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Pulse Code Modulation

Lesson 16

BME 333 Biomedical Signals and Systems 10


- J.Schesser
How do we send the samples of f(t)
Do we send the actual values of each sample?
This method is susceptible to noise
Do we convert the actual values of each sample into a
binary digit and then transmit the samples as a binary
stream?
Yes but?
How accurate, how precise, and how many bits (decimal places of
the sample) do we use?
We use predefined levels and choose the level closest to
the signal. This is called Pulse Code Modulation
Example: 8 levels needs 3 bits; 16 levels needs 4 bits, etc.
However we now have a new kind of distortion: Quantization
Error.

BME 333 Biomedical Signals and Systems 11


- J.Schesser
Pulse Code Modulation
6

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6

Bit Slot
Actual 2.823212 3.58678 4.207355 4.660195 4.927249
Code 3 4 4 5 5
Binary-Coded 011 100 100 101 101

Time Slot

BME 333 Biomedical Signals and Systems 12


- J.Schesser
Shannons Sampling Theory
Channel Capacity

C = Channel Capacity
B = Channel Bandwidth
L = Quantization Levels
C = 2 B log 2 (L)
C = 2 3000 log 2 (8) = 18, 000bps

BME 333 Biomedical Signals and Systems 13


- J.Schesser
Quantization Error
6

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6

Bit Slot
Actual 2.823212 3.58678 4.207355 4.660195 4.927249
Code 3 4 4 5 5
Binary-Coded 011 100 100 101 101
Absolute Error -0.17679 -0.41322 0.207355 -0.3398 -0.07275
% Error -6.26% -11.52% 4.93% -7.29% -1.48%
Time Slot

BME 333 Biomedical Signals and Systems 14


- J.Schesser
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
( A1 X S ) 2
Psignal =
RL
( A1 X noise ) 2
Pnoise = Xo
RL A1 RL
Xs + +
SNR =
Psignal
=
(X s ) 2

Pnoise (X noise )
2
Xnoise
SNRdB = 10 log(SNR )
Psignal
SNRdB = 10 log
Pnoise
Xs
SNRdB = 20 log
X noise
BME 333 Biomedical Signals and Systems 15
- J.Schesser
Shannons Sampling Theory
Channel Capacity in Noise
Shannons Limit
C = Channel Capacity
B = Channel Bandwidth
SNR = Signal to Noise Ratio

C = B log 2 (1 + SNR)

C = 3000 log 2 (1 +1000) = 29, 901.67bps

SNRdb = 10 log10 (SNR)


SNRdb
SNR = 10 10

SNRdb
C = B log 2 (1 +10 10
)

30
C = 1000 log 2 (1 +10 ) = 29, 901.67bps
10

BME 333 Biomedical Signals and Systems 16


- J.Schesser
A PCM System
Analog-to-digital converter

Sampler Quantizer Encoder Samples of Quantized m(t)


Digital Encoded Signal

Analog signal
m(t)
Quantizer* Decoder LP Filter
Analog samples
Digital-to-analog converter
PCM
Digital encoded Signal Reconstructed m(t)
transmitted over a with possible
communications quantization errors
channel
Some Bit Rates: * To remove the digital signal from
any noise on the communications
Voice: 4kHz BL Spectrum channel
=4x103 x 2 samples/sec x 8 bits/sample
=64kbits/sec
Video: 4MHz BL Spectrum=4x106x2x8 = 64Mb/s

BME 333 Biomedical Signals and Systems 17


- J.Schesser
Examples of PCM
Digital Recording
Audio
CDs - 2 channel Stereo
DVDs - 6/7 channel surround sound
MP3
Video
DVDs
Telecommunications
Modern optical telecommunications
SONET/SDH
Basic SDH signal/frame
9 rows X 270 columns = 2430 bytes
9 rows X 9 columns = 81 bytes for overhead (line and equipment
health, administration, timing, etc.)
9 rows X 261 columns = 2349 bytes for payload
2430 bytes x 8000 samples/second (based on telephony of 4kHz
BL signal) x 8 bits/byte
= line rate of 155.520 Mb/s STS-3/STM-1
- 2349 bytes for payload x 8000 s/s x 8 bits/byte = 150.336 Mb/s
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Method
Etc. 18
BME 333 Biomedical Signals and Systems
- J.Schesser
Examples of PCM
Capacities
Requirements
Voice: 4k Hz x 2 = 8000 samples/s x 8 bits (256 levels) = 64 kbits/s
Video: 4M Hz x 2 = 8,000,000 samples/s x 8 bits = 64 Mb/s
SONET/SDH payload capacities: 2016 64 kbit channels in a payload of an
STM-1 (301 channels can also be used for overhead) = 129.024 M bits
Cable TV supports 300 video channels = 19.2 Gigabits/s
STM-64 = 9.9 Gigabits
Need to use compression schemes to reduce the size of a video
channel.

BME 333 Biomedical Signals and Systems 19


- J.Schesser
Angle Coding Modulation

Phase-shift Keying (PSK) send out a signal


y(t)=Acos[ot+f(t)] where
f(t) = for a one
f(t) = - for a zero
Frequency-shift Keying (FSK) send out a
signal y(t)=Acos(o )t where
+ for a one
- for a zero

BME 333 Biomedical Signals and Systems 20


- J.Schesser
Homework
Problem (1)
A BL signal with maximum frequency 1000 Hz is sampled at the
Nyquist rate of 2000 samples per second. It is then quantized to 8
levels. What is the bit rate of the coded signal? Repeat for 16 levels
and 256 levels.
Problem (2)
20 BL signals (1000 Hz) are sampled at the Nyquist Rate and then
quantized to 16 levels. Calculate the pulse width of each bit to support
the multiplex of these 20 signals. Calculate the bit rate. Repeat for 200
signals.
Problem (3)
Consider N signals, each BL (1 Hz) and is quantized to 16 levels. If a
transmission system can handle 40 bits per second, how many messages
can be sent? Repeat for 10Mbps.
Problem (4)
Consider a BL signal with maximum frequency 1000 Hz is sampled at
the Nyquist rate. The signal is quantized into 8 levels. The SNRdb for
this channel is 10db. Will this channel work? What would you have to
do to make this channel work?
BME 333 Biomedical Signals and Systems 21
- J.Schesser