World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

Vol:2 2008-06-22

Solar Energy Potential and Applications in Myanmar
Thet Thet Han Yee, Su Su Win, and Nyein Nyein Soe

Abstract—Energy consumption is one of the indices in Temperatures are cooler in the mountains, but the weather at
determining the levels of development of a nation. Therefore, places below 4000ft (1200m) is hot and tropical in most of the
availability of energy supply to all sectors of life in any country is year. In coastal areas, conditions can be uncomfortable
crucial for its development. These exists shortage of all kinds of
because of high humidity. Sunshine is plentiful during the dry
energy, particularly electricity which is badly needed for economic
development. Electricity from the sun which is quite abundant in season, averaging 7 to 10 hours a day. During the rainy season
most of the developing countries is used in rural areas to meet basic the weather is cloudier and daily sunshine amounts average
electricity needs of a rural community. Today’s electricity supply in only 3 to 4 hours a day. Total area or total square miles of
Myanmar is generated by fuel generators and hydroelectric power Myanmar is 261228. The radiated heat energy from the sun on
plants. However, far-flung areas which are away from National Grids to the earth converted to horse power is 469×1011. Therefore,
cannot enjoy the electricity generated by these sources. Since
total approximate horse power on total area of Myanmar is
International Science Index Vol:2, No:6, 2008 waset.org/Publication/12130

Myanmar is a land of plentiful sunshine, especially in central and
southern regions of the country, the first form of energy- solar energy calculated to be 123×1010, that is the sun’s radiated heat power.
could hopefully become the final solution to its energy supply The following solar energy technologies can be successfully
problem. The direct conversion of solar energy into electricity using propagated: solar cookers; solar water heating systems for
photovoltaic system has been receiving intensive installation not only industrial application; solar distillation units for battery
in developed countries but also in developing countries. It is mainly charging; solar photovoltaic systems for water pumping,
intended to present solar energy potential and application in
battery charging, and power supply to children’s hospitals for
Myanmar. It is also wanted to get the benefits of using solar energy
for people in remote areas which are not yet connected to the national operating vital equipment. Solar air driers can be used for
grids because of the high price of fossil fuel. agricultural and industrial products [1].
Keywords—Electricity supply in Myanmar, National Grids, solar
energy. II. SOLAR ENERGY POTENTIAL IN MYANMAR
A. Solar Radiation Data of Myanmar
I. INTRODUCTION
MEPE ( Myanma Electric Power Enterprise) experimental

THE provision of electricity to rural areas derives important
social and economic benefits to remove communities
measurements indicate that irradiation intensity of more than 5
kWh/m2/day was observed during the dry season.
throughout the world. The potential for PV-powered rural Since the reliability of these systems is paramount, the
applications is enormous. sizing method used is based on radiation data for the worst
The geographical location of Myanmar is between latitude month of the year rather than on the average daily irradiation
9° 58' N and 28° 29' N and longitude 92° 10' E and 101° 10' E. over the year. In addition to ensure system operation even
Myanmar has a tropical monsoon climate. The cooler, dry over periods of lower solar radiation than predicted from the
season lasts from November to April and the hotter, wet average yearly values, the sizing often uses data for the worst
season from May to September or October. year in ten [2].
Differences of altitude within the country, and the extent of In practical applications, solar cells do not operate under
exposure to the rainy southwest monsoon, are the main factors standard conditions. The two most important effects that must
responsible for differences of climate within Myanmar. The be allowed for are due to the variable temperature and
weather is hottest from March-May, before the onset of the irradiance. Temperature has an important effect on the power
heaviest rains. output from the cell. Irradiance is directly proportional to the
short-circuit current of a solar cell [2].
Therefore, the recoded solar intensity around Yangon and
some part of the country are given in Table I and II [3]. Fig. 1
is shown solar radiation data corresponding to the selected
Thet Thet Han Yee is with Mandalay Technological University Myanmar, cities.
(corresponding author, phone: 095-02-88702; e-mail:
thetthethanyee@gmail.com).
Su Su Win is with Mandalay Technological University Myanmar, (e-mail:
susuwin1@gmail.com).
Nyein Nyein Soe with Mandalay Technological University Myanmar, (e-
mail: nyeinnsoe@gmail.com).

International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 2(6) 2008 331

00 3. Chin State No Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Cities 4.05 5.93 4.69 4.70 III.09 5.86 4.org/Publication/12130 TABLE II 2. 1 Solar radiation data corresponding to the selected cities 8 Sittwey 4.61 The current applications in Myanmar are 1.31 under Ministry of Health Yangon 9 3.88 6.82 5.29 4. and then the calculate button is selected.84 5 Mandalay 4.92 5.23 4.34 4. 0. Thongwa Township 4 Lashio 4.64 5.45 7 Myitkyina 4.82 6.71 3.52 4. initial stages.40 4.70 3.50 5.90 4.31 at Pale.35 4. 2008 waset.68 A.8 kW MONTHLY AVERAGE RADIATION (KWH/M2/DAY) RECORDS OF SELECTED 3.85 4. Water Resources Department 7 Myitkyina 3.28 Myanmar. Language Form uses the mathematical method described especially in the Central Myanmar Dry Zone Area. PV Battery Charging Station 0.11 4.71 4.07 6.84 11 Kauthaung 3.49 5.85 4. This calculator is used to calculate the Declination.Yan Myo Aung Village 40 kW B. The most important thing 12.06 6.64 4.06 5.21 4.11 6. Private owned PV systems 250 kW (sold by various companies)[4] 10.93 6. power and light supplied with solar system are now available for studying.84 4.88 4. longitude and time zone of the described location is presently in the research and development phase.92 3. Natha-myaing Village 3. Photovoltaic Current Applications in Myanmar 11 Kauthaung 5. Other utilizations 50 kW is to keep the power system simple and dependable. it enjoys abundant sunshine all year around.71 6.54 3.8 Terea time. The correct time zone to match the longitude of the site should be careful selected.45 6 Pyay 4.66 4. Mogok 1.6 kW International Science Index Vol:2.41 3.40 4.22 4. Due to the expensive initial cost the solar energy The latitude.21 4.77 6. SOLAR APPLICATIONS IN MYANMAR (Kaba Aye) 10 Dawei 5.09 4.90 5.45 5. working and for just playing around in rural B. VAST Station.42 3. World Academy of Science.05 4.45 5.07 3.63 6.07 Fig.12 6.78 Yangon 9 4. PV System for Radio Telephone Post 3.61 4.00 6. PV powerd Solar Refrigerators 50 kW 8 Sittwey 3.52 4. Potential above to calculate a range of solar data at a particular date available Solar Energy of Myanmar is around 51973. Engineering and Technology Vol:2 2008-06-22 TABLE I MONTHLY AVERAGE RADIATION (KWH/M2/DAY) RECORDS OF SELECTED CITIES Location/ No Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Cities 1 Monywa 4. PV powered Rural Health Centers 15 kW (Kaba Aye) under Ministry of Health 10 Dawei 3.94 4. The following Hyper Text Markup Asian Continent. the required data and time is set.37 4.16 4. Chaung Tha Village 80 kW for people living in insolated areas.69 4.99 6.65 5. Here.58 4.47 6.55 4.45 2 Meikhtila 4.79 4.48 4.73 4. Javascript solar position calculator is simply to check for As Myanmar is situated in the southeastern part of the the experiment data.54 9. Use of solar energy is also in the very improve the quality of life for people living in isolated areas.55 5.72 4.91 5.79 5. PV System for Computer.00 kW 1 Monywa 4.04 6.3 kW CITIES Location/ Hakha.19 5.97 5.97 3 Magwey 4.64 6.04 4.56 5.30 3.08 4 Lashio 4.27 3.79 4.91 5 Mandalay 4.83 4.52 5. even a little solar electric power can Watt-hour per year.34 4.50 4.07 5. In Myanmar.07 5.05 and Telecommunications 2 Meikhtila 4.78 7.63 4.31 4. Equation of International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 2(6) 2008 332 .25 6.70 4.33 4.47 8.84 6.68 5. PV Water Pumping Stations all over 40 kW 6 Pyay 4.75 4.42 3.29 4.52 6. Limitation of Solar Energy in Myanmar The solar electric power can be improved the quality of life 11.29 4.06 6.65 6. No:6. are simply entered.83 3.56 4.05 5.15 3.18 4.79 4.70 4.50 5.45 kW 3 Magwey 4.16 5.98 4. Javascript Solar Position Calculator areas.33 5.

International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 2(6) 2008 333 . Sixteen solar Solar Azimute 87.7 6. April 8. System Day 21 performance description shows that output power capacity is Local Time UT – 8h 2399 W with water pump up capacity of 13254 gallons per Output Results day at 180 ft head.5 village. One at pump station II is equipped radiation records. In this government sponsored November 7.1 6. Input Parameters System I is configurated with 32 numbers of 75 W Siemens Latitude 22˚ Solar modules to run Grundfos SP 3A 10 Submersible Pump.7 4. Solar Electric Power System Establishment In Nantha Sunset of Mandalay. situated at pump station I. System Time of Sunrise 07:13 h performance description shows that output power capacity is Time of Sunset 16:35 h 1200 W with water pump up capacity of 4500 gallons per day at 100 ft head.8 5.9 6. Solar Altitude.4 5.5 In Yan Myo Aung. eight numbers of concrete tanks and one over C. World Academy of Science. Thesse results are shown in Table III. two concrete tanks situated at pump station I Myaing village. 2008 waset. So.5 4. Mean capacity of 4800 gallons and 2400 gallons each. Myaing Village Two solar photovoltaic power supply system’s installation TABLE III together with successful performance test was completed as JAVASCRIPT SOLAR POSITION scheduled [5].1095 minutes Solar modules to run Grundfos SP 3A 10 Submersible Pump. solar home units had been installed for the entire December 4. Mandalay has chosen delivery.5 6. performance February 6. Nantha Myaing village was situated in and II are not operating. International Science Index Vol:2. isolated village India Myanmar border. Another small head tank is composed of 3 numbers of 8'×4'×4' metal tanks and which is TABLE IV situated at pump station II [5]. Performance January 7. Thirty two solar Time Zone GMT + 4 modules are installed on four auto tracker stands by dividing Month January our sub arrays with eight modules each mounted.5 After complete installation of the system II.0 110 families are beginning to enjoy the benefits of power and light thanks to solar energy.23 5.14˚ This system is established at pump station II.org/Publication/12130 Each mounting structure has eight modules. The larger insolation data for Nantha Myaing Village is shown in the one constructed with 6 numbers of 8'×4'×4' metal tanks is Table IV. Previously. July 8.5 per day (8 hrs/day run). the monthly average radiation is high at with two 2" GI pipe lines to two new water taps for water Mandalay within Upper Myanmar. operated by solar electric power supply system for Nantha Among those. October 7.5 After complete installation of the system I. and mounted Solar Time 9:33 h at fix position facing to North direction.5 F. At present.0189 System II is configured with 16 numbers of 75 W Siemens Equation of Time -11. Designed and installed by every home involved in this Annual 7. MEAN INSOLATION DATA FOR MANDALAY (NANTHA MYAING VILLAGE) Month Sunshine Hours Peak Sun Hours E.13˚ modules are installed on two support structures. Two new over head tanks are established at the the most promising site for the demonstration. Solar Time. No:6. Declination -20.8 project is equipped with a fluorescent light switch.0 program. Location of Solar Lighting System in Yan Myo Aung Village September 5.6 5.0 6. Engineering and Technology Vol:2 2008-06-22 time. those two old concrete Madayar Township of Mandalay Division.0 August 8.5 test result shows that water pump up capacity is 13500 gallons March 4. wires and connectors and a battery with a discharge protector [7].5 per day (8 hrs/day run).5 6. performance May 9. Longitude 96˚ This system is established at pump station I.5 test result shows that water pump up capacity is 7500 gallons June 8. Solar Azimute. According to the tanks are reconstructed. Location of Water Pumping System in Nantha Myaing Village head tank are established for village water distribution Water delivery system of the whole village has been system. Solar Altitude 31.0 6. Sunrise and D.

She wishes to express her deep gratitude to all teachers from kindergarten to date.D candidate of Electrical Power Engineering Department. 2008 waset. Associate Professor. medical care centre in Kanbauk degree in 2003 with ME (Electrical Power) at Yangon Technological village.University of Southampton. In [4] Dr. Myanmar”.” A Unicef attached by a diesel engine driven generator project was Myanmar Publication. No:6. March. [2] Tomas Markvart. If Myanmar produce solar cells as a home-made. solar clocks in heavy industries. education and the economy in even the most remote villages. The most important thing is to keep the power system simple and dependable.K. The main task of the June 1992. “Solar Power Development for Rural Areas in water for irrigation and drinking in Rakhine and Kachin States. So researchers have also been doing research concerning about solar cells in Myanmar. 2rd Draft. pumping [7] U Win Khaing.” March. 1992. Thet Thet Han Yee made her first publication of International paper at this paper “Solar Energy Potential and Applications in Myanmar. for household electricity in Yangon and other cities. International Science Index Vol:2. communications. By this project solar energy would generate 80 Development Policies and Program”. everywhere away from National Grids can enjoy the electricity generated by solar energy. Myanmar. the prices will be cheaper than we expected. working and for just playing around in rural areas [6]. Due to the expensive cost of the solar energy. International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation 2(6) 2008 334 . solar energy is available around the country. [5] U Aung Myint.org/Publication/12130 main road and solar traffic light in Yangon. If so. Thet Thet Han Yee was born in 1980. MTU. started at Chaug Tha beach in late 2000. “Commercialization of Renewable Energy for Sustainable this project. she wants to thank her supervisors Dr. She got BE (Electrical telecommunication for the post and telegraph and railways Power) in 2002 at Mandalay Technological university and finished Master communication network. World Academy of Science. CONCLUSION Since Myanmar is a land of plentiful sunshine. At present she is a Ph. Khin Aye Win. Professor (Electrical Power) at Yangon Technological University and Dr. “Myanmar Solar Energy System”. Solar energy is presently in the research and development phase due to the cost. Engineering and Technology Vol:2 2008-06-22 G. UK. November 1998. Myanmar. even a little solar electric power can improve the quality of life for people living in isolated areas. solar cooking in University. Researchers have also been doing concerning about solar cells in Myanmar. UK.” Dependable power for light. June 20. San Tint. “Solar Electricity” University of Southampton. the whole village had been powered by grid Development”: Yangon Technological University. Location of Solar Lighting System in Chaung Tha Village REFERENCES The first solar power and wind power in lighting system [1] S. “Alternate Energy Utilization in Myanmar. Ni Ni Win. After that she served as a Lecturer in Technological Ngapali beach in Rakhine State and solar road warning at University. Especially. “Report on Solar Pump System Establement. power and light supplied with solar system are now available for studying. In Myanmar.1998. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author would like to express her special thanks to her parents for encouragement without any trouble throughout her life. Other utilizations used in Myanmar are solar home system [6] U Win Khaing. some can use it. project is to lessen the pollution of air and better the [3] “The National Strategy for the Integration of Energy and Rural environment. Sharma. kW and wind turbine would generate 40 kW continuously. May 2005 Policies and Programs. Electrical Power Engineering Department at Mandalay Technological University. connected system [7]. and water can go a long way to improving health. IV. Monywa about three years. Here. electrification for the remote villages for providing street lighting and other community services in Kalay City.

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