# MICROWAVE DEVICES AND CIRCUITS

UNIT – 1
Introduction – Motion of an electron in an electric field and magnetic fields, Review of
Gauss Law, Laplace equation, Faraday’s law and Ampere’s law. Maxwell’s equations,
Boundary conditions, Poynting’s energy theorem, Wave equation, reflection of waves
15hrs
UNIT – 2
Introduction to Microwaves: Microwave frequencies and applications of Microwaves,
Microwave transmission lines: Transmission line equations and solutions, reflection and
transmission coefficients, standing waves and standing wave ratio, line impedance and
admittance, smith chart, impedance matching – single stub and double stub matching.

Microwave waveguides and Components: Rectangular waveguides, TE & TM modes,
power transmission and power losses, excitation of modes in rectangular waveguides.
Circular wave guides, possible modes, power transmission and power losses, Co-axial
waveguides. Microwave cavities – rectangular and circular cavity resonators, resonant
cavities, Q – factor of a cavity resonator. Waveguide tees, Magic tee, hybrid ring.
Waveguide corners, bends and twists, two hole directional coupler, hybrid coupler,
microwave circulators and isolators
20 hrs
Unit III
Microwave tubes: High frequency limitation of conventional vacuum tubes, Klystron,
multi cavity Klystron amplifier, helix and coupled cavity TWT, Cylindrical Magnetron –
construction, principle of operation, performance characteristics and applications
(qualitative treatment)
Microwave solid state devices and circuits: Microwave transistor, tunnel diode, FET,
MESFET, HEMT, MOSFET, Gunn diode – modes of operation, LSA diode, READ
diode, IMPATT, TRAPATT and BARITT diode, varactor diode, parametric devices,
Application and circuits of varactor, Gunn and Tunnel diodes.
10 hrs.
UNIT IV
Strip lines and MICs: Characteristic impedance of micro-strip lines, losses and Q –
factor of micro-strip lines, parallel strip lines, distributed parameters, characteristic
impedance and attenuation losses, coplanar and shielded strip lines
Detection and Measurement: Crystal detectors, slotted
measurement of VSWR, Frequency and power impedance.

line

measurements,
10 hrs.

TEXT BOOKS
•Microwave Devices and Circuits: Liao Samuel – PHI
*Solid state electronic devices: Streetman Ben G – PHI, 3rd edn
•Introduction to Electrodynamics – Griffiths D J – TMH

REFERENCES
•Microwaves: Pozar
*Electronic Communication Systems: Kennedy – TMH
*Foundations of Microwave Engg. Collin – TMH, 2nd edn.
*Microwave Engg.- Chatterjee R – PHI
*Electronics of Microwave tubes: Kloon
•Microwave Integrated Circuits: Gupta K G and Singh A
VECTOR ALGEBRA
Vectors and Scalars
A+B=B+A
0100090000037800000002001c00000000000400000003010800050000000b0200000
000050000000c027001c301040000002e0118001c000000fb021000070000000000bc
02000000000102022253797374656d0001c30100007cc8110072edc630702817000c0
20000c3010000040000002d01000004000000020101001c000000fb02dfff000000000
0009001000000000440001254696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000000000000000
000000000000000000040000002d010100050000000902000000020d000000320a1e0
000000100040000000000c2016f01208c0f00040000002d010000030000000000
Subtraction of Vectors:
A–B =B–A
0100090000037800000002001c00000000000400000003010800050000000b0200000000
050000000c027001c301040000002e0118001c000000fb021000070000000000bc020
00000000102022253797374656d0001c30100007cc8110072edc630702817000c0200
00c3010000040000002d01000004000000020101001c000000fb02dfff000000000000
9001000000000440001254696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000000000000000000
000000000000000040000002d010100050000000902000000020d000000320a1e0000
000100040000000000c2016f01208c0f00040000002d010000030000000000

Multiplication of vector by a Scalar:
When a vector is multiplied by a scalar, a new vector is produced whose direction is
the same as the original vector and whose magnitude is the product of the magnitudes
of vector and scalar.
C=aB;

Also,

a (A + B) = aA + aB

Note:
•If ‘a’ is – ve, the direction is reversed
*Scalar Multiplication is distributive

DOT PRODUCT OF TWO VECTORS
The dot product of two vectors is defined by,
Where θ is the angle they form when placed tail-to-tail.
AB itself a scalar. Hence the name scalar product.
Dot product is commutative
0100090000037800000002001c00000000000400000003010800050000000b0200000000050000000c0270
01c301040000002e0118001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d0001c
30100007cc8110072edc630702817000c020000c3010000040000002d01000004000000020101001c000000
fb02dfff0000000000009001000000000440001254696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000000000000000
0000000000000000040000002d010100050000000902000000020d000000320a1e00000001000400000000
00c2016f01208c0f00040000002d010000030000000000