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Visibility of objects

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- co
ntra
s t
illuminance
luminance

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Revealing power

## Revealing power is used

in road lighting as a reference
to evaluate visibility of objects

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Visibility of objects

## An object has to be seen against its background: the road

surface
The visibility of the object depends on:
Object luminance (cd/m2)

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Visibility of objects

## An object has to be seen against its background: the road

surface
The visibility of the object depends on:
Object luminance (cd/m2)

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luminance

illuminance

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Design parameters

## Luminance ( L ) is the brightness of the road surface as seen

by the driver / observer

## Lav Expressed in: cd / m2

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Design parameters

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60m w

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Road luminance: Impact of luminance level

0.50 0.75

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Lay out
Photometry
Light source

## Reflection coefficient as per Asphalt CIE R3 : Q0 = 0.07

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LUMINANCE : Field of calculation

2 luminaires in
a same row
are enclosed

distance
max.100m

distance
60 meter

height of
observer 1.50m

Observer in
the center
of each lane

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LUMINANCE: Position of calculation points
Spacing of the points in a driving lane :

## In the longitudinal direction : D = S / N In the transverse direction : d = WL / 3

D : spacing between points in the longitudinal direction, in metres d : spacing between points in the tranverse direction, in metres
S : spacing between luminaires in the same row, in metres WL : width of the lane, in metres
N : number of calculation points in the longitudinal direction with the following The outermost calculation points are spaced d/2 from the edges of the
values: lane.

for S 30 m, N = 10;
for S > 30 m, the smallest integer giving D 3 m
The first transverse row of calculation points is spaced at a distance D/2 beyond
the first luminaire (remote from the observer).
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LUMINANCE: Position of observer

## Observer is located at the centre of each lane

Observers eye is 1,5 m above the road level

## Operative value of average luminance is the lowest

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Visibility of objects

## An object has to be seen against its background: the road

surface
The visibility of the object depends on:
Object luminance (cd/m2)
Luminance uniformity

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Design parameters

Uniformity: Uo , U1
Shows how the light is distributed on the road

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Overall uniformity: Definition

## Overall uniformity is the ratio of the

minimum to the average road luminance

## A good overall uniformity ensures

that all spots on the road are
sufficiently visible

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LUMINANCE: Overall uniformity

## It is calculated for each observer, the lowest value is

considered :
Uo = Lmin/Lave

Lmin is the lowest luminance occuring at any grid point in the field of
calculation

.
Lmin
Lave
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Revealing power: Impact of overall uniformity
100%

Uo= 0.4

RP U0=0.4
75
50

25
0

## 0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 10 cd/m2

Laverage
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Overall uniformity: Key influencing factors

Mounting height ( h )

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Longitudinal uniformity: Definition

## Longitudinal uniformity is the lowest ratio of the

minimum to the maximum road luminance in
the middle of each lane

## A good longitudinal uniformity ensures

comfortable driving conditions without the so-
called Zebra effect

Longitudinal Uniformity
U1 = L-minimum
L-maximum

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LUMINANCE: Uniformity lengthwise Ul

## Calculated for each observer ; the lowest value is

considered

Lmin
Lmax

The number of points in the longitudinal direction (N) and the spacing
between them shall be the same as those used for the calculation of
average luminance.
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Longitudinal uniformity: Key influencing factors

Spacing ( S )
Throw

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Visibility of objects

## An object has to be seen against its background: the road

surface
The visibility of the object depends on:
Object luminance (cd/m2)
Luminance uniformity
Glare control

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Design parameters: Glare

## Sensation caused by Brightness of lanterns within the

visual field which is brighter than the adaptation level of
eye.

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Design parameters: Glare

## Threshold Increment (TI) represents both types of glare

TI = the % increase in the luminance level required to
make an object equally visible as in the absence of glare

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Revealing power: Impact of TI

100%

RP UO=0.4
75

TI =7%
UO= 0.4
50

TI =30%
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0

## 0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 10 cd/m2

Laverage
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Threshold Increment

%
10 Moderate
< 10 Good

## Operative value of TI shall be the Key influencing factors:

highest value among observers. Lay out
Photometry
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Uniformity and glare

## Uniform, glare-free lighting :

Early anticipation when driving
Smoother traffic flow
Relaxed drivers

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Surround ratio: SR

## SR is the average horizontal illuminance on

the two longitudinal strips each adjacent to
the two edges of the carriageway and lying
off the carriageway
Divided
by the average horizontal illuminance on the
two longitudinal strips each adjacent to the
edges of the carriageway but lying on the
carriageway

## Sufficient lighting in the surrounding of

the eye
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Surround ratio: SR
The width of all four strips shall be the same, and equal to 5 m, or half the width of
the carriageway.

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: luminaires

## SR(1) = E1/E2 SR(2) = E4/E3 CIE 115

SR = (E1+E4) / (E2+E3) EN 13201

## For dual carriageways, both carriageways together are treated as a single

carriageway unless they are separated by more than 10 m.
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Surround ratio: SR
The width of all four strips shall be the same, and equal to 5 m, or half the width
of the carriageway.

## Location of strips with width of strip less than 5 m because

width of carriageway is less than 10 m

: luminaires

## SR = (E1+E4) / (E2+E3) EN 13201

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Surround ratio: SR
In case of obstruction, the width of the unobstructed strip lying off the
carriageway is applied on the 4 parts.

obstruction
: obstruction

: luminaires

## SR = (E1+E4) / (E2+E3) EN 13201

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Summary of lighting design parameters
and related influencing factors

## Level Uniformity Glare

Visual Lav Uo TI
performance
Visual Lav Ul TI
comfort

Lay out Lay out Lay out (h)
( h, S ) h U0 Photometry
Photometry S U1
Light source Photometry
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Norms and recommendations
as per CIE 115-1995
Lighting norms

Lighting
Performance Total costs

## Luminance Installation cost

Uniformity Maintenance cost
Glare Energy

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Motorways

## Motorized traffic only

Separated carriage ways
No pedestrian crossing
High speed traffic
(80 km/hr to 150 km/hr)

from 2 * 2 to 6

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## Motorized traffic only

Sometimes, separated carriage way
provided for slow traffic or
pedestrians
Traffic speed 50 km/hr to 80 km/hr

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## Mixed traffic and pedestrians

Low speed traffic
Number of lanes 2
Many crossings, parking zones etc

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CIE 115 Lighting Classes

class
High speed roads Traffic density and
carriage ways - high M1
Eg: motorways - medium M2
- low M3
dual carriage way separation and mix
- good M2
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CIE 115 Lighting Classes

Description of Lighting
Important urban Traffic control,
- poor M2
- good M3
Less important Traffic control,
Eg: residential and - poor M4

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CIE 115 Lighting Classes

CLASS All Roads with few Footways
Junctions

Lav. UO TI Surround
U1
(min.) (min.) (max.) Ratio (min.)
(min.)
M1 2.0 0.4 10 0.7 0.5
M2 1.5 0.4 10 0.7 0.5
M3 1.0 0.4 10 0.5 0.5
M4 0.75 0.4 15 - -
M5 0.5 0.4 15 - -
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