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IJSRD - International Journal for Scientific Research & Development| Vol.

4, Issue 05, 2016 | ISSN (online): 2321-0613

Grid Connected WECS with Multi-Level NPC Shunt Active Power Filter
S.Dhanapal1 R.Anita2
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode, Tamilnadu, India
Abstract— This paper presents the efficient operation of However, the passive filters have large numbers of
three-level Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) Shunt Active disadvantages such as fixed compensation, large size,
Power Filter (SAPF) for interconnecting the WECS (Wind parallel and series resonance with load and utility grid
Energy Conversion System) to the utility grid using an impedances [4]. All the above mentioned disadvantages of
extended reference signal generation scheme. The proposed passive filters can be prevail over by using active power
topology provides wind power generation in addition to the filters (APFs) [5, 6] for the compensation of harmonics and
current compensation function. The SAPF wants a supply of reactive power. The APFs can be classified into two types
energy for compensate the current based disturbances in the based on their system configuration such as series and shunt
load current, which utilizes the WECS with DC-DC active filters. The combined configuration of series and
converter like a DC power source. The shunt connected shunt APFs is named the unified power quality conditioner
inverter controls the DC-link voltage along with the active (UPQC). The shunt active filter is the most vital corrective
and reactive power transferred from the renewable energy measure to eliminate the source current harmonic issues [7].
sources to grid with improved power quality. The modified The SAPF is connected in parallel to the load that
p-q theory is used for reference current generations. To produces the compensation current to eliminate the
maintain the DC link voltage as constant and compensate the harmonics in the load current. Nowadays, multilevel Neutral
power losses of the Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) a PI Point Clamped (NPC) inverter has become progressively
controller is used in the outer control loop. The gating signals more splendid in the active power filter application scenario.
for the switches are generated from the carrier based This is due to the superior compensation capability procured
Sinusoidal PWM (SPWM) technique. The main features of from this topology, besides it requires smaller size of filter
the proposed system are that it will provide the continuous elements. In addition to that it yields the higher efficiency,
current based compensation for throughout the day and low dv/dt, diminished common-mode voltages and low
recompense the voltage interruption. These systems make electromagnetic interferences [8]. The reference current
use of the wind energy and accordingly save the electrical generation methods decide the performance of active filter
energy and offer uninterruptable power supply to topology. Hence, any incorrectness in the reference currents
important/sensitive load. The simulation results are presented gives up to wrong compensation [9]. The different methods
to verify the effectiveness of the proposed configuration. have been proposed to determine the reference current of the
Key words: Wind Energy Conversion, High Step-Up DC- SAPF [10]. The conventional instantaneous reactive power
DC Boost Converter, Three-Level NPC Voltage Source theory or p-q theory is the generally used method to
Inverter, Reference Current Generation, Total Harmonic generate reference current [11]. This p-q theory requires
Distortion (THD) numerous transformations and assumes the system as
balanced one that will be not the real condition of electric
I. INTRODUCTION power system [12]. To overcome this complexity the
Wind energy has massive potential to offer energy with proposed control scheme utilized the modified p-q theory. In
minimal impact on the environmental surroundings, because this method, the High Selectivity Filter (HSF) has been
it is hygienic and pollution free. On the other hand, severe employed as an alternative of classical harmonic extraction
regulations have already been applied to the apparatus filters. After the well-organized generation of the reference
connected to the utility grid. A number of these rules and current, suitable SAPF currents controller is used to keep up
regulations are related to harmonics disturbances and power the active power filter currents at the required reference
factor. However, with the growth of power electronic value [13, 14].
converters are increasing in the meting out of electrical Numerous controllers such as PI, PID, etc. are
energy in the industrial applications like as adjustable speed utilized by many authors to achieve the efficient
drives, digital power supplies, direct current (DC) motor compensation. But, the PI controller desires a precise linear
drives, battery chargers, etc. These units are non-linear loads mathematical model, which is difficult to acquire and can
which receive nonlinear currents from the source and not give better results under different conditions for example
despoiled the power quality (PQ) in the power distribution parameter variations, unbalanced or distorted voltages, etc..
system [1]. The cruel power quality problems issues in the The fuzzy logic controllers have unique features over the PI
distribution systems are for example flicker, resonance and controller such as: it does not necessitate a defined
electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment, mathematical model; it is capable to work with incorrect
power losses and heating in transmission lines, vibrations inputs, it is able to handle nonlinearity and it is potent than
and noise in motors, malfunction of metering/sensitive the PI controller [15, 16]. This paper extends the use of the
apparatus. The numerous Custom power devices have been HSF within the SAPF based on a three-level inverter for a
utilized to improve the power quality and stability of three-phase distribution system under the unbalanced
electrical power system. Primarily, passive filters with tuned conditions. The objectives of this paper are to sustain the
LC components normally used to control the voltage and DC link voltage of the three-level NPC shunt connected
current harmonics because it is low cost, simple in inverter to afford endless compensation, make use of the
configuration and high efficiency [2, 3]. green energy and offer the uninterruptable power to the

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Grid Connected WECS with Multi-Level NPC Shunt Active Power Filter
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 05/2016/114)

load. The WECS interfaced DC-DC boost converter used to time respectively. The grid power supply source is
maintain the DC-link voltage as constant. The simulation disengaged through the semiconductor switches (S1 & S2),
results are presented to confirm effectiveness of the once a rare power interruption happens in the received
proposed method. power supply. The schematic diagram of the WECS is
shown Fig.2. It includes wind turbine, PMSG, 3-phase diode
II. WECS SUPPORTED THREE-LEVEL NPC SHUNT ACTIVE bridge rectifier and low step-up DC-DC boost converter [19,
POWER FILTER 20]. The wind generator is used to supply the DC power
The SAPF provide the current harmonics reduction by source for DC link of the SAPF for the purpose of providing
injecting the current which is equal but is achieved in the compensation of harmonics and voltage interruption.
shunt active power filter by the injection of equal but
opposite phase of the harmonic current components at the
PCC, consequently it formulates the source current in phase
with the source voltage.

Fig. 2: Block diagram of WECS

The proposed control scheme of the three-level NPC SAPF
involves the following sections: find the harmonic content in
the load current and work out a synchronised reference,
generation of the gate signal of the switches, provide the
closed-loop control to compel the filter current to track the
reference valus and to maintain the DC link voltage of
Fig. 1: WECS based Neutral Point Clamped shunt active SAPF to sustain the DC voltage at a invariable value.
power filter configuration
A. Calculation of Reference Currents
The wind energy conversion based SAPF topology
is shown in Fig.1 For 3-level NPC inverter, each leg is To achieve the control function of SAPF, current should be
composed by four controllable switches (Sx1 − Sx4) , where x injected to the line that is equal in the amplitude and
is specified phase( a , b , or c ), with the two clamping opposite in direction of the load harmonics current. Thus, a
diodes[17,18]. If we think about that two capacitor voltages reference current was essential to calculate the injected
vDC1 and vDC2 in the DC link are equal, three voltage levels current magnitude. In this control strategy the reference
(0, vDC /2 and − vDC /2) are created on the AC terminal output current is obtained through the sensed magnitude by the use
of the anticipated inverter. It is contained that the upper-leg of the instantaneous reactive power theory with 2 HSFs. The
and lower-leg capacitor voltages are impossible to main functions of this approach are concised in the block
differentiate, with the value vDC /2 each. The phase-to- diagram shown in Fig. 3. The reference currents are
midpoint voltage of every phase can be defined as: determined by using modified p-q theory. The HSFs are
v fx  C x v DC / 2 (1) used in place of classical harmonic removal filter such as
High Pass Filters (HPF) or low pass filters (LPF).
Where x is the phase index, x = a,b, c ; Cx is the
state variable, Cx = 1, 0, -1 and corresponding to the 3-
levels are vDC /2 , 0 and − vDC /2 .
Cx Sx1 Sx2 Sx3 Sx4 v fx
1 1 1 0 0 vDC /2
0 0 1 1 0 0
-1 0 0 1 1 − vDC /2
Table 1: Switching states of 3 level NPC inverter
Then, the phase to neutral voltage of the inverter
can be noted as:
vDC  Cb Cc  Fig. 3: Block diagram of proposed controller
v fa  C    (2)
3  a 2 2  With the use of instantaneous reactive power
vDC  Ca Cc  theory, the system voltage and the load current are
v fb  C    (3) transformed from a- b- c coordinates into α-β coordinates
3  b 2 2 
using the transformations (5) [21-24]:
v  C C 
v fc  DC  C c  a  b  (4)  1 1 
3  2 2  1 - -  i la 
At the voltage interruption time, the WECS-SAPF  i  2  2
2 
    i lb (5)
affords the uninterruptable power to the load, through the i  3  3 3 
WECS with DC-DC converter throughout the day and night 0 -  i lc 
 2 2 

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Grid Connected WECS with Multi-Level NPC Shunt Active Power Filter
(IJSRD/Vol. 4/Issue 05/2016/114)

The alternating components of the instantaneous Initially, we have to determine the intermediate
real and imaginary power are given by signals T1, T 2 and T3 as follows:
 p   vˆ vˆ    i h   if ∆if ≥ Cs1 , then T1 = 1, else T1 = 0 ;
 q     vˆ  vˆ   i h   (6)  if ∆if ≥ Cs2 , then T 2 = 0 , else T 2 = −1;
    
 T 3 = T1 + T 2.
Basic component of the instantaneous imaginary After that, we obtain the switching function of the
power is given as in the Equation (7) two switches Sx1 and Sx2 of the upper leg x ( x = a,b,c), the
q  vˆ  i   vˆ i  (7)
two other legs have switching signals delayed of 120°
When the active power is added for regulating the compared to the first one, and the lower half bridge contains
DC link voltage, pc, to the alternative component of the the complementary switches. The WECS connected with
instantaneous real power, p , the current references in the α DC-DC boost converter supervises the DC-link to offer
- β reference frame are calculated as follows: continuity of compensation effectively. In the present
vˆ control scheme, PI voltage controller is used to keep the
  p pc 
DC-bus voltage constant.
 vˆ
2 2
vˆ  

vˆ 
 vˆ
2 2
vˆ  

vˆ  In this paper, the proposed control method based on a
  p pc 
modified version of p-q theory using a HSF for the WECS
 vˆ
2 2
vˆ  

based SAPF is estimated utilizing Matlab/Simulink. In the
 q  q  (9) simulation studies, the results are precise before and after
 vˆ
2 2
vˆ  
the function of the WECS based three-level SAPF system.
To obtain the reference compensation current in the
The simulation study was conducted under three different
a-b-c co-ordinates, the inverse of the transformation given in
conditions are balanced voltages with balanced loads,
expression (10) is used as follows:
balanced voltages with unbalanced loads and unbalanced
  voltages with unbalanced loads. The comprehensive
 i* a   1 0 
  simulation results are presented below.
  2  1 3  i  
i b   -   (10) A. Balanced Voltages with Balanced Loads
 *  3  2 2   i*  
 
 i c    Fig. 5 Shows the simulation results of load currents(ilabc),
1 3
- -  source currents(isabc),active filter currents(ifabc), inverter
 2 2 
output line voltage, and source voltage(esa) superimposed by
B. SAPF Gating Signals Generation the source current(isa) of the proposed system for the case of
The performances of SAPF will depend in actual fact on the balanced condition. Fig. 5(e) shows the source current (isa)
type of modulation and implemented control scheme. The after the compensation, from this result examined that the
different types of modulation techniques have been source current is in phase with source voltage (esa)
proposed for multilevel converters in three-phase system. In confirming that the compensation is being done correctly.
this control scheme, the carrier-based Sinusoidal Pulse The harmonic analysis of the source current before and after
Width Modulation is employed to generate the suitable compensation in phase “a” are shown in Fig. 6(a) and 6(b)
switching signals of the power switches, because it has the respectively. Prior to compensation, the measured THD
advantage of making appreciably simpler the calculation level of the source current in phase “a” was 25.65% ; after
procedure and due to their operation at fixed switching compensation, the THD level of the source current is about
frequency [25-28]. 1.54% , which is well within the limit specified by IEEE
The switching SPWM pulses are generated by Std. 519-1992.
subtracting the filter currents (ifa ,ifb ,ifc ) with the reference
  
currents( i a , i b , i c ). The resulting error (e) ( e  i  i f )

is sent to a fuzzy logic controller.
Then the output signal of the fuzzy logic controller
is compared with a two triangular carrier bipolar signals
shown in Fig. 4.
The comparison result is sent to the combinational
logic circuit for the switching devices. Here, the gating (a)
signals generator has three inputs: ∆if = i* - if (corresponding
to ∆ifa, ∆ifb and ∆ifc), the first carrier-signalCs1, and the
second carrier-signal Cs2.

Fig. 4: Gate Signal Generating Scheme (b)

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Grid Connected WECS with Multi-Level NPC Shunt Active Power Filter
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Fig. 7: DC–DC converter output voltage.
B. Balanced Voltages with Unbalanced Loads
In this case, the load currents are unbalanced by connecting
a single phase diode rectifier connected between two phases.
Fig.8 illustrated the simulation results of load currents(ilabc),
source currents(isabc),active filter currents(ifabc), and source
voltage(esa) superimposed by the source current(isa). THD
level of the three phase currents before installing the active
(d) power filter are 25.7%, 27.64% and 25.61% respectively.
The harmonic spectrum of the source current in phase “a”
after installing the active power filter with modified p-q
theory is shown in Fig. 9. The THD level has reduced to
2.02%, 1.97% and 2.04% in phase “a”, “b” and “c”
respectively. In addition, the source current is in phase with
the source voltage so that the power factor is equal to one as
shown in Fig. 16(d).

Fig. 5: Simulation results under balanced voltages with
balanced loads: (a) load currents (ilabc) (b) source currents
(isabc) (c) active filter currents (ifabc) (d) inverter output line
voltage (e) source voltage (esa) superimposed by the source
current (isa).

(a) (b)

Fig. 6: THD levels of source current (a) THD level of source
current before compensation in phase ‘a’ (b) THD level of
source current after compensation in phase ‘a’.
Fig.7 shows the DC–DC converter output voltage.
A control circuit is incorporated with the proposed step-up
DC-DC converter to regulate the output voltage at 180V.
The DC-link voltages, vDC1 and vDC2 must be maintained (d)
almost as a constant value within certain limits in order to Fig. 8: Simulation results under balanced voltages with
provide energy to generate the required harmonic unbalanced loads: (a) load currents (ilabc) (b) source currents
compensation current from the shunt active filter. (isabc) (c) active filter currents (ifabc) (d) source voltage (esa)
superimposed by the source current (isa).

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Grid Connected WECS with Multi-Level NPC Shunt Active Power Filter
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Fig. 10: Simulation results under unbalanced voltages with
unbalanced loads: (a) unbalanced source voltages (esabc) (b)
Fig. 9: THD level of source current after compensation in load currents (ilabc) (c) source currents (isabc) (d) active filter
phase ‘a’. currents (ifabc) (e) source voltage (esa) superimposed by the
C. Unbalanced Voltages with Unbalanced Loads source current (isa).
For evaluating the performance of the SAPF under the
unbalanced voltages with unbalanced loads, the preceding
unbalanced non-linear load is supplied by unbalanced AC
voltages. The unbalanced source voltages(esabc), unbalanced
load currents(ilabc), source currents(isabc),active filter
currents(ifabc) and source voltage(esa) superimposed by the
source current(isa) are depicted in Fig. 10. The results shown
in Fig.10 confirm that the WECS based SAPF system is able
to improve the power quality. As shown in Fig. 10(c), it is
evident that three phase source currents are balanced and Fig. 11: Frequency analyses of the source current after
sinusoidal after compensation, with power factor close to the compensation in phase “a”
unity, as can be observed in Fig. 10(e). The frequency
analyses of the source current after compensation in phase V. CONCLUSION
“a” is shown in Fig.11. The THD of the source currents
This paper examined a new reference current generation
before compensation are 22.53%, 25.71% and 28.54%; and
scheme with the use of modified p-q theory. This approach
are reduced to 2.12%, 2.07% and 2.05% after compensation
is proposed in the WECS based 3-level SAPF for current
based disturbances and voltage interruption compensation.
A DC–DC boost converter with MPPT algorithm is utilized
to obtain the maximum power point of the wind energy.
Furthermore, fuzzy logic controller is used for enhancing the
compensation capability of the SAPF. This WECS
supported 3-level shunt active power filter is employed to
diminish the energy using up from the utility grid, when the
WECS generates mandatory real power to meet the load
demand. The simulation results show that the proposed
control scheme reduces the impact of distortion and
unbalance of the load current on the power system.

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