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Solar energy computation systems contains Photovoltaic (PV) complex, in which power can be supplied exactly to an electrical equipment or energy is delivered in the public electricity grid. For the improvement of the efficiency of PV panels in the photovoltaic system, there is necessity of power electronic conversion and also the stability of system. The power circuit consists of a high step-up (Boost Converter) DC to DC converter and a multilevel inverter to convert DC to AC in these systems, as the in nature of grid voltage is pulsating (AC). Control circuit is required to get constant voltage at output with PV systems output voltage at load side as is continuously varying in nature. This analysis of Grid connected solar photovoltaic system using different types of converters. Here, in this paper the modelling of three types of converter is done (Boost converter, Battery converter, Main converter) A grid connected solar photovoltaic system represented by this paper and has been simulated and modelled using the Simulink in the MATLAB. The results of simulation shows that the system can balance with stable operation under the coordination control schemes during the switching of grid from one operating condition to another.

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Vijay Kumar Garg1 Reena Dhanda2

1

Assistant Professor 2M.Tech Scholar

1

Department of Electrical Engineering

1,2

UIET, KUK INDIA

Abstract Solar energy computation systems contains II. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM

Photovoltaic (PV) complex, in which power can be supplied The different types of components used in grid-connected

exactly to an electrical equipment or energy is delivered in photovoltaic system with two levels to succeed PV power and

the public electricity grid. For the improvement of the transfer to the grid. The composition of system is mainly for,

efficiency of PV panels in the photovoltaic system, there is PV arrays matrix, which converts irradiation comes from sun

necessity of power electronic conversion and also the stability into DC power, a DC to DC boost converter to step up the

of system. The power circuit consists of a high step-up (Boost voltage of PV array to a greater level DC Voltage and DC/AC

Converter) DC to DC converter and a multilevel inverter to three level inverter which transform the DC power into AC

convert DC to AC in these systems, as the in nature of grid power. The achieved AC power from an inverter is injected

voltage is pulsating (AC). Control circuit is required to get into the grid and is adapted by the local loads [6].

constant voltage at output with PV systems output voltage at

load side as is continuously varying in nature. This analysis

of Grid connected solar photovoltaic system using different

types of converters. Here, in this paper the modelling of three

types of converter is done (Boost converter, Battery

converter, Main converter) A grid connected solar

photovoltaic system represented by this paper and has been

simulated and modelled using the Simulink in the MATLAB.

The results of simulation shows that the system can balance

with stable operation under the coordination control schemes

during the switching of grid from one operating condition to

another.

Key words: Battery converter, Boost converter, Grid,

Photovoltaic Array

I. INTRODUCTION

With the accelerating concernment about the non-renewable

sources of energy, the fossil fuel prices are constantly

increasing, environment and ecosystem damaging, global

Fig. 1: Components of Grid connected PV systems

warming, the renewable energy is befitting more promoted

and is gathering more attention as a substitute to non-

III. SYSTEM COMPONENTS WITH ITS OPERATING PRINCIPLE

renewable sources of energy. Throughout the renewable

sources of energy, the most crucial and sustainable sources of A. Pv Array:

energy is Solar system energy in comparison with the other The equivalent circuit diagram of PV device can be

kinds of energy resources such as tidal, wind, fuel cell etc. In characterized with the help of a current source (light

Solar energy system, the irradiation of PV Array converts into generated) and a diode containing internal series and shunt

electricity. In Grid Connected PV System, The PV system resistances as shown in fig. 2.

connected with grid by using different types of converters for A PV array is temperate of numerous PV cells and

coordination control of grid system. Grid connected PV the examination of the characteristics at its termination results

system have befitting more promoted due to their in formulating its output current with the following equation

multifarious applications in distributed generation and also [14];

the effective use of the PV array power. Transmission line

with high voltage long distance is no longer mandatory, when

power is completely supplied by local renewable sources of

power [1]. For the promotion of the connection of renewable

sources of power to conventional ac systems, AC micro grids

[2][5] have been contingent. On the other hand, dc power

generated from fuel cells or photovoltaic (PV) panels has to

be converted into ac with the help of, dc/ac inverters,

photovoltaic (PV) panels and dc/dc boost converter for the

sake of connection to an ac grid. In an ac grid, there is

requirement of dc/dc and ac/dc converters for multifarious

office facilities and home to accumulate distinct dc voltages.

Fig. 2: PV cell single diode model

Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System with Converters Control

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 05/2016/108)

= [exp ( ) 1] (1)

can be almost as a constant current (CC) source. Moreover,

Where, the PV current starts a edged falling in the right region to the

I= the output PV array current (A), V= the output MPP and the PV array can be approximated as a constant

PV array voltage (V), I_o= the saturation current of the array voltage (CV) source. With distinct irradiance levels, the PV

(A), I_pv= the photovoltaic array current (V),R_p, R_s= the array MPP varies. Thus for maximizing the efficiency of PV

internal parallel and series resistances of the PV array (Ohm), system, continual tracking to the MPP is necessary. By using

a = the idealistic constant of diode, V_t = the thermal voltage an MPPT algorithm, a maximum level of voltage can be

of the array (V),N_s= PV cells connected in series. achieved which determines the applicable duty ratio (D) for

= ( ) (2) controlling the gate pulse of the DC-DC converter situated

Where, between the load and the PV module to establish that the

q = the electron charge (C), maximum power of PV panel is extracted. A favourable

k = Boltzmann constant (J/K), MPPT technique accommodates between the steady-state

T = the temperature of the pn junction (K) accuracy and tracking speed and shows quick response while

sudden changes in environment. According to this paradigm,

B. Dc/Dc Boost Converter: the Incremental Conductance algorithm can be contemplated

DC/DC Converters are used for transforming one level of DC as a strong MPPT technique [8-12].

voltage (unregulated) to distinct level of DC voltage

(regulated). This conversion is done with the help of a

network containing storage elements such as capacitor and

inductor [7].

Fig. 3: Configuration of Boost converter Fig. 4: PV array I-V and P-V characteristics

The main convention that drives the boost converter D. The Battery Model:

is the capability of an inductor to cramp changes in current.

In a boost converter, the output voltage is higher than the The battery model assumes the same characteristics for the

input voltage. Here, IGBT is used as a switch. The current charge and the discharge cycles. The open voltage source is

circulates through the inductor in the circuit when the switch determined by using a non-linear equation based on the actual

is turned-ON and energy is accumulated in it. The SOC of the battery.

accumulated energy in the inductor tends to disintegrate when Equation (1) describes the controlled voltage source

the switch is turned-OFF and inductor changes its polarity is:

such that its voltage adds up with the input voltage. = + . + . exp(B ) (7)

+

The design of boost converter, shown in fig. 3, can

be summarized as follows [15]; = 100 (1 + ) (8)

= (1 ) (3) Where,

=

(4) ib= the battery charging current, Rb = internal

resistance, Vo = open circuit voltage, A = the exponential

= (5) voltage, K = the polarization voltage of battery, B = the

8 2

Where, exponential capacity, Q = the battery capacity, [13].

V = the output PV array voltage (V), D = the duty Capacitor across the PV Array 1100uF

ratio of the boost chopper, V_battery= the battery load 1 Inductor for the boost converter 80uH

voltage (V), V = the change in the PV array voltage (V), Capacitor across the dc-link 5900uF

f_sw= the chopper switching frequency (Hz), i_L=the 2 Filtering inductor for the inverter 75uH

change in inductor current (A), L= the chopper inductor and 2 Equivalent resistance of the inverter 10ohm

C = the chopper input capacitor. 2 Inverter filtering capacitor 5uF

C. Mppt Algorithms: 3 Inductor for the battery converter 5mH

3 Resistance of L3 0.008ohm

It is shown in Equation (1) that I-V characteristics of PV array

AC grid frequency 50Hz

is non-linear that based on PV cells' temperature and the

irradiance level. The P-V and I-V curves of a PV array are power converters Switching frequency 10kHz

shown in Fig. at particular irradiance level and cell Rated DC bus voltage 400V

temperature, on which it's observable that the PV panel has a AC Load 20-40KW

maximum (peak) operating point, known as the maximum Load resistance 7ohm

power point (MPP). The PV current is relatively Table 1: Component Parameters for System

Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System with Converters Control

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 05/2016/108)

A. Modelling of PV Array with Boost Converter Using

MPPT:

The PV array consists of 36 strings in parallel and

850 series-connected modules per string connected in series.

The boost converter connected with PV Array and operated

by MPPT controller after 0.1 s. Specifications for PV Array

are:

Short-circuit current: = 3.27 A

Open-circuit voltage: = 400 V

Voltage and current at maximum power: V_mp =395.8V,

I_mp= 2.78 A

The solar irradiation remains constant at 1000W/m2,

from 0.0 s to 0.4 s. The initial voltage is obstinate at 250 V

for the IC. Here, the IC is tracing the peak voltage Fig. 10: Output Power of PV Array

continuously from 0 to 0.1 s. The tracing rate of algorithm is B. Modelling Of Battery Converter:

very slow, due to which, the peak voltage search by the

algorithm is only at 0.05s. The algorithm finds a new peak The current, voltage and SOC of the battery are shown in Fig.

(optimal) voltage from 0.2 s and finds the peak voltage at 0.4 11, Fig. 12 and Fig. 13. The total produced power is greater

s. The primitive algorithm can accurately follow the change than the total load before 0.05 s, and after 0.1 s lesser than the

of solar irradiation but require some time to find the peak total load. Before 0.15 s, the battery works in charging mode

voltage. because of the positive current of battery and works in

The curve of Terminal voltage of PV Array and the discharging mode after 0.15 s because of the negative current

output power of the PV Array are shown in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 of the battery. The increases and decreases in SOC (state of

and the output power variation from 10 kW to 30 kW, when charge) of battery before and after 0.1 s.

the solar is operated at fixed temperature and follows the solar

irradiation level approximately. The boost converter output

voltage is shown in Fig. 8. The voltage level of solar terminal

is boosting up (step up) by boost converter. The load voltage

is always greater than the source voltage in boost converter

(V_load>V_source).

Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System with Converters Control

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 05/2016/108)

Fig. 12: Battery output Voltage. Fig. 15: Output current of main converter

D. Simulation of Grid Connected PV System:

PV array, boost converter, battery converter and main

converter are simulated and modelled separately and then

subsystem of each model is connected together. The

combination is then connected to resistive load and grid

through an LC filter. Fig.16 shows the complete simulation

of grid connected PV system and Fig. 17, Fig. 18 shows the

voltage and current of main converter. Here, it is noted that

there is injection of voltage from PV system before 0.1 s and

after that Grid provide the voltage to the loads.

C. Modelling Of Main Converter:

Model of a Main Converter (three level six pulse converter

[15]) is as shown in Fig. 14. Input signal to the converter is

DC voltage with magnitude of 400 Volts, and is the boost

converter output voltage. In this model, R shows load

resistance with value of 50 .

Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System with Converters Control

(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 05/2016/108)

study of improved energy generation maximization

techniques for photovoltaic systems, in Proc. IEEE

Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conf.

(APPEEC), pp. 1-5, March 2012.

[10] G.M.S. Azevedo, M.C. Cavalcanti, K.C, Oliveria,

F.A.S.Neves and Z.D. Lins, Evaluation of maximum

power tracking methods for grid connected photovoltaic

systems, in Proc. IEEE Power Electronics Specialists

Conf., 2008, pp. 1456-1462.

[11] G. Spiazzi, S. Buso, P. Mattavelli, and P. Tenti, Low

complexity MPPT techniques for PV module

converters, in Proc. IEEE Power Electronics Conf., pp.

Fig. 18: Grid side current of main converter 2074-2081, June 2010.

[12] X. Zhang, L. Zha, F. Liu, L. Tao, and W. Chen, The

V. CONCLUSION analysis of power loss caused by the truncation error of

MPPT algorithms, IEEE Symposium on Power

Simulation of Grid connected solar PV system is Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems(PEDG),

accomplished in this work. The Parameters of system are pp. 7-11, June 2010.

determined and by using these parameters model is composed [13] O. Tremblay, L. A. Dessaint, and A. I. Dekkiche,A

and simulation results are conferred. The result of simulation generic battery model for the dynamic simulation of

shows that the contemplated control execution regulates the hybrid electric vehicles, in Proc. IEEE Veh. Power

boost converter output voltage. Propulsion Conf. (VPPC 2007), pp. 284-289.

By using the converters, the coordination control [14] H. S. Rauschenbach, Solar Cell Array Design Handbook.

between grid and PV system is done. Load output voltage is Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1980.

purely sinusoidal in nature, with frequency 50 Hz [15] D. W. Hart, Power Electronics handbook. McGraw Hill,

synchronised with grid frequency and voltage. With this, the New York, 2011.

overall efficiency, reliability and power quality of the system

is improved.

REFERENCES

[1] R.H. Lasseter, MicroGrids, in Proc. IEEE Power Eng.

Soc. Winter Meet., Jan. 2002,vol. 1, pp. 305-308.

[2] Y. Zoka, H. Sasaki, N. Yorino, K. Kawahara, and C. C.

Liu, An interaction problem of distributed generators

installed in a MicroGrid, in Proc. IEEE Elect. Utility

Deregulation, Restructuring. Power Technol., Apr. 2004,

vol. 2, pp. 795-799.

[3] R. H. Lasseter and P. Paigi, Microgrid: A conceptual

solution, in Proc. IEEE 35th PESC, Jun. 2004, vol. 6,

pp. 4285-4290.

[4] C. K. Sao and P. W. Lehn, Control and power

management of converter fed MicroGrids, IEEE Trans.

Power Syst., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 1088-1098. Aug. 2008.

[5] T. Logenthiran, D. Srinivasan, and D. Wong, Multi-

agent coordination for DER in MicroGrid, in Proc.

IEEE Int. Conf. Sustainable Energy Technol., Nov.

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[6] Manisha Joshi, Prof. Dr. Mrs. G. A. Vaidya, Modeling

and Simulation of Single Phase Grid Connected Solar

Photovoltaic System 2014 Annual IEEE India

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[7] Chetan Singh Solanki, Solar Photovoltaics-

Fundamentals, Technologies and applications, PHI

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[8] N.E. Zakzouk, A.K. Abdelsalam, A.A. Helal, B.W.

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Technique for Photovoltaic Systems, Industrial

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