centrosome
Central microtubule organizing center of cells. In metaphase plate
animal cells, it contains two centrioles. A disk formed during metaphase in which all of a
cells chromosomes lie in a single plane at right
chromatid angles to the spindle fibers.
Following replication, a chromosome consists of a
pair of sister chromatids, held together at the metastasis
centromere; each chromatid is comprised of a Spread of cancer from the place oforigin throughout
single DNA helix. the body; caused by theability of cancer cells to
migrate and invade tissues.
chromatin
Network of DNA strands and associated proteins mitosis
observed within a nucleus of a cell. The stage of cellular reproduction in which nuclear
division occurs; process in which a parent nucleus
cleavage furrow produces two daughter nuclei, each having the
Indentation in the plasma membrane of animal cells same number and kinds of chromosomes as the
during cell division; formation marks the start of parent nucleus.
cytokinesis.
mitotic spindle
cyclin A complex of microtubules and associated proteins
Protein that cycles in quantity as the cell cycle that assist in separating the chromatids during cell
progresses; combines with and activates the division.
kinases that function to promote the events of the
cycle.
nucleoid therapeutic cloning
Region of prokaryotic cells where DNA is located; it Used to create mature cells of various cell types.
is not bounded by a nuclear envelope. Facilitates study of specialization of cells and
provide cells and tissue to treat human illnesses.
oncogene
Cancer-causing gene formed by a mutation in a tumor
proto-oncogene; code for proteins that stimulate the Cells derived from a single mutated cell that has
cell cycle and inhibit apoptosis. repeatedly undergone cell division; benign tumors
remain at the site of origin, while malignant tumors
p53 metastasize.
The protein produced from a tumor suppressor
gene that (1) attempts to repair DNA damage or (2) tumor suppressor gene
stops the cell cycle, or (3) initiates apoptosis. Gene that codes for a protein that ordinarily
suppresses the cellcycle; inactivity due to a
prometaphase mutation can lead to a tumor.
Second phase of mitosis; chromosomes are
condensed but not fully aligned at the metaphase
plate. CHAPTER 10
allele
prophase Alternative form of a gene; alleles occur at the
First phase of mitosis; characterized by the same locus on homologous chromosomes.
condensation of the chromatin; chromosomes are
visible, but scattered in the nucleus. alternation of generations
Life cycle, typical of land plants, in which a diploid
proto-oncogene sporophyte alternates with a haploid gametophyte.
Gene that promotes the cell cycle and prevents
apoptosis; may become an oncogene through aneuploidy
mutation. Condition in which a cell does not contain the
correct number, or combinations, of chromosomes.
RB
The protein of a tumor suppressor gene; interprets Barr body
growth signals and nutrient availability before Dark-staining body in the cell nuclei of female
allowing the cell cycle to proceed. mammals that contains a condensed, inactive X
chromosome; named after its discoverer, Murray
reproductive cloning Barr.
Used to create an organism that is genetically
identical to the original individual. bivalent
Homologous chromosomes, each having sister
signal chromatids that are joined by a nucleoprotein lattice
Molecule that stimulates or inhibits an event in the during meiosis; also called a tetrad.
cell.
crossing-over
sister chromatids Exchange of segments between
One of two genetically identical chromosomal units nonsisterchromatids of a bivalent during meiosis.
that are the result of DNA replication and are
attached to each other at the centromere. deletion
Change in chromosome structure in which the end
somatic cell of a chromosome breaks off or two simultaneous
Body cell; excludes cells that undergo meiosis and breaks lead to the loss of an internal segment; often
become sperm or eggs. causes abnormalitiese.g., cri du chat syndrome.

telomere diploid (2n) number


Tip of the end of a chromosome that shortens with Cell condition in which two of each type of
each cell division and may thereby regulate the chromosome are present.
number of times a cell can divide.
duplication
telophase Change in chromosome structure in which a
Final phase of mitosis; daughter cells are located at particular segment is present more than once in the
each pole. same chromosome.
euploidy
Condition in which a cell contains the correct meiosis
number, and combinations, of chromosomes. Type of nuclear division that reduces the
chromosome number from 2n to n; daughter cells
fertilization receive the haploid number of chromosomes in
Fusion of sperm and egg nuclei, producing a zygote varied combinations; also called reduction division.
that develops into a new individual.
monosomy
gamete Chromosome condition in which adiploid cell has
Haploid sex cell; e.g., egg or sperm. one less chromosome than normal; designated as
2n-1.
gametogenesis
Development of the male and female sex gametes. nondisjunction
Failure of the homologous chromosomes or sister
gametophyte chromatids to separate during either mitosis or
Haploid generation of the alternation of generations meiosis; produces cells with abnormal chromosome
life cycle of a plant; produces gametes that unite to numbers.
form a diploid zygote.
oogenesis
genetic recombination Production of eggs in females by the process of
Process in which chromosomes are broken and meiosis and maturation.
rejoined to form novel combinations; in this way
offspring receive alleles in combinations different polar body
from their parents. Nonfunctional product of oogenesis produced by
the unequal division of cytoplasm in females during
haploid (n) number meiosis; in humans three of the four cells produced
Cell condition in which only one of each type of by meiosis are polar bodies.
chromosome is present.
secondary oocyte
homologous chromosome In oogenesis, the functional product of meiosis I;
Member of a pair of chromosomes that are alike becomes the egg.
and come together in synapsis during prophase of
the first meiotic division; a homologue. sexual reproduction
Reproduction involving meiosis, gamete formation,
homologue and fertilization; produces offspring with
Member of a homologous pair of chromosomes. chromosomes inherited from each parent with a
unique combination of genes.
independent assortment
Alleles of unlinked genes segregate independently spermatogenesis
of each other during meiosis so that the gametes Production of sperm in males by the process of
could contain all possible combinations of alleles. meiosis and maturation.

interkinesis spore
Period of time between meiosis I and meiosis II Asexual reproductive or resting cell capable of
during which no DNA replication takes place. developing into a new organismwithout fusion with
another cell, in contrast to a gamete.
inversion
Change in chromosome structure in which a sporophyte
segment of a chromosome is turned around 1808; Diploid generation of the alternation-of-generations
this reversed sequence of genes can lead to altered life cycle of a plant; produces haploid spores that
gene activity and abnormalities. develop into the haploid generation.

karyotype synapsis
Chromosomes arranged by pairs according to their Pairing of homologous chromosomes during
size, shape, and general appearance in mitotic meiosis I.
metaphase.
synaptonemal complex
life cycle Protein structure that forms between the
Recurring pattern of genetically programmed homologous chromosomes of prophase I of
events by which individuals grow, develop, maintain meiosis; promotes the process of crossing-over.
themselves, and reproduce.
translocation
Movement of a chromosomal segment from one incomplete dominance
chromosome to another nonhomologous Inheritance pattern in which an offspring has an
chromosome, leading to abnormalitiese.g., Down intermediate phenotype, as when a red-flowered
syndrome. plant and a white-flowered plant produce pink-
flowered offspring.
trisomy
Chromosome condition in which a diploid cell has incomplete penetrance
one more chromosome than normal; designated as Dominant alleles that are either not always, or
2n+1. partially expressed.

zygote law of independent assortment


Diploid cell formed by the union of two gametes; the Mendelian principle that explains how combinations
product of fertilization. of traits appear in gametes; see also independent
assortment.
CHAPTER 11
allele law of segregation
Alternative form of a gene; alleles occur at the Mendelian principle that explains how, in a diploid
same locus on homologous chromosomes. organism, alleles separate during the formation of
the gametes.
autosome
Chromosome pairs that are the same between the locus
sexes; in humans, all but the X and Y Physical location of a trait (or gene) on a
chromosomes. chromosome.

carrier monohybrid cross


Heterozygous individual who has no apparent Cross between parents that differ in only one trait.
abnormality but can pass on an allele for a
recessively inherited genetic disorder. multiple alleles
Inheritance pattern in which there are more than
codominance two alleles for a particular trait; each individual has
Inheritance pattern in which both alleles of a gene only two of all possible alleles.
are equally expressed in a heterozygote.
phenotype
dihybrid cross Visible expression of a genotypee.g., brown eyes
Cross between parents that differ in two traits. or attached earlobes.

dominant allele pleiotropy


Allele that exerts its phenotypic effect in the Inheritance pattern in which one gene affects many
heterozygote; it masks the expression of the phenotypic characteristics of the individual.
recessive allele.
polygenic inheritance
family pedigree Pattern of inheritance in which a trait is controlled
Chart of genetic relationship of family individuals by several allelic pairs.
across generations.
polygenic trait
genotype Traits that are under the control of multiple genes
Genes of an organism for a particular trait or traits; as opposed to monogenic (single-gene) traits.
often designated by lettersfor example, BB or Aa.
Punnett square
hemizygous Visual representation developed by Reginald
Possessing only one allele for a gene in a diploid Punnett that is used to calculate the expected
organism; males are hemizygous for genes on the results of simple genetic crosses.
X chromosome.
recessive allele
heterozygous Allele that exerts its phenotypic effect only in the
Possessing unlike alleles for a particular trait. homozygote; its expression is masked by a
dominant allele.
homozygous
Possessing two identical alleles for a particular trait.
testcross Chromatin with a lower level of compaction and
Cross between an individual with a dominant therefore accessible for transcription.
phenotype and an individual with a recessive
phenotype to determine whether the dominant exon
individual is homozygous or heterozygous. Segment of mRNA containing the
proteincodingportion of a gene that remains within
X-linked the mRNA after splicing has occurred.
Allele that is located on an X chromosome; not all
X-linked genes code for sexual characteristics. genetic code
Universal code that has existed for eons and allows
CHAPTER 12 for conversion of DNA and RNAs chemical code to
adenine (A) a sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each codon
One of four nitrogen-containing bases in consists of three bases that stand for one of the 20
nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and amino acids found in proteins or directs the
RNA. Pairs with uracil (U) and thymine (T). termination of translation.

anticodon guanine (G)


Three-base sequence in a transfer RNA molecule One of four nitrogen-containing bases in
base that pairs with a complementary codon in nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and
mRNA. RNA; pairs with cytosine.

central dogma heterochromatin


Processes that dictate the flow of information from Highly compacted chromatin that is not accessible
the DNA to RNA to protein in a cell. for transcription.

codon histone
Three-base sequence in messenger RNA that A group of proteins involved in forming the
during translation directs the addition of a particular nucleosome structure of eukaryote chromatin.
amino acid into a protein or directs termination of
the process. initiation
First stage of translation in which the translational
complementary base pairing machinery binds an mRNA and assembles.
Hydrogen bonding between particular purines and
pyrimidines; responsible for the structure of DNA, intron
and some RNA, molecules. Intervening sequence found between exons in
mRNA; removed by RNA processing before
cytosine (C) translation.
One of four nitrogen-containing bases in the
nucleotides composing the structure of DNA and messenger RNA (mRNA)
RNA; pairs with guanine. Type of RNA formed from a DNA template and
bearing coded information for the amino acid
DNA polymerase sequence of a polypeptide.
During replication, an enzyme that joins the
nucleotides complementary to a DNA template. mRNA transcript
mRNA molecule formed during transcription that
DNA replication has a sequence of bases complementary to a gene.
Synthesis of a new DNA double helix prior to
mitosis and meiosis in eukaryotic cells and during nucleosome
prokaryotic fission in prokaryotic cells. In the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a unit composed
of DNA wound around a core of eight histone
double helix proteins, giving the appearance of a string of
Double spiral; describes the three-dimensional beads.
shape of DNA.
polyribosome
elongation String of ribosomes simultaneously translating
Middle stage of translation in which additional regions of the same mRNA strand during protein
amino acids specified by the mRNA are added to synthesis.
the growing polypeptide.
promoter
euchromatin In an operon, a sequence of DNA where RNA
polymerase binds prior to transcription.
proteomics produce a polypeptide with a particular sequence of
Study of the complete collection of proteins that a amino acids.
cell or organism expresses.
translocation
replication fork Movement of a chromosomal segment from one
In eukaryotic DNA replication, the location where chromosome to another nonhomologous
the two parental DNA strands separate. chromosome, leading to abnormalitiese.g., Down
syndrome.
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
Structural form of RNA found in the ribosomes. triplet code
During gene expression, each sequence of three
ribozyme nucleotide bases stands for a particular amino acid.
RNA molecule that functions as an enzyme that can
catalyze chemical reactions. uracil (U)
Pyrimidine base that occurs in RNA, replacing
RNA polymerase thymine.
During transcription, an enzyme that creates an
mRNA transcript by joining nucleotides wobble hypothesis
complementary to a DNA template. Ability of the tRNAs to recognize more than one
codon; the codons differ in their third nucleotide.
semiconservative replication
Process of DNA replication that results in two CHAPTER 13 -
double helixmolecules, each having one parental Barr body
and one new strand. Dark-staining body in the cell nuclei of female
mammals that contains a condensed, inactive X
telomere chromosome; named after its discoverer, Murray
Tip of the end of a chromosome that shortens with Barr.
each cell division and may thereby regulate the
number of times a cell can divide. carcinogen
Environmental agent that causes mutations leading
template to the development of cancer.
Parental strand of DNA that serves as a guide for
the complementary daughter strand produced chromatin
during DNA replication. Network of DNA strands and associated proteins
observed within a nucleus of a cell.
termination
End of translation that occurs when a ribosome corepressor
reaches a stop codon on the mRNA that it is Molecule that binds to a repressor, allowing the
translating, causing release of the completed repressor to bind to an operator in a repressible
protein. operon.

thymine (T) DNA repair enzyme


One of four nitrogen-containing bases in One of several enzymes that restore the original
nucleotides composing the structure of DNA; pairs base sequence in analtered DNA strand.
with adenine.
enhancers
transcription DNA sequence that acts as a regulatory element to
First stage of gene expression; process whereby a increase the level of transcription when regulatory
DNA strand serves as a template for the formation proteins, such as transcription activators, bind to it.
of mRNA.
epigenetic inheritance
transfer RNA (tRNA) An inheritance pattern in which a nuclear gene has
Type of RNA that transfers a particular amino acid been modified but the changed expression of the
to a ribosome during protein synthesis; at one end, gene is not permanent over many generations; the
it binds to the amino acid, and at the other end it transmission of genetic information by means that
has an anticodon that binds to an mRNA codon. are not based on the coding sequences of a gene.

translation frameshift mutation


During gene expression, the process whereby Insertion or deletion of at least one base so that the
ribosomes use the sequence of codons in mRNA to reading frame of the corresponding mRNA
changes.
regulator gene
gene mutation Gene that controls the expression of another gene
Altered gene whose sequence of bases differs from or genes; in an operon, regulator genes code for
the original sequence. repressor proteins.

induced mutation repressor


Mutation that is caused by an outside influence, In an operon, protein molecule that binds to an
such as organic chemicals or ionizing radiation. operator, preventing transcription of structural
genes.
inducer
Molecule that brings about activity of an operon by RNA interference
joining with a repressor and preventing it from Cellular process that utilizes miRNA and siRNA
binding to the operator. molecules to reduce, or inhibit, the expression of
specific genes.
microRNA (miRNA)
Short sequences of RNA, usually less than 22 small-interfering RNA (siRNA)
nucleotides, that are involved in posttranscriptional Short sequences of RNA, typically less than 25
regulation of gene expression. These molecules nucleotides, that are involved in posttranscriptional
either inhibit, or reduce, the expression of specific control of gene expression through a process called
genes. RNA interference.

mutagen spontaneous mutation


Chemical or physical agent that increases the Mutation that arises as a result of anomalies in
chance of mutation. normal biological processes, such as mistakes
made during DNA replication.
operator
In an operon, the sequence of DNA that serves as a structural gene
binding site for a repressor, and thereby regulates Gene that codes for the amino acid sequence of a
the expression of structural genes. peptide or protein.

operon transcription activator


Group of structural and regulating genes that Protein that participates in the initiation of
function as a single unit. transcription by binding to the enhancer regulatory
regions.
point mutation
Change of only one base in the sequence of bases transcriptional control
in a gene. Control of gene expression by the use of
transcription factors, and other proteins, that
posttranscriptional control regulate either the initiation of transcription or the
Gene expression following transcription that rate at which it occurs.
regulates the way mRNA transcripts are processed.
transcription factor
posttranslational control In eukaryotes, protein required for the initiation of
Alternation of gene expression by changing a transcription by RNA polymerase.
proteins activity after it is translated.
translational control
promoter Gene expression regulated by influencing the
In an operon, a sequence of DNA where RNA interaction of the mRNA transcripts with the
polymerase binds prior to transcription. ribosome.

protease CHAPTER 14
Enzyme that breaks the peptide bonds between bioinformatics
amino acids in proteins, polypeptides, and peptides. Area of scientific study that utilizes computer
technologies to analyze large sets of data, typically
proteasome in the study of genomics and proteomics.
Cellular structure containing proteases that is
involved in the destruction of tagged proteins; used biotechnology products
by cells for posttranslational control of gene Commercial or agricultural products that are made
expression. with or derived from transgenic organisms.
cloning homologous gene
Production of identical copies. In organisms, the Gene that codes for the same protein, even if the
production of organisms with the same genes; in base sequence may be different.
genetic engineering, theproduction of many
identical copies of a gene. Human Genome Project (HGP)
Initiative to determine the complete sequence of the
comparative genomics human genome and to analyze this information.
Study of genomes through the direct comparison of
their genes and DNA sequences from multiple intergenic sequence
species. Region of DNA that lies between genes on a
chromosome.
complementary DNA (cDNA)
DNA that has been synthesized from mRNA by the interspersed repeat
action of reverse transcriptase. Repeated DNA sequence that is spread across
several regions of a chromosome or across multiple
DNA ligase chromosomes.
Enzyme that links DNA fragments; used during
production of recombinant DNA to join foreign DNA plasmid
to vector DNA. Extrachromosomal ring of accessory DNA in the
cytoplasm of prokaryotes.
DNA microarray
Glass or plastic slide containing thousands of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
single-stranded DNA fragments arranged in an Technique that uses the enzyme DNA polymerase
array (grid); used to detect and measure gene to produce millions of copies of a particular piece of
expression; also called gene chips. DNA.

functional genomics proteome


Study of gene function at the genome level. It Sum of the expressed proteins in a cell.
involves the study of many genes simultaneously
and the use of DNA microarrays. proteomics
Study of the complete collection of proteins that a
gel electrophoresis cell or organism expresses.
Process that separates molecules, such as proteins
and DNA, based on their size and electrical charge recombinant DNA (rDNA)
by passing them through a matrix. DNA that contains genes from more than one
source.
gene cloning
DNA cloning to produce many identical copies of repetitive DNA element
the same gene. Sequence of DNA on a chromosome that is
repeated several times.
gene pharming
Production of pharmaceuticals using transgenic restriction enzyme
organisms, usually agricultural animals. Bacterial enzyme that stops viral reproduction by
cleaving viral DNA; used to cut DNA at specific
gene therapy points during production of recombinant DNA.
Correction of a detrimental mutation by the insertion
of DNA sequences into the genome of a cell. short tandem repeat (STR) profiling
Procedure of analyzing DNA in which PCR and gel
genetic profile electrophoresis are used to create a banding
An individuals genome, including any possible pattern; these are usually unique for each
mutations. individual; process used in DNA barcoding.

genetically modified organism (GMO) structural genomics


Organism whose genetic material has been altered Study of the sequence of DNA bases and the
or enhanced using DNA technology. amount of genes in organisms.

genomics tandem repeat


Area of study that examines the genome of a Repetitive DNA sequence in which the repeats
species or group of species. occur one after another in the same region of a
chromosome.
transgenic organism against the ability of other organisms to reproduce
An organism whose genome has been altered by in the same environment.
the insertion of genes from another species.
fossil
transposon Any past evidence of an organism that has been
DNA sequence capable of randomly moving from preserved in the Earths crust.
one site to another in the genome.
homeobox
vector 180-nucleotide sequence located in all homeotic
In genetic engineering, a means to transfer foreign genes.
genetic material into a celle.g., a plasmid.

CHAPTER 15
adaptation homologous
Speciess modification in structure, function, or A structure that is similar in different types of
behavior that makes a species more suitable to its organisms because these organisms descended
environment. from a common ancestor.

analogous inheritance of acquired characteristics


Structure that has a similar function in separate Lamarckian belief that characteristics acquired
lineages but differs in anatomy and ancestry. during the lifetime of an organism can be passed on
to offspring.
artificial selection
Intentional breeding of certain traits, or natural selection
combinations of traits, over others to produce a Mechanism of evolutionary change caused by
desirable outcome. environmental selection of organisms most fit to
reproduce; results in adaptation to the environment.
biogeography
Study of the geographical distribution of organisms. paleontology
Study of fossils that results in knowledge about the
catastrophism history of life.
Belief, proposed by Georges Cuvier, that periods of
catastrophic extinctions occurred, after which strata (stratum)
repopulation of surviving species took place, giving Ancient layer of sedimentary rock; results from slow
the appearance of change through time. deposition of silt, volcanic ash, and other materials.

evolution transitional fossil


Genetic change in a species over time resulting in Fossil that bears a resemblance to two groups that
the development of genetic and phenotypic in the present day are classified separately.
differences that are the basis of natural selection;
descent of organisms from a common ancestor. uniformitarianisml
Belief, supported by James Hutton, that geological
extant forces act at a continuous, uniform rate.
Species, or other levels of taxa, that are still living.
vestigial structures
fitness Remnant of a structure that was functional in some
Ability of an organism to reproduce and pass its ancestor but is no longer functional in the organism
genes to the next fertile generation; measured in question.