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23/02/2017 ClassicsintheHistoryofPsychologyA.H.

Maslow(1943)ATheoryofHumanMotivation

ClassicsintheHistoryofPsychology
Aninternetresourcedevelopedby
ChristopherD.Green
YorkUniversity,Toronto,Ontario
ISSN14923713

(ReturntoClassicsindex)

ATheoryofHumanMotivation
A.H.Maslow(1943)
OriginallyPublishedinPsychologicalReview,50,370396.
PostedAugust2000

[p.370]I.INTRODUCTION

Inapreviouspaper(13)variouspropositionswerepresentedwhichwouldhavetobeincludedinanytheory
ofhumanmotivationthatcouldlayclaimtobeingdefinitive.Theseconclusionsmaybebrieflysummarized
asfollows:

1.Theintegratedwholenessoftheorganismmustbeoneofthefoundationstonesofmotivation
theory.

2.Thehungerdrive(oranyotherphysiologicaldrive)wasrejectedasacenteringpointormodel
foradefinitivetheoryofmotivation.Anydrivethatissomaticallybasedandlocalizablewas
showntobeatypicalratherthantypicalinhumanmotivation.

3.Suchatheoryshouldstressandcenteritselfuponultimateorbasicgoalsratherthanpartialor
superficialones,uponendsratherthanmeanstotheseends.Suchastresswouldimplyamore
centralplaceforunconsciousthanforconsciousmotivations.

4.Thereareusuallyavailablevariousculturalpathstothesamegoal.Thereforeconscious,
specific,localculturaldesiresarenotasfundamentalinmotivationtheoryasthemorebasic,
unconsciousgoals.

5.Anymotivatedbehavior,eitherpreparatoryorconsummatory,mustbeunderstoodtobea
channelthroughwhichmanybasicneedsmaybesimultaneouslyexpressedorsatisfied.
Typicallyanacthasmorethanonemotivation.

6.Practicallyallorganismicstatesaretobeunderstoodasmotivatedandasmotivating.

7.Humanneedsarrangethemselvesinhierarchiesofprepotency.Thatistosay,theappearance
ofoneneedusuallyrestsonthepriorsatisfactionofanother,moreprepotentneed.Manisa
perpetuallywantinganimal.Alsononeedordrivecanbetreatedasifitwereisolatedor
discreteeverydriveisrelatedtothestateofsatisfactionordissatisfactionofotherdrives.

8.Listsofdriveswillgetusnowhereforvarioustheoreticalandpracticalreasons.Furthermore
anyclassificationofmotivations[p.371]mustdealwiththeproblemoflevelsofspecificityor
generalizationthemotivestobeclassified.

9.Classificationsofmotivationsmustbebasedupongoalsratherthanuponinstigatingdrivesor
motivatedbehavior.

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10.Motivationtheoryshouldbehumancenteredratherthananimalcentered.

11.Thesituationorthefieldinwhichtheorganismreactsmustbetakenintoaccountbutthe
fieldalonecanrarelyserveasanexclusiveexplanationforbehavior.Furthermorethefielditself
mustbeinterpretedintermsoftheorganism.Fieldtheorycannotbeasubstituteformotivation
theory.

12.Notonlytheintegrationoftheorganismmustbetakenintoaccount,butalsothepossibility
ofisolated,specific,partialorsegmentalreactions.Ithassincebecomenecessarytoaddtothese
anotheraffirmation.

13.Motivationtheoryisnotsynonymouswithbehaviortheory.Themotivationsareonlyone
classofdeterminantsofbehavior.Whilebehaviorisalmostalwaysmotivated,itisalsoalmost
alwaysbiologically,culturallyandsituationallydeterminedaswell.

Thepresentpaperisanattempttoformulateapositivetheoryofmotivationwhichwillsatisfythese
theoreticaldemandsandatthesametimeconformtotheknownfacts,clinicalandobservationalaswellas
experimental.Itderivesmostdirectly,however,fromclinicalexperience.Thistheoryis,Ithink,inthe
functionalisttraditionofJamesandDewey,andisfusedwiththeholismofWertheimer(19),Goldstein(6),
andGestaltPsychology,andwiththedynamicismofFreud(4)andAdler(1).Thisfusionorsynthesismay
arbitrarilybecalleda'generaldynamic'theory.

Itisfareasiertoperceiveandtocriticizetheaspectsinmotivationtheorythantoremedythem.Mostlythisis
becauseoftheveryseriouslackofsounddatainthisarea.Iconceivethislackofsoundfactstobedue
primarilytotheabsenceofavalidtheoryofmotivation.Thepresenttheorythenmustbeconsideredtobea
suggestedprogramorframeworkforfutureresearchandmuststandorfall,notsomuchonfactsavailableor
evidencepresented,asuponresearchestobedone,researchessuggestedperhaps,bythequestionsraisedin
thispaper.[p.372]

II.THEBASICNEEDS

The'physiological'needs.Theneedsthatareusuallytakenasthestartingpointformotivationtheoryare
thesocalledphysiologicaldrives.Tworecentlinesofresearchmakeitnecessarytoreviseourcustomary
notionsabouttheseneeds,first,thedevelopmentoftheconceptofhomeostasis,andsecond,thefindingthat
appetites(preferentialchoicesamongfoods)areafairlyefficientindicationofactualneedsorlacksinthe
body.

Homeostasisreferstothebody'sautomaticeffortstomaintainaconstant,normalstateofthebloodstream.
Cannon(2)hasdescribedthisprocessfor(1)thewatercontentoftheblood,(2)saltcontent,(3)sugar
content,(4)proteincontent,(5)fatcontent,(6)calciumcontent,(7)oxygencontent,(8)constanthydrogen
ionlevel(acidbasebalance)and(9)constanttemperatureoftheblood.Obviouslythislistcanbeextended
toincludeotherminerals,thehormones,vitamins,etc.

Younginarecentarticle(21)hassummarizedtheworkonappetiteinitsrelationtobodyneeds.Ifthebody
lackssomechemical,theindividualwilltendtodevelopaspecificappetiteorpartialhungerforthatfood
element.

Thusitseemsimpossibleaswellasuselesstomakeanylistoffundamentalphysiologicalneedsfortheycan
cometoalmostanynumberonemightwish,dependingonthedegreeofspecificityofdescription.Wecan
notidentifyallphysiologicalneedsashomeostatic.Thatsexualdesire,sleepiness,sheeractivityand
maternalbehaviorinanimals,arehomeostatic,hasnotyetbeendemonstrated.Furthermore,thislistwould
notincludethevarioussensorypleasures(tastes,smells,tickling,stroking)whichareprobablyphysiological
andwhichmaybecomethegoalsofmotivatedbehavior.

Inapreviouspaper(13)ithasbeenpointedoutthatthesephysiologicaldrivesorneedsaretobeconsidered
unusualratherthantypicalbecausetheyareisolable,andbecausetheyarelocalizablesomatically.Thatisto
say,theyarerelativelyindependentofeachother,ofothermotivations[p.373]andoftheorganismasa
whole,andsecondly,inmanycases,itispossibletodemonstratealocalized,underlyingsomaticbaseforthe

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drive.Thisistruelessgenerallythanhasbeenthought(exceptionsarefatigue,sleepiness,maternal
responses)butitisstilltrueintheclassicinstancesofhunger,sex,andthirst.

Itshouldbepointedoutagainthatanyofthephysiologicalneedsandtheconsummatorybehaviorinvolved
withthemserveaschannelsforallsortsofotherneedsaswell.Thatistosay,thepersonwhothinksheis
hungrymayactuallybeseekingmoreforcomfort,ordependence,thanforvitaminsorproteins.Conversely,
itispossibletosatisfythehungerneedinpartbyotheractivitiessuchasdrinkingwaterorsmoking
cigarettes.Inotherwords,relativelyisolableasthesephysiologicalneedsare,theyarenotcompletelyso.

Undoubtedlythesephysiologicalneedsarethemostprepotentofallneeds.Whatthismeansspecificallyis,
thatinthehumanbeingwhoismissingeverythinginlifeinanextremefashion,itismostlikelythatthe
majormotivationwouldbethephysiologicalneedsratherthananyothers.Apersonwhoislackingfood,
safety,love,andesteemwouldmostprobablyhungerforfoodmorestronglythanforanythingelse.

Ifalltheneedsareunsatisfied,andtheorganismisthendominatedbythephysiologicalneeds,allother
needsmaybecomesimplynonexistentorbepushedintothebackground.Itisthenfairtocharacterizethe
wholeorganismbysayingsimplythatitishungry,forconsciousnessisalmostcompletelypreemptedby
hunger.Allcapacitiesareputintotheserviceofhungersatisfaction,andtheorganizationofthesecapacities
isalmostentirelydeterminedbytheonepurposeofsatisfyinghunger.Thereceptorsandeffectors,the
intelligence,memory,habits,allmaynowbedefinedsimplyashungergratifyingtools.Capacitiesthatare
notusefulforthispurposeliedormant,orarepushedintothebackground.Theurgetowritepoetry,the
desiretoacquireanautomobile,theinterestinAmericanhistory,thedesireforanewpairofshoesare,inthe
extremecase,forgottenorbecomeofsec[p.374]ondaryimportance.Forthemanwhoisextremelyand
dangerouslyhungry,nootherinterestsexistbutfood.Hedreamsfood,heremembersfood,hethinksabout
food,heemotesonlyaboutfood,heperceivesonlyfoodandhewantsonlyfood.Themoresubtle
determinantsthatordinarilyfusewiththephysiologicaldrivesinorganizingevenfeeding,drinkingorsexual
behavior,maynowbesocompletelyoverwhelmedastoallowustospeakatthistime(butonlyatthistime)
ofpurehungerdriveandbehavior,withtheoneunqualifiedaimofrelief.

Anotherpeculiarcharacteristicofthehumanorganismwhenitisdominatedbyacertainneedisthatthe
wholephilosophyofthefuturetendsalsotochange.Forourchronicallyandextremelyhungryman,Utopia
canbedefinedverysimplyasaplacewherethereisplentyoffood.Hetendstothinkthat,ifonlyheis
guaranteedfoodfortherestofhislife,hewillbeperfectlyhappyandwillneverwantanythingmore.Life
itselftendstobedefinedintermsofeating.Anythingelsewillbedefinedasunimportant.Freedom,love,
communityfeeling,respect,philosophy,mayallbewavedasideasfripperieswhichareuselesssincethey
failtofillthestomach.Suchamanmayfairlybesaidtolivebybreadalone.

Itcannotpossiblybedeniedthatsuchthingsaretruebuttheirgeneralitycanbedenied.Emergency
conditionsare,almostbydefinition,rareinthenormallyfunctioningpeacefulsociety.Thatthistruismcanbe
forgottenisduemainlytotworeasons.First,ratshavefewmotivationsotherthanphysiologicalones,and
sincesomuchoftheresearchuponmotivationhasbeenmadewiththeseanimals,itiseasytocarrytherat
pictureovertothehumanbeing.Secondly,itistoooftennotrealizedthatcultureitselfisanadaptivetool,
oneofwhosemainfunctionsistomakethephysiologicalemergenciescomelessandlessoften.Inmostof
theknownsocieties,chronicextremehungeroftheemergencytypeisrare,ratherthancommon.Inanycase,
thisisstilltrueintheUnitedStates.TheaverageAmericancitizenisexperiencingappetiteratherthan
hungerwhenhesays"Iam[p.375]hungry."Heisapttoexperiencesheerlifeanddeathhungeronlyby
accidentandthenonlyafewtimesthroughhisentirelife.

Obviouslyagoodwaytoobscurethe'higher'motivations,andtogetalopsidedviewofhumancapacities
andhumannature,istomaketheorganismextremelyandchronicallyhungryorthirsty.Anyonewho
attemptstomakeanemergencypictureintoatypicalone,andwhowillmeasureallofman'sgoalsand
desiresbyhisbehaviorduringextremephysiologicaldeprivationiscertainlybeingblindtomanythings.Itis
quitetruethatmanlivesbybreadalonewhenthereisnobread.Butwhathappenstoman'sdesireswhen
thereisplentyofbreadandwhenhisbellyischronicallyfilled?

Atonceother(and'higher')needsemergeandthese,ratherthanphysiologicalhungers,dominatethe
organism.Andwhentheseinturnaresatisfied,againnew(andstill'higher')needsemergeandsoon.Thisis
whatwemeanbysayingthatthebasichumanneedsareorganizedintoahierarchyofrelativeprepotency.

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Onemainimplicationofthisphrasingisthatgratificationbecomesasimportantaconceptasdeprivationin
motivationtheory,foritreleasestheorganismfromthedominationofarelativelymorephysiologicalneed,
permittingtherebytheemergenceofothermoresocialgoals.Thephysiologicalneeds,alongwiththeir
partialgoals,whenchronicallygratifiedceasetoexistasactivedeterminantsororganizersofbehavior.They
nowexistonlyinapotentialfashioninthesensethattheymayemergeagaintodominatetheorganismif
theyarethwarted.Butawantthatissatisfiedisnolongerawant.Theorganismisdominatedandits
behaviororganizedonlybyunsatisfiedneeds.Ifhungerissatisfied,itbecomesunimportantinthecurrent
dynamicsoftheindividual.

Thisstatementissomewhatqualifiedbyahypothesistobediscussedmorefullylater,namelythatitis
preciselythoseindividualsinwhomacertainneedhasalwaysbeensatisfiedwhoarebestequippedto
toleratedeprivationofthatneedinthefuture,andthatfurthermore,thosewhohavebeende[p.376]privedin
thepastwillreactdifferentlytocurrentsatisfactionsthantheonewhohasneverbeendeprived.

Thesafetyneeds.Ifthephysiologicalneedsarerelativelywellgratified,therethenemergesanewsetof
needs,whichwemaycategorizeroughlyasthesafetyneeds.Allthathasbeensaidofthephysiological
needsisequallytrue,althoughinlesserdegree,ofthesedesires.Theorganismmayequallywellbewholly
dominatedbythem.Theymayserveasthealmostexclusiveorganizersofbehavior,recruitingallthe
capacitiesoftheorganismintheirservice,andwemaythenfairlydescribethewholeorganismasasafety
seekingmechanism.Againwemaysayofthereceptors,theeffectors,oftheintellectandtheothercapacities
thattheyareprimarilysafetyseekingtools.Again,asinthehungryman,wefindthatthedominatinggoalis
astrongdeterminantnotonlyofhiscurrentworldoutlookandphilosophybutalsoofhisphilosophyofthe
future.Practicallyeverythinglookslessimportantthansafety,(evensometimesthephysiologicalneeds
whichbeingsatisfied,arenowunderestimated).Aman,inthisstate,ifitisextremeenoughandchronic
enough,maybecharacterizedaslivingalmostforsafetyalone.

Althoughinthispaperweareinterestedprimarilyintheneedsoftheadult,wecanapproachan
understandingofhissafetyneedsperhapsmoreefficientlybyobservationofinfantsandchildren,inwhom
theseneedsaremuchmoresimpleandobvious.Onereasonfortheclearerappearanceofthethreatordanger
reactionininfants,isthattheydonotinhibitthisreactionatall,whereasadultsinoursocietyhavebeen
taughttoinhibititatallcosts.Thusevenwhenadultsdofeeltheirsafetytobethreatenedwemaynotbeable
toseethisonthesurface.Infantswillreactinatotalfashionandasiftheywereendangered,iftheyare
disturbedordroppedsuddenly,startledbyloudnoises,flashinglight,orotherunusualsensorystimulation,
byroughhandling,bygenerallossofsupportinthemother'sarms,orbyinadequatesupport.[1][p.377]

Ininfantswecanalsoseeamuchmoredirectreactiontobodilyillnessesofvariouskinds.Sometimesthese
illnessesseemtobeimmediatelyandpersethreateningandseemtomakethechildfeelunsafe.Forinstance,
vomiting,colicorothersharppainsseemtomakethechildlookatthewholeworldinadifferentway.At
suchamomentofpain,itmaybepostulatedthat,forthechild,theappearanceofthewholeworldsuddenly
changesfromsunninesstodarkness,sotospeak,andbecomesaplaceinwhichanythingatallmighthappen,
inwhichpreviouslystablethingshavesuddenlybecomeunstable.Thusachildwhobecauseofsomebad
foodistakenillmay,foradayortwo,developfear,nightmares,andaneedforprotectionandreassurance
neverseeninhimbeforehisillness.

Anotherindicationofthechild'sneedforsafetyishispreferenceforsomekindofundisruptedroutineor
rhythm.Heseemstowantapredictable,orderlyworld.Forinstance,injustice,unfairness,orinconsistencyin
theparentsseemstomakeachildfeelanxiousandunsafe.Thisattitudemaybenotsomuchbecauseofthe
injusticeperseoranyparticularpainsinvolved,butratherbecausethistreatmentthreatenstomakethe
worldlookunreliable,orunsafe,orunpredictable.Youngchildrenseemtothrivebetterunderasystem
whichhasatleastaskeletaloutlineofrigidity,Inwhichthereisascheduleofakind,somesortofroutine,
somethingthatcanbecountedupon,notonlyforthepresentbutalsofarintothefuture.Perhapsonecould
expressthismoreaccuratelybysayingthatthechildneedsanorganizedworldratherthananunorganizedor
unstructuredone.

Thecentralroleoftheparentsandthenormalfamilysetupareindisputable.Quarreling,physicalassault,
separation,divorceordeathwithinthefamilymaybeparticularlyterrifying.Alsoparentaloutburstsofrage
orthreatsofpunishmentdirectedtothechild,callinghimnames,speakingtohimharshly,shakinghim,
handlinghimroughly,oractual[p.378]physicalpunishmentsometimeselicitsuchtotalpanicandterrorin

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thechildthatwemustassumemoreisinvolvedthanthephysicalpainalone.Whileitistruethatinsome
childrenthisterrormayrepresentalsoafearoflossofparentallove,itcanalsooccurincompletelyrejected
children,whoseemtoclingtothehatingparentsmoreforsheersafetyandprotectionthanbecauseofhope
oflove.

Confrontingtheaveragechildwithnew,unfamiliar,strange,unmanageablestimuliorsituationswilltoo
frequentlyelicitthedangerorterrorreaction,asforexample,gettinglostorevenbeingseparatedfromthe
parentsforashorttime,beingconfrontedwithnewfaces,newsituationsornewtasks,thesightofstrange,
unfamiliaroruncontrollableobjects,illnessordeath.Particularlyatsuchtimes,thechild'sfranticclingingto
hisparentsiseloquenttestimonytotheirroleasprotectors(quiteapartfromtheirrolesasfoodgiversand
lovegivers).

Fromtheseandsimilarobservations,wemaygeneralizeandsaythattheaveragechildinoursociety
generallyprefersasafe,orderly,predictable,organizedworld,whichhecancount,on,andinwhich
unexpected,unmanageableorotherdangerousthingsdonothappen,andinwhich,inanycase,hehasall
powerfulparentswhoprotectandshieldhimfromharm.

Thatthesereactionsmaysoeasilybeobservedinchildrenisinawayaproofofthefactthatchildreninour
society,feeltoounsafe(or,inaword,arebadlybroughtup).Childrenwhoarerearedinanunthreatening,
lovingfamilydonotordinarilyreactaswehavedescribedabove(17).Insuchchildrenthedangerreactions
areapttocomemostlytoobjectsorsituationsthatadultstoowouldconsiderdangerous.[2]

Thehealthy,normal,fortunateadultinourcultureislargelysatisfiedinhissafetyneeds.Thepeaceful,
smoothly[p.379]running,'good'societyordinarilymakesitsmembersfeelsafeenoughfromwildanimals,
extremesoftemperature,criminals,assaultandmurder,tyranny,etc.Therefore,inaveryrealsense,heno
longerhasanysafetyneedsasactivemotivators.Justasasatedmannolongerfeelshungry,asafemanno
longerfeelsendangered.Ifwewishtoseetheseneedsdirectlyandclearlywemustturntoneuroticornear
neuroticindividuals,andtotheeconomicandsocialunderdogs.Inbetweentheseextremes,wecanperceive
theexpressionsofsafetyneedsonlyinsuchphenomenaas,forinstance,thecommonpreferenceforajob
withtenureandprotection,thedesireforasavingsaccount,andforinsuranceofvariouskinds(medical,
dental,unemployment,disability,oldage).

Otherbroaderaspectsoftheattempttoseeksafetyandstabilityintheworldareseenintheverycommon
preferenceforfamiliarratherthanunfamiliarthings,orfortheknownratherthantheunknown.The
tendencytohavesomereligionorworldphilosophythatorganizestheuniverseandthemeninitintosome
sortofsatisfactorilycoherent,meaningfulwholeisalsoinpartmotivatedbysafetyseeking.Heretoowe
maylistscienceandphilosophyingeneralaspartiallymotivatedbythesafetyneeds(weshallseelaterthat
therearealsoothermotivationstoscientific,philosophicalorreligiousendeavor).

Otherwisetheneedforsafetyisseenasanactiveanddominantmobilizeroftheorganism'sresourcesonlyin
emergencies,e.g.,war,disease,naturalcatastrophes,crimewaves,societaldisorganization,neurosis,brain
injury,chronicallybadsituation.

Someneuroticadultsinoursocietyare,inmanyways,liketheunsafechildintheirdesireforsafety,
althoughintheformerittakesonasomewhatspecialappearance.Theirreactionisoftentounknown,
psychologicaldangersinaworldthatisperceivedtobehostile,overwhelmingandthreatening.Sucha
personbehavesasifagreatcatastrophewerealmostalwaysimpending,i.e.,heisusuallyrespondingasifto
anemergency.Hissafetyneedsoftenfindspecific[p.380]expressioninasearchforaprotector,ora
strongerpersononwhomhemaydepend,orperhaps,aFuehrer.

Theneuroticindividualmaybedescribedinaslightlydifferentwaywithsomeusefulnessasagrownup
personwhoretainshischildishattitudestowardtheworld.Thatistosay,aneuroticadultmaybesaidto
behave'asif'hewereactuallyafraidofaspanking,orofhismother'sdisapproval,orofbeingabandonedby
hisparents,orhavinghisfoodtakenawayfromhim.Itisasifhischildishattitudesoffearandthreat
reactiontoadangerousworldhadgoneunderground,anduntouchedbythegrowingupandlearning
processes,werenowreadytobecalledoutbyanystimulusthatwouldmakeachildfeelendangeredand
threatened.[3]

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Theneurosisinwhichthesearchforsafetytakesitsdearestformisinthecompulsiveobsessiveneurosis.
Compulsiveobsessivestryfranticallytoorderandstabilizetheworldsothatnounmanageable,unexpected
orunfamiliardangerswilleverappear(14)Theyhedgethemselvesaboutwithallsortsofceremonials,rules
andformulassothateverypossiblecontingencymaybeprovidedforandsothatnonewcontingenciesmay
appear.Theyaremuchlikethebraininjuredcases,describedbyGoldstein(6),whomanagetomaintaintheir
equilibriumbyavoidingeverythingunfamiliarandstrangeandbyorderingtheirrestrictedworldinsucha
neat,disciplined,orderlyfashionthateverythingintheworldcanbecountedupon.Theytrytoarrangethe
worldsothatanythingunexpected(dangers)cannotpossiblyoccur.If,throughnofaultoftheirown,
somethingunexpecteddoesoccur,theygointoapanicreactionasifthisunexpectedoccurrenceconstituteda
gravedanger.Whatwecanseeonlyasanonetoostrongpreferenceinthehealthyperson,e.g.,preference
forthefamiliar,becomesalifeanddeath.necessityinabnormalcases.

Theloveneeds.Ifboththephysiologicalandthesafetyneedsarefairlywellgratified,thentherewill
emergetheloveandaffectionandbelongingnessneeds,andthewholecycle[p.381]alreadydescribedwill
repeatitselfwiththisnewcenter.Nowthepersonwillfeelkeenly,asneverbefore,theabsenceoffriends,or
asweetheart,orawife,orchildren.Hewillhungerforaffectionaterelationswithpeopleingeneral,namely,
foraplaceinhisgroup,andhewillstrivewithgreatintensitytoachievethisgoal.Hewillwanttoattain
suchaplacemorethananythingelseintheworldandmayevenforgetthatonce,whenhewashungry,he
sneeredatlove.

Inoursocietythethwartingoftheseneedsisthemostcommonlyfoundcoreincasesofmaladjustmentand
moreseverepsychopathology.Loveandaffection,aswellastheirpossibleexpressioninsexuality,are
generallylookeduponwithambivalenceandarecustomarilyhedgedaboutwithmanyrestrictionsand
inhibitions.Practicallyalltheoristsofpsychopathologyhavestressedthwartingoftheloveneedsasbasicin
thepictureofmaladjustment.Manyclinicalstudieshavethereforebeenmadeofthisneedandweknow
moreaboutitperhapsthananyoftheotherneedsexceptthephysiologicalones(14).

Onethingthatmustbestressedatthispointisthatloveisnotsynonymouswithsex.Sexmaybestudiedasa
purelyphysiologicalneed.Ordinarilysexualbehaviorismultidetermined,thatistosay,determinednotonly
bysexualbutalsobyotherneeds,chiefamongwhicharetheloveandaffectionneeds.Alsonottobe
overlookedisthefactthattheloveneedsinvolvebothgivingandreceivinglove.[4]

Theesteemneeds.Allpeopleinoursociety(withafewpathologicalexceptions)haveaneedordesirefor
astable,firmlybased,(usually)highevaluationofthemselves,forselfrespect,orselfesteem,andforthe
esteemofothers.Byfirmlybasedselfesteem,wemeanthatwhichissoundlybaseduponrealcapacity,
achievementandrespectfromothers.Theseneedsmaybeclassifiedintotwosubsidiarysets.Theseare,first,
thedesireforstrength,forachievement,foradequacy,forconfidenceinthefaceoftheworld,andfor
independenceandfreedom.[5]Secondly,wehavewhat[p.382]wemaycallthedesireforreputationor
prestige(definingitasrespectoresteemfromotherpeople),recognition,attention,importanceor
appreciation.[6]TheseneedshavebeenrelativelystressedbyAlfredAdlerandhisfollowers,andhavebeen
relativelyneglectedbyFreudandthepsychoanalysts.Moreandmoretodayhoweverthereisappearing
widespreadappreciationoftheircentralimportance.

Satisfactionoftheselfesteemneedleadstofeelingsofselfconfidence,worth,strength,capabilityand
adequacyofbeingusefulandnecessaryintheworld.Butthwartingoftheseneedsproducesfeelingsof
inferiority,ofweaknessandofhelplessness.Thesefeelingsinturngiverisetoeitherbasicdiscouragementor
elsecompensatoryorneurotictrends.Anappreciationofthenecessityofbasicselfconfidenceandan
understandingofhowhelplesspeoplearewithoutit,canbeeasilygainedfromastudyofseveretraumatic
neurosis(8).[7]

Theneedforselfactualization.Evenifalltheseneedsaresatisfied,wemaystilloften(ifnotalways)
expectthatanewdiscontentandrestlessnesswillsoondevelop,unlesstheindividualisdoingwhatheis
fittedfor.Amusicianmustmakemusic,anartistmustpaint,apoetmustwrite,ifheistobeultimately
happy.Whatamancanbe,hemustbe.Thisneedwemaycallselfactualization.

Thisterm,firstcoinedbyKurtGoldstein,isbeingusedinthispaperinamuchmorespecificandlimited
fashion.Itreferstothedesireforselffulfillment,namely,tothetendencyforhimtobecomeactualizedin

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whatheispotentially.Thistendencymightbephrasedasthedesiretobecomemoreandmorewhatoneis,to
becomeeverythingthatoneiscapableofbecoming.[p.383]

Thespecificformthattheseneedswilltakewillofcoursevarygreatlyfrompersontoperson.Inone
individualitmaytaketheformofthedesiretobeanidealmother,inanotheritmaybeexpressed
athletically,andinstillanotheritmaybeexpressedinpaintingpicturesorininventions.Itisnotnecessarily
acreativeurgealthoughinpeoplewhohaveanycapacitiesforcreationitwilltakethisform.

Theclearemergenceoftheseneedsrestsuponpriorsatisfactionofthephysiological,safety,loveandesteem
needs.Weshallcallpeoplewhoaresatisfiedintheseneeds,basicallysatisfiedpeople,anditisfromthese
thatwemayexpectthefullest(andhealthiest)creativeness.[8]Since,inoursociety,basicallysatisfied
peoplearetheexception,wedonotknowmuchaboutselfactualization,eitherexperimentallyorclinically.
Itremainsachallengingproblemforresearch.

Thepreconditionsforthebasicneedsatisfactions.Therearecertainconditionswhichareimmediate
prerequisitesforthebasicneedsatisfactions.Dangertotheseisreactedtoalmostasifitwereadirectdanger
tothebasicneedsthemselves.Suchconditionsasfreedomtospeak,freedomtodowhatonewishessolong
asnoharmisdonetoothers,freedomtoexpressone'sself,freedomtoinvestigateandseekforinformation,
freedomtodefendone'sself,justice,fairness,honesty,orderlinessinthegroupareexamplesofsuch
preconditionsforbasicneedsatisfactions.Thwartinginthesefreedomswillbereactedtowithathreator
emergencyresponse.Theseconditionsarenotendsinthemselvesbuttheyarealmostsosincetheyareso
closelyrelatedtothebasicneeds,whichareapparentlytheonlyendsinthemselves.Theseconditionsare
defendedbecausewithoutthemthebasicsatisfactionsarequiteimpossible,oratleast,veryseverely
endangered.[p.384]

Ifwerememberthatthecognitivecapacities(perceptual,intellectual,learning)areasetofadjustivetools,
whichhave,amongotherfunctions,thatofsatisfactionofourbasicneeds,thenitisclearthatanydangerto
them,anydeprivationorblockingoftheirfreeuse,mustalsobeindirectlythreateningtothebasicneeds
themselves.Suchastatementisapartialsolutionofthegeneralproblemsofcuriosity,thesearchfor
knowledge,truthandwisdom,andtheeverpersistenturgetosolvethecosmicmysteries.

Wemustthereforeintroduceanotherhypothesisandspeakofdegreesofclosenesstothebasicneeds,forwe
havealreadypointedoutthatanyconsciousdesires(partialgoals)aremoreorlessimportantastheyare
moreorlessclosetothebasicneeds.Thesamestatementmaybemadeforvariousbehavioracts.Anactis
psychologicallyimportantifitcontributesdirectlytosatisfactionofbasicneeds.Thelessdirectlyitso
contributes,ortheweakerthiscontributionis,thelessimportantthisactmustbeconceivedtobefromthe
pointofviewofdynamicpsychology.Asimilarstatementmaybemadeforthevariousdefenseorcoping
mechanisms.Someareverydirectlyrelatedtotheprotectionorattainmentofthebasicneeds,othersareonly
weaklyanddistantlyrelated.Indeedifwewished,wecouldspeakofmorebasicandlessbasicdefense
mechanisms,andthenaffirmthatdangertothemorebasicdefensesismorethreateningthandangertoless
basicdefenses(alwaysrememberingthatthisissoonlybecauseoftheirrelationshiptothebasicneeds).

Thedesirestoknowandtounderstand.Sofar,wehavementionedthecognitiveneedsonlyinpassing.
Acquiringknowledgeandsystematizingtheuniversehavebeenconsideredas,inpart,techniquesforthe
achievementofbasicsafetyintheworld,or,fortheintelligentman,expressionsofselfactualization.Also
freedomofinquiryandexpressionhavebeendiscussedaspreconditionsofsatisfactionsofthebasicneeds.
Truethoughtheseformulationsmaybe,theydonotconstitutedefinitiveanswerstothequestionastothe
motivationroleofcuriosity,learning,philosophizing,experimenting,etc.Theyare,atbest,nomorethan
partialanswers.[p.385]

Thisquestionisespeciallydifficultbecauseweknowsolittleaboutthefacts.Curiosity,exploration,desire
forthefacts,desiretoknowmaycertainlybeobservedeasilyenough.Thefactthattheyoftenarepursued
evenatgreatcosttotheindividual'ssafetyisanearnestofthepartialcharacterofourpreviousdiscussion.In
addition,thewritermustadmitthat,thoughhehassufficientclinicalevidencetopostulatethedesiretoknow
asaverystrongdriveinintelligentpeople,nodataareavailableforunintelligentpeople.Itmaythenbe
largelyafunctionofrelativelyhighintelligence.Rathertentatively,then,andlargelyinthehopeof
stimulatingdiscussionandresearch,weshallpostulateabasicdesiretoknow,tobeawareofreality,toget
thefacts,tosatisfycuriosity,orasWertheimerphrasesit,toseeratherthantobeblind.

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Thispostulation,however,isnotenough.Evenafterweknow,weareimpelledtoknowmoreandmore
minutelyandmicroscopicallyontheonehand,andontheother,moreandmoreextensivelyinthedirection
ofaworldphilosophy,religion,etc.Thefactsthatweacquire,iftheyareisolatedoratomistic,inevitablyget
theorizedabout,andeitheranalyzedororganizedorboth.Thisprocesshasbeenphrasedbysomeasthe
searchfor'meaning.'Weshallthenpostulateadesiretounderstand,tosystematize,toorganize,toanalyze,to
lookforrelationsandmeanings.

Oncethesedesiresareacceptedfordiscussion,weseethattheytooformthemselvesintoasmallhierarchyin
whichthedesiretoknowisprepotentoverthedesiretounderstand.Allthecharacteristicsofahierarchyof
prepotencythatwehavedescribedabove,seemtoholdforthisoneaswell.

Wemustguardourselvesagainstthetooeasytendencytoseparatethesedesiresfromthebasicneedswe
havediscussedabove,i.e.,tomakeasharpdichotomybetween'cognitive'and'conative'needs.Thedesireto
knowandtounderstandarethemselvesconative,i.e.,haveastrivingcharacter,andareasmuchpersonality
needsasthe'basicneeds'wehavealreadydiscussed(19).[p.386]

III.FURTHERCHARACTERISTICSOFTHEBASICNEEDS

Thedegreeoffixityofthehierarchyofbasicneeds.Wehavespokensofarasifthishierarchywereafixed
orderbutactuallyitisnotnearlyasrigidaswemayhaveimplied.Itistruethatmostofthepeoplewith
whomwehaveworkedhaveseemedtohavethesebasicneedsinabouttheorderthathasbeenindicated.
However,therehavebeenanumberofexceptions.

(1)Therearesomepeopleinwhom,forinstance,selfesteemseemstobemoreimportantthanlove.This
mostcommonreversalinthehierarchyisusuallyduetothedevelopmentofthenotionthatthepersonwhois
mostlikelytobelovedisastrongorpowerfulperson,onewhoinspiresrespectorfear,andwhoisself
confidentoraggressive.Thereforesuchpeoplewholackloveandseekit,maytryhardtoputonafrontof
aggressive,confidentbehavior.Butessentiallytheyseekhighselfesteemanditsbehaviorexpressionsmore
asameanstoanendthanforitsownsaketheyseekselfassertionforthesakeofloveratherthanforself
esteemitself.

(2)Thereareother,apparentlyinnatelycreativepeopleinwhomthedrivetocreativenessseemstobemore
importantthananyothercounterdeterminant.Theircreativenessmightappearnotasselfactualization
releasedbybasicsatisfaction,butinspiteoflackofbasicsatisfaction.

(3)Incertainpeoplethelevelofaspirationmaybepermanentlydeadenedorlowered.Thatistosay,theless
prepotentgoalsmaysimplybelost,andmaydisappearforever,sothatthepersonwhohasexperiencedlife
ataverylowlevel,i.e.,chronicunemployment,maycontinuetobesatisfiedfortherestofhislifeifonlyhe
cangetenoughfood.

(4)Thesocalled'psychopathicpersonality'isanotherexampleofpermanentlossoftheloveneeds.These
arepeoplewho,accordingtothebestdataavailable(9),havebeenstarvedforloveintheearliestmonthsof
theirlivesandhavesimplylostforeverthedesireandtheabilitytogiveandtoreceiveaffection(asanimals
losesuckingorpeckingreflexesthatarenotexercisedsoonenoughafterbirth).[p.387]

(5)Anothercauseofreversalofthehierarchyisthatwhenaneedhasbeensatisfiedforalongtime,thisneed
maybeunderevaluated.Peoplewhohaveneverexperiencedchronichungerareapttounderestimateits
effectsandtolookuponfoodasaratherunimportantthing.Iftheyaredominatedbyahigherneed,this
higherneedwillseemtobethemostimportantofall.Itthenbecomespossible,andindeeddoesactually
happen,thattheymay,forthesakeofthishigherneed,putthemselvesintothepositionofbeingdeprivedin
amorebasicneed.Wemayexpectthatafteralongtimedeprivationofthemorebasicneedtherewillbea
tendencytoreevaluatebothneedssothatthemoreprepotentneedwillactuallybecomeconsciously
prepotentfortheindividualwhomayhavegivenitupverylightly.Thus,amanwhohasgivenuphisjob
ratherthanlosehisselfrespect,andwhothenstarvesforsixmonthsorso,maybewillingtotakehisjob
backevenatthepriceoflosinghisaselfrespect.

(6)Anotherpartialexplanationofapparentreversalsisseeninthefactthatwehavebeentalkingaboutthe
hierarchyofprepotencyintermsofconsciouslyfeltwantsordesiresratherthanofbehavior.Lookingat
behavioritselfmaygiveusthewrongimpression.Whatwehaveclaimedisthatthepersonwillwantthe
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morebasicoftwoneedswhendeprivedinboth.Thereisnonecessaryimplicationherethathewillactupon
hisdesires.Letussayagainthattherearemanydeterminantsofbehaviorotherthantheneedsanddesires.

(7)Perhapsmoreimportantthanalltheseexceptionsaretheonesthatinvolveideals,highsocialstandards,
highvaluesandthelike.Withsuchvaluespeoplebecomemartyrstheygiveupeverythingforthesakeofa
particularideal,orvalue.Thesepeoplemaybeunderstood,atleastinpart,byreferencetoonebasicconcept
(orhypothesis)whichmaybecalled'increasedfrustrationtolerancethroughearlygratification'.Peoplewho
havebeensatisfiedintheirbasicneedsthroughouttheirlives,particularlyintheirearlieryears,seemto
developexceptionalpowertowithstandpresentorfuturethwartingoftheseneedssimplybecausetheyhave
strong,[p.388]healthycharacterstructureasaresultofbasicsatisfaction.Theyarethe'strong'peoplewho
caneasilyweatherdisagreementoropposition,whocanswimagainstthestreamofpublicopinionandwho
canstandupforthetruthatgreatpersonalcost.Itisjusttheoneswhohavelovedandbeenwellloved,and
whohavehadmanydeepfriendshipswhocanholdoutagainsthatred,rejectionorpersecution.

Isayallthisinspiteofthefactthatthereisacertainamountofsheerhabituationwhichisalsoinvolvedin
anyfulldiscussionoffrustrationtolerance.Forinstance,itislikelythatthosepersonswhohavebeen
accustomedtorelativestarvationforalongtime,arepartiallyenabledtherebytowithstandfooddeprivation.
Whatsortofbalancemustbemadebetweenthesetwotendencies,ofhabituationontheonehand,andofpast
satisfactionbreedingpresentfrustrationtoleranceontheotherhand,remainstobeworkedoutbyfurther
research.Meanwhilewemayassumethattheyarebothoperative,sidebyside,sincetheydonotcontradict
eachother,Inrespecttothisphenomenonofincreasedfrustrationtolerance,itseemsprobablethatthemost
importantgratificationscomeinthefirsttwoyearsoflife.Thatistosay,peoplewhohavebeenmadesecure
andstrongintheearliestyears,tendtoremainsecureandstrongthereafterinthefaceofwhateverthreatens.

Degreeofrelativesatisfaction.Sofar,ourtheoreticaldiscussionmayhavegiventheimpressionthatthese
fivesetsofneedsaresomehowinastepwise,allornonerelationshipstoeachother.Wehavespokenin
suchtermsasthefollowing:"Ifoneneedissatisfied,thenanotheremerges."Thisstatementmightgivethe
falseimpressionthataneedmustbesatisfied100percentbeforethenextneedemerges.Inactualfact,most
membersofoursocietywhoarenormal,arepartiallysatisfiedinalltheirbasicneedsandpartially
unsatisfiedinalltheirbasicneedsatthesametime.Amorerealisticdescriptionofthehierarchywouldbein
termsofdecreasingpercentagesofsatisfactionaswegoupthehierarchyofprepotency,Forinstance,ifI
mayassignarbitraryfiguresforthesakeofillustration,itisasiftheaveragecitizen[p.389]issatisfied
perhaps85percentinhisphysiologicalneeds,70percentinhissafetyneeds,50percentinhisloveneeds,
40percentinhisselfesteemneeds,and10percentinhisselfactualizationneeds.

Asfortheconceptofemergenceofanewneedaftersatisfactionoftheprepotentneed,thisemergenceisnot
asudden,saltatoryphenomenonbutratheragradualemergencebyslowdegreesfromnothingness.For
instance,ifprepotentneedAissatisfiedonly10percent:thenneedBmaynotbevisibleatall.However,as
thisneedAbecomessatisfied25percent,needBmayemerge5percent,asneedAbecomessatisfied75per
centneedBmayemergegopercent,andsoon.

Unconsciouscharacterofneeds.Theseneedsareneithernecessarilyconsciousnorunconscious.Onthe
whole,however,intheaverageperson,theyaremoreoftenunconsciousratherthanconscious.Itisnot
necessaryatthispointtooverhaulthetremendousmassofevidencewhichindicatesthecrucialimportance
ofunconsciousmotivation.Itwouldbynowbeexpected,onapriorigroundsalone,thatunconscious
motivationswouldonthewholeberathermoreimportantthantheconsciousmotivations.Whatwehave
calledthebasicneedsareveryoftenlargelyunconsciousalthoughtheymay,withsuitabletechniques,and
withsophisticatedpeoplebecomeconscious.

Culturalspecificityandgeneralityofneeds.Thisclassificationofbasicneedsmakessomeattempttotake
accountoftherelativeunitybehindthesuperficialdifferencesinspecificdesiresfromoneculturetoanother.
Certainlyinanyparticularcultureanindividual'sconsciousmotivationalcontentwillusuallybeextremely
differentfromtheconsciousmotivationalcontentofanindividualinanothersociety.However,itisthe
commonexperienceofanthropologiststhatpeople,evenindifferentsocieties,aremuchmorealikethanwe
wouldthinkfromourfirstcontactwiththem,andthatasweknowthembetterweseemtofindmoreand
moreofthiscommonness,Wethenrecognizethemoststartlingdifferencestobesuperficialratherthan
basic,e.g.,differencesinstyleofhairdress,clothes,tastesinfood,etc.Ourclassificationofbasic[p.390]
needsisinpartanattempttoaccountforthisunitybehindtheapparentdiversityfromculturetoculture.No

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claimismadethatitisultimateoruniversalforallcultures.Theclaimismadeonlythatitisrelativelymore
ultimate,moreuniversal,morebasic,thanthesuperficialconsciousdesiresfromculturetoculture,and
makesasomewhatcloserapproachtocommonhumancharacteristics,Basicneedsaremorecommonhuman
thansuperficialdesiresorbehaviors.

Multiplemotivationsofbehavior.Theseneedsmustbeunderstoodnottobeexclusiveorsingle
determinersofcertainkindsofbehavior.Anexamplemaybefoundinanybehaviorthatseemstobe
physiologicallymotivated,suchaseating,orsexualplayorthelike.Theclinicalpsychologistshavelong
sincefoundthatanybehaviormaybeachannelthroughwhichflowvariousdeterminants.Ortosayitin
anotherway,mostbehaviorismultimotivated.Withinthesphereofmotivationaldeterminantsanybehavior
tendstobedeterminedbyseveralorallofthebasicneedssimultaneouslyratherthanbyonlyoneofthem.
Thelatterwouldbemoreanexceptionthantheformer.Eatingmaybepartiallyforthesakeoffillingthe
stomach,andpartiallyforthesakeofcomfortandameliorationofotherneeds.Onemaymakelovenotonly
forpuresexualrelease,butalsotoconvinceone'sselfofone'smasculinity,ortomakeaconquest,tofeel
powerful,ortowinmorebasicaffection.Asanillustration,Imaypointoutthatitwouldbepossible
(theoreticallyifnotpractically)toanalyzeasingleactofanindividualandseeinittheexpressionofhis
physiologicalneeds,hissafetyneeds,hisloveneeds,hisesteemneedsandselfactualization.Thiscontrasts
sharplywiththemorenaivebrandoftraitpsychologyinwhichonetraitoronemotiveaccountsforacertain
kindofact,i.e.,anaggressiveactistracedsolelytoatraitofaggressiveness.

Multipledeterminantsofbehavior.Notallbehaviorisdeterminedbythebasicneeds.Wemightevensay
thatnotallbehaviorismotivated.Therearemanydeterminantsofbehaviorotherthanmotives.[9]For
instance,oneotherim[p.391]portantclassofdeterminantsisthesocalled'field'determinants.
Theoretically,atleast,behaviormaybedeterminedcompletelybythefield,orevenbyspecificisolated
externalstimuli,asinassociationofideas,orcertainconditionedreflexes.Ifinresponsetothestimulusword
'table'Iimmediatelyperceiveamemoryimageofatable,thisresponsecertainlyhasnothingtodowithmy
basicneeds.

Secondly,wemaycallattentionagaintotheconceptof'degreeofclosenesstothebasicneeds'or'degreeof
motivation.'Somebehaviorishighlymotivated,otherbehaviorisonlyweaklymotivated.Someisnot
motivatedatall(butallbehaviorisdetermined).

Anotherimportantpoint[10]isthatthereisabasicdifferencebetweenexpressivebehaviorandcoping
behavior(functionalstriving,purposivegoalseeking).Anexpressivebehaviordoesnottrytodoanythingit
issimplyareflectionofthepersonality.Astupidmanbehavesstupidly,notbecausehewantsto,ortriesto,
orismotivatedto,butsimplybecauseheiswhatheis.ThesameistruewhenIspeakinabassvoicerather
thantenororsoprano.Therandommovementsofahealthychild,thesmileonthefaceofahappymaneven
whenheisalone,thespringinessofthehealthyman'swalk,andtheerectnessofhiscarriageareother
examplesofexpressive,nonfunctionalbehavior.Alsothestyleinwhichamancarriesoutalmostallhis
behavior,motivatedaswellasunmotivated,isoftenexpressive.

Wemaythenask,isallbehaviorexpressiveorreflectiveofthecharacterstructure?Theansweris'No.'Rote,
habitual,automatized,orconventionalbehaviormayormaynotbeexpressive.Thesameistrueformost
'stimulusbound'behaviors.Itisfinallynecessarytostressthatexpressivenessofbehavior,andgoal
directednessofbehaviorarenotmutuallyexclusivecategories.Averagebehaviorisusuallyboth.

Goalsascenteringprincipleinmotivationtheory.Itwillbeobservedthatthebasicprincipleinour
classificationhas[p.392]beenneithertheinstigationnorthemotivatedbehaviorbutratherthefunctions,
effects,purposes,orgoalsofthebehavior.Ithasbeenprovensufficientlybyvariouspeoplethatthisisthe
mostsuitablepointforcenteringinanymotivationtheory.[11]

Animalandhumancentering.Thistheorystartswiththehumanbeingratherthananylowerand
presumably'simpler'animal.Toomanyofthefindingsthathavebeenmadeinanimalshavebeenprovento
betrueforanimalsbutnotforthehumanbeing.Thereisnoreasonwhatsoeverwhyweshouldstartwith
animalsinordertostudyhumanmotivation.Thelogicorratherillogicbehindthisgeneralfallacyof'pseudo
simplicity'hasbeenexposedoftenenoughbyphilosophersandlogiciansaswellasbyscientistsineachof
thevariousfields.Itisnomorenecessarytostudyanimalsbeforeonecanstudymanthanitistostudy
mathematicsbeforeonecanstudygeologyorpsychologyorbiology.

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Wemayalsorejecttheold,naive,behaviorismwhichassumedthatitwassomehownecessary,oratleast
more'scientific'tojudgehumanbeingsbyanimalstandards.Oneconsequenceofthisbeliefwasthatthe
wholenotionofpurposeandgoalwasexcludedfrommotivationalpsychologysimplybecauseonecouldnot
askawhiteratabouthispurposes.Tolman(18)haslongsinceproveninanimalstudiesthemselvesthatthis
exclusionwasnotnecessary.

Motivationandthetheoryofpsychopathogenesis.Theconsciousmotivationalcontentofeverydaylifehas,
accordingtotheforegoing,beenconceivedtoberelativelyimportantorunimportantaccordinglyasitis
moreorlesscloselyrelatedtothebasicgoals.Adesireforanicecreamconemightactuallybeanindirect
expressionofadesireforlove.Ifitis,thenthisdesirefortheicecreamconebecomesextremelyimportant
motivation.Ifhowevertheicecreamissimplysomethingtocoolthemouthwith,oracasualappetitive
reaction,thenthedesireisrelativelyunimportant.Everydayconsciousdesiresaretoberegardedas
symptoms,as[p.393]surfaceindicatorsofmorebasicneeds.Ifweweretotakethesesuperficialdesiresat
theirfacevaluemewouldfindourselvesinastateofcompleteconfusionwhichcouldneverberesolved,
sincewewouldbedealingseriouslywithsymptomsratherthanwithwhatlaybehindthesymptoms.

Thwartingofunimportantdesiresproducesnopsychopathologicalresultsthwartingofabasicallyimportant
needdoesproducesuchresults.Anytheoryofpsychopathogenesismustthenbebasedonasoundtheoryof
motivation.Aconflictorafrustrationisnotnecessarilypathogenic.Itbecomessoonlywhenitthreatensor
thwartsthebasicneeds,orpartialneedsthatarecloselyrelatedtothebasicneeds(10).

Theroleofgratifiedneeds.Ithasbeenpointedoutaboveseveraltimesthatourneedsusuallyemergeonly
whenmoreprepotentneedshavebeengratified.Thusgratificationhasanimportantroleinmotivation
theory.Apartfromthis,however,needsceasetoplayanactivedeterminingororganizingroleassoonas
theyaregratified.

Whatthismeansisthat,e.g.,abasicallysatisfiedpersonnolongerhastheneedsforesteem,love,safety,etc.
Theonlysenseinwhichhemightbesaidtohavethemisinthealmostmetaphysicalsensethatasatedman
hashunger,orafilledbottlehasemptiness.Ifweareinterestedinwhatactuallymotivatesus,andnotin
whathas,will,ormightmotivateus,thenasatisfiedneedisnotamotivator.Itmustbeconsideredforall
practicalpurposessimplynottoexist,tohavedisappeared.Thispointshouldbeemphasizedbecauseithas
beeneitheroverlookedorcontradictedineverytheoryofmotivationIknow.[12]Theperfectlyhealthy,
normal,fortunatemanhasnosexneedsorhungerneeds,orneedsforsafety,orforlove,orforprestige,or
selfesteem,exceptinstraymomentsofquicklypassingthreat.Ifweweretosayotherwise,weshouldalso
havetoaverthateverymanhadallthepathologicalreflexes,e.g.,Babinski,etc.,becauseifhisnervous
systemweredamaged,thesewouldappear.

Itissuchconsiderationsasthesethatsuggestthebold[p.394]postulationthatamanwhoisthwartedinany
ofhisbasicneedsmayfairlybeenvisagedsimplyasasickman.Thisisafairparalleltoourdesignationas
'sick'ofthemanwholacksvitaminsorminerals.Whoistosaythatalackofloveislessimportantthana
lackofvitamins?Sinceweknowthepathogeniceffectsoflovestarvation,whoistosaythatweareinvoking
valuequestionsinanunscientificorillegitimateway,anymorethanthephysiciandoeswhodiagnosesand
treatspellagraorscurvy?IfIwerepermittedthisusage,Ishouldthensaysimplythatahealthymanis
primarilymotivatedbyhisneedstodevelopandactualizehisfullestpotentialitiesandcapacities.Ifaman
hasanyotherbasicneedsinanyactive,chronicsense,thenheissimplyanunhealthyman.Heisassurely
sickasifhehadsuddenlydevelopedastrongsalthungerorcalciumhunger.[13]

Ifthisstatementseemsunusualorparadoxicalthereadermaybeassuredthatthisisonlyoneamongmany
suchparadoxesthatwillappearaswereviseourwaysoflookingatman'sdeepermotivations.Whenweask
whatmanwantsoflife,wedealwithhisveryessence.

IV.SUMMARY

(1)Thereareatleastfivesetsofgoals,whichwemaycallbasicneeds.Thesearebrieflyphysiological,
safety,love,'esteem,andselfactualization.Inaddition,wearemotivatedbythedesiretoachieveor
maintainthevariousconditionsuponwhichthesebasicsatisfactionsrestandbycertainmoreintellectual
desires.

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(2)Thesebasicgoalsarerelatedtoeachother,beingarrangedinahierarchyofprepotency.Thismeansthat
themostprepotentgoalwillmonopolizeconsciousnessandwilltendofitselftoorganizetherecruitmentof
thevariouscapacitiesoftheorganism.Thelessprepotentneedsare[p.395]minimized,evenforgottenor
denied.Butwhenaneedisfairlywellsatisfied,thenextprepotent('higher')needemerges,inturnto
dominatetheconsciouslifeandtoserveasthecenteroforganizationofbehavior,sincegratifiedneedsare
notactivemotivators.

Thusmanisaperpetuallywantinganimal.Ordinarilythesatisfactionofthesewantsisnotaltogether
mutuallyexclusive,butonlytendstobe.Theaveragememberofoursocietyismostoftenpartiallysatisfied
andpartiallyunsatisfiedinallofhiswants.Thehierarchyprincipleisusuallyempiricallyobservedinterms
ofincreasingpercentagesofnonsatisfactionaswegoupthehierarchy.Reversalsoftheaverageorderofthe
hierarchyaresometimesobserved.Alsoithasbeenobservedthatanindividualmaypermanentlylosethe
higherwantsinthehierarchyunderspecialconditions.Therearenotonlyordinarilymultiplemotivationsfor
usualbehavior,butinadditionmanydeterminantsotherthanmotives.

(3)Anythwartingorpossibilityofthwartingofthesebasichumangoals,ordangertothedefenseswhich
protectthem,ortotheconditionsuponwhichtheyrest,isconsideredtobeapsychologicalthreat.Withafew
exceptions,allpsychopathologymaybepartiallytracedtosuchthreats.Abasicallythwartedmanmay
actuallybedefinedasa'sick'man,ifwewish.

(4)Itissuchbasicthreatswhichbringaboutthegeneralemergencyreactions.

(5)Certainotherbasicproblemshavenotbeendealtwithbecauseoflimitationsofspace.Amongtheseare
(a)theproblemofvaluesinanydefinitivemotivationtheory,(b)therelationbetweenappetites,desires,
needsandwhatis'good'fortheorganism,(c)theetiologyofthebasicneedsandtheirpossiblederivationin
earlychildhood,(d)redefinitionofmotivationalconcepts,i.e.,drive,desire,wish,need,goal,(e)implication
ofourtheoryforhedonistictheory,(f)thenatureoftheuncompletedact,ofsuccessandfailure,andof
aspirationlevel,(g)theroleofassociation,habitandconditioning,(h)relationtothe[p.396]theoryofinter
personalrelations,(i)implicationsforpsychotherapy,(j)implicationfortheoryofsociety,(k)thetheoryof
selfishness,(l)therelationbetweenneedsandculturalpatterns,(m)therelationbetweenthistheoryand
Alport'stheoryoffunctionalautonomy.Theseaswellascertainotherlessimportantquestionsmustbe
consideredasmotivationtheoryattemptstobecomedefinitive.

Notes

[1]Asthechildgrowsup,sheerknowledgeandfamiliarityaswellasbettermotordevelopmentmakethese
'dangers'lessandlessdangerousandmoreandmoremanageable.Throughoutlifeitmaybesaidthatoneof
themainconativefunctionsofeducationisthisneutralizingofapparentdangersthroughknowledge,e.g.,I
amnotafraidofthunderbecauseIknowsomethingaboutit.

[2]A'testbattery'forsafetymightbeconfrontingthechildwithasmallexplodingfirecracker,orwitha
bewhiskeredfacehavingthemotherleavetheroom,puttinghimuponahighladder,ahypodermicinjection,
havingamousecrawluptohim,etc.OfcourseIcannotseriouslyrecommendthedeliberateuseofsuch
'tests'fortheymightverywellharmthechildbeingtested.Buttheseandsimilarsituationscomeupbythe
scoreinthechild'sordinarydaytodaylivingandmaybeobserved.Thereisnoreasonwhythosestimuli
shouldnotbeusedwith,farexample,youngchimpanzees.

[3]Notallneuroticindividualsfeelunsafe.Neurosismayhaveatitscoreathwartingoftheaffectionand
esteemneedsinapersonwhoisgenerallysafe.

[4]Forfurtherdetailssee(12)and(16,Chap.5).

[5]Whetherornotthisparticulardesireisuniversalwedonotknow.Thecrucialquestion,especially
importanttoday,is"Willmenwhoareenslavedanddominatedinevitablyfeeldissatisfiedandrebellious?"
Wemayassumeonthebasisofcommonlyknownclinicaldatathatamanwhohasknowntruefreedom(not
paidforbygivingupsafetyandsecuritybutratherbuiltonthebasisofadequatesafetyandsecurity)willnot
willinglyoreasilyallowhisfreedomtobetakenawayfromhim.Butwedonotknowthatthisistrueforthe

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personbornintoslavery.Theeventsofthenextdecadeshouldgiveusouranswer.Seediscussionofthis
problemin(5).

[6]Perhapsthedesireforprestigeandrespectfromothersissubsidiarytothedesireforselfesteemor
confidenceinoneself.Observationofchildrenseemstoindicatethatthisisso,butclinicaldatagivenoclear
supportforsuchaconclusion.

[7]Formoreextensivediscussionofnormalselfesteem,aswellasforreportsofvariousresearches,see
(11).

[8]Clearlycreativebehavior,likepainting,islikeanyotherbehaviorinhavingmultiple,determinants.It
maybeseenin'innatelycreative'peoplewhethertheyaresatisfiedornot,happyorunhappy,hungryor
sated.Alsoitisclearthatcreativeactivitymaybecompensatory,ameliorativeorpurelyeconomic.Itismy
impression(asyetunconfirmed)thatitispossibletodistinguishtheartisticandintellectualproductsof
basicallysatisfiedpeoplefromthoseofbasicallyunsatisfiedpeoplebyinspectionalone.Inanycase,heretoo
wemustdistinguish,inadynamicfashion,theovertbehavioritselffromitsvariousmotivationsorpurposes.

[9]Iamawarethatmanypsychologistsmdpsychoanalystsusetheterm'motivated'and'determined'
synonymously,e.g.,Freud.ButIconsiderthisanobfuscatingusage.Sharpdistinctionsarenecessaryfor
clarityofthought,andprecisioninexperimentation.

[10]Tobediscussedfullyinasubsequentpublication.

[11]TheinterestedreaderisreferredtotheveryexcellentdiscussionofthispointinMurray'sExplorations
inPersonality(15).

[12]NotethatacceptanceofthistheorynecessitatesbasicrevisionoftheFreudiantheory.

[13]Ifweweretousetheword'sick'inthisway,weshouldthenalsohavetofacesquarelytherelationsof
mantohissociety.Oneclearimplicationofourdefinitionwouldbethat(1)sinceamanistobecalledsick
whoisbasicallythwarted,and(2)sincesuchbasicthwartingismadepossibleultimatelyonlybyforces
outsidetheindividual,then(3)sicknessintheindividualmustcomeultimatelyfromsicknessinthesociety.
The'good'orhealthysocietywouldthenbedefinedasonethatpermittedman'shighestpurposestoemerge
bysatisfyingallhisprepotentbasicneeds.

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