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Road Lighting

Visibility of objects

An object has to be seen against its background:


the road surface

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Road Lighting principle: Negative contrast

Object is seen against its background

- co
ntra
s t
illuminance
luminance

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Revealing power

Visibility: ability of motorist to detect objects

Revealing power is used


in road lighting as a reference
to evaluate visibility of objects

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Visibility of objects

An object has to be seen against its background: the road


surface
The visibility of the object depends on:
Object luminance (cd/m2)

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Visibility of objects

An object has to be seen against its background: the road


surface
The visibility of the object depends on:
Object luminance (cd/m2)
Road luminance (cd/m2)

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Road luminance

luminance

illuminance

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Design parameters

Luminance ( L ) is the brightness of the road surface as seen


by the driver / observer

Lav Expressed in: cd / m2

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Design parameters

Road Luminance (Lav)

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Road luminance: Observer position

60m w

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Road luminance: Impact of luminance level

0.50 0.75

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Road luminance: Key influencing factors

Lay out
Photometry
Light source

Reflection coefficient as per Asphalt CIE R3 : Q0 = 0.07

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LUMINANCE : Field of calculation

2 luminaires in
a same row
are enclosed

distance
max.100m

distance
60 meter

height of
observer 1.50m

Observer in
the center
of each lane

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LUMINANCE: Position of calculation points
Spacing of the points in a driving lane :

In the longitudinal direction : D = S / N In the transverse direction : d = WL / 3


D : spacing between points in the longitudinal direction, in metres d : spacing between points in the tranverse direction, in metres
S : spacing between luminaires in the same row, in metres WL : width of the lane, in metres
N : number of calculation points in the longitudinal direction with the following The outermost calculation points are spaced d/2 from the edges of the
values: lane.

for S 30 m, N = 10;
for S > 30 m, the smallest integer giving D 3 m
The first transverse row of calculation points is spaced at a distance D/2 beyond
the first luminaire (remote from the observer).
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LUMINANCE: Position of observer

Observer is located at the centre of each lane


Observers eye is 1,5 m above the road level

Operative value of average luminance is the lowest


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Visibility of objects

An object has to be seen against its background: the road


surface
The visibility of the object depends on:
Object luminance (cd/m2)
Road luminance (cd/m2)
Luminance uniformity

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Design parameters

Uniformity: Uo , U1
Shows how the light is distributed on the road

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Overall uniformity: Definition

Overall uniformity is the ratio of the


minimum to the average road luminance

A good overall uniformity ensures


that all spots on the road are
sufficiently visible

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LUMINANCE: Overall uniformity

It is calculated for each observer, the lowest value is


considered :
Uo = Lmin/Lave

Lmin is the lowest luminance occuring at any grid point in the field of
calculation

.
Lmin
Lave
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Revealing power: Impact of overall uniformity
100%

Uo= 0.4

RP U0=0.4
75
50

U0 =0.2 Uo= 0.2


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0

0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 10 cd/m2

Laverage
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Overall uniformity: Key influencing factors

Mounting height ( h )
Spread

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Longitudinal uniformity: Definition

Longitudinal uniformity is the lowest ratio of the


minimum to the maximum road luminance in
the middle of each lane

A good longitudinal uniformity ensures


comfortable driving conditions without the so-
called Zebra effect

Longitudinal Uniformity
U1 = L-minimum
L-maximum

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LUMINANCE: Uniformity lengthwise Ul

Calculated for each observer ; the lowest value is


considered

Lmin
Lmax

The number of points in the longitudinal direction (N) and the spacing
between them shall be the same as those used for the calculation of
average luminance.
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Longitudinal uniformity: Key influencing factors

Spacing ( S )
Throw

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Visibility of objects

An object has to be seen against its background: the road


surface
The visibility of the object depends on:
Object luminance (cd/m2)
Road luminance (cd/m2)
Luminance uniformity
Glare control

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Design parameters: Glare

Sensation caused by Brightness of lanterns within the


visual field which is brighter than the adaptation level of
eye.

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Design parameters: Glare

Disability glare reduces the vision

Discomfort glare creates unpleasant viewing conditions

Threshold Increment (TI) represents both types of glare


TI = the % increase in the luminance level required to
make an object equally visible as in the absence of glare

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Revealing power: Impact of TI

100%

RP UO=0.4
75

TI =7%
UO= 0.4
50

TI =30%
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0

0.1 0.2 0.5 1 2 5 10 cd/m2

Laverage
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Threshold Increment

Threshold increment Assessment


%
> 20 Bad
10 Moderate
< 10 Good

Operative value of TI shall be the Key influencing factors:


highest value among observers. Lay out
Photometry
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Uniformity and glare

Uniform, glare-free lighting :


Early anticipation when driving
Smoother traffic flow
Relaxed drivers
Increased road capacity

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Surround ratio: SR

SR is the average horizontal illuminance on


the two longitudinal strips each adjacent to
the two edges of the carriageway and lying
off the carriageway
Divided
by the average horizontal illuminance on the
two longitudinal strips each adjacent to the
edges of the carriageway but lying on the
carriageway

SR = Ekirb / Eroad 50%

Sufficient lighting in the surrounding of


the road creates a proper adaptation of
the eye
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Surround ratio: SR
The width of all four strips shall be the same, and equal to 5 m, or half the width of
the carriageway.

Location of strips with width of strip equals 5 m :


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: luminaires

SR(1) = E1/E2 SR(2) = E4/E3 CIE 115


SR = (E1+E4) / (E2+E3) EN 13201

For dual carriageways, both carriageways together are treated as a single


carriageway unless they are separated by more than 10 m.
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Surround ratio: SR
The width of all four strips shall be the same, and equal to 5 m, or half the width
of the carriageway.

Location of strips with width of strip less than 5 m because


width of carriageway is less than 10 m

: luminaires

SR = (E1+E4) / (E2+E3) EN 13201


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Surround ratio: SR
In case of obstruction, the width of the unobstructed strip lying off the
carriageway is applied on the 4 parts.

Location of strips with width of strip less than 5 m because of


obstruction
: obstruction

: luminaires

SR = (E1+E4) / (E2+E3) EN 13201


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Summary of lighting design parameters
and related influencing factors

Level Uniformity Glare


Visual Lav Uo TI
performance
Visual Lav Ul TI
comfort


Lay out Lay out Lay out (h)
( h, S ) h U0 Photometry
Photometry S U1
Light source Photometry
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Norms and recommendations
as per CIE 115-1995
Lighting norms

Lighting
Performance Total costs

Luminance Installation cost


Uniformity Maintenance cost
Glare Energy

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Road types
Motorways

Provide main transport


link between the towns

Motorized traffic only


Separated carriage ways
No pedestrian crossing
High speed traffic
(80 km/hr to 150 km/hr)

Number of lanes vary


from 2 * 2 to 6

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Major roads

Provide main transport


link within city

Motorized traffic only


Sometimes, separated carriage way
provided for slow traffic or
pedestrians
Pedestrian crossings at road junctions
Traffic speed 50 km/hr to 80 km/hr

Number of lanes vary from 2 * 2 to 6

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Minor and residential roads

Provide transport link up to major


road

Mixed traffic and pedestrians


Low speed traffic
Number of lanes 2
Many crossings, parking zones etc

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CIE 115 Lighting Classes

Description of road Lighting


class
High speed roads Traffic density and
with separate road complexity
carriage ways - high M1
Eg: motorways - medium M2
- low M3
High speed roads, Traffic control,
dual carriage way separation and mix
roads - poor M1
- good M2
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CIE 115 Lighting Classes

Description of Lighting
road class
Important urban Traffic control,
traffic roads separation and mix
- poor M2
- good M3
Less important Traffic control,
roads separation and mix
Eg: residential and - poor M4
minor roads - good M5

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CIE 115 Lighting Classes

LIGHT Roads Roads with


CLASS All Roads with few Footways
Junctions

Lav. UO TI Surround
U1
(min.) (min.) (max.) Ratio (min.)
(min.)
M1 2.0 0.4 10 0.7 0.5
M2 1.5 0.4 10 0.7 0.5
M3 1.0 0.4 10 0.5 0.5
M4 0.75 0.4 15 - -
M5 0.5 0.4 15 - -
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