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Kathmandu, Nepal

Project Report On:



Submitted by : Submitted to:

Amit Chapagain(067/BIE/3) Department Of Industrial Engineering
Thapathali Campus, Kathmandu
Bivek Sapkota(067/BIE/11)
Shrawan Kr. Chaudhary(067/BIE/40)
Sudin Khanal(067/BIE/43)

Date of submission : 11 May 2014

We would like to express our earnest gratitude to our respected teacher Er. Sudan
Neupane (ACT. HOD, Department of Industrial Engineering) for his for his constructive
suggestions and support, we like to express great appreciation to project supervisor Er.
Sammy Pradhan for his valuable instruction and guidance

We extend our gratitude to Prof. Dr. Govinda Raj Pokharel, Former Executive Director of
Alternative Energy Promotion center, Khumaltar, Lalitpur to support on financial matter.
Likewise, Dr.Rabindra Dhakal, Senior Scientist of Nepal Academy of Science,
Khumaltar, and Lalitpur deserve our sincere thanks for his guidance.

At last, we would like to express our thanks to all those who helped us one way or other,
in course of this project.

The world is being modernized and industrialized day by day. As a result, vehicles and engines
are increasing. But energy sources used in these engines are limited and decreasing gradually.
The rapidly depleting conventional petroleum resources have promoted research for alternative
fuels for diesel engines. Bio-fuel, a promising substitute as an alternative fuel has got significant
attention due to the limited sources of conventional fuels and environmental concern. From
different possible options, fuels derived from vegetable oil present promising renewable
substitutes for fossil fuels. The utilization of Straight vegetable oil fuel in diesel engine fuel has
main the advantage of eliminating the energy, cost and time consumed in biodiesel production.
Oil derived from Jatropha curcas plant has been considered as a sustainable alternate fuel for
diesel engine. The use of straight vegetable oil encounters problem due to its high viscosity, poor
volatility, and cold flow. The purpose of this study is to reduce the viscosity of oil by effectively
utilization of waste heat from exhaust gases before fed to inlet along with the initial electronic
heating system and favorable properties compared to diesel can be obtained.
Table of Content

1. Title
2. Acknowledgement
3. Abstract
4. Table of content
5. Introduction
6. Need /Importance
7. Objectives
8. Limitation
9. Literature review
Existing technology
Related researches and papers
10. Methodology
11. Findings and Analysis
Technical Feasibility
12. Conclusion
13. Recommendation
14. References
15. List Of Figures

Our world today is highly dependent on internal combustion engines for various activities
such as power generation, industrialization, and transportation. Most common fuels used in these
engines are petroleum oil. Due to vigorous use, fossil fuels including petroleum oil are at the
verge of exhaustion. If same situation continues, in upcoming years world will be more
terrorized by shortage of fuel then by actual terrorism. Hence, race for search of new reliable fuel
resources has started. In this process, biodiesel has appeared as a promising alternate fuel source
that has potential to replace diesel. Realizing importance of biodiesel, massive study is being
carried out by developed countries as well as some developing countries. Biodiesel seems to be a
promising potential fuel in context of Nepal too. It can aid to solve fuel shortage problem often
faced by the country and help to reduce dependency upon foreign nations for fuel. On the other
hand, biodiesel has its own environmental advantages over diesel. Although biodiesel accounts
huge potential in context of Nepal, very less research has been done in this field. Only few
institutions have tested lower blends of biodiesel (B5, B10, B14, and B20) in diesel engines in
the name of research. So our team decided to conduct a research activity to modify an existing
diesel engine to operate on higher blends of biodiesel and gradually test the performance and
emission of the modified prototype with higher blends (B50 and B100).

The major problems with use of higher blends of biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine are poor fuel
atomization and low volatility due to their high viscosity. Various literatures suggest heating of
biodiesel can lower its viscosity to the acceptable limits hence improving atomization and
volatility. Our team will built an exhaust heat recovering system to heat the biodiesel up to the
required temperature throughout the operation of engine. Our team also purposes to develop an
electrical heating unit to heat the biodiesel for starting of engine to omit dependency over diesel
to start the engine. As jatropha oil is dominantly available in local market and holds better
potential in context of Nepal, our team shall develop the prototype considering the parameters of
Jatropha biodiesel. Completion of our project will open up new field for further research in
biodiesel. It will act as a platform and serve with raw data for the upcoming researchers in the
relevant field. It will also open the possibilities for using higher blend biodiesel as daily fuel.

Need and Importance

Price of conventional petroleum oil is sky rocketing :
Studying recent history, we can observe rise in price of petroleum fuel 4 times in single
year. As there is direct impact of petroleum price on different sectors such as
transportations, agriculture , Industries, and general purpose, hence petroleum oil is
measure cause of inflation.
Exhaustion of fuel source: Petroleum fuel sources are on the verse of exhaustation even
most optimist scientists expect petroleum oil to exhaust within 40 years. If same situation
continues, in upcoming years world will be more terrorized by shortage of fuel then by
actual terrorism.
Fluctuation in National supply : There is regular fluctuation in supply of petroleum fuel
from Indian Oil Corporation due to various financial, political reasons. Biodiesel will act
to complement this fluctuation and smoothen the availability.
Generation of new employment: Cultivation of Jatropha and processing of biodiesel will
generate new employment opportunity for our country for unemployed mass.
Environmental benefits : Various research papers supports low emission from biodiesel
compared to conventional fuel sources.
To test viscosity of various blends of Jatropha biodiesel as a fuel
To fabricate the exhaust heat recovery system for maintaining viscosity of fuel
To run the prototype with various blends of Jatropha biodiesel.
To test the performance and emission of prototype with diesel and Jatropha biodiesel

Time boundance.
Cannot run fully on B100.
Lack of testing facility.
Insuffiency of research material and reference.

Literature review
S.K. Haldar [31] this paper investigates nonedible straight vegetable oils of Putranjiva,
Jatropha and Karanja to find out the most suitable alternative diesel by a chemical processing.
Degumming is an economical chemical process that is done by concentrated phosphoric acid.
This process is applied to the above-mentioned non-edible oils to remove the impurities for the
improvement of viscosity, cetane number and better combustion in the diesel engine upto certain
blend of diesel and non-edible vegetable oils. Ten percent, 20%, 30% and 40% blends of
degummed non-edible oils and diesel are used in a Ricardo variable compression engine to study
and compare the performance and emission characteristics. It is observed that the non-edible oil
of Jatropha gives the best results related to the performance and emissions at high loads and 45
bTDC injection timing.

S. Naga Sarada [33] used LHR engine with carbureted methanol and crude jatropha oil,
which showed improved performance and decreased pollution levels in comparison with
conventional engine with pure diesel as fuel. It is reported that LHR engine decreased pollution
levels of Smoke and Aldehydes, compared to the conventional engine with alcohol operation.

A.Siva Kumar [34] conducted the performance test using Fish oil & Jatropha oil as fuels
in a diesel engine and reported that Air-fuel ratio; volumetric efficiency, Mechanical efficiency,
Brake thermal efficiency and Indicated thermal efficiency are increasing indicating that bio-
diesel is better than diesel. However there are a few drawbacks like higher flash and fire points,
viscosity and the percentage of carbon residue for bio-diesel are more when compared to diesel.
K. Pramanik [38] conducted performance test using blends and jatropha oil was evaluated in
a single cylinder C.I. engine and compared with the performance obtained with diesel. He found
that the blend up to 50%of Jatropha oil mixed with diesel was proved to be the best suitable oil
without modification of engine and without preheating of oil before entering into the combustion

V.Edwin Geo [35] exhibited the experimental results which showed that increase in brake
thermal efficiency from 26.56 % to 28.40 % when the fuel was preheated to a temperature of
150C. The CO and smoke emission of preheated RSO reduced by 29 % and 34 % respectively
at 150C compared to RSO at 30C. It indicated faster heat release and lead to higher thermal
efficiency. It was also concluded that the performance, combustion and emission parameters
were improved for preheated RSO compared to raw RSO at 30C (without preheating) but it was
still inferior to diesel. Agarwal et. al. conducted various experiments to study the effect of
reducing Jatropha oils viscosity by increasing the fuel temperature and thereby eliminating its
effect on combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. The acquired data were
analyzed for various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption
(BSFC), smoke opacity, and CO2, CO and HC emissions. While operating the engine on
preheated Jatropha oil performance and emission parameters were found to be very close to
mineral diesel for lower blend concentrations. However, for higher blend concentrations,
performance and emissions were observed to be marginally inferior [36].
Godiganur Sharanappa [37] used raw mahua oil and its blend, which resulted in inferior
performance, compared to that of diesel. By heating CMO, the viscosity reduces, at this
condition the brake thermal efficiencies are significantly improved and become close to diesel. It
is reported that by using CMO, bsfc and Brake thermal efficiency were improved. From the
experimental findings, it is concluded that CMO could be used as diesel fuel substituted by
reducing its viscosity than that of diesel achieved by preheating it to higher temperatures. O.M.I.
Nwafor [38] conducted the experiments, which shows CO, CO2 emissions for heated oils
are slightly higher and hydrocarbon emissions are reduced compared to diesel fuel. Ignition
delay was longer for unheated.
Chauhan et al. (2010) reported that by using a heat exchanger, preheated Jatropha oil has the
potential to be a substitute fuel for diesel engines. Optimal fuel inlet temperature was found to be
80C considering the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, and gaseous
A comparable engine performance and emissions are reported by Yilmaz and Morton (2011)
using preheated peanut, sunflower and canola oils in twoDI diesel engines. No (2011) reviewed
seven nonedible vegetable oils including Jatropha oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine.
Literature shows that up to 75 % of diesel requirement could be replaced by plant oils with
satisfactory engine performance. As mentioned above, diesel are still required (25 to 30 % of the
specific fuel consumption) to supplement plant oil. Short-term engine tests carried out indicate
that plant oils performed quite well. Problems occur only after the engine is operated on plant oil
for longer duration
of time. Vegetable oil heating is one of the techniques to reduce its viscosity. The fuel viscosity
at the fuel
injector is important for good atomization and combustion. With a high fuel viscosity, fuel spray
can impinge upon the walls of the combustion chamber resulting in delayed combustion and
burning. If heated to very high temperatures, low viscosity of the fuel can results in poor fuel
droplet penetration and poor combustion. High viscosity of the plant oils is considered and
presence of wax/gums etc. also adversely affects the engine performance.
To reduce the viscosity number of method has been tried by researcher such as;
1. Blending,
2. Transesterification,
3. Micro emulsion,
4. Pyrolysis or thermal cracking,
5. Engine setup modification [40].
3.1 Blending
Blending is the method in which Vegetable oil can be directly mixed with diesel fuel and may be
used for
running an engine without any modification. The blending of vegetable oil with diesel fuel in
different proportion were experimented successfully by various researchers. Blend of 20% oil
and 80% diesel have shown same results as diesel and also properties of the blend is almost close
to diesel. The blend with more than 40% has shown appreciable reduction in flash point due to
increase in viscosity. Some researchers suggested for heating of the fuel lines to reduce the
viscosity. Although short term tests using neat vegetable oil showed promising results, longer
tests led to injector coking, more engine deposits, ring sticking and thickening of the engine
3.2 Transesterification
Transesterification is the process wherein using an alcohol (e.g. methanol, ethanol or butanol), in
the presence of a catalyst, such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide, to break the
molecule of the raw renewable oil chemically into methyl or ethyl esters of the renewable oil,
with glycerol as a byproduct. Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of fatty acids derived
from vegetable oil or animal fat, in application as an extender for combustion in diesel engines,
has demonstrated a number of promising characteristics, including reduction of exhaust
emissions [41]. Transesterified, renewable oils have proven to be a viable alternative Diesel
engine fuel with characteristics similar to those of Diesel fuel. The transesterification reaction
proceeds with catalyst or without catalyst by using primary or secondary monohydric aliphatic
alcohols having 18 carbon atoms [41] as follows:
Triglycerides + Monohydric alcohol = Glycerin + Mono-alkyl esters.
3.3 Micro emulsification
To solve the problem of high viscosity of vegetable oil, micro emulsions with solvents such as
methanol,ethanol and butanol have been used. A micro emulsion is defined as the colloidal
equilibrium dispersion of optically isotropic fluid microstructures with dimensions generally in
the range of 1150 nm formed spontaneously from two normally immiscible liquids and one or
more ionic or non-ionic amphiphiles. These can improve spray characteristics by explosive
vaporization of the low boiling constituents in the micelles. All micro emulsions with butanol,
hexanol and octanol will meet the maximum
viscosity limitation for diesel engines [41].

Existing technology:
Use as jet fuel: Aviation fuels may be more widely substituted with biofuels such as jatropha oil
than fuels for other forms of transportation. On December 30, 2008, Air New Zealand flew the
first successful test flight with a Boeing 747 running one of its four
Tasks Weeks

Rolls-Royce engines on a 50:50 blend of jatropha oil and jet A-1 fuel. Subsequently, Air New
Zealand and Houston based Continental Airlines have run tests in Jan. 2009, further
demonstrating the viability of jatropha oil as a jet fuel.
Idea generation: all of the group members were involved in idea generation. among
different idea generated by different group members, the modification of diesel engine
for higher blend of biodiesel was selected as the best idea.

Literature review and consultation: as a consultation, we contacted Dr Rabindra Dhakal,

the senior scientist of NAST. Various ideas including the availability, and properties of
biodiesel were gained from him. Similarly, he gave us opportunity to test the viscosity of
biodiesel of different blend in various temperatures. In case of literature review, we went
through different research paper from the professor and researcher from various

Design development and consultation: in case of design development various design idea
were collected and developed by us. Some of the ideas were a pure failure whereas some
were partially feasible and required higher level of budget. finally the design struck on
our mind which wasnt only feasible but required less budget and could be completed by
adding minimal extra components and in lesser time. as for the consultation, we
consultated Er Sunny Pradhan for the modification of fuel system in engine. and similarly
lecturer er santa maharjan allowed us to understand the concept behind the automation
regarding the electronic heating system.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Literature review and research

workflow design

Consulting with guide and


Review of Design

Proposal preparation

Proposal Submission

Parameter Testing of Bio-Diesel

Prototype Development

Prototype test

preparation of report

submission of project and report

Fund generation: as the fund available from the campus final year project was nt
sufficient for kour project, we submitted the proposal for fund request at AEPC.

Biodiesel collection and testing: there was no biodiesel plant available in kathmandu
valley, we went to ramnagar, chitwan for the biodiesel collection where we were able to
collect 10 litre of pure biodiesel.

Prototype development: for the prototype development we included the two main
process involved for the heating of biodiesel, exhaust heat recovery system and the
electronic heating system. further we included the automatic heat regulation system and
solenoid valve control system for exhaust heat recovery system.

Prototype testing: emission test including the k-value and rpm value was done with the
equipment available in campus.
Technical Description
During the literature study, it was found that jatropha biodiesel has high viscosity of 12-13
centistokes at 20oC where as viscosity of diesel is 2.5-3.5centistokes at 20oC. this high viscosity
of the biodiesel is the reason for poor atomization and low volatility when used in diesel engine
as fuel. However, when the biodiesel is heated its viscosity decreases. Various published
research articles suggest reduction in viscosity to as low as 2.9 centistokes when heated up to 70o
C. We will heat the biodiesel up to 70o C to get desired viscosity in a controlled manner. Fuel
will be heated by using exhaust gas during the operation of engine and electrically at the starting
phase of engine.

Induction Heating Unit

Fuel Injector Fuel Filter Feed Pump Mini Reservoir Stainer Oil Tank


Exhaust Valve Unit Exhaust Pipe

Biodiesel flow direction

Exhaust flow direction

Engine: A usual direct injection 4-stroke diesel engine of 5.5hp from a water pump will be used
for our project. Engine block, fuel injector, fuel filter, and fuel pump, stainer will be used
without any modification.

Induction heating unit: this unit works at the starting phase of the engine. It works with the
external electric power generally with external power generally with the external battery. The
induction is wounded around the unit to be heated. Current of higher frequency of KHZ range is
passed through the induction coil that generates high amount of eddy current through the
material of the unit resulting into faster and easier method of heating.

Oil tank: It has the capacity of 3 liters. A heat exchanger will be fabricated around oil tank to
heat biodiesel with exhaust gas. Biodiesel will be partially heated up to 40oC. Oil tank will be
made up of copper sheet and mild steel sheet.

Mini Reservoir: mini reservoir acts as the buffer for fuel entering the engine. it is smaller than
the main fuel tank and has the capacity of about 100ml. the main purpose of the reservoir is to
allow the fuel to heat up to the pre-determined level of temperature which is about 80oc for
B100. Initially during the starting of the engine mini reservoir will be heated electrically. The
temperature of the oil in mini reservoir will be maintained by thermostatic valve during the
operation the engine.

Exhaust valve unit: It is a thermostatic valve used for maintaining constant temperature of fuel
in mini reservoir. It will be made by mild steel block.

Financial Analysis

Diesel Engine 5hp water pump 1 32000

Steel Pipe 2.5inch 2m 440

Steel Pipe 0.5 inch 1m 150

Copper Sheet 14 gauge 2m2 1600

Induction Heating Module 0 volt shutdown 1 2000

Insulated Copper Wire 10 gauge 0.5 kg 700

Rechargeable Lead Battery 40 A 1 6000

Thermostat - 1 2000

Nut & Bolts - 0.5 kg 150

Digital Thermometer - 2 1200

Frame Iron rod 5 kg 800

Asbestos Seal - 1 ft2 250

Steel Sheet 14 gauge 1m2 600

Transportation - 5000
Total 52890

Technical feasibility: from various tests and research, we found that the project seems to be
feasible. The engine could run without any problem and disturbance with B50. However, due to
the lack of resource the engine was unable to run on B100.

Economical feasibility: we also did the research on the long term use of biodiesel along with the
cost of modification of engine. The cost of biodiesel is little more expensive than the petro diesel
itself but as the cost of diesel is increasing vigorously and biodiesel seems to remain constant, in
the future the biodiesel seems to be greatly economical.

Project feasibility: we concluded that, this research was found to be feasible provided that
the various facillities including the testing equipments such as gas analyzer,
dynamometer, was readily available.

Environmental friendly: the biodiesel engine has less emission and can be produced
readily from the non edible vegetable oil. however the emission due to NOx gas is
prevalent in biodiesel engine, it can be reduced or minimized using catalytic converter.
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Krishna., A Comparative Study on Exhaust Emissions From High Grade Low Heat

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9. Y.V.Hanumantha Rao, Ram Sudheer Voleti ,A.V.Sitarama Raju and P.Nageswara Reddy

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Empty mass of
picnometer 31.7899

Time for
Mass of diesel diesel Viscosity of diesel
41.1939 344.5 2.389077816
Mass of
water and Time for Kinemetic viscosity
Temp(C) picnometer mass of water water (sec) of water
35 81.1449 49.355 87.365 0.7259
40 81.0563 49.2664 79.665 0.658
50 80.9158 49.1259 69.73 0.553
60 80.6851 48.8952 71.837 0.475
70 80.5316 48.7417 57.54 0.413
80 80.2929 48.503 52.04 0.365

Mass of b100
and Time for
Temp(C) picnometer mass of b100 b100(sec) Viscosity of b100
35 75.9182 44.1283 884 6.567160355
40 75.6888 43.8989 765.38 5.632980556
50 75.517 43.7271 648.66 4.578916666
60 75.1742 43.3843 557.67 3.271817508
70 74.782 42.9921 437.33 2.768709885
80 74.4888 42.6989 381.33 2.354532208

Mass of b50
and Time for
Temp(C) picnometer mass of b50 oil(sec) Viscosity of b50
35 74.3874 42.5975 535 3.836595849
40 74.2025 42.4126 476 3.384615616
50 73.88766 42.09776 375.67 2.553056635
60 73.7654 41.9755 331.33 1.880770628
70 73.3905 41.6006 297 1.819430897
80 73.2133 41.4234 250.67 1.501533683
Kinemetic viscosity of water

0.4 Kinemetic viscosity of water

y = -0.008x + 0.9765
0.3 R = 0.9729
0.2 Linear (Kinemetic viscosity of
0.1 water)
0 20 40 60 80 100

Viscosity of b50

2 Viscosity of b50

1.5 Linear (Viscosity of b50)

y = -0.0516x + 5.3784
1 R = 0.918

0 20 40 60 80 100

Viscosity of b100


3 Viscosity of b100
Linear (Viscosity of b100)
2 y = -0.094x + 9.444
R = 0.952

0 20 40 60 80 100