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- pressure vessel

A container or structural envelope in which material are processed, treated,

or stored which has been designed to operate at pressure above 15 Psi are
knows as pressure vessel.

- Types of Pressure vessels:

According to Orientation
Typical Pressure Vessel Spherical Pressure vessel Horizontal
supports for vessel
Vessel have to be supported by different methods. Vertical vessel is supported by
bracket, column and saddle support horizontal vessels. The choice of the type of
supports depends on the

Height and diameter of the vessel,

Available floor space,
Location of vessel
Types of supports which are commonly used

Skirt supports (column) (cylindrical shell)

Saddle supports (Horizontal) (for large thin ring used)
Bracket or lug supports (thick, to dead weight and wind load)
Leg supports (vertical) (angle, channels fillet welded, small vessels, local

- Types of nozzle
Radial nozzle: a nozzle, which is perpendicular to base of the shell or dished
end lies on the orientation line is called radial nozzle.
Offset nozzle: a nozzle, which is similar to radial nozzle but offset form
orientation line, is called as offset nozzle.
Tangential nozzle: a nozzle, which is on any tangential line of the shell, is
called tangential nozzle.
Angular nozzle: a nozzle, which is at an angle form the reference line, is
called as angular nozzle

- Pressure vessel Internals:

Inlet Distributer
Catalyst Bed Grid and support beams
Outlet collectors
Flow distribution Grid
Cyclone and Plenum chamber system

- Shall be consider during Design:

Need for corrosion allowance
Lethal Services
Need for PWHT
The degree of NDT

- Material for shell ASTM A 285


Internal or External Design Pressure

Weight of the vessel and normal contents under operating and test condition
Superimposed static reactions from weight of attached equipment
The attachment of (Internals Vessel supports)
Cyclic and dynamic reactions (Wind snow)
Impact reactions (fluid shock)
Temperature gradients

- Longitudinal Joints (Circumferential stresses)

- Circumferential Joints (longitudinal stresses)

- Types of caps (Ellipsoidal, Tori spherical, Hemispherical , Toriconical , )

- Welded Joint Category & Lethal requirements:

- Design Pressure: the pressure at the top of the vessel.
- Design Temperature: shall be based on the actual metal temperature
expected under operating condition for the part considered at the designated
coincident pressure.
- Operating Pressure: is the pressure at the top of the vessel at which it
normally operators. The operating pressure shall not exceed the design
pressure and is usually kept at a suitable level below it to prevent the
frequent opening of the pressure relieving devices.
- Test Pressure: the pressure to be applied at the top of the vessel during the

- Gaskets: Full face spiral Wound octagonal ring metal Jacketed

- Stress analysis: to insure stress in piping component in allowable
To solve dynamic problems
To solve problems due to higher or lower operating
(axial stresses shear stresses Radial stresses Hoops
- Valves: Selection: Handling, Fluid Nature, function, construction
material, disk type, stem type, bonnet type, body ends, cost
Function of Valves: - Isolation, Regulation, non-return, special
Isolating Valves: Gate, Ball, Plug, piston, diaphragm, butterfly, pinch.
Regulation Valves: Globe, Needle, Butterfly, diaphragm, piston, pinch
Non-return Valve: Check valve
Special valves: multi-port, pressure relieve, flush bottom.

T= +c.a.