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Pressure in Solids
Pressure is defined as ___________________________________
Solids, Liquids &
It is given by the equation: pressure = or p =
Gases Revision Booklet
Which exerts more pressure on the ground, a tank with a weight of 80 000 N
or a cyclist with a combined weight of 1000 N? The tank tracks have a contact
area of 8 m 2, the cyclists tyres have a contact area of 0.008 m 2.
__________________________________________________ Name: Class:
Pressure in Liquids and Gases The three main states of matter are solids, liquids, and gases. We can change

The pressure at a point in a gas or liquid which is at rest acts _______ in all between each of these states using different physical processes. Label the

directions. Atmospheric pressure _______the higher up you go. This is due diagram below to show these states of matter and physical processes.

to the weight of the air above you _______. The pressure in a liquid ______
the further down you go. This is due to the weight of the water above you
_______. Atmospheric pressure is around _________ at sea level.
Words: 100 000 Pa decreases decreasing equally increases increasing
The pressure in a liquid can be calculated using the equation:
p=hxxg where h is ________________________________ The example above shows water in each of the three states. We are used to
seeing water in each of the three states. Other substances, such as gold, we
is _______________________________
only see in the solid state due to a very high melting point.
g is ________________________________
States of Matter Density
Solids have a definite shape - this is due to the regular alignment of the Calculating Volume
particles they are made from. Calculate the volume of each of the following shapes.
3 cm 5 cm

Heating 10 cm 10 cm
10 cm
Generally solids are dense materials due to the particles being tightly bound 2 cm
together. Despite the particles being close together, they still vibrate about 10 cm 6 cm
their fixed positions. Increasing the temperature of a solid increases the
amount of kinetic energy of the particles - they vibrate more. As a result, a
heated solid expands.

Liquids are also generally dense materials Calculating Density

due to their particles being close together.
Their particles are able to move more freely Density is defined as ______________________________________
than in solids and will take the shape of their ____________________________________________________
Gases are much less dense than solids and liquids and It is calculated using the formula: density = or =
their particles will spread out to fill the container they
are in. The particles are very spread out, moving
randomly, colliding with each other and the walls of Calculate the densities of each block and hence determine the material.
their container.
Block Mass (g) Volume (cm3) Density (g/cm3) Material
Property Solids Liquids Gases
Rectangle 810
Definite shape Yes
Cylinder 3780
Can be easily compressed No
Triangle 428
Relative density High
Metal Tungsten Zinc Iron Aluminium
Can flow (fluid) Yes
Density (g/cm3) 19.25 7.14 7.87 2.7
Expands to fill all available space Yes

Redrawing the graph using the kelvin

temperature scale shows that

The Gas Laws
Brownian Motion


Pressure (Pa)

pressure is directly proportional to 100000

Use the picture to the right to explain
temperature. In other words, 80000

Brownian motion, and how it provides
doubling the temperature will double 40000

20000 evidence for the continual motion of

the pressure. Hence, for a fixed 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

Temperature (K) particles in liquids.

mass of gas at a constant volume:
Use this relationship to answer the
questions below.
1. A sealed container is full of air at atmospheric pressure at 298 K. The
container and the air inside are heated to 328 K. Calculate the new pressure
Boyles Law
inside the container.
Robert Boyle discovered that air is squashy, i.e. It can be _________.
Boyle investigated how the volume of gas would change when the pressure
applied to it was changed. He took a fixed quantity of gas and increased the
pressure, noting the new volume the gas filled.
2. Gemma makes too much soup and decides to freeze the excess. The soup is
Why was it important to ensure no air could get in or out of the experiment?
at 23C when it is sealed and put in the freezer. The freezer is at -18C.
Assuming the air is at atmospheric pressure before sealing and the same
temperature as the soup, calculate the final pressure.
Why was it important to keep the temperature constant?
Boyle plotted a graph of his results.
Absolute Zero
Use the diagram to the right to explain
why gases exert a pressure on surfaces.
Pressure (Pa)

Pressure (Pa)
Volume (cm3) 1/Volume (per cm3)
At higher temperatures the particles have more kinetic energy. Use this
Boyle showed that if you double the pressure, the volume halves. Boyles
information to explain what will happen to the pressure in a closed system if
Law can be shown in the equation:
a gas is heated.
1 m3 of air is sealed in a container at atmospheric pressure (100 kPa). The _________________________________________________

top of the container is pushed down to reduce the volume to 0.25 m 3. What In a separate experiment the 180000


will the new pressure be? volume of gas was kept 140000

Pressure (Pa)
constant and the temperature 120000


was changed. The graph was 80000


extrapolated to show what the 40000


A container of air at atmospheric pressure has a volume of 2 m 3. A spring temperature would be when 0
-300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300

Temperature (C)
mechanism expands the volume of the container to double its original size. the pressure equalled zero -
No air could enter or exit; what is the new pressure inside the container? this temperature, -273C, is absolute zero. Complete the equations:

Temperature in K =

Temperature in C =