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Pressure in Solids

Pressure is defined as ___________________________________

Solids, Liquids &

__________________________________________________

It is given by the equation: pressure = or p =

Gases Revision Booklet

Which exerts more pressure on the ground, a tank with a weight of 80 000 N

or a cyclist with a combined weight of 1000 N? The tank tracks have a contact

area of 8 m 2, the cyclists tyres have a contact area of 0.008 m 2.

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________ Name: Class:

Pressure in Liquids and Gases The three main states of matter are solids, liquids, and gases. We can change

The pressure at a point in a gas or liquid which is at rest acts _______ in all between each of these states using different physical processes. Label the

directions. Atmospheric pressure _______the higher up you go. This is due diagram below to show these states of matter and physical processes.

to the weight of the air above you _______. The pressure in a liquid ______

the further down you go. This is due to the weight of the water above you

_______. Atmospheric pressure is around _________ at sea level.

Words: 100 000 Pa decreases decreasing equally increases increasing

The pressure in a liquid can be calculated using the equation:

p=hxxg where h is ________________________________ The example above shows water in each of the three states. We are used to

seeing water in each of the three states. Other substances, such as gold, we

is _______________________________

only see in the solid state due to a very high melting point.

g is ________________________________

States of Matter Density

Solids have a definite shape - this is due to the regular alignment of the Calculating Volume

particles they are made from. Calculate the volume of each of the following shapes.

3 cm 5 cm

Heating 10 cm 10 cm

10 cm

Generally solids are dense materials due to the particles being tightly bound 2 cm

together. Despite the particles being close together, they still vibrate about 10 cm 6 cm

their fixed positions. Increasing the temperature of a solid increases the

amount of kinetic energy of the particles - they vibrate more. As a result, a

heated solid expands.

due to their particles being close together.

Their particles are able to move more freely Density is defined as ______________________________________

than in solids and will take the shape of their ____________________________________________________

container.

Gases are much less dense than solids and liquids and It is calculated using the formula: density = or =

their particles will spread out to fill the container they

are in. The particles are very spread out, moving

randomly, colliding with each other and the walls of Calculate the densities of each block and hence determine the material.

their container.

Block Mass (g) Volume (cm3) Density (g/cm3) Material

Property Solids Liquids Gases

Rectangle 810

Definite shape Yes

Cylinder 3780

Can be easily compressed No

Triangle 428

Relative density High

Metal Tungsten Zinc Iron Aluminium

Can flow (fluid) Yes

Density (g/cm3) 19.25 7.14 7.87 2.7

Expands to fill all available space Yes

200000

temperature scale shows that

180000

160000

The Gas Laws

Brownian Motion http://www.etsu.edu/math/gardner/einstein/

140000

brownian-scan.jpg

Pressure (Pa)

120000

Use the picture to the right to explain

temperature. In other words, 80000

60000

Brownian motion, and how it provides

doubling the temperature will double 40000

the pressure. Hence, for a fixed 0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

mass of gas at a constant volume:

____________________________

Use this relationship to answer the

____________________________

questions below.

____________________________________________________

1. A sealed container is full of air at atmospheric pressure at 298 K. The

____________________________________________________

container and the air inside are heated to 328 K. Calculate the new pressure

Boyles Law

inside the container.

Robert Boyle discovered that air is squashy, i.e. It can be _________.

Boyle investigated how the volume of gas would change when the pressure

applied to it was changed. He took a fixed quantity of gas and increased the

pressure, noting the new volume the gas filled.

2. Gemma makes too much soup and decides to freeze the excess. The soup is

Why was it important to ensure no air could get in or out of the experiment?

at 23C when it is sealed and put in the freezer. The freezer is at -18C.

____________________________________________________

Assuming the air is at atmospheric pressure before sealing and the same

____________________________________________________

temperature as the soup, calculate the final pressure.

Why was it important to keep the temperature constant?

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Boyle plotted a graph of his results.

Absolute Zero

Use the diagram to the right to explain

why gases exert a pressure on surfaces.

Pressure (Pa)

Pressure (Pa)

___________________________

_________________________________________________

_________________________________________________

Volume (cm3) 1/Volume (per cm3)

At higher temperatures the particles have more kinetic energy. Use this

Boyle showed that if you double the pressure, the volume halves. Boyles

information to explain what will happen to the pressure in a closed system if

Law can be shown in the equation:

a gas is heated.

_________________________________________________

1 m3 of air is sealed in a container at atmospheric pressure (100 kPa). The _________________________________________________

200000

top of the container is pushed down to reduce the volume to 0.25 m 3. What In a separate experiment the 180000

160000

will the new pressure be? volume of gas was kept 140000

Pressure (Pa)

constant and the temperature 120000

100000

60000

20000

A container of air at atmospheric pressure has a volume of 2 m 3. A spring temperature would be when 0

-300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300

Temperature (C)

mechanism expands the volume of the container to double its original size. the pressure equalled zero -

No air could enter or exit; what is the new pressure inside the container? this temperature, -273C, is absolute zero. Complete the equations:

Temperature in K =

Temperature in C =

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