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HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT

THIRD SEMESTER

10DBA351- Hospital Administration

Unit I: Human Anatomy and Physiology

Digestive System - Respiratory System - Circulatory System - Central Nervous System -


Muscular Skeletal System - Reproductive System - Excretory System - Endocrine Glands -
Special Senses.

Unit II: Illness and Infection Control

Defining Illness: Direct and indirect causes -Classification and description of disease-
Medical asepsis, Nosocomial infection and communicable diseases-Reservoir, carrier and
mode of transmission-Infection control measures-Sterilisation and aseptic techniques-
Infection control committee: purpose, composition and terms of reference.

Unit III: Services, Health and Hospitals


Services, Classification of Service Organisations, Characteristics, Challenges- History of
Medicine, Healthcare Revolution, Health, Dimensions of Health, Indicators of Health- Types
of Healthcare Organisations, Composition of Health Sector, Types of Care, Pyramidal
Structure of Health Services, Hospitals, Types of Hospitals and Role of Hospital in
Healthcare, Complexity of Hospital Organisation.

Unit IV: Hospital Management: Levels and Roles

Governing Board, Executive Board and Advisory Board- CEO, Medical Administration,
Nursing Administration and Hospital Administration-Middle Level Managers in Hospital and
their Responsibilities-Structuring Hospital Organisation

Unit V: Current Issues in Healthcare


Accreditation-Tele health-Health Tourism-Health Insurance and Managed Care-Disaster
Management-Hospital Wastes Management.
Textbooks

1. John V. Basmajian and Charles E. Slonecker, Grants Method of Anatomy: A Clinical


Problem-solving Approach (BI Waverly Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi) ISBN 81-7431-033-9

2. Roger Watson, Anatomy and Physiology for Nurses (Prism Books Pvt. Ltd.,
Bangalore)
3. J.E. Park and K. Park, Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine (M/S Banarsidas
Bhanot Elaine La Monica, Management in Health Care (Macmillan Press Ltd, London)

References

1. William F. Ganong, Review of Medical Physiology (McGraw Hill, Boston) ISBN 007-
144040-2
2. Stedmans Medical Dictionary (Williams & Winlkins, Baltimore) ISBN 0-683-07922-0
3. B.M. Sakharkar, Principles of Hospital Administration and Planning (Jaypee
Brothers Medical Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi)
4. C.M. Francis and et al., Hospital Administration (Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi)
5. S. Srinivasan (ed.), Management Process in Health Care (Voluntary Health
Association of India, New Delhi)
10DBA352- Health Environment

Unit I: Demography
Demographic Cycle-World Population Trend-Demographic Trends in India: Growth rate, Age
Pyramid, Sex Ratio, Population Density, Family size, Urbanisation, Literacy, and Life
Expectancy.

Unit II: Family Planning


Fertility and Fertility Related Statistics-Family Planning- Population Policy-National
Demographic Goals.

Unit III: Epidemiology


Concept of Disease-Epidemiological Triad-Concepts of Control and Prevention- Principles of
Epidemiology: Components, Measurements, Prevalence and Incidence-Epidemiologic
Methods: Descriptive, Analytical and Experimental Studies-Uses of Epidemiology.

Unit IV: Community Health


Community Diagnosis and Treatment-Communicable Diseases- Non-communicable
Diseases.

Unit V : National and International Health

National Health Programmes in India-International Health: WHO and Other United Nations
Agencies

Textbooks

1. K. Park, Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine (M/S Banarsidas Bhanot


Publishers, Jabalpur)
2. B.K.Mahajan and M.C.Gupta, Text Book of Prevention and Social Medicine (Jaypee
Medical Publishers P. Ltd., New Delhi)

References

3. VHAI, State of Indias Health 1992 (VHAI, New Delhi)


10DBA353- Patient Care Planning and Management

Unit I: Hospital Planning

Concept of Planning-Guiding Principles in Planning Hospital Facilities and Services-


Regional Planning and Factors to be emphasised-Steps in Hospital Planning; Planning
Team and Stages of Project-Estimation, Architect Brief and Master Plan-Selection of Site
and Decision on Land, Space, and Utilities.

Unit II: Outpatient Services

Objectives-Functions-Location, Design and Layout- Policy and Procedures- Organisation-


Staffing-Equipment and Facilities-Key Result Areas and Performance / Quality Indicators-
Daily Planning and Scheduling of Work-Managing Time: Waiting Time and Total Time Spent
by a Patient-Specialty, Sub-specialty and Super Specialty Clinics-Diagnosis, Physiotherapy
and Occupational Therapy-Emerging Concepts: Day Care, Reservation, Appointment by
Phone- Medico-social Works / Patient Counselling-Other Facilities: Pharmacy, Gifts Shop,
Prayer / Meditation Room.

Unit III: Trauma Care: Emergency and Casualty Services

Objectives- Functions-Location, Design and Layout- Policy and Procedures-Organisation-


Staffing-Equipment and Facilities-Key Result Areas and Performance / Quality Indicators-
Disaster Management: Principles and Classification-Life Saving Drugs- Ambulance and
Paramedic Services-Medico-legal Procedures-Forms and Registers to be maintained-
Communication System

Unit IV: Inpatient Services

Inpatient Care-Objectives-Functions-Location, Design and Layout- Policy and Procedures-


Organisation- Staffing-Equipment and Facilities- Key Result Areas and Performance /
Quality Indicators-Admission, Transfer, Billing and Discharge Procedures- Managing
Deaths-Intensive Care Units-Objectives-Functions-Location, Design and Layout-Policy and
Procedures- Organisation-Staffing-Equipment and Facilities- Key Result Areas and
Performance / Quality Indicators-Types of ICUs.
Unit V: Operation Theatre

Objectives-Functions-Location, Design and Layout- Policy and Procedures- Organisation-


Staffing-Equipment and Facilities- Key Result Areas and Performance / Quality Indicators-
Daily Planning and Scheduling-Determinants of number of Operating Rooms- Zoning and
Aseptic / Sterile Techniques- Clinical Protocols- Sub-stores, CSSD, Immediate
Postoperative Recovery Rooms- Safety Issues.

Textbooks

1. NHS, Guide to Good Practices in Hospital Administration (Department of Health and


Social Security: National Health Services, London)
2. R. Llewelyn Davies and HMC Macaulay, Hospital Planning and Administration
(Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers P. Ltd., New Delhi)
3. Syed Amin Tabish, Hospital and Health Services Administration Principles and
Practice (Oxford University Press, New Delhi)

References

4. B.M. Sakharkar, Principles of Hospital Administration and Planning (Jaypee


Brothers Medical Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi)
5. C.M. Francis and et al., Hospital Administration (Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi)
6. G.D. Kunders, Designing for Total Quality in Health Care (Prism Books Pvt. Ltd.,
Bangalore)
10DBA354- Supportive Services and Facilities Management

Unit I: Front Office and Medical Records


Front Office- Objectives and Functions- Location-Staffing-Information and Communication-
Medical Records-Objectives and Functions- Characteristics, Main Section, and Analysis of
Medical Records-Types of Forms; Retention Policy; Records and Statistics- Hospital Beds,
Bed Compliment, Bed Days, Average Length of Stay (LOS), Bed Occupancy Rate, Daily
Ward Census, Bed Turnover Rate, Gross / Net / Postoperative Death Rate, Admission and
Discharge-Location, Design and Layout- Staffing; Medical Records Committee- Technology
Advancements: EMR, Microfilming and Smart Cards.

Unit II: Diagnostic Services


Radiology Services-Objectives and Functions- Location, Design and Layout - Staffing;
Duties of Radiologist and Technicians-Laboratory Services- Objectives and Functions-
Location, Design and Layout -Staffing; Duties of Pathologists and Lab Technicians-
Classification of Laboratory Services.

Unit III: Other Supportive Services


CSSD-Objectives and Functions-Advantages of Centralized System- Distribution System-
Location, Design and Layout-Duties of CSSD In-charge-Linen and Laundry- Objectives and
Functions- Location and Space- Staffing-Bed Linen Ratio Automation- Housekeeping-
Objectives and Functions-Staffing-Key Tasks- Systematic and Standard Procedures of
Cleaning Required Materials for Cleaning-Security Services-Objectives and Functions-
Staffing; Responsibilities of Security Guard- Gate Pass; Physical Verification; Control
Movement .

Unit IV: Sales Outlets


Pharmacy-Objectives and Functions- Location, Design and Layout- Staffing; Duties of Chief
Pharmacist; Therapeutic Committee-Hospital Formulary-Dietary Services- Objectives and
Functions-Staffing-Equipment and Physical Facilities-Purchases, Stores and Issues-Pricing
and Control Measures-Location, Design and Layout.

Unit V: Maintenance Management


Objectives and Functions-Civil and Biomedical Staffing-Location and Space- Policy and
Procedures-Equipment Types and Characteristics; Purchase, Inspection and Installation-
Records, Responsibilities-Levels of Maintenance; Service Contracts and Disposition
Textbooks

1. NHS, Guide to Good Practices in Hospital Administration (Department of Health and


Social Security: National Health Services, London)
2. C.M. Francis and et al., Hospital Administration (Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi)

References

3. G.D. Kunders, Hospitals: Planning, Design and Management (Prism Books Pvt. Ltd.,
Bangalore)
4. Syed Amin Tabish, Hospital and Health Services Administration Principles and
Practice (Oxford University Press, New Delhi)
5. B.M. Sakharkar, Principles of Hospital Administration and Planning (Jaypee
Brothers Medical Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi)
10DBA355- Health Communication Planning and Management

Unit I: Fundamentals of Health Education


Meaning, Philosophy, Principles, and Purposes of Health EducationI- Importance and Scope
of Health Education-Health Educators-Fundamental Factors of Health Education:
Perception, Motivation, Learning, Communication, Group Dynamics, Leadership and Change
Process- Process of Communication Planning- Analysis of Audience and Situation- Setting
Objectives- Designing Strategy: Message, Methods and Media- Planning Activities:
Scheduling, Budgeting and Implementation- Evaluation Phase.

Unit II: Strategies of Implementation of Communication Programme


Building Commitment-Training Manpower- Community Participation- Utilising Resources.

Unit III: Evaluation of Health Communication / Campaign Programme


Stages of Evaluation- Criteria of Evaluation-Methods of Evaluation

Unit IV: Methods of Communication


Individual Methods (Individual teaching)- Interview: Meaning, types and techniques of taking
interview-Counselling: Meaning and techniques of counselling-Group Methods (Group
teaching)-Group discussion: Meaning, categories of members and their functions, factors
affecting good discussion and decision making Role play: Meaning, techniques of
conducting role play-Symposium: Meaning, procedures of conducting the symposium-Mass
Methods (Mass teaching)- Lecture: Meaning, types, techniques of delivering lecture
effectively .

Unit V: Media of Communication


Audio Aids-Audio player: Meaning, advantages of using Audio Aids in teaching-Visual Aids-
Pamphlet: Meaning and Advantages-Poster: Meaning and Techniques- Chart: Meaning,
Types, Sources and Advantages-Flip Chart: Meaning and Techniques- Flannel Graph:
Meaning and Techniques-Bulletin Board: Meaning and Procedures -Audio-visual Aids-
Television (TV): Meaning and Advantages-Video Show: Meaning and Advantages-Computer
Networks, Websites, Emails, etc.

Textbooks

1. L. Ramachandran and et al, A Textbook of Health Education (Vikas Publishing House


Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi)
2. WHO, Health Education: Comprehensive Guidelines of Planning, Implementation
and Evaluation (WHO Regional Office for South Asia, New Delhi)
3. Marry Munter, Guide to Managerial Communication (Prentice Hall, New Jersey) ISBN
0130462152
References

4. Robert J Bensley and Jodi Brookins Fisher, Community Health Education Methods: A
Practical Guide (Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Boston) ISBN 0763718017
5. Hari Bhakta Pradhan, A Text Book of Health Education: Philosophy and Principles
(Educational Publishing House, Kathmandu)
6. Michael E. Hattersley, Linda J. McJannet and Linda M. McJannet, Management
Communication: Principles and Practice (McGraw-Hill Co.) ISBN 0070270414
10DBA356- Hospital Materials Management

Unit I: Materials Management

Introduction- Definition and Function-Goals and Objectives of Materials Management-


Materials Cycle-Functions of Materials Manager- Problems and Issues in Hospitals-
Information Systems for Materials Management.

Unit II: Purchasing

Objectives and Elements of Purchasing-Purchasing System- Purchase Cycle- Purchase


Procedures- Legal and Ethical Aspects- Conditions of Contract- Financial Rules- Arbitration.

Unit III: Equipment Purchase and Maintenance

Planning and Selection of Equipment-Import of Equipment- Equipment Utilisation and


Operation--Equipment Repair and Maintenance-Equipment Audit.

Unit IV:Inspection, Storage and Distribution of Materials

Planning Consideration of Stores- Inspection and Verification of Materials- Storage of


Materials-Distribution of Materials- Condemnation and Disposal.

Unit V: Scientific Inventory Management

Codification and Standardization-Value Analysis- Inventory Control-Lead Time, Safety Stock


and Reorder Level- Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)- Selective Controls- Case Studies on
Inventory Control.

Textbooks

1. Shakti Gupta and Sunil Kant, Hospital Stores Management: An Integrated Approach
(Jaypee Publications, New Delhi)
2. WHO, Maintenance and Repair of Laboratory, Diagnostic, Imaging and Hospital
Equipment (WHO, Geneva)
References

3. Murriel Skeet and David Fear, Care and Safe Use of Hospital Equipment (VSO, UK)
4. P. Gopalakrishnan and M. Sundaresan, Materials Management: An Integrated
Approach (Prentice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi) ISBN 81-203-0027-0
10DBA317- BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS

UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH


The hallmarks of scientific research the building blocks of science in research the
research process for applied and basic research the need for theoretical frame work
hypothesis development hypothesis testing with quantitative data. The research design.
The purpose of the study: Exploratory, Descriptive, Hypothesis testing (Analytical and
Predictive) cross sectional and longitudinal studies.

UNIT II EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN


The laboratory and the field experiment internal and external validity factors affecting
internal validity. Measurement of variables scales and measurement of variables
development scales - rating scale and concept in scales being developed. Stability
measures.

UNIT III DATA COLLECTION METHOD


Interviewing, questionnaires etc. Secondary sources of data collection. Guidelines for
questionnaire design electronic questionnaire design and surveys. Special data source:
Focus groups, Static and dynamic data-collection methods and when to use each. Sampling
techniques and confidence in determining sample size. Hypothesis testing determination of
optimal sample size.

UNIT IV A REFRESHER ON SOME MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES


Factor analysis cluster analysis discriminant analysis multiple regression & Correlation
canonical correlation application of SPSS package.

UNIT V THE RESEARCH REPORT


The purpose of the written report concept of audience Basics of written reports. The
integral parts of a report the title of a report. The table of contents, the synopsis, the
introductory section, method of sections of a report, result section discussion section
recommendation and implementation section.

TEXT BOOKS:
1. Donald R.Cooper and Ramcis S.Schindler, Business Research Methods,Tata
McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 2000.
2. C.R.Kothari, Research Methodology, Wishva Prakashan, New Delhi, 2001.
REFERENCES:
1. Sekaran, Research Methods for Business, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York,
2000.
2. Donald H.Mc.Burney, Research Methods, Thomson Asia Pvt. ltd. Singapore 2002.
3. G.W.Ticehurst and A.J.Veal, Business Research Methods, Longman, 1999.
4. Ranjit Kumar, Research Methodology, Sage Publication, London, New Delhi,
1999.
5. Raymond-Alain Thietart, et,al., Doing Management Research, Sage Publication,
London, 1999.
10DBA451- Strategic Management in Healthcare
Unit I: Introduction

Critical Areas- Dimensions - Levels of Strategy-Characteristics of Strategic Decision-


Benefits.

Unit II: Strategic Management Process: Components

Mission for an Organisation- Organisational Profile- External Environment - Strategic


Analysis and Choice- Long term Objectives- Grand Strategy-Annual Objectives- Functional
Strategies- Policies-Institutionalising the Strategy-Evaluation and Control.

Unit III: Situational Analysis

Need-Environmental Issues, Vision, Mission, Objectives, Values, Directional Strategies,


Adaptive Strategies, Market Entry Strategies, Positioning Strategies and Operational
Strategies-

External Environment Analysis-Need-Goals- Limitations- Description- General Environment,


Healthcare Environment and Information-Process: Scan, Monitor, Forecast and Assess-
Tools and Techniques-Responsibility: 3 Administrative Models-Internal Environment
Analysis- Objectives- Culture, Management Subsystem and Information Subsystem- Audit
Checklist of Strengths and Weaknesses.

Unit IV: Strategy Formulation

Developing Strategic Alternatives-Evaluation of Alternatives and Strategic Choice.

Unit V: Application in National and International Level

Strategic Management Practices in National Health Care Programs- Strategies adopted in


Long Term Health Policy with special reference to Women and Child Health, AIDS Control,
Malaria Eradication, and Water Supply and Sanitation- Strategic Planning in Family Planning
and Welfare Programme-Strategic Management Practices in International Healthcare-
Strategies adopted by International Agencies: WHO, World Bank- Strategic Approach in
Health Programmes of few Developed Countries and / or Neighbouring Countries.
Textbooks

1. W. Jack Duncan, Peter M. Ginter and Linda E. Swayne, Strategic Management of


Health Care Organizations (Blackwell Publishers, Massachusetts, USA) ISBN 1-55786-
534-5
2. K. Park, Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine (M/s Banarsidas Bhanot,
Jabalpur)

References

3. John A. Pearce II and Richard B. Robinson Jr., Strategic Management: Strategy


Formulation and Implementation (AITBS Publishers and Distributors, Delhi)
4. Roger Kropf and et al, Strategic Analysis for Hospital Management (Aspen
Publication, USA)
10DBA452- Managing Quality in Healthcare

Unit I: Fundamentals

History, Need and Importance of Quality Management-Core Values, Concepts and Model-
Quality Gurus and their views-Dimensions of Quality- Principles of Quality Management:
Structure, Process and Outcome- Quality Vs Productivity Vs Profitability- Cost of
conformance and non-conformance to Quality.

Unit II: Components and Quality Management Process

Major Components in Quality- Setting Objectives- Quality Investment- Activity Monitoring-


Performance Assessment-Quality Management Process- Leadership Commitment-
Corporate Framework on Quality- Transformation of Corporate Culture- Customer Focus-
Process Focus-Collaborative Approach- Education, Training and Development- Learning by
Practice and Teaching- Benchmarking-Quality Measurement and Statistical Report at all
Levels- Recognition and Reward-Management Integration.

Unit III: Healthcare Quality

Quality / Customer Service-Define Customer and Identify Customers- Customer Experience:


-Core Service & Delivery of Service-Excellent Customer Service; Caring Service- Individual
Behaviour: Stress, Communication and Interpersonal Relationship-Patient Satisfaction-
Rights and Responsibilities of Patients- Satisfaction and Delight- Quality Indicators of Patient
Satisfaction-Clinical Quality-Complication and Infection Rate-.2 Admission, Follow Up and
Continuity of Care-Measuring Quality- Setting Objectives and Agreeing upon Standards-
Develop Key Result Areas and Performance Indicators- Feedback: Customers, Staff,
Suppliers, etc.-Quality Audit and Review Techniques.

Unit V: Organisation and Roles in Quality

Quality Policy: Commitment to Patients and Staff-Code of Conduct for Health Professionals-
Job Description of Quality Manager- Quality Steering Committee-Quality Council- Quality
Teams: Task Force, Quality Circle-Obstacles to Practice Quality.

Unit V: Recent Trends

ISO Certification- Accreditation: NABH and JCI- Quality Awards Scheme.


Textbooks

1. Wilson CRM, Hospital Wide Quality Assurance (Saunders, Ontario)


2. Hugh C. H. Kogh, Total Quality Management in Health Care (Longman Publication)
ISBN 0582 04696
3. Roger Ellis and Dorothy Whittington, Quality Assurance in Health Care A Hand
Book (Edward Ainoid, London) ISBN 0-340-55273-5

References

4. Edward W. Deming, Out of the Crisis (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge)


5. Richard Smith (ed.), Audit in Action (British Medical Journal, London) ISBN 0-7279-
0317-9
6. Nankemp and Eileen Richardson, Quality Assurance In Nursing Practice (Butterworth
Heinemann Ltd., London, Second Edition) ISBN 0-7506-2326-8
7. Helga Drummond, The TQM Movement What Total Quality Management is Really
All About (UBSPD, New Delhi)
10DBA453- Information Technology in Healthcare
Unit I: Health Information System

Objectives, Characteristics, Elements, Categories-HIS for Various Levels of Management


(Top / Middle / Operational)- Integrated HIS (IHMIS)-Comprehensive Single Hospital MIS
(CSHS), Comprehensive Multi-hospitals MIS (CMHS), Business Office Multi-hospital MIS
(BMHS) and Special Purpose Single Hospital MIS (SSHS.)

Unit II: IT in Healthcare

Need and Importance of IT in Health Care- Centralised Vs Decentralised- Integrated Online


HIS.

Unit III: Computerising Hospitals

Computerising Functional Areas- Implementing wireless computerised patient records-


Complexity in computerising Hospitals.

Unit IV: Health Programs, CHIN and Medical Software

Computerising Health Programmes / Projects- Community Health Information Networks


(CHIN)- Widely used latest Medical Software

Unit V: Current Issues

Geographical Information System (GIS): Digitising Map, Software and Hardware Required
for GIS-Clinical Practices through Internet and Telehealth- Electronic Medical Documentation
and Smart Cards- Useful Websites in Health Care- Future Trends in Health Care Information
Systems.

Textbooks

1. S.A. Sekar, Hospital Information Systems A Concise Study (PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.,
New Delhi)
2. Toni Hebda & et al, Handbook of Informatics for Nurses and Health Care
Professionals (Prentice Hall, New Jersey)
3. John Abbott Worthley and Philip S. Disabris, Managing Computers in Health Care A
Guide for Professionals (Health Administration Press Perspectives, Michigan)
References

4. WHO, Informatics and Telematics in Health Present and Potential Use (WHO,
Geneva)
5. Marlene Maheu, Pamela Whitten & Ace Allen, E-Health, Telehealth and Telemedicine:
A Guide to Startup and Success (Jossey-Bass) ISBN 0787944203