4 views

Uploaded by Sahana B

wide band fm , narrow band fm ,

- bose_lifestyle-5_bulletin.pdf
- Yaesu FT-857 Service Manual
- FM 352 First Steps in Commissioning - Integration in the user program.pdf
- video_20
- Modulation Techniques for Mobile Radio
- fmsd
- Analog- Digital Communications
- 01686633
- Analog Techniques Jan2011
- PC Controlled Robot
- IT2202-QB
- EECB351_-_Exp_4
- Lecture12-13-Angle.pdf
- Security in the LTE-SAE Network
- FM
- IT2202 poc
- TransmittingwiththeUSRP.pdf
- AC_LESSON_PLAN_2015-2016
- VCO
- 07 - Angle Modulation

You are on page 1of 49

Institute of Communications Engineering

National Sun Yat-sen University

Outline

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Basic Definitions

4.3 Frequency Modulation

4.4 Phase-locked Loop

2

Chapter 4.1

Introduction

Institute of Communications Engineering

National Sun Yat-sen University

4.1 Introduction

In this chapter, we study a second family of continuous-wave(CW)

modulation systems, namely, angle modulation, in which the angle

of the carrier wave is varied according to the baseband signals.

In this method of modulation, the amplitude of the carrier wave is

maintained constant.

There are two common forms of angle modulation, namely, phase

modulation and frequency modulation.

An important feature of angle modulation is that it can provide better

discrimination against noise and interference than amplitude

modulation.

4

4.1 Introduction

However, this improvement in performance is achieved at the

expense of increased transmission bandwidth.

modulation is achieved at the expense of increased system

complexity in both the transmitter and receiver.

5

Chapter 4.2

Basic Definitions

Institute of Communications Engineering

National Sun Yat-sen University

4.2 Basic Definitions

Let i(t) denote the angle of a modulated sinusoidal carrier at time

t; it is assumed to be a function of the informationbearing signal

or message signal.

We express the resulting angle-modulated wave as

s ( t ) = Ac cos i ( t ) (4.1)

where Ac is the carrier amplitude.

The average frequency in Hertz over an interval from t to t+t is

given by i ( t + t ) i ( t )

f t ( t ) =

2t (4.2)

The instantaneous frequency of the angle-modulated signal s(t):

i ( t + t ) i ( t ) 1 di ( t )

fi ( t ) lim

= = f t ( t ) lim =

t 0 t 0

2 t 2 dt

7

4.2 Basic Definitions

For an unmodulated carrier, the angle i(t) is given by

i (t )

= 2 f c t + c

equal to 2fc. The constant c is the value of i(t) at t=0.

There are an infinite number of ways in which the angle i(t) may

be varied in some manner with the message (baseband) signal.

modulation and frequency modulation.

8

4.2 Basic Definitions

Phase modulation (PM) is that form of angle modulation in which

the instantaneous angle i(t) is varied linearly with the message

signal as shown by

=i (t ) 2 f c t + k p m ( t ) (4.4)

The term 2fct represents the angle of the unmodulated carrier; kp

represents the phase sensitivity of the modulator, expressed in

radians per volt on the assumption that m(t) is a voltage waveform.

For convenience, we have assumed in Eq. (4.4) that the angle of the

unmodulated carrier is zero at t=0. The phase-modulated signal s(t)

is thus described in the time domain by

(4.5)

= s ( t ) Ac cos 2 f c t + k p m ( t )

9

4.2 Basic Definitions

Frequency modulation (FM) is that form of angle modulation in

which the instantaneous frequency fi(t) is varied linearly with the

message signal m(t), as shown by

fi ( t=) fc + k f m ( t ) (4.6)

fc : The frequency of the unmodulated carrier

kf : The frequency sensitivity of the modulator (Hertz per volt)

Integrating Eq. (4.6) with respect to time and multiplying the result

by 2, we get

i (t ) 2 f c t + 2 k f m ( )d

t

=

0 (4.7)

where, for convenience, we have assumed that the angle of the

unmodulated carrier wave is zero at t=0. The frequency-modulated

signal is therefore described in the time domain by

s ( t ) Ac cos 2 f c t + 2 k f m ( ) d

t

= (4.8)

0

10

4.2 Basic Definitions

a) Carrier wave

c) Amplitude-modulated signal

d) Phase-modulated signal

e) Frequency-modulated signal

11

Properties of Angle-Modulated Waves

From both Eqs. (4.4) and (4.7), we readily see that the

amplitude of PM and FM waves is maintained at a constant

value equal to the carrier amplitude Ac for all time t,

irrespective of the sensitivity factors kp and kf .

Consequently, the average transmitted power of angle-

modulated waves is a constant, as shown by

1 2

P = A

av 2 c (4.9)

where it is assumed that the load resistance is 1 ohm.

V2

P =

R

12

Properties of Angle-Modulated Waves

Both PM and FM waves violate the principle of superposition.

For example, the message signal m(t) is made up of two

different components, m1(t) and m2(t): m =( t ) m1 ( t ) + m2 ( t )

Let s(t), s1(t), and s2(t) denote the PM waves produced by m(t),

m1(t), and m2(t) in accordance with Eq. (4.4), respectively. We

may express these PM waves as follows: ( t ) 2 f t + k m ( t ) ( 4.4 )

= i c p

t ) Ac cos 2 f c t + k p ( m1 ( t ) + m2 ( t ) )

s (=

=

m ( t ) m1 ( t ) + m2 ( t )

=s1 ( t ) Ac cos 2 f c t + k p m1 ( t )

s ( t ) s1 ( t ) + s2 ( t )

=s2 ( t ) Ac cos 2 f c t + k p m2 ( t )

compare to amplitude modulation,

13

Properties of Angle-Modulated Waves

Property 3: Irregularity of Zero-Crossings

Zero-crossing are defined as the instants of time at which a

waveform changes its amplitude from positive to negative

value or the other way around.

The zero-crossings of a PM or FM wave no longer have a

perfect regularity in their spacing across the time-scale.

The irregularity of zero-crossings in angle-modulated waves is

attributed to the nonlinear character of the modulation process.

14

Properties of Angle-Modulated Waves

In AM, we see the message waveform as the envelope of the

modulated wave, provided the percentage modulation is less than

100 percent.

(AM: The percentage modulation over 100 percentphase

reversaldistortion)

corresponding waveform of Figures 4.1d and 4.1e for PM and

FM, respectively.

15

Properties of Angle-Modulated Waves

Bandwidth for Improved Noise Performance

An important advantage of angle modulation over amplitude

modulation is the realization of improved noise performance.

message signal by modulating the angle of a sinusoidal carrier

wave is less sensitive to the presence of additive noise than

transmission by modulating the amplitude of the carrier.

expense of a corresponding increase in the transmission

bandwidth requirement of angle modulation.

16

Properties of Angle-Modulated Waves

Bandwidth for Improved Noise Performance

The use of angle modulation offers the possibility of exchanging

an increase in the transmission bandwidth for an improvement in

noise performance.

the transmission bandwidth of an amplitude-modulated wave is

fixed somewhere between the message bandwidth W and 2W,

depending on the type of modulation employed.

17

Example 4.1 Zero-Crossings

Consider a modulating wave m(t) that increases linearly with time t,

starting at t=0, as shown by

at , t0

m (t ) =

0, t<0

follows, we study the zero-crossings of the PM and FM waves

produced by m(t) for the following set of parameters:

1

fc = Hz

4

a = 1 volt/s

18

Example 4.1 Zero-Crossings

Fig. 4.2 Starting at time t = 0, the figure displays (a) linearly increasing message signal m(t),

(b)phase-modulated wave, and (c) frequency-modulated wave.

19

Example 4.1 Zero-Crossings

Phase Modulation:

Phase-sensitivity factor kp=/2 radians/volt. Applying Eq. (4.5)

to the given m(t) yields the PM wave= s ( t ) A cos 2 f t + k m ( t ) ( 4.5 )

c c p

Ac cos ( 2 f c t + k p at ) , t0

s (t ) =

Ac cos ( 2 f c t ) , t<0

which is plotted in Figure 4.2b for Ac=1 volt.

Let tn denote the instant of time at which the PM wave

experiences a zero crossing; this occurs whenever the angle of

the PM wave is an odd multiple of /2:

k pa

2 f c tn + k p atn = 2 fc + nt =+ n , n =

0,1, 2,

2

1

+n 1

tn = 2 tn =+ n, n = 0,1, 2,

kp 2

2 fc + a

20

Example 4.1 Zero-Crossings

Frequency Modulation:

Frequency-sensitivity factor, kf =1 Hz/volt. Applying Eq. (4.8)

yields the FM wave s ( t ) A cos 2 f t + 2 k m ( ) d ( 4.8 )

t

= c c f 0

Ac cos ( 2 f c t + k f at 2 ) , t0

s (t ) =

Ac cos ( 2 f c t ) , t<0

Invoking the definition of a zero-crossing, we can obtain:

2 f c tn + k f at =+ n , n =

2

n 0,1, 2,

2

1 1

f c + f c + ak f + n , n = 0,1, 2,

2

tn =

ak f 2

tn =

1

4

( )

1 + 9 + 16n , n =0,1, 2,

21

Example 4.1 Zero-Crossings

Comparing the zero-crossing results derived for PM and FM waves,

we may make the following observations once the linear modulating

wave begins to act on the sinusoidal carrier wave:

1. For PM, regularity of the zero-crossings is maintained; the

instantaneous frequency changes from the unmodulated value of

fc=1/4 Hz to the new constant value of f c + k p ( a / 2 ) =

0.5Hz

the instantaneous frequency increases linearly with time t.

22

4.2 Basic Definitions

Comparing Eq. (4.5 ) with (4.8) reveals that an FM signal may be

regarded as a PM signal in which the modulating wave is 0 m ( ) d

t

in place of m(t).

= s ( t ) Ac cos 2 f c t + k p m ( t ) (4.5)

s ( t ) Ac cos 2 f c t + 2 k f m ( ) d (4.8)

t

=

0

The FM signal can be generated by first integrating m(t) and then

using the result as the input to a phase modulator, as in Figure 4.3a.

Conversely, a PM signal can be generated by first differentiating

m(t) and then using the result as the input to a frequency modulator,

as in Figure 4.3b.

We may thus deduce all the properties of PM signals from those of

FM signals and vice versa. Henceforth, we concentrate our

attention on FM signals.

23

4.2 Basic Definitions

Figure 4.3 Illustrating the relationship between frequency modulation and phase modulation.

(a) Scheme for generating an FM wave by using a phase modulator, (b) scheme for

generating a PM wave by using a frequency modulator.

i ( t ) fi ( t )

Unmodulated 2 f c t fc

signal

2 f c t + k p m ( t ) k p dm ( t )

PM signal fc +

2 dt

2 f c t + 2 k f m ( )d fc + k f m ( t )

t

FM signal

0

24

Chapter 4.3

Frequency Modulation

Institute of Communications Engineering

National Sun Yat-sen University

4.3 Frequency Modulation

The FM signal s(t) define by Eq. (4.8) is a nonlinear function of the

modulating signal m(t), which makes frequency modulation a

nonlinear modulation process. = s ( t ) A cos 2 f t + 2 k m ( ) d (4.8)

t

c c f 0

propose to provide an empirical answer to this important question by

proceeding in the same manner as with AM modulation, that is, we

consider the simplest case possible, namely, single-tone modulation.

Consider then a sinusoidal modulating signal define by

m ( t ) = Am cos ( 2 f mt ) (4.10)

26

4.3 Frequency Modulation

The instantaneous frequency of the resulting FM signal is

fi ( t )= f c + k f Am cos ( 2 f mt )= f c + f cos ( 2 f mt ) (4.11)

f =k f Am (4.12)

The quantity f is called the frequency deviation, representing the

maximum departure of the instantaneous frequency of the FM signal from

the carrier frequency fc.

A fundamental characteristic of an FM signal is that the frequency

deviation f is proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal and is

independent of the modulating frequency.

Using Eq. (4.11), the angle i(t) of the FM signal is obtained as

f

i( ) 0 i ( ) sin ( 2 f mt )

t

= t 2 f =t dt 2 f c t +

fm

The ratio of the frequency deviation f to the modulation

frequency fm is commonly called the modulation index of the FM

signal.

27

4.3 Frequency Modulation

The modulation index is denoted by : f

=

fm

i (t )

= 2 f c t + sin ( 2 f mt )

the maximum departure of the angle i(t) from the angle 2fct of the

unmodulated carrier. is measured in radians.

The FM signal itself is given by

=s ( t ) Ac cos 2 f c t + sin ( 2 f mt )

(4.16)

Depending on the value of the modulation index , we may

distinguish two cases of frequency modulation:

Narrow-band FM, for which is small compared to one radian.

Wide-band FM, for which is large compared to one radian.

28

4.3 Frequency Modulation

Narrow-band frequency modulation

Consider Eq. (4.16), which defines an FM signals resulting

form the use of sinusoidal modulating signal. Expanding this

relation, we get

s (t ) Ac cos ( 2 f c t ) cos sin ( 2 f mt ) Ac sin ( 2 f c t ) sin sin ( 2 f mt ) ( 4.17 )

Assuming that the modulation index is small compared to

one radian, we may use the following two approximations:

1

{

s ( t ) Ac cos ( 2 f c t ) + Ac cos 2 ( f c + f m ) t cos 2 ( f c f m ) t

2

} ( 4.19 )

1

sin sin

= cos ( ) cos ( + )

29 2

4.3 Frequency Modulation

defining an AM signal (from Example 3.1):

s=

AM ( t ) Ac cos ( 2 f c t ) +

1

2

{ }

Ac cos 2 ( f c + f m ) t + cos 2 ( f c f m ) t ( 4.20 )

where is the modulation factor of the AM signal.

difference between an AM signal and a narrow-band FM

signal is that the algebraic sign of the lower side frequency in

the narrow-band FM is reversed.

transmission bandwidth (i.e. 2fm) as the AM signal.

30

4.3 Frequency Modulation

Wide-band frequency modulation

The following studies the spectrum of the single-tone FM signal

of Eq. (4.16) for an arbitrary value of the modulation index .

By using the complex representation of band-pass signals

described in Chapter 2: (Carrier frequency fc compared to the

bandwidth of the FM signal is large enough)

= Re s ( t ) exp ( j 2 f c t )

31

4.3 Frequency Modulation

Wide-band frequency modulation

We may therefore expend s ( t ) in the form of complex Fourier

series as follows:

s ( t ) = cn exp ( j 2 nf mt )

n =

(4.23)

s ( t ) exp ( j 2 nf mt ) dt

1 2 fm

cn fm

1 2 f m

exp j sin ( 2 f mt ) j 2 nf mt dt

1 2 fm

f m Ac (4.24)

x = 2 f mt 1 2 f m

Ac (4.26)

=cn exp j ( sin x nx ) dx

2

1

cn = Ac J n ( )

= J n( )

2

exp j ( sin x nx ) dx (4.28)

nth order Bessel function of the first kind.

Ac Re J n ( ) exp j 2 ( f c + nf m ) t

s (t ) = (4.31)

n=

32

4.3 Frequency Modulation

Taking the Fourier transforms of both sides of Eq. (4.31)

Ac

S( f ) n

2 n=

J ( ) ( f f c nf m ) + ( f + f c + nf )

m (4.32)

In Figure 4.6 we have plotted the Bessel function Jn() versus the

modulation index for different positive integer values of n.

33

4.3 Frequency Modulation

We can develop further insight into the behavior of the Bessel

function Jn() by making use of the following properties:

1. For n even, we have Jn()=J-n(); on the other hand, for n odd, we

have Jn()=-J-n(). That is

J n ( ) = ( 1) J n ( ) for all n

n

(4.33)

2. For small values of the modulation index , we have

J0 ( ) 1

J1 ( ) (4.34)

2

J n ( ) 0, n > 2

3.

n =

J n2 ( ) = 1 (4.35)

34

4.3 Frequency Modulation

Thus, using Eqs. (4.32) through (4.35) and the curves of Figure 4.6,

we may make the following observations:

1. The spectrum of an FM signal contains a carrier component (n=0)

and an infinite set of side frequencies located symmetrically on

either side of the carrier at frequency separations of fm, 2fm, 3fm, .

(An AM system gives rise to only one pair of side frequencies.)

2. For the special case of small compared with unity, only the Bessel

coefficients J0() and J1() have significant values (see 4.34), so that

the FM signal is effectively composed of a carrier and a single pair

of side frequencies at fc fm.

(This situation corresponds to the special case of narrowband FM

that was considered previously)

35

4.3 Frequency Modulation

3. The amplitude of the carrier component of an FM signal is dependent

on the modulation index . The physical explanation for this

property is that the envelope of an FM signal is constant, so that the

average power of such a signal developed across a 1ohm resistor is

also constant, as shown by

(4.36)

1 2

P = Ac (Using (4.31) and (4.35))

2

36

EXAMPLE 4.3 Spectra of FM Signals

in the amplitude and frequency of a sinusoidal modulating signal

affect the spectrum of the FM signal.

Consider first the case when the frequency of the modulating signal

is fixed, but its amplitude is varied, producing a corresponding

variation in the frequency deviation f.

Consider next the case when the amplitude of the modulating signal

is fixed; that is, the frequency deviation f is maintained constant,

and the modulation frequency fm is varied.

37

EXAMPLE 4.3 Spectra of FM Signals

of an FM signal, normalized with

respect to the carrier amplitude, for the

case of sinusoidal modulation of fixed

frequency and varying amplitude. Only

the spectra for positive frequencies are

shown.

38

EXAMPLE 4.3 Spectra of FM Signals

fixed frequency interval fc-f<| f |<fc+ f .

When approaches infinity, the bandwidth of the FM wave

approaches the limiting value of 2f, which is an important point

to keep in mind.

an FM signal, normalized with respect to the

carrier amplitude, for the case of sinusoidal

modulation of varying frequency and fixed

amplitude. Only the spectra for positive

frequencies are shown.

39

Transmission Bandwidth of FM Signals

frequencies so that the bandwidth required to transmit such a signal

is similarly infinite in extent.

In practice, however, we find that the FM signal is effectively

limited to a finite number of significant side frequencies compatible

with a specified amount of distortion.

Consider the case of an FM signal generated by a single-tone

modulating wave of frequency fm.

In such an FM signal, the side frequencies that are separated

frequency deviation f decrease rapidly toward zero, so that the

bandwidth always exceeds the total frequency excursion, but

nevertheless is limited.

40

Transmission Bandwidth of FM Signals

bandwidth of an FM signal generated by a single-tone

modulating signal of frequency fm as follows:

1 Large BT 2f

BT 2f + 2 f m = 2f 1 + Small BT 2 f m

(4.38)

This empirical relation is known as Carsons rule.

an FM signal, we may thus define the transmission bandwidth of

an FM wave as the separation between the two frequencies

beyond which none of the side frequencies is greater than 1% of

the carrier amplitude obtained when the modulation is removed.

41

Chapter 4.4

Phase-locked Loop

Institute of Communications Engineering

National Sun Yat-sen University

4.4 Phase-Locked Loop

The phase-locked loop (PLL) is a negative feedback system, the

operation of which is closely linked to frequency modulation.

frequency modulation, and indirect frequency demodulation.

components: a multiplier, a loop filter (low-pass filter), and a

voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) connected together in the form

of a feedback loop, as in Figure 4.16.

by a voltage applied to it from an external source.

43

4.4 Phase-Locked Loop

We assume that initially we have adjusted the VCO so that when the

control voltage is zero, two conditions are satisfied:

1. The frequency of the VCO in precisely set at the unmodulated carrier

frequency fc.

2. The VCO output has a 90-degree phase-shift with respect to the

unmodulated carrier wave.

44

4.4 Phase-Locked Loop

Suppose then that the input signal applied to the phase-locked loop

is an FM signal defined by

=s ( t ) Ac sin 2 f c t + 1 ( t ) (4.59)

where Ac is the carrier amplitude and 1 ( t ) = 2 k f m ( )d . (4.60)

t

=r ( t ) Av cos 2 f c t + 2 ( t ) (4.61)

where Av is the amplitude. With a control voltage v(t) applied to a

VCO input, the angle 2 ( t ) is related to v(t) by the integral

2 ( t ) = 2 kv ( t ) dt

t

0

(4.62)

where kv is the frequency sensitivity of the VCO, measured in Hertz

per volt.

45

4.4 Phase-Locked Loop

The object of the phase-locked loop is to generate a VCO output r(t)

that has the same phase angle (except for the fixed difference of 90

degrees) as the input FM signal s(t).

to modulation by a message signal m(t) as in Eq. (4.60), in which

case we wish to recover 1(t) in order to estimate m(t).

phase angle 1(t) of the incoming signal s(t) may be an unwanted

phase shift caused by fluctuations in the communication channel; in

this latter case, we wish to track 1(t) so as to produce a signal with

the same phase angle for the purpose of coherent detection

(synchronous demodulation).

46

Nonlinear Model of the PLL

According to Figure 4.16, the incoming FM signal s(t) and the VCO

output r(t) are applied to the multiplier, producing two components:

1. A high- frequency component, represented by the double- frequency

term

km Ac Av sin 4 f c t + 1 ( t ) + 2 ( t )

frequency term

km Ac Av sin 1 ( t ) 2 ( t )

The loop filter in the phase-locked loop is a low-pass filter, and its

response to the high- frequency component will be negligible.

47

Nonlinear Model of the PLL

Therefore, discarding the high-frequency component (i.e., the

double- frequency term), the input to the loop filter is reduced to

e ( t ) = km Ac A sin e ( t ) (4.63)

where e(t) is the phase error defined by

( t ) 1 ( t ) 2 ( t )

e=

= 1 ( t ) 2 k ( )d

t

(4.64)

0

The loop filter operates on the input e (t) to produce an output v(t)

defined by the convolution integral

= (t ) e ( )h ( t ) d (4.65)

where h(t) is the impulse response of the loop filter.

48

Linear Model of the PLL

When the phase error e(t) is zero, the phase-locked loop is said to

be in phase-lock. When e(t) is at all times small compared with

one radian, we may use the approximation

sin e ( t ) e ( t ) (4.68)

which is accurate to within 4 percent for e(t) less than 0.5 radians.

We may represent the phase-locked loop by the linearized model

shown in Figure 4.18a.

49

- bose_lifestyle-5_bulletin.pdfUploaded byPablo Roth
- Yaesu FT-857 Service ManualUploaded byRobert/yd2wsq
- FM 352 First Steps in Commissioning - Integration in the user program.pdfUploaded bya
- video_20Uploaded byfirststudent
- Modulation Techniques for Mobile RadioUploaded byAbhinav
- fmsdUploaded byoooooo
- Analog- Digital CommunicationsUploaded byNiranjan Nair RL
- 01686633Uploaded byJoao Paulo
- Analog Techniques Jan2011Uploaded byBalasubramaniam Vadapalli
- PC Controlled RobotUploaded bymahammadvasimk
- IT2202-QBUploaded byavianbu
- EECB351_-_Exp_4Uploaded byyip_weng
- Lecture12-13-Angle.pdfUploaded byزوہیب محمود
- Security in the LTE-SAE NetworkUploaded byLaNitah LaNitah
- FMUploaded bySantosh Ghodke
- IT2202 pocUploaded byKarthic Keyan
- TransmittingwiththeUSRP.pdfUploaded byJuan Jose Perez
- AC_LESSON_PLAN_2015-2016Uploaded byjahnavi
- VCOUploaded byVISHAL TELANG
- 07 - Angle ModulationUploaded byLihanbok
- 49_notesUploaded byKarthik Itachi
- Electronic Systems and TechnologiesUploaded byShiekaMikaelaEdaugalBeso
- ASIC Interview Question & Answer_ PLLUploaded byprodip7
- EE313 Communication Systems Organization Information Aug2017Uploaded byShubham Bhargava
- Cdce937 Cdcel937Uploaded byafam59267
- DatatransmissionandtelemetryUploaded byJothsna Praveena
- Noise in Analog ModulationUploaded byanandachari2004
- Chapter 2Uploaded byrakgosi
- Comms Expt8Uploaded byRoselle Reyes Ü
- Comm TheoryUploaded byAnonymous izF3Vti

- parvum.pdfUploaded bydalek42music
- Jpinder Resume Temp DiariesUploaded byKing of Hollywood and hero to the underemployed
- l330 ProjectorUploaded byzakhair
- eng TELE-satellite 1205Uploaded byAlexander Wiese
- The Complete Transcription Process _ David LiebmanUploaded byguitarmr
- Os Segredos Do PWM Do ArduinoUploaded byFernando Esquírio
- Recording Culture by Christopher A. ScalesUploaded byDuke University Press
- Catálogo Baterías Gretsch 2008 - Lista de preciosUploaded byvpgubplm
- Airtel ProjectUploaded byshuja qammer
- Propose to Change GUL Interworking Strategy - 20141206Uploaded byAkhmad Hafid Irawan
- 30632209 Johns Waltz by eBrenneisenUploaded byKurt Beckett
- Sony+STR-K1600+multi+channel+av+receiverUploaded bycrnetrdl
- Rohde&Schwarz ESMC HF Reciever DatasheetUploaded byHanseaticLeague1993
- EECE253_02_DigitalImagesAndMatlabUploaded byMuhar Riana
- Yamaha CatalogueUploaded bywattafilling
- Tertiary Sector in IndiaUploaded byAshish Singh
- Chapter 16 WAN TechnologiesUploaded byhclraj406
- IED_tc2_22x601Uploaded byRich Marazsky
- Pcb Design Rule CheckUploaded bySam Thor
- WEEK1-June_4-8_2018-dll.benj.docxUploaded byHarlyn Gayoma
- 0200 - PIC Video Cleaner.pdfUploaded byCarlos Ramos
- River-sea Vessel RulesUploaded bySrikanth Iyer
- 07 - Rubber Soul Notes (Dr. Bob)Uploaded byBrandon Drake
- City of Stars [Sebastian & Mia Duet]Uploaded byjaymac1672
- MarysYamahaKeyBoard_PSR225GMEUploaded byDavid Castillo
- [Free com Schubert Franz Peter Impromptu Dur 12032Uploaded byCamila
- Redemption Song Banjo TabUploaded byJames Martin
- She - Elvis Costello and othersUploaded byEddy Satriya
- Rf Design ProcessUploaded byyogeshhotchandani
- Mary Balogh a Certain MagicUploaded byjaguilar509