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STUDENT NO. :2014605282

No. Title Allocated Marks (%) Marks

1 Abstract/Summary 5
2 Introduction 10
3 Aims 5
4 Theory 10
5 Apparatus 5
6 Methodology/Procedure 10
7 Results 10
8 Calculations 10
9 Discussion 20
10 Conclusion 5
11 Recommendations 5
12 Reference / Appendix 5


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Date :

The purpose of this experiment to determine the value of the Ka acid and

determine the endpoint of a titration curve. The unknown acid was titrated by sodium

hydroxide which divided by two parts because of we had two unknown acid. The first

part experiment is to determine the weak unknown acid by titrate the acid with sodium

hydroxide. The second parts we used the phenolphthalein ( three drop into unknown

acid ) as the indicator to get the permanent pink. The permanent pink indicate that the

acid was change to the base by droping the sodium hydroxide in the burette. Then we

record the reading of burette when the colour turn to pink and record the pH.. Using the

information we collected, we were able to graph the titration curve ( pH versus total

volume of NaOH added ). We then used the titration curve to determine the Ka. But in

our cases the result shown that was a bit different compared to the theory. The higher

pH that we got was slightly below than pH 12 that cause the different in graph and the

scatter chart.

We needed to know half-equivalence point for this lab to determine the Ka of

unknown acid. The equivalence point was reached when the moles of the acid and the

moles of the titrant base added were equal and the half-equivalence point when the

moles of acid and the moles of the conjugate base are equal. So the pH is equal to pKa.

The Henderson-Heselbach equation, pH = pKa + log [A-] / [HA] can be used to solve for

the pH cof the solution. After the pH is found we can determine the Ka by using the

formula 10^-pKa.

Based on the result we can conclude that the unknown weak acid can define in

above method, the graph will be the main thing to us to get the equivalence point. The

experiment was completed and successfully conducted.


The relative acidity of a substance or a system was important in many situations,

such as in the quality of drinking water, food preservation, soil conditions for agriculture

and physicological functions. The strength of an acid was measured based on its ability

to donate protons to base. The acid ionization constant, Ka, was quantitative measured

of the strength of an acid. The Ka value was characteristic of an acid and can be used

to identify an unknown acid. The Ka value indicated the relative strength of an acid. The

larger the Ka value the stronger the acid and vice versa.

The experiment started with 10 ml of two unknown acid solutions and required to

determine the acid ionization constants, Ka of weak acid solutions by titration with 0.1 M

sodium hydroxide, NaOH and by measured the pH of the weak acid. We also should

identify the unknown weak acid solutions from the calculated Ka values obtained during

the experiment. The endpoint of a titration was the point in a titration where no more

titrant was to be added which shown by the colour change of indicator. In this

experiment we used the sodium hydroxide,NaOH to titrate the unknown acid by adding

1 mL at a time which the pH was recorded after each mL added. We added titrant to the

solution until it reached pH 12.


To determine the value Ka of the weak acid from the titration that we done in

experiment 2.

To indicate the type of weak acid that we had go through in this experiment by

getting the value of Ka.

To figure out the value of sodium hydroxide dropped in the acid solutions which

have been dropped by phenolphthalein when it turn to pink.

To verify the pH of acid solutions when the acid turn to base.


Burette was used in titration process to dispense a small, quantifiable increment of

solution of known concentration. Burette usually has the smallest calibration unit of 0.1
ml and should be estimated to the nearest 0.01 ml of volume dispensed.

When the moles of acid in the solution equals to the moles of base added in the titration
the equivalence point occurred. For example, as stoichiometry amount of one mole of
strong base, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), can neutralize one mole of weak acid,acetic
acid (CHCOH).

NaOH(aq) + CHCOH (aq) NaCHCO (aq) + HO (l)

As it reached the equivalence point, the Ph of solutions shows a sudden change. pH in

aqueous solution was related to its hydrogen ions. Thus, pH is defined as negative
logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration.

pH = - log [HO]

pH scale was a method of expressing the acidity or basicity of a solution.solution with

pH lower than 7 were acidic. The solution with pH equals to 7 were neutral and the
solution with pH more than 7 were basic. Thus, pH electrode was initiated in titration
process by inserting it into a beaker containing the acid solution. In the experiment,
NaOH was incrementally added to the acid solution until the pH increase due to
neutralization of hydrogen ions. If the addition of NaOH was completely neutralize the
acid solution,one next drop of NaOH will caused sudden sharp increase in pH. The
volume of based required to completely neutralize acidic solution was determined at
equivalence point of titration.

In this experiment, titration of unknown acid with sodium hydroxide solution will be done.
Primary standard acid solution was prepared to standardized the sodium hydroxide
solution. Titration of the solution with a primary standard should be done to standardized
the base. Standardized sodium hydroxide solution will be used to titrate 10.00mL
aliquots of unknown acid.

Part A

The experiment beginning with taking 0.1 M of sodium hydroxide to put into the
burette, the burette must be rinsed and cleaned first before we put the sodium hydroxide
in there. 10 ml of unknown acid was prepared and then transferred into the beaker. The
beaker was then placed on a stir plate and a magnetic stirrer was inserted into the
beaker and let to stir the solution. A pH meter was calibrated using buffer solution before
the electrode was being rinsed well with distilled with water and blotted dried. The pH
electrode was inserted into the beaker and the position of the electrode was adjusted so
that the magnetic stirrer does not hit it. Titrate the 0.1 M of NaOH with the weak acid and
measuring the pH of the weak acid. Then, identify the unknown weak acid solution from
the calculated Ka values obtained during the experiment. Plot the graph of pH versus
sodium hydroxide. The equivalence point was determined on each graph. The volume
of base that corresponds to the equivalence point was found. This value was divided by
two to determine the amount of base needed to reach half way to the equivalence point.
The pH at this volume of base is converted to [H +] to give the Ka of the acid.
Part B

A sample of the unknown acid was obtained. 100 mL of distilled water was
measured out with a graduated cylinder and it was poured into a 250 mL conical flask.
The sample of acid was dissolved in the water, and it was stirred to mix thoroughly. The
solution was divided into two equal portions by using a graduated cylinder, and do so as
accurately as possible. Some drops were added into the first flask. The portion in the
flask was titrated to a phenolphthalein endpoint with sodium hydroxide solution adding
the sodium hydroxide slowly while swirling the flask. As the endpoint approaches, the
sodium hydroxide solution were added drop by drop until the solution has a permanent
pink color. The titrated solution was mixed with the other half of the acid solution and the
pH of the resulting solution was determined. Again, since half of the acid has been
titrated, [H+] = [HA] = [A-]. Using Equation 2 and canceling out the values for [HA] and
[A-], the Ka value is once again determined from the [H +] value. From the observed pH,
the Ka of the unknown acid was calculated.

Part A

NaOH added (ml) pH NaOH added (ml) pH
0 3.35 0 3.34
1 4.36 1 4.43
2 6.44 2 8.63
3 9.97 3 10.03
4 10.27 4 10.36
5 10.47 5 10.57
6 10.6 6 10.69
7 10.69 7 10.77
8 10.78 8 10.85
9 10.84 9 10.9
10 10.89 10 10.94
11 10.94 11 10.98
12 10.99 12 11.02
13 11.03 13 11.06
14 11.05 14 11.09
15 11.09 15 11.12
16 11.11 16 11.15
17 11.14 17 11.16
18 11.16 18 11.18
19 11.18 19 11.21
20 11.2 20 11.22
21 11.21 21 11.24
22 11.23 22 11.26
23 11.24 23 11.27
24 11.26 24 11.28
25 11.27 25 11.3
26 11.29 26 11.31
27 11.3 27 11.32
28 11.31 28 11.33
29 11.32 29 11.34
30 11.33 30 11.35
31 11.34 31 11.36
32 11.36 32 11.37
33 11.37 33 11.38
34 11.38 34 11.39
35 11.39 35 11.4
36 11.4 36 11.41
37 11.41 37 11.42
38 11.41 38 11.43
39 11.42 39 11.44
40 11.43 40 11.44
41 11.43 41 11.45
42 11.44 42 11.45
43 11.45 43 11.46
44 11.45 44 11.46
45 11.46 45 11.47
46 11.46 46 11.48
47 11.47 47 11.48
48 11.47 48 11.49
49 11.48 49 11.49
50 11.48 50 11.5

pH vs Volume of NaOH added (ml)

pH 6
0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Volume of NaOH added (ml)

(Figure 1) pH versus Volume of NaOH added (ml)

Part B

First Second
experiment experiment
Volume of NaOH added 2.1 ml 2.1 ml
pH 10.05 9.96


To get the accurate value of result in the experiment, there are a few
recommendations and precaution that need to be considered through the experiments.

First, look at the lower meniscus in the light coloured solution and upper
meniscus in the dark coloured solution because of visibility. Besides, look at the
meniscus of solution at eye level to avoid parallax error. Then, do not forget to add
distilled water to the vinegar.

Usually an air bubble is present in the nozzle of the burette, it must be removed
before taking the initial reading. When chemicals are spilled on skin, wash for at least 15
minutes with running water.
Next, in order to get an accurate value, the experiment must be repeat at least two times
to get the average reading. The eye of the observer must be perpendicular to the scale
while taking the reading to avoid parallax error. The value with no parallax error is
accurate value.

Lastly, all the solution used in this experiment should be thrown into the waste
disposal bin.