You are on page 1of 65

IC Engines MEE 6003

Lecture 3
Introduction to Air Standard Cycle and Their Cycles

Course Instructor
Mr. Nitin Kukreja
Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
GLA University Mathura, India 1
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Content
Introduction to Air Standard Cycle Stirling Cycle
Assumption of Air Standard Cycle Ericsson Cycle
Basic Relations of Different Comparison of Otto, Diesel, &
Process Dual Cycle
Carnot Cycle Lenoir Cycle
Otto Cycle Atkison Cycle
Diesel Cycle Brayton Cycle
Dual Cycle Home Assignment - EOQ
Comparison of the Otto and the Class Discussion - POQ
Diesel Cycle Book References
2
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Air Standard Cycle


A thermodynamic cycle in which the working fluid is
considered to be a perfect gas with such properties of air.
The following assumptions are commonly known as the air-standard
assumptions:
1. The working fluid is air, which continuously circulates in a closed loop (cycle). Air
is considered as ideal gas.
2. All the processes in (ideal) power cycles are internally reversible.
3. Combustion process is modeled by a heat-addition process from an external source.
4. The exhaust process is modeled by a heat-rejection process that restores the working
fluid (air) at its initial state.

Assuming constant specific heats, (@25C) for air, is called cold-


air-standard assumption.
3
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Air Standard Cycle


Assumptions :

Air is a working fluid.


Air behave as an ideal gas.
Mass of air remains constant i.e. closed system analysis.
Specific heat of air remains constant.
The working fluid does not undergoes any chemical
changes.
All process are reversible.
4
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Basic Relation for Different Process

5
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Carnot Cycle
The most efficient heat engine cycle is the Carnot cycle,
consisting of two reversible isothermal processes and
two reversible adiabatic processes.
In order to approach the Carnot efficiency, the processes
involved in the heat engine cycle must be reversible and
involve no change in entropy.
This means that the Carnot cycle is an idealization, since
no real engine processes are reversible and all real physical
processes involve some increase in entropy.
6
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Carnot Cycle
The conceptual value of the Carnot cycle is that it establishes
the maximum possible efficiency for an engine cycle operating
between TH and TC.

It is not a practical engine cycle because the heat transfer into


the engine in the isothermal process is too slow to be of
practical value.

As Schroeder puts it "So don't bother installing a Carnot


engine in your car; while it would increase your gas mileage,
you would be passed on the highway by pedestrians."
7
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Carnot
.
Cycle
Process 1-2: Reversible isothermal heat addition
at high temperature, TH > TL, to the working
fluid in a piston-cylinder device that does some
boundary work.
Process 2-3: Reversible adiabatic expansion
during which the system does work as the
working fluid temperature decreases from TH to
TL.
Process 3-4: The system is brought in contact
with a heat reservoir at TL < TH and a reversible
isothermal heat exchange takes place while work
of compression is done on the system.
Process 4-1: A reversible adiabatic compression
process increases the working fluid temperature
from TL to TH P-v diagram for Carnot heat engine
8
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Carnot Cycle

P-v diagram for Carnot heat engine P-v diagram for Carnot refrigerator
You may have observed that power cycles operate in the clockwise direction when
plotted on a process diagram.
The Carnot cycle may be reversed, in which it operates as a refrigerator.
The refrigeration cycle operates in the counterclockwise direction. 9
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Carnot Cycle

10
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Carnot Cycle

P V and T S Diagram for Carnot Cycle


11
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Carnot Cycle (Animation)

12
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Efficiency of Carnot Cycle

T S & P V Diagram of an Carnot Engine


13
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Different Relation of Carnot Cycle

14
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Different Relation of Carnot Cycle

15
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Different Relation of Carnot Cycle


Mean Effective Pressure:

It is an Imaginary constant pressure working on


the piston during expansion stroke, which gives
the same working output as undergone by the
complete cycle (over same length of stroke)

16
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Different Relation of Carnot Cycle


Mean Effective Pressure:

17
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Other Useful Link Carnot Cycle


Website Links
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carnot_cycle
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/carnot.html
https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/carnot.html

Lectures
http://www.gitam.edu/eresource/Engg_Phys/semester_1/THERMODYNAMICS/carno
t.htm

NASA Lecture
https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/carnot.html

NPTEL Lecture
http://nptel.ac.in/courses/112106133/Module_4/2_carnot_cycle.pdf
18
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Otto Cycle
The Otto cycle is the ideal cycle for spark-ignition reciprocating
engines.

It serves as the theoretical model for the gasoline engine.


Consists of four internally reversible processes.

Heat is transferred to the working fluid at constant volume.


The Otto cycle consists of four internally reversible processes in
series.

19
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Otto Cycle

Fig: T-s and P-v diagrams for Otto cycle


1 2 Isentropic Compression Process
2 3 Constant Volume Addition Process
3 4 Isentropic Expansion Process
4 1 Constant Volume Rejection Process 20
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Otto Cycle
The Otto cycle is executed in a closed system. Neglecting the changes
in potential and kinetic energies, the 1st law, on a unit mass base, can be
written:

(qin - qout ) + (win - wout) = u kJ / kg

Where,
qin = u3 - u2 = cv (T3 - T2)
qout = u4 - u1 = cv (T4 - T1)

21
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Otto Cycle

22
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Otto Cycle
Typical compression ratios for spark-ignition engines are between
7 and 10. The thermal efficiency increases as the compression ratio
is increased. However, high compression ratios can lead to auto
ignition or engine knock.

Specific Work Transfer:


= = (3 4 ) (2 1 )

Work Ratio:
3 4 (2 1 )
=
(3 4 )
MEP (Mean Effective Pressure):

=

23
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Other Useful Links - Otto Cycle


Website Links

http://ffden2.phys.uaf.edu/212_fall2009.web/Isaac_Hebert/Otto_Cycle.html
http://mechteacher.com/otto-cycle/
http://web.mit.edu/16.unified/www/SPRING/propulsion/notes/node25.html
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/otto.html

YouTube Link

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K8RzTmeVWfM

NPTEL Link

http://nptel.ac.in/courses/IIT-
MADRAS/Applied_Thermodynamics/Module_4/5_Asoc.pdf
24
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Diesel Cycle
The Diesel cycle is the ideal cycle for compression ignition engines. It is
very similar to spark-ignition, expect the method of ignition. In diesel
engine, air compressed to a temperature that is above the ignition
temperature of the fuel.

Fig : T-s and P-v diagram of Diesel engine. 25


IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Diesel Cycle

Fig : T-s and P-v diagram of Diesel engine. 26


IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Diesel Cycle
Thermal Efficiency of Diesel Engine

27
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Diesel Cycle

28
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Diesel Cycle

29
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

30
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Mean Effective Pressure of Diesel Engine

31
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Other Useful Links Diesel Cycle

Website Links
http://mechteacher.com/diesel-cycle/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diesel_cycle
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/diesel.html
http://web.mit.edu/16.unified/www/SPRING/propulsion/notes/node26.html

You Tube Link


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fyadfj7NQq

NPTEL Link
http://nptel.ac.in/courses/112106133/Module_4/6_Asdc.pdf
32
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Comparison of the Otto and the


Diesel Cycle
Otto > Diesel for the same compression ratio

1. Diesel engines burn the fuel more completely since they usually
operate at lower rpm and air-fuel ratio is much higher than ignition-
spark engine.
2. Diesel engines compression ratios are typically between 12 and 24,
whereas spark-ignition (SI) engines are between 7 and 10.
3. Thus a diesel engine can tolerate a higher ratio since only air is
compressed in a diesel cycle and spark knock is not an issue

33
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Dual Cycle (Limited Pressure Cycle)


Combustion process in internal combustion engines either as
constant-volume (Otto cycle) or constant-pressure (Diesel
cycle) heat addition is overly simplified and it is not realistic.

Dual cycle is a better representation of the combustion process


in both the gasoline and the diesel engines

Both the Otto and the Diesel cycles are special cases of the
dual cycle.

34
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Dual Cycle (Limited Pressure Cycle)

T-s and P-v diagrams for an ideal dual cycle.


35
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Dual Cycle (Limited Pressure Cycle)

36
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Dual Cycle (Limited Pressure Cycle)

37
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Dual Cycle (Limited Pressure Cycle)

38
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Dual Cycle (Limited Pressure Cycle)

39
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Dual Cycle (Limited Pressure Cycle)

40
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Dual Cycle Work Output

41
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Dual Cycle Mean Effective Pressure

42
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Stirling Cycle
The Carnot Cycle has a low mean effective pressure
because of its low work output.
Hence, one of the modified forms of the cycle to produce
higher mean effective pressure whilst theoretically
achieving full Carnot cycle efficiency is the stirling cycle.

It consist of
Two isothermal Process
Two Constant Volume Process

Heat Rejection and Addition take places at constant temperature.43

IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017


.
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Stirling Cycle

From the figure it is clear that the amount of heat addition and rejection
during constant volume is same 44
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Stirling Cycle

45
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Ericsson Cycle

The Ericssion cycle consist of


Two Isothermal Process
Two Constant Pressure Process

The heat addition and rejection take place at constant pressure as


well as isothermal process.
46
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Ericsson Cycle
This cycle has a advantage over Carnot and Stirling Cycle is its
smaller pressure ration for a given ratio of maximum specific volume
with higher mean effective pressure.

Since the process 2 -3 and 3-4 are parallel to each other on the T-S
diagram, the net effect is that the heat added only at constant
temperature T3 = T4 and rejected at constant temperature T1 = T2.

The Ericsson Cycle does not find practical application in piston


engine but is approached by a gas turbine employing a large number
of stages with heat exchanger, insulator and reheaters.

47
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Comparison of Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycle

In order to the compare the performance of Otto, Diesel and


Dual combustion cycles some the variable factors must be
fixed.
On the basis of following factors we will be finding which
cycle is more efficient for a given set of operating condition.

Same Compression Ratio and Heat Addition


Same Compression Ratio and Heat Rejection
Same Peak Pressure, Peak Temperature and Heat Rejection
Same Maximum Pressure and Heat Input
48
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Same Compression Ration and Heat Addition

The Otto Cycle 1 2 3 4 1


The Diesel Cycle 1 2 3 4 1
The Dual Cycle 1 2 3 4 1

Same Compression Ratio and Heat Addition


> > 49
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Same Compression Ration and Heat Rejection

The Otto Cycle 1 2 3 4 1


The Diesel Cycle 1 2 3 4 1
Same Compression Ratio and Heat Rejection
> >
50
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Same Peak Pressure, Peak Temperature and Heat Rejection

The Otto Cycle 1 2 3 4 1


The Diesel Cycle 1 2 3 4 1

Same Peak Pressure, Peak Temperature and Heat Rejection


> > 51
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Same Maximum Pressure and Heat Input

The Otto Cycle 1 2 3 4 1


The Diesel Cycle 1 2 3 4 1

Same Maximum Pressure and Heat Input


> >
52
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Comparison of Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycle


Same Compression Ratio and Heat Addition
> >

Same Compression Ratio and Heat Rejection


> >

Same Peak Pressure, Peak Temperature and Heat Rejection


> >

Same Maximum Pressure and Heat Input


> > 53
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Lenoir Cycle

The Lenoir cycle consist of the following process:


(1-2) Constant Volume Heat Addition
(2-3) Isentropic Expansion
(3-1) Constant Pressure Heat Rejection

This cycle is used for Pulse Jet Engine 54


IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Lenoir Cycle

55
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Lenoir Cycle

Thus the efficiency of the Lenoir cycle depends upon the


pressure ration as well as the ratio of specific heats.
56
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Atkinson Cycle
Atkinson cycle is an ideal cycle for Otto engine
exhausting to a gas turbine.
In this cycle the isentropic expansion (3-4) of an Otto
Cycle (1234) is further allowed to proceed to the lowest
cycle pressure so as to increase the work output.

57
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Atkinson Cycle

58
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Atkinson Cycle

59
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Atkinson Cycle

60
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Atkinson Cycle

61
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Useful link for Air Standard Cycles


Website Link
https://gradeup.co/air-standard-otto-diesel-and-dual-cycles-i-056f193b-bc3a-11e5-96f1-4227910926f4
http://www.brighthubengineering.com/thermodynamics/4125-air-standard-cycle-part-one/
http://www.sfu.ca/~mbahrami/ENSC%20461/Notes/Internal%20Combustion%20Engine.pdf

YouTube Link
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ol2jeApbjjQ
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LOqmeV2BIeU

NPTEL Link
http://www.iitg.ernet.in/scifac/qip/public_html/cd_cell/chapters/uk_saha_internal_combustion_engine/qip-ice-07-
air%20standard%20cycles.pdf
http://nptel.ac.in/courses/Webcourse-contents/IIT-KANPUR/Basic_Thermodynamics/ui/Course_home-29.htm
http://nptel.ac.in/courses/112106133/5

Gate Purpose
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WiKioMvpCJY
62
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Class Discussion Placement Oriented Questions

1. Please tell us the difference between Otto and Diesel Cycle.


2. Can you tell four different process of Dual, Diesel and Otto Cycle.
3. Why do we only use P-V and T-S diagrams to decide the characteristic of
any cycle.
4. Except on the basis of cyclic operation, how can differentiate in between
Diesel and Petrol Engine.
5. Does knocking phenomenon occurs in diesel engine? If No, then why not.
6. What exactly happens in isentropic process heat addition process of an
Otto cycle.
7. In which process of Dual Cycle heat is added to the engine.
8. Please tell at least one application of - Otto, Diesel, Dual, Stirling, Ericsson
Cycle, Atkinson and Lenoir Cycle.

63
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Home Assignment - Examination Oriented Questions


1. What is the use of Air Standard Cycle Analysis.
2. Where do the following cycles have applications:
Otto, Diesel, Dual, Stirling, Ericsson Cycle, Atkinson, Lenoir and Carnot Cycle.
3. Comparisons of Air Standard Cycle i.e. Otto, Diesel and Dual
Cycle.
4. Derive expression for efficiency, mean effective pressure and work
transfer of :
1. Carnot Cycle
2. Otto Cycle & Diesel Cycle
3. Dual Cycle.
5. Sketch the P-V and T S diagrams of Lenior, Stirling, Ericsson,
and Atiknson Cycle.
6. Write down the applications of Otto, Diesel and Dual Cycle. 64
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017
Lecture 3 Air Standard Cycle

Reference Books
1. Internal Combustion Engines Applied Thermosciences by
Colin R. Ferguson & Allan T. Kirkaptrik. ISBN: 978-81-265-
3007-6. Wiley Publication.
2. Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals by John B.
Heywood - Mc Graw Hill Education. ISBN: 978-1-25- 900207-6
3. Internal Combustion Engine by M. L. Mathur & R. P. Sharma
4. Internal Combustion Engine by Anand V. Domkundwar
5. A hand book on Mechanical Engineering for IES, GATE & PSU.
6. Internal Combustion Engine 4th Edition by V Ganesan.

65
IC Engine | Module 1 | GLA University | Mr Nitin Kukreja 1/27/2017