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Cost benefit analysis (CBA)- sometimes called benefit cost analysis (BCA), is a systematic
approach to estimating the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives (for example in transactions,
activities, functional business requirements); it is used to determine options that provide the best
approach to achieve benefits while preserving savings.The CBA is also defined as a systematic
process for calculating and comparing benefits and costs of a decision, policy (with particular
regard to government policy) or (in general) project.
Cost of quality- refers to the sum of costs incurred to prevent non-conformance from happening
and the costs incurred when non-conformance in products and system occurs which is commonly
known as cost of poor quality.
Benchmarking- is a process of measuring the performance of a companys products, services, or
processes against those of another business considered to be the best in the industry, aka best in
class. The point of benchmarking is to identify internal opportunities for improvement.
Design of experiments (DOE)- is a systematic method to determine the relationship between
factors affecting a process and the output of that process. In other words, it is used to find cause-
and-effect relationships. This information is needed to manage process inputs in order to optimize
the output.
Seven quality tools- The Seven Basic Tools of Quality is a designation given to a fixed set of
graphical techniques identified as being most helpful in troubleshooting issues related to quality.
Statistical sampling- - is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a
statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population.


Quality Management and control tools - Cause and Effect Diagrams, Control Charts, Flow-
Charting, Histogram, Pareto Chart and Pareto Analysis, Run Charts, Scatter Diagrams, Statistical
Sampling, and Inspection
Quality audits- Periodic, independent, and documented examination and verification of
activities, records, processes, and other elements of a quality system to determine their
conformity with the requirements of a quality standard.
Process analysis- A step-by-step breakdown of the phases of a process, used to convey the
inputs, outputs, and operations that take place during each phase.


Statistical sampling- is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a
statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population.
Inspection- Critical appraisal involving examination, measurement, testing, gauging, and
comparison of materials or items.
Seven quality tools and techniques
Cause-and-effect diagram (also called Ishikawa or fishbone chart): Identifies many
possible causes for an effect or problem and sorts ideas into useful categories.

Flowchart: Most of us are familiar with flowcharts. You have seen flowcharts of
reporting relationships in organizational structures. Flowcharts are also used to document
work process flows.

Check sheet: A structured, prepared form for collecting and analyzing data; a generic
tool that can be adapted for a wide variety of purposes.
Pareto chart: Shows on a bar graph which factors are more significant.

Histogram: The most commonly used graph for showing frequency distributions, or how
often each different value in a set of data occurs.

Control charts: Control charts or run charts are used to plot data points over time and
give a picture of the movement of that data. These charts demonstrate when data is
consistent or when there are high or low outliers in the occurrences of data.

Scatter diagram: Graphs pairs of numerical data, one variable on each axis, to look for a