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# L.E.

COLLEG MORBI
Department of Mechanical Engineering
B.E. Semester IV
Machine Design & Industrial Drafting (2141907)
Batch: ____________ Roll No.: ___________
List of Assignments
Sr.
Title Start Date End Date Sign Remark
No.

## 3. Design and Analysis of Levers

4. Design of Beams

5. Design of Columns

## Introduction of Limits, Fits and

10.
Tolerances
Machine Design and Industrial Drafting (2141907)

Theory

## 1. What is stress concentration? Explain methods to relieve stress concentration? Explain

any two stresses with simple sketches.
2. Define factor of safety and state the important factors affecting the factor of safety.
3. Define following:(1) Proof Resilience (2)Preferred number (3)Principle stress
4. Explain Mohrs circle diagram for principal stresses.
5. Explain the following principle theories of elastic failure:

##  Max. Principle stress theory (Rankine theory)

 Max. shear stress theory (Coulomb theory or Tresca and Guest theory)
 Distortion energy theory (Von Mises and Hencky theory)
 Selection and use of failure theories

## 6. Distinguish clearly between bending and bearing stress.

7. Explain the following terms with neat sketches:(1)Tensile stress(2) Compressive
stress(3)Principle Stress (4) Bearing pressure
8. Classify the different types of load & explain each In brief.
9. Differentiate between (with neat sketch): (1) crushing and compressive stresses (2)
torsional and transverse shear stress.
10. Describe Hertz contact stress theory giving suitable example.

Examples

1. Determine the minimum size of a circular hole that can be punched in a M.S. plate, 5 mm
thick and having ultimate shear strength of 300 MPa. Take compressive strength of
punch as 360 MPa.

2. A mild steel link is as shown in Fig. 1, which is subjected to a tensile load of 80 kN. Find
the b. The permissible tensile stress is 70 MPa.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Machine Design and Industrial Drafting (2141907)

Fig. 1

## 3. An offset link subjected to a force of 25 kN is shown is shown in Fig.2, It is made of

grey cast iron FG300 and the factory of safety is 3. Determine the dimensions of the
cross section of the link.

Fig. 2

Fig. 3

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4. A wall bracket with rectangular cross section is shown in following Fig. 3. The depth
of the cross-section is twice of the width. The force P acting on the bracket at 300 to
the horizontal is 5 KN. The bracket is made gray cast iron FG 200 (Sut = 200 N/mm2)
and factor of safety = 3.5 Determine the dimensions of the cross section of the
bracket.
5. The dimensions of an overhang crank are shown in Fig.4. The force P acting at
crankpin is 1 kN. The crank is made of steel 30C8 with allowable shear stress 100
MPa. Using maximum shear stress theory of failure, determine the diameter at
section XX.

Fig. 4

6. The load on a bolt consists of an axial pull of 10 KN together with a transverse shear
force of 5 KN. Find the diameter of bolt required according to (i) maximum principal
stress theory, (ii) maximum principal shear stress theory,
(iii)maximum distortion energy theory. Take permissible tensile stress at elastic limit
as 100 MPa and poisons ratio as 0.3.

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## ASSIGNMENT 2 DESIGN OF COTTER AND KNUCKLE JOINT

Theory
1. Explain the design process for spigot and socket cotter joint with neat sketch.
2. What are the uses of cotter joint? Why is taper provided on the cotter? What is the
purpose of clearance in Cotter Joints?
3. Write the advantages of cotter joint. State the different applications of the cotter joint.
4. Explain the design process for knuckle joint with neat sketch.
5. Write the advantages of knuckle joint. State the different applications of the knuckle
joint.

Examples

1. Design a socket and spigot joint to resist a tensile load of 28 KN. All the parts of the joint
are made from same material with following allowable stresses: t=50 N/mm,
c=60N/mm, =35 N/mm, b =50 N/mm.
2. Design and draw a neat sketch of spigot rod for the cotter joint using the following data.
Axial load 30 KN, tensile stress 50 N/mm2, crushing stress 90 N/mm2 and shear stress
35 N/mm2
3. It is required to design a cotter joint to connect two steel rods of equal diameter. The
permissible stresses for the rods, spigot end and socket end are t=96 N/mm,
c=134N/mm, =45 N/mm.For cotter, t=80 N/mm, =40 N/mm. Each rod is
subjected to an axial tensile force of 80 KN.
Calculate the following dimensions:
(1.) Diameter of spigot
(2.) Width & thickness of cotter
(3.) Thickness of socket collar

4. Calculate the dimension of the socket end of a cotter joint used to connect two rods,
made of plain carbon steel 40C8 having yield point strength 380 N/mm2. The diameter
of each rod is 50mm and the cotter is made from a steel plate of 15mm thickness.
Assume (i) the yield strength in compression is twice of the tensile yield strength, (ii)
the yield strength in shear is 50% of the tensile yield strength, (iii) the factor of safety is
6.
5. Two rods of 50mm diameter are to be joined by a cotter joint, with thickness of cotter
as 12.5mm. If the joint is withstand an axial pull of 6000KN find the various dimensions
required. The permissible stresses are 300N/mm2 in tension, 200N/mm2in shear and
450N/mm2 crushing.
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Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Machine Design and Industrial Drafting (2141907)

6. Design a knuckle joint to connect two rods subjected to tensile force of 50 KN. The rods
and pin are made of plain carbon steel 30C8. The permissible stresses are t = c = 80
MPa and = 40 MPa.
7. Design a knuckle joint to transmit 75 KN. The design stresses may be taken as 75 MPa
in tension, 60 MPa in shear and 150 MPa in compression.
8. It is required to design knuckle joint to connect two mild steel roads of equal diameter.
Each rod is subjected to an axil tensile load 50 KN. The permissible stresses are 80 MPa
in tension and crushing and 40 MPa in shear for all parts.
9. Design a knuckle joint to connect two mild steel bars under a tensile load of 25 kN. The
allowable stresses are 65 MPa in tension, 50 MPa in shear and 83 MPa in crushing.
Standard diameter of solid bars are 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40 mm. Check
failure of knuckle pin in shear, failure of rod end & forked end in tension, shearing and
crushing.
10. Design a knuckle joint for a tie rod of a circular section to sustain a max. pull of 70kN.
The ultimate strength of the material of the rod against tearing is 420N/mm2. The
ultimate tensile and shearing strength of the pin material are 510N/mm2 and
396N/mm2 respectively. Determine the tie rod section and pin section. Take F.S. = 6.

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## ASSIGNMENT 3 DESIGN OF LEVER

Theory

1. Explain the basic types of levers with the help of neat sketches & examples.
2. Define following : (1)Arm of lever,(2) Leverage, (3)Displacement ratio (4) mechanical
3. Differentiate between simple and compound lever. Why a boss is generally needed at
the fulcrum of the levers?
4. State the application of hand and foot levers.
5. State and explain the different functions of levers. Why the levers are generally made
tapers?
6. What is lever? Explain the principle on which it works.
7. Briefly explain general procedure for lever design.

Examples

1. Design a bell crank lever to apply a load of 5 kN (vertical) at the end A of an horizontal
arm of length 400 mm. The end of the vertical arm C and the fulcrum B are to be fixed
with the help of pins inside forked shaped supports. The end A is itself forked.
Determine the cross-section of the arms and the dimensions of the pins. The lever is to
have mechanical advantage of 4 with a shorter vertical arm BC. The ultimate stresses in
shear and tension for the lever and pins are 400 MPa and 500 MPa respectively. The
allowable bearing pressure for the pins is 12 N/mm2. Assume a factor of safety as 4 and
the cross-section of the lever as rectangular with depth (b) as three times the thickness
(t).
2. A bell crank lever is to be designed to raise a load of 15 KN at the short arm end. The
arm lengths are 150 mm and 500 mm. The permissible stresses for lever and pin
materials in shear and tension are 60 MPa and 90 MPa respectively. The bearing
pressure on the pin is to be limited to 12 MPa. Assume the lever cross section as t x 4t
and fulcrum pin length as 1.25 times pin diameter.

3. Design a right angled bell crank lever having one arm 500 mm & the other 150 mm
long. The load of 5 kN is to be raised acting on a pin at the end of 500 mm arm & the
B.E. Semester IV
Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Machine Design and Industrial Drafting (2141907)

effort is applied at the end of 150 mm arm. The lever consists of steel forgings, turning
on a point at the fulcrum. The permissible stresses for the pin & lever are 84 MPa in
tension & compression & 70 MPa in shear, the bearing pressure on the pin is not to
exceed 10 N/mm2.

4. A right angle bell crank lever is shown in Fig-1. The load W = 4.5KN. The lever consists
of forged steel material and a pin at the fulcrum. Take the following permissible stress
for the pin and lever material. Safe stress in tension = 75MPa, Safe stress in shear =
60MPa, Safe bearing pressure on pin = 10N/mm2. The length of fulcrum pin is 1.25
times the diameter of fulcrum pin. Calculate the following:
(1.) Reaction at fulcrum pin (2). Fulcrum pin dimensions (3). Lever dimensions

Fig. 1

## 5. Design a lever of a lever loaded safety valve based on following data:

Steam pressure acting on the valve = 1.2 MPa
Valve diameter = 60 mm.
Width to thickness ratio for lever = 3:1
Length to diameter ratio for pins = 1.25:1
The material used is forged steel with t
s =80MPa, t =50 Mpa,
s =100 Mpa, Pb = 20 Mpa
The lever has a rectangular cross section. The distance between the fulcrums and the
dead weights on lever is 800 mm and distance between the fulcrum and the pin
connecting the spindle of the valve to the lever is 100 mm. Calculate: (i) the length and
the diameter of the pin connecting the valve spindle to the lever (ii) the lever cross
sectional dimension
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Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Machine Design and Industrial Drafting (2141907)

6. The lever of a lever loaded safety valve shown in Fig. 2. The valve is 80 mm and valve
has to blow off at a pressure of 1.25 MPa. The permissible stress in tension, shear and
crushing are 70 MPa, 20 MPa and 50 MPa respectively. The permissible bearing
pressure for the pin may be taken as 20 MPa. Design the pins and the lever; assume
rectangular cross section of the lever with height equal to three times the thickness.

Fig. 2

7. A lever loaded safety valve is 70mm in diameter and is to be designed for a boiler to
blow off at pressure of 1N/mm2 gauge. Design a suitable mild steel lever of rectangular
cross section. For mild steel: Permissible tensile stress =70MPa, Shear stress = 50MPa,
Bearing pressure intensity = 25N/mm2. The pin is also made of mild steel. The distance
from the fulcrum to the weight of the lever is 880mm and the distance between the
fulcrum and pin connecting the valve spindle links to the lever is 80mm.

8. Design a rocker arm lever having equal arms of 160 mm length inclined at 135 for an
exhaust valve of a gas engine subjected to a maximum force 2500 N at roller end.
Consider I cross section 6t x 2.5t x t size (where t = thickness of web and flange) for
lever. The permissible stresses for the lever material are 80MPa in tension and design
bearing pressure is pin 6 MPa for pin.

B.E. Semester IV
Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Machine Design & Industrial Drafting (2141907)

## ASSIGNMENT 4 DESIGN OF BEAMS

Theory
1. Distinguish between beams, columns and strut giving suitable examples.

## 2. Explain types of beams with neat sketch.

3. Explain types of supports (or end conditions) of beam with neat sketch.

## 4. Explain types of loads on beam with neat sketch.

5. Define following with reference to beam with neat sketch: (i) Deflection, (ii) Slope
and (iii) Flexural rigidity.

6. List the equations for slope and deflection for following types of beams with
(i) Cantilever beam with point load at free end
(ii) Cantilever beam with UDL on the entire span
(iii) Cantilever beam with point load at free end and UDL on the entire span
(iv) Simply supported beam with central load
(v) Simply supported beam with UDL on the entire span
(vi) Simply supported beam with central load and UDL on the entire span

Examples
1. A 2 metres long cantilever beam is having 100 mm width and 200 mm depth,
carrying point load at free end. If deflection at free end is 6 mm, calculate point load
at free end. Take E = 2 x 10 5 N/mm2.

2. A cantilever beam of span 1.5 metres carries a point load of 20 kN at its free end.
Find maximum slope of beam. Flexural rigidity (EI) = 2 x 10 4 kN.m2.

## 3. A hollow rectangular section 200 mm x 450 mm external and 15 mm thickness is

used for 2.7 metres cantilever beam, subjected to UDL of 64 kN/m and point load of
60 kN at free end, both downward. Find maximum slo pe and deflection. Take E =
200 GPa.

## 4. A simply supported beam 3 metres in span is subjected to UDL of 10 kN/m over

entire span with central point load 5 kN. The cross section of beam is 150 mm wide x
300 mm depth. Calculate the maximum slope & deflection for the beam.

5. A cantilever beam 120 mm x 200 mm is 2.5 metres long. What UDL should the beam
carry to produce a deflection of 5 mm at free end? Take E = 2 x 10 5 N/mm2.

B. E. Semester IV
Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Machine Design & Industrial Drafting (2141907)

6. Cross section of wooden beam is 100 mm x 240 mm. It is simply supported with 4
metres span. Find out UDL that can be placed on its full span so that deflection at
centre is 6 mm. Take E = 0.11 x 10 5 N/mm2.

## 7. A steel tube of external diameter 60 mm and 8 mm thickness is used as simply

supported beam of span 4 metres. If it deflects 10 mm due to a central load, find
magnitude of the point load. Take E = 2 x 10 5 N/mm2.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Machine Design & Industrial Drafting (2141907)

Theory
SHAFTS

## 1. Explain functions and classification of shaft.

2. Define Shaft, Axle and Spindle. Also state the difference between shaft, axle and
spindle with examples.

## 4. Explain shaft design subjected to bending moment only.

5. Explain shaft design subjected to combined twisting moment and bending moment.

## 8. Explain critical speed of shaft in details.

KEYS

1. What are the basic functions of the key? Explain different types of keys with its
applications.

2. Derive strength equations of sunk key based on shear and crushing (or
compression) failures.

3. Show that square key is equally strong in shearing and crushing compare to
rectangular key.

4. What is splined shaft? State the applications of splined shaft. Explain the design of
splined shaft.

COUPLINGS

## 2. Differentiate between flexible coupling and rigid coupling.

3. How does the working of a clamp coupling differ from that of a muff coupling?

4. Draw a neat sketch of a protected type flanged coupling and write the design
procedure with the design equations for different failure criteria.

B. E. Semester IV
Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Machine Design & Industrial Drafting (2141907)

Examples
SHAFTS
1. Compare the weight, strength and rigidity of a hollow shaft of same external
diameter as that of solid shafts, both the shafts are made of same material. Assume
that diameter ratio for the hollow shaft is d i/do = 0.6.
(Refer R. S. Khurmi Ex. 14.22)

2. A steel spindle transmits 4 KW at 800 r.p.m. The angular deflection should not
exceed 0.25 per metre of the spindle. If the modulus of rigidity for the material of
the spindle is 84 x 10 3 N/mm2, find the diameter of the spindle and the shear stress
induced in the spindle. (R. S. Khurmi Ex. 14.21)

3. Determine the diameter below which the angle of twist of a shaft is the controlling
factor in design of solid shaft in torsion. The allowable shear stress is 56 MPa and
the maximum allowable twist is degree per meter. Take G = 84 GPa.

4. Find the diameter of a solid shaft to transmit 30 kW at 230 rpm. The shear stress is
50 MPa. If a hollow shaft is to be used in place of solid shaft, find the inside and
outside diameters when the ratio of inside to outside diameter is 6:8.
(Refer R. S. Khurmi Ex. 14.3)

5. A line shaft is driven by means of a motor placed vertically below it. The pulley on
the line shaft is 1.5 meter in diameter and has belt tensions 5.4 kN and 1.8 kN on the
tight side and slack side of the belt respectively. Both these tensions may be
assumed to be vertical. If the pulley be overhang from the shaft, the distance of the
centre line of the pulley from the centre line of the bearing being 400 mm, find the
diameter of the shaft. Assume maximum allowable shear stress of 42 MPa.
(R. S. Khurmi Ex. 14.8)

## 6. A 600 mm diameter pulley transmits 16 kW power at a speed of 400 rpm. Pulley is

cantilever at a distance of 200 mm from the nearest bearing. The weight of the
pulley is 1500 N. It is driven by a horizontal belt drive. The co -efficient of friction
between belt and pulley is 0.3 and the angle of lap 180. Take the fatigue and shock
factors as Kb = 2.0 and Ks = 1.5. Determine the shaft diameter. The allowable shear
stress in the shaft may be taken as 50 MPa.

7. Design a shaft to transmit power from an electric motor to a lathe head stock
through a pulley by means of a belt drive. The pulley weighs 200 N and is located at
300 mm from the centre of the bearing. The diameter of the pulley is 200 mm and
the maximum power transmitted is 1 KW at 120 RPM. The angle of lap of the belt is
180 degree and coefficient of friction between the belt and the pulley is 0.3. The
shock and fatigue factors for bending and twisting are 1.5 and 2.0 respectively. The
allowable shear stress in the shaft may be taken as 35 MPa.
(R. S. Khurmi Ex. 14.13)

B. E. Semester IV
Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Machine Design & Industrial Drafting (2141907)

8. A belt driven C. I. pulley of 0.9 m diameter overhangs the bearing by 0.2 m as shown
in below figure. The pulley is driven from the bottom by a belt. The angles of lap and
tension on tight side are 180 and 2600 N respectively. The weight of pulley is 600
N. Assume co-efficient of friction between pulley and belt is 0.25. Shaft is made up of
30C8. yt = 400 N/mm2, ut = 500 N/mm2. Determine the shaft diameter according to
ASME code. Take Ks=1.0, Kb=1.5.
(Refer R. S. Khurmi Ex. 14.13)

9. The armature shaft of a 40 kW, 720 r.p.m. electric motor, mounted on two bearings
is as shown in below figure. The total magnetic pull on the armature is 7 kN and it is
assumed to be uniformly distributed over a length of 700 mm midway between the
bearings. The shaft is made-up of steel with an ultimate tensile strength of 770 MPa
and yield strength of 580 MPa. Determine the shaft diameter using ASME code if, Kb
= 1.5 and Kt = 1.0. Assume that the pulley is keyed to the shaft.
(V. B. Bhandari Ex. 9.7)

B. E. Semester IV
Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Machine Design & Industrial Drafting (2141907)

COUPLINGS

1. Design a muff coupling which is used to connect two steel shafts transmitting 40 kW
at 350 r.p.m. The material for the shafts and key is plain carbon steel for which
allowable shear and crushing stresses may be taken as 40 MPa and 80 MPa
respectively. The material for the muff is cast iron for which the allowable shear
stress may be assumed as 15 MPa.
(R. S. Khurmi Ex. 13.4)

2. Design a clamp coupling to transmit 30 kW at 100 r.p.m. The allowable shear stress,
for the shaft and key, is 40 MPa and the number of bolts connecting the two halves
are six. The permissible tensile stress for the bolts is 70 MPa. The coefficient of
friction between the muff and the shaft surface may be taken as 0.3. Take width of
key = Shaft diameter/4 and thickness of key = Shaft diameter/6. Assume number of
bolts = 4. (R. S. Khurmi Ex. 13.5)

3. Design a cast iron split muff coupling to transmit a power of 10 kW at 250 rpm.
Consider an overload of 25%. The allowable shear stress in the shaft and key is 36
MPa and for the muff 16 MPa. Take the co-efficient of friction 0.3 and the tensile
strength of the high tensile bolts 150 MPa.
(Refer R. S. Khurmi Ex. 13.5)

4. Design a cast iron protective type flange coupling to transmit 15 kW at 900 r.p.m.
from an electric motor to a compressor. The service factor may be assumed as 1.35.
The following permissible stresses may be used :
Shear stress for shaft, bolt and key material = 40 MPa
Crushing stress for bolt and key = 80 MPa
Shear stress for cast iron = 8 MPa
Standard shaft diameter: 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40 mm.
Take number of bolts are 3.
(R. S. Khurmi Ex. 13.6)

5. Design a protective type of cast iron flange coupling for a steel shaft transmitting 15
kW at 200 r.p.m. and having an allowable shear stress of 40 MPa. The working stress
in the bolts should not exceed 30 MPa. Assume that the same material is used for
shaft and key and that the crushing stress is twice the value of its shear stress. The
maximum torque is 25% greater than the full load torque. The shear stress for cast
iron is 14 MPa. (R. S. Khurmi Ex. 13.7)

6. Design and draw a cast iron flange coupling for a mild steel shaft transmitting 90 kW
at 250 r.p.m. The allowable shear stress in the shaft is 40 MPa and the angle of twist
is not to exceed 1 in a length of 20 diameters. The allowable shear stress in the
coupling bolts is 30 MPa. Take width of key = shaft diameter/4 and thickness of key
= shaft diameter/6. Assume no. of bolts = 4. (R. S. Khurmi Ex. 13.8)

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Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Machine Design & Industrial Drafting (2141907)

7. The shaft and the flange of a marine engine are to be designed for flange coupling in
which the flange is forged on the end of the shaft. The following particulars are to be
considered in the design: Power of the engine = 3 MW, Speed of the engine = 100
r.p.m., Permissible shear stress in bolts and shaft = 60 MPa, Number of bolts used = 8
and Pitch circle diameter of bolts = 1.6 Diameter of shaft.
Find: 1. diameter of shaft; 2. diameter of bolts; 3. thickness of flange; and 4. diameter
of flange.
(R. S. Khurmi Ex. 13.11)

## 8. A flexible coupling as shown in below figure is used to transmit 15 kW power at 100

rpm. There are six pins and their pitch circle diameter is 200 mm. The effective
length of the bush, the gap between the two flanges and the length of pin in contact
with the right hand flange are 35, 5 and 23 mm respectively. The permissible shear
and bending stress in the pin are 35 N/mm 2 and 152 N/mm2 respectively. Calculate
pin diameter by shear & bending considerations.
(V. B. Bhandari Ex 9.23)

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Department of Mechanical Engineering
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Machine Design and Industrial Drafting (2141907)

## ASSIGNMENT 7 Design of Threaded Joints

Theory
1. Explain the different types of screw threads used in power screw stating their
applications.
2. Differentiate between power screw and threaded joint.
3. What do you understand by the single start and double start threads? Define
following terms: (a) Major diameter, (b) Minor diameter, (c) Pitch and (d) Lead.
4. Derive an equation for torque required to raise (lift) load by square threaded screw.
5. Derive an equation for torque required to lower load by square threaded screw.
6. Derive an equation for efficiency of square threaded screw and maximum efficiency
of a square threaded screw.
7. What is self-locking and over-hauling of power screw? What is significance of these
properties? Show that the efficiency of self-locking screws is less than 50%.
8. Discuss on bolts of uniform strength giving examples of practical applications of
such bolts.
9. Explain the purpose of a turn buckle (or Coupler) with neat sketch and describe its
design procedure.
Examples

1. The mean diameter of the square threaded screw having pitch of 10 mm is 50 mm. A
load of 20 KN is lifted through a distance of 170 mm. The external and internal
diameters of the bearing surface of the loose head are 60 mm and 10 mm
respectively. The coefficient of friction for the screw and the bearing surface may be
taken as 0.08.
Find the work done in lifting the load and the efficiency of the screw, when
a) The load rotates with the screw, and
b) The load rests on the loose head which does not rotate with the screw.

2. The lead screw of a lathe machine has single start trapezoidal threads of 52 mm
nominal diameter and 8 mm pitch. The screw is required to exert an axial force of 2
kN in order to drive the tool carriage, during turning operation. The thrust is carried
on a collar of 100 mm outer diameter and 60 mm inner diameter. The values of co-
efficient of friction at the screw threads and the collar are 0.15 and 0.12 respectively.
The lead screw rotates at 30 rpm. Calculate:
a) The power required to drive the lead screw, b) The efficiency of the screw.

3. A power screw having double start square threads of 25 mm nominal diameter and
5 mm pitch is acted upon by an axial load of 10 kN. The outer and inner diameters of
screw collar are 50 mm and 20 mm respectively. The coefficient of thread friction
and collar friction may be assumed as 0.2 and 0.15 respectively. The screw rotates at
12 r.p.m. Assuming uniform wear condition at the collar and allowable thread
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## bearing pressure of 5.8 N/mm2, find:

a) The torque required to rotate the screw; b) The stress in the screw; and
c) The number of threads of nut in engagement with screw.

4. A machine vice as shown in Fig.1 has single start square threads with 22 mm
nominal diameter and 5 mm pitch. The outer and inner diameters of the friction
collar are 55 mm and 45 mm respectively. The values of coefficient of friction for
threaded collar are 0.15 and 0.17 respectively. The machinist can comfortably exert
a force of 125 N on the handle at a mean radius of 150 mm. Assuming uniform wear
for the collar calculate:
a) Clamping force developed between the jaws
b) The overall efficiency of the clamp

Fig.1
5. A triple threaded power screw, used in a screw jack, has a nominal diameter of 50
mm and a pitch of 8 mm. The threads are square and the length of nut is 48 mm. The
screw jack is used to lift a load of 7.5 KN. The coefficient of friction at the threads is
0.12 and collar friction is negligible. Calculate: (i) the principal shear stress in the
screw body, (ii) the transverse shear stresses in the screw and the nut, (iii) the unit
bearing pressure. State whether the screw is self-locking or not.

6. The nominal diameter of a triple threaded square screw is 50 mm, while pitch is 8
mm. It is used with a collar having outer diameter of 100 mm and inner
diameter of 65 mm. The coefficient of friction at thread surface as well as at collar
surface can be taken as 0.15. The screw is used to raise a load of 15 kN. Using
uniform wear theory for collar friction, calculate: (i) Torque required to raise load,
(ii) Torque required to lower load and (iii) Force required to raise load, if applied
at a radius of 500 mm

7. The screw shown in Fig.2 is operated by a torsional moment applied at the lower
end. The nut is loaded and prevented from turning by guides. The outside diameter
of the screws is 50 mm, pitch of 8 mm and the thread is acme triple start. The

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coefficient of friction of the threads is 0.15. Assume the friction in ball bearing as
negligible. If the torsional moment Mt is 45 Nm.
a) Determine the load which could be raised
b) Would the screw be overhauling?
c) Determine the average bearing pressure between the screw and nut thread
surfaces.

Fig.2
8. The pull in the tie rod of an iron roof truss is 50 kN. Design a suitable adjustable
Screwed joint (turnbuckle). The permissible stresses are 75 MPa in tension, 37.5
MPa in shear and 90 MPa in crushing.

9. A double threaded power screw with ISO metric trapezoidal threads with 15semi-
angle of thread is used to raise a load of 300 kN. The nominal diameter is 100 mm
and pitch is 12 mm. the coefficient of friction at screw threads is 0.15. Neglecting
collar friction, calculate; (i) torque required to raise the load, (ii) torque required
to lower the load and (iii) efficiency of the screw.

10. Design a turnbuckle for a capacity of 40 kN, which is used for adjusting
tension in a v-belt drive of a machine tool. The permissible stresses for rods and nut
are 80 MPa in tension, 50 MPa in shear and 80 MPa in crushing.

B.E. Semester IV
Department of Mechanical Engineering
3
Machine Design and Industrial Drafting (2141907)

## ASSIGNMENT 8 Design of Welded Joints

Theory
1. What do you understand by the term welded joint? Explain advantages and
disadvantages of welded joints over riveted joints.
2. Classify and explain the types of welded joints with neat sketches and weld symbols.
3. Discuss the standard location of elements of a welding symbol.
4. Derive equations of strength for transverse and parallel fillet welded joints with neat
sketches.
5. Deduce the design equation for circular fillet weld subjected to torsion.
6. What do you mean by eccentric loaded welded joint? Write the detail design
procedure for designing such a joint.
Examples
1. A plate 60 mm wide and 80 mm thick. It is welded with another plate by means of
single transverse and double parallel fillet welds. Find the length of each parallel
fillet if allowable tensile and shear stresses in the weld material are 80 and 60 MPa
respectively.
2. Two steel plates, 120 mm wide and 12.5 mm thick, are joined together by means of
double transverse fillet welds. The maximum tensile stress for plates and welding
materials should not exceed 110 N/mm2. Find required length of weld, if strength of
weld is equal to strength of plates
3. A circular shaft, 75 mm in diameter, is welded to the support by means of a
circumferential fillet weld. It is subjected to a torsional moment of 3000 N-m.
Determine the size of weld, if the maximum shear stress in the weld is not to exceed
70 N/mm2.
4. A solid rectangular bar of 100mm width and 150mm depth is welded to vertical
column by means of fillet weld all around. The joint is subjected to 25 KN at distance
of 500 mm from the plane of weld. Determine throat thickness using allowable
stress of weld is 75 N/mm2.
5. A welded joint as shown in Fig.1, is subjected to an eccentric load of 2 KN. Find the
size of weld, if the maximum shear stress in the weld is 25 N/mm.

Fig.1

B.E. Semester IV
Department of Mechanical Engineering
1
Machine Design and Industrial Drafting (2141907)

## 6. A shaft of rectangular cross-section is welded to a support by means of fillet welds,

as shown in Fig.2 Determine the size of the welds, if the permissible shear stress in
the weld is limited to 75 N/mm2.

Fig.2

## 7. A bracket is fillet welded to a structure as shown in Fig.3, which is subjected to a

load of 50 kN. Find the size of weld required if allowable shear stress is not to exceed
(b+)3
75 MPa. Take polar moment of inertia J =
6

Fig.3

8. A welded joint has to support a load of 80 kN. Suggest a suitable size of fillet weld if
the safe shear stress for the weld material is 80 MPa. Refer the given Fig.4.

Fig.4
B.E. Semester IV
Department of Mechanical Engineering
2
Machine Design and Industrial Drafting (2141907)

## 9. A bracket carrying a load of 15 KN is to be fillet welded as shown in Fig.5. Find the

size of weld required if the allowable shear stress is not to exceed 80 MPa.
(3b2 + 2 )
Take polar moment of inertia J = t
6

Fig.5

10. Fig.6 shows 12 mm thick plates loaded by the forces of 100 KN applied eccentrically.
Determine the required lengths L1 & L2 of the fillet welds so that they will be equally
stressed in shear. Take working stress in shear for side fillets to be equal to 80
N/mm2.

Fig.6

11. A bracket is welded to the side of a column and carries a vertical load P, as shown in
Fig.7. Evaluate P so that the maximum shear stress in the 10 mm fillet welds is 80
MPa.

Fig.7

B.E. Semester IV
Department of Mechanical Engineering
3
Machine Design and Industrial Drafting (2141907)

## ASSIGNMENT 8 Design of Riveted Joints

Theory
1. Define riveted joints. Classify and explain the different types of riveted joints with
neat sketches.
2. Explain the following terms related to riveted joints:
a) Pitch, b) Margin, c) Diagonal pitch and d) Transverse pitch.
3. Explain caulking & fullering in terms of riveted joint.
4. Discuss the different types of failures in riveted joint (or the various ways in which
a riveted joint may fail).
Examples
1. Find the efficiency of the double riveted lap joints with zig-zag riveting is to be
designed for 13 mm thick plates. Assume 80 MPa, 60 MPa and 120 MPa in tension,
Shear and crushing respectively. Also calculate pitch of rivets.
2. Design a double riveted, double strap, chain type butt joint for plates having 10 mm
thickness. Also find efficiency of the joint. Take t = 95 N/mm, c =155 N/mm and
=80 N/mm.
3. A double riveted double cover butt joint in plates 20 mm thick is made with 25 mm
diameter. Rivets at 100 mm pitch. The permissible stress are t =120 N/mm2, Shear
stress= 100 N/mm2, c= 150 N/mm2. Find the Efficiency of joint, taking the strength
of the rivets in double shear as twice than that of single shear.
4. Design a double riveted butt joint with two cover plates for the longitudinal seam of
a boiler shell 1.5 m in diameter subjected to a steam pressure of 0.95 N/mm2.
Assume joint efficiency as 75%, allowable tensile stress in the plate 90 MPa,
Compressive stress 140 MPa & shear stress in the rivet 56 MPa.
A bracket is supported by means of four rivets of same size as shown in Fig.1.
Determine the diameter of rivet if the maximum shear stress is 140 MPa.

Fig.1
5. A bracket is to be attached to a wall with the help of six rivets. The different
arrangements in which the bracket can be attached to the wall with these rivets are
shown in Fig.2. The maximum allowable stress in shear is 60 N/mm2. Determine the

B.E. Semester IV
Department of Mechanical Engineering
1
Machine Design and Industrial Drafting (2141907)

way in which the rivets should be arranged so that the design is economical. The
bracket is required to support a load of 90 KN with an eccentricity of 200 mm. Also
determine the diameter of rivet for the selected arrangement.

Fig.2
6. An eccentrically loaded lap riveted joint is to be designed for a steel bracket as
shown in Fig.3. The bracket plate is 25 mm thick. All rivets are to be of same size,
load on the bracket P = 50 KN, rivet spacing c =100 mm, load arm e = 400 mm,
permissible shear stress is 64 MPa, and crushing stress is 120 MPa. Determine the
size of the rivets to be used for the joint.

Fig.3
7. A bracket is subjected to a load of 32 KN which is joined to a structure by means of 8
numbers of rivets as shown in Fig.4 Find the size of the rivets if the permissible
shear stress is 80 MPa.

Fig.4

B.E. Semester IV
Department of Mechanical Engineering
2
Machine Design and Industrial Drafting (2141907)

8. Find the value of P for joint shown in Fig.5, based on a working shear stress of 100
MPa for rivets. Each of four rivets is of 20 mm diameter.

Fig.5

B.E. Semester IV
Department of Mechanical Engineering
3
Machine Design and Industrial Drafting (2141907)

## ASSIGNMENT 10 INTRODUCTION TO LIMITS FITS AND

TOLERANCES
Theory
1. Define and explain following terminology used in relation with the tolerances with
the help of neat sketch:
(a) Limit (b) Basic size (c) Tolerance (d) Allowance
(e) Deviation (f) Clearance (g) Fit
2. Explain types of tolerances with neat sketch and explain applications for it.
3. Explain types of deviations with neat sketch and explain applications for it.
4. Explain types of clearances with neat sketch and explain applications for it.
5. Explain types of fits with neat sketch and explain applications for it.
6. What is surface roughness? Explain the parameters (or characteristics) used for
surface roughness measurement with sketch.
7. Explain the machining symbols with all parameters.
8. Explain hole-based and shaft based limit system with neat sketch. Give appropriate
examples also.
9. Give symbols for following various geometrical tolerances and explain meaning of it:
Straightness, Flatness, Circularity, Parallelism, Perpendicularity, Cylindricity,
Symmetry, Angularity and Concentricity
10. Explain maximum metal condition (MMC) and least metal condition (LMC).

Examples
1. In bush and pin assembly, pin of 30 mm diameter rotates in a bush. The tolerance for
pin is 0.025 mm while for bush is 0.04 mm. If allowance is 0.1 mm, determine
dimensions of pin and bush considering hole-basis system.

## 2. A journal of nominal diameter 79 mm rotates in a bearing. The upper and lower

deviations in hole diameter are respectively +0.05 mm and 0.00 mm, while those for
shaft are respectively -0.03 mm and -0.07 mm.
Calculate: (i) Extreme diameters for hole and shaft, (ii) Tolerances for hole and shaft
and (iii) maximum and minimum clearance.

3. Find the tolerances, maximum interference and type of fit for the data for the
following given data:
Hole 50+0.25-0.10 and Shaft 50+0.20-0.20.

B. E. Semester IV
Department of Mechanical Engineering
1