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CE00134-3- Sound and Noise Control Individual Assignment Page 1 of 25

INTRODUCTION
Sound is the vibrations caused by a body which is later transferred to a medium and observed
by a person. The sensation of observing sound is called hearing which is one of the most
important senses for all living beings. Noise is same as sound but the only difference is that
noise is unwanted sounds which are disturbing to the observer. Labelling a sound as noise is
highly subjective to the observer; it depends upon the mood of the observer and occasion
where the observer is observing. In this assignment the objective is to observe noise level in
some busy place for one week and to suggest ways in which the sound can be controlled. The
place chosen to observe the noise level is Panipat Toll Plaza which is one of the busiest Toll
Plaza in India. There are hundreds of workers, local vendors and thousands of tenants near to
Toll Plaza so observation of noise level in this place is critical and crucial for the completion
of this assignment.

Noise is a very harmful phenomenon which most of the people don’t take into account. Noise
can make a person mentally and physical unfit and continuous exposure of noise can even
lead to a person’s demise. Continuous exposure to noise can lead to decrease in intellectual
capacity of people, can elevate chance of getting heart attacks and can lead to mental anguish.
Psychiatrists in the world believe noise is one of the prominent reasons for bipolar disorder
which is a dangerous mental condition where a person has got extreme mood settings. These
all reasons suggest that Indian engineers should start to take noise into account when
designing machines, structures and public architectures. So it justified why such as an
observation is crucial for further development of India in a sustainable and healthy way.

Sound level meter is the instrument which is used to observe and log noise level. Sound level
meter is an electronic device which incorporates microphones, amplifiers, filters, rectifiers
and display. There is weighting network filters that are used in sound level meter which set
parameters for noise level recording like normal weighed filter and industrial weighed filter.
Normal weighed filter is denoted as dBA and industrial weighed filter is denoted as dBC, in
dBA weighed filter the SLM become more sensitive towards low level of noises where as in
dBC weighed filter the SLM is linear for lower noise level and is sensitive towards higher
noise frequency. Then there is two modes of operation in SLM, fast and slow, in fast mode
the readings per unit time is less compared to slow mode and in this assignment slow mode is
employed. The parameters and detailed theory of SLM is described in further chapters.

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There are several countermeasures that have to be taken to supress the noise level in an
environment. The most commonly used countermeasures are stopping noise in the foundation
level of a machinery, regular inspection of machines, regular service of machines, providing
hearing aids to employees, etc. In this assignment legality of noise level in India would be
checked after the completion of observation of noise level in Toll Plaza for one week. There
are several laws which are introduced to control noise in environment and to maintain better
health of people. These laws would be checked for observation of the noise level in the
assignment.

In this assignment, noise level in the Toll Plaza would be observed. The observation would be
done such a way that the time interval of observing would remain same in one week means
the observation hours should remain same. Here in this assignment 6:30 PM to 7: 50 PM is
chosen for the hour of observation and is observed for one week. The possible solutions to
reduce noise pollution and how people can be saved from harm effects of noise would be
described in detail in this assignment.

SOUND AND NOISE
Sound waves are caused by a vibrating string, body or membrane which transmits the
vibration to air or other medium. Sound waves are longitudinal waves which vibrate in the
direction of propagation. The audible range of sound to humans is 20 Hz to 20 kHz. The
figure given below illustrates various region of sound propagation.

Figure 1: Rarefaction and Compression region of sound (Weebly, 2015)

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From above figure it is clear that sound propagation contains two parts a highly denser area
of molecules and less dense area of molecules. The denser area of molecules is called the
region of compression and less dense area of molecules is called region of rarefaction. In the
region of compression the sound pressure is high that is why the molecules are denser as it is
compressed and in the region of rarefaction sound pressure is low which is why the density of
molecule is lesser there. The maximum pressure in a sound can be observed in the middle of
region of compression and the minimum pressure in a sound can be observed in the middle of
region of rarefaction.

The speed of sound waves is different in different medium and the formula to determine the
speed of sound is given below;

B
v


where v is the speed of sound, B is the bulk modulus of fluid and is the density of the fluid.
To find the speed of sound in solid medium replace bulk modulus with young’s modulus.
From above formula it is clear that the speed of sound increases as the restoring force of
medium increases and decreases as inertia of medium increase. This property is very useful
when designing noise reduction cabins and materials.

Loudness is a crucial parameter which is the measure of how high a sound or noise is.
Loudness is often measured in terms of intensity rather than amplitude even though intensity
is proportional to square of amplitude. Loudness is measured by taking logarithm of ratio of
intensity to a reference level. The reference intensity is the threshold intensity which a human

10 12 m2
can hear and the threshold intensity is W/ which is lowest intensity which can be
heard by a person with ideal hearing capacity. The formula for loudness in decibel scale is
given as;

 I
  10  log  
I
 0

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where, is the the measure of loudness in decibels, I is the sound intensity which is to be

I0
compared and is the reference intensity.

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Noise is a highly subjective feeling where the observer deems a sound as unwanted and
disturbing. This assignment is about industrial noise so the focus is on industrial noise and it
is defined as high noise formed in industry due to manufacturing process which is unhealthy
to people and damaging to machines. The industrial noises are caused to many reasons such
as faulty machineries, loosely fitted machines, machines without proper noise reduction
mechanisms, etc. There are three types of noises which are defined below;

 Steady Noise: A type of noise where there is negligible fluctuations in the sound
pressure level within the period of observation.
 Non-Steady Noise: Non-Steady noise is the type of noise where is there is large
fluctuations in the sound pressure level within the period of observation. This type of
noise can be divided into two;
o Fluctuating Noise: This is a type of non-steady noise where the intensity level
changes continuously during the period of observations.
o Intermittent Noise: In this type of noise, the level of intensity drops to the
background noise several times such that actual noise hides behind ambient
noise during the period of observation.
 Impulsive Noise: The type of noise when sound level burst to a higher level and drop
to zero less than 1s. There are two types of impulsive noises, type A and type B which
are explained below;
o Type A: Noises like gunshot which are very instantaneous.
o Type B: Noises like from punch press which are impulsive in nature but
occurs in more often.

Noise level at frequencies between 1 to 20 Hz which is commonly known as infrasound is
dangerous above 120 dB and noise level at frequencies above 20 kHz is dangerous if the
loudness level is above 105 dB. From this it is understood that the danger from noise level is
not depends on the loudness level it also depends on the frequency at which the noise is
generated. The instrument used to measure the noise level is the sound level meter which is
also known as SLM which measure sound pressures and displays in logarithmic scales. The
SLM used in the assignment is HTC instrument’s SL-1352 which is capable of switching
between weighting filters like type A and type which are applied in normal environment and
in industrial environment respectively.

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EFFECTS OF NOISE LEVEL ON HEARING CONVERSATION
The most intelligent species living on earth is humans; humans become more productive and
can do great things by conversing with each other. Conversation is basically the exchange of
idea between people. The development of all languages and furnish all languages to the best
is all because the people can talk more effectively. For perfect conversation between people
the ambient noise in the environment should be low such a way that the conversation is not
interfered.

Noise is one of the most negative factors that can influence the capacity to hear a
conversation. The noise sound level can interfere with conversation sound and makes the
conversation illegible. As the noise increase the ambient noise of surround environment
increases so the person who is trying to converse has to increase his speaking sound level and
the listener has now to concentrate more acutely to the speech and has to predict what the
speaker is saying for better communication. This type of intense communication between
people is not comfortable and not productive as they observe that the conversation is tough to
hold in that particular environment so people stop to share ideas and problems that they face.
By this interference of noise to conversation people in industry tend to become lonelier and
would get their inner talk supressed.

As described above the conversation is suppressed due to increase in noise level which can
contribute to mental illness like agony, stress, loneliness and increase in anger which can
make a human unproductive and a liability to industry. There are physical illness that can
come by noise interference with conversation like vocal muscle spasm and factor to induce
temporary hearing loss. The place chosen for observation of noise level is not a dedicated
industrial place it is a place with people living nearby, people having food from local hotels,
people waiting for public transport and is a place where people spend their leisure time so
critical analysis of the sound levels would be done keeping the factor of conversation
suppression due to increasing in noise level in mind. Conversion suppression due to increase
in noise is actual root cause to many noise induced health adversities such as temporary
hearing loss which can later become a permanent damage, mood swings, vocal muscle
spasms and many more. All these factors would be taken account when observation is made
for the case study.

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SUPERPOSITION PRINCIPLE AND NOISE MEASUREMENT
Noise is defined as unwanted sound so noise follows all the properties of sound therefore
superposition theory is applicable to noise. Superposition theory states that two sound waves
if pass over the resultant amplitude is sum of individual amplitudes if the signals are in phase
or difference of amplitude it the signals are in out of phase. The below diagram illustrates the
working of superposition theory;

Figure 2: Superposition principle showing constructive and destructive interference (QNX Auto, 2013)

In above figure in the left hand side it is showing superposition between two signals of same
phase and in right side it is showing superposition of two signals which are in phase out
condition to each other.

Constructive Interference:

Constructive interference occurs when two waves of same phase come in contact with each
other. The resultant wave is generated such a way that the resultant amplitude is the sum of
individual waves. The constructive interference is illustrated in the left side off above figure.

Destructive Interference:

Destructive interference occurs when two waves which are out of phase come in contact with
each other. The resultant wave is obtained by taking difference of amplitudes of individual
waves. The illustration of destructive interference is showcased in the right hand side of
above figure.

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Noise Measurement:

The superposition principle gives a broad idea how net sound can be calculated if amplitude
of each signals is given. The net loudness of an environment can be calculated as 10 times log
of added amplitudes of each signal. The loudness cannot be added only amplitude can be
added as loudness is in logarithmic scale. To measure net noise level first calculate the
difference between two individual noise levels and add the gain to the largest noise level. The
difference factor and gain is given in the table below;

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TWO NOISE GAIN WHICH HAS TO BE ADDED WITH
LEVEL HIGHEST INDIVIDUAL NOISE LEVEL
0 3.0
1 2.5
2 2.1
3 1.8
4 1.5
5 1.2
6 1.0
7 0.8
8 0.6
9 0.5
10 0.4
Above 10 0
Table 1: Tabular display of difference factor and gain in net noise calculation

Noise measurement can be done such a way that first find the difference between two
individual noise levels and from the table look for the gain corresponding to the difference
and add the gain to highest noise level. If there are two vehicle producing sound of 60 dBA
and 60 dBA then firstly take the difference of both sound levels and look up in the table to
pinpoint the difference factor to gain factor which has to be added with the highest sound
level produced so here the difference is 0 and the corresponding gain is 3 dBA so the resultant
noise level is 63 dBA.

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SOUND LEVEL METER
Sound level meter is an electronic device which measures the sound level in the
surroundings. A sound level meter comprises of a many electronic components and the block
diagram associated with it is;

Sound Microphon Pre-Amplifier Filters Amplifie

Display Averaging Rectifie

Figure 3: Block diagram of process of SLM

The above figure illustrates the various blocks employed for the working of the SLM and the
components used are explained below;

 Transducer: Here the transducer is used to convert sound signal to electrical signal
which later can be processed to calculate sound level. The transducer used in sound
level meter is microphone.
 Amplifier: Amplifier is used to amplify observed sound and using calibrated
attenuator the sound is amplified with a gain. The calibrated attenuator is used for
gain control.
 Filters: Special types of filters are used in SLM to apply frequency weighting on the
readings like filter A and filter C which are used for normal environment
measurement and for industrial environment measurement.
 Rectifier: It is an electronic component which converts AC to DC as the sound is an
AC wave it has to be converted to DC for further processing.
 Averaging System: There will be steady variation in sound level so to clearly process
the sound an electronic sampler is embedded with the SLM to average the amplitude
and gives a mean value for the intensity calculation.
 Data Storage System: Data storage systems like SD card, embedded memory chips
are present in SLM so that the user could log sound levels in the system. This logged
data can be accessed using a computer via USB cable.
 Display: The data is displayed in real time and the display is provided so that the user
can interact with SLM without PC.

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Figure 4: Real life depiction of SLM (HTC Instruments, 2015)

The above figure shows how a SLM looks like in real life and in this assignment the exact
same SLM is employed. The sponge fixed at the top of SLM is provided to guard SLM from
wind and dust. There are eight keys present in SLM which is more than enough for the user
to interact with SLM. The procedure to use a SLM effectively is described below;

 Mount SLM into a tripod and place it in the place where the observation has to be
done
 Clear the previous memory by pressing REC button and POWER button together and
the display shows the message CLR.
 Press on the POWER button to switch the SLM ON.
 Select the weighted filter using the button A/C.
 Select the mode of SLM like fast mode or slow mode by pressing the button FAST
SLOW.
 Press on REC button to record the sound level. From the display the user can observe
the present sound level.
 After observation again press REC button to stop recording.
 Connect the SLM to PC via USB cable and open sound level meter software. Press
SETUP button in SLM to start real time connection with PC.
 Click on export data to excel to export data to excel file and save the file.
 Long press on POWER button to switch the SLM OFF.

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NOISE INDUCED HEALTH ADVERSITIES
Noise is a very dangerous catalyst which can induce several health related problems. Noise
can cause various coronary diseases like heart attack and can causes mental illness like
bipolar disorder. Acknowledging and understanding of noise related health issues are a very
crucial part in completing this assignment. Sound level above 85 dB is considered as very
dangerous for the person as it can cause temporary hear loss or worse permanent hear loss.
One of the main problems with ear loss is that even in this modern era a permanent hear loss
cannot to be treated in full efficiency such that the victim can regain the previous hearing
capacity. In a survey taken by WHO it was found that even exposure to a small sound level is
dangerous if the person is exposed continuously. The survey result is tabulated below;

HEALTH ISSUES SOUND LEVEL

 Decrease in mental and physical
Above 55 dBA
performance

 Unstable biochemical effects Above 55 dBA

 Decrease in immune system Above 55 dBA

Above 55 dBA (Office)
 Causing annoyance
Above85 dBC (Industry)

 Hypertension 55 dBA to 116 dBA

 Hearing loss Above 75 dBA

Table 2: Health issues and corresponding sound level causing health issues (Barrientos et al., 2004)

From data given in above table it is clear that the continuous exposure to noise even as low as
55 dBA is creating health issues in people. The weighting filter used to measure sound level
in this survey is filter A that is the reason the decibel unit is followed by A. The survey was
conducted by three environment engineers under the guidance of World Health Organization.
The data collected by this survey was published in the conference ‘Protection of Human
Environment’ conducted at Geneva and the title of the research survey was ‘Occupational

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Noise – Assessing the burden of disease from work related hearing impairment at national
and local level’.

Noise can create problems like when people are talking to each other as the background noise
increases the people has to increase their volume and speak so if they are continuously
exposed like this the normal loudness at which these people talk will rise resulting in noise
induced hearing lose. Obviously noise can induce hearing loss which is commonly known as
NIHL which can cause many problems to person suffering from this. NIHL is commonly seen
in people who work in noisy environment such as jack hammer operators, musicians, disco
jockeys, etc. After NIHL these people suffer from many problems such as;

 Social isolation
 Impaired communication with co-workers and family.
 Decreased ability to monitor the work environment
 Increased injuries from impaired communication and isolation
 Anxiety, irritability and decreased self-esteem
 Lost productivity

From above points it is clear that noise can cause loss to employees and employers ultimately
to the growth of a country. This truth has to be accepted by Indian society and should try for
noiseless development.

LAWS OF INDIA ON NOISE POLLUTION
Noise pollution is a concerning matter when it comes to safety of people and for sustainable
development so a country has to exercise some strict laws on controlling noise pollution.
India has got many laws on noise pollution which is there to protect Indian citizens from the
adverse effect of noise pollution. Laws regarding noise pollution came to act in the year 2000
as the government understand the importance of noise control and the health issue related to
noise pollution. The act is named as Noise Pollution Rules, 2000 which illustrates various
control measures on sound sources and rules to be exercised to hold noise pollution. The
Indian law prohibits the use of an sound source which produce noise level more than the
ambient air quality standards described by the act. The ambient air quality standard of Noise
Pollution Rules, 2000 is given in the table below which is regarded as the maximum sound
level that is to be heard in an environment.

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LIMITS IN dBA
CATHEGORY OF
AREA CODE DAY TIME NIGHT TIME
AREA
(dBA) (dBA)
A Industrial Area 75 70
B Commercial Area 65 55
C Residential Area 55 45
D Silent Zone 50 40
Table 3: Ambient air quality standards according to Noise Pollution Act, 2000 (Indian Penal Code, 2000)

The above table illustrates the ambient condition of environment that has to be followed
according to Indian penal act; ‘Noise Pollution Rules, 2000’. According to this rule all
machineries are prohibited which emits sounds above ambient air quality standard put by the
Indian government but exemptions can be made with proper proofs and applications. By the
act, use of loudspeakers in public places is prohibited ad it can be only used in a closed room
or in an acoustically controlled room. Horns and machines emitting high sound are prohibited
at night near residential area and in silent zones. Use of fire crackers are prohibited but can be
exempted if the state has got not issue to it. The prohibitions according to the act are given in
a table below;

PROHIBITIONS LOUDNESS LIMIT AREA TIME
Loudspeakers 55 dBA Residential Area All time
Horn 55 dBA Residential Area Night time
Crackers 55 dBA Residential Area All Time
Table 4: Prohibitions of sound source according to Noise Pollution Act, 2000

From above table it is clear the use of machines is prohibited in particular time and in
particular areas. So in this assignment when the place is observed all these parameters has to
be taken into account. From the observations it would be clear if the observed place is under
the legal condition of India or not. In the results the legality of observations will be analysed
and will be reviewed.

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METHODS TO CONTROL NOISE
Noise is a problem to people in terms of health and business because noise can induce several
health related problems and noise in machines are occurred due to some eccentricity in
machines or some other problems whatever the problem is noise emits as heat from the
machine which makes the machine consumes more power in turn makes less profit to the
business. So controlling noise is an unquestionable theory and in this modern era there are
several ways to control noise. The best way to control noise is to supress the noise level
within its foundation level. There are several engineering noise control methods such as;

 Dampers: Extra material provided in the foundation like rubber to absorb the
vibration coming out of the machine.
 Silencers: Device which acts as closed enclosure which could carry the noise to a
distant place from the source and release it where the noise cannot pollute the area.
 Machine Enclosures: The extra covering which is used to envelope the machine so
that the noise created is not passed on the environment.
 Partition Walls: Partition walls also acts like machine enclosures when partition
walls are employed to control lower noise level that machine enclosures.
 Noise Barriers: It is made up of wood, plastics, aluminium or steel which is used to
mask noise of the machines from the workers in the factory.
 Personnel Cabin: It is a technique where the machine is kept in an individual room
isolated from all workers.

The above mentioned are engineering noise control methods and there are management noise
control methods such as;

 Isolating machines from workers
 Providing shift to workers such that workers are exposed to minimum time of noise
 Providing noise controlling gadgets like ear plugs, ear muffs and headphones.
 Conducting periodical audiogram test on workers and tend them accordingly.

These methods would be employed when finding the solution to noise level in the case which
is employed in Toll Plaza.

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CASE STUDY
The aim of assignment is to observe a busy place for one week and has to suggest possible
ways to control the noise in that particular area. For this assignment Toll Plaza located in
Panipat is taken for observation and the days of observation is fixed from March 1 st to March
7th. The time of observation is chosen from 6: 20 PM to 7:50 PM. The setting used in SLM is
given below;

SLM FEATURE SLM SETTING
 Fast or Slow Mode  Slow
 Filter  Type A
Table 5: SLM settings used in the observation

OBSERVATIONS
Day 1 (March 1, 2016):

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Figure 5: Day 1 observation of sound level

The above figure shows the sound level from 6:20 PM to 7:47 PM which is moderately busy
hour at Toll Plaza and is observed to have a maximum sound level of 95 dBA and minimum
of 71 dBA.

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MINIMUM MAXIMUM AVERAGE
SOUND SOUND SOUND
DATE TIME
LEVEL LEVEL LEVEL
(dBA) (dBA) (dBA)
March 1 ,2016 6:20 PM – 7:47 PM 71 95 77.6
Table 6: Day 1 observation table

From above table it is observed that the average sound level obtained in that day between the
time 6:20 PM to 7:47 PM is 77.6 dBA which is not a fatal sound level but is a dangerous
sound level to be exposed continuously.

Day 2 (March 2, 2016):

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Figure 6: Day 2 observation of sound level

The above figure shows the sound level from 6:41 PM to 7:52 PM which is moderately busy
hour at Toll Plaza and is observed to have a maximum sound level of 94 dBA and minimum
of 68 dBA. The day was raining so it was expected to have less busy day but still the day was
busy and sound level remains to almost same to previous day.

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MINIMUM MAXIMUM AVERAGE
SOUND SOUND SOUND
DATE TIME
LEVEL LEVEL LEVEL
(dBA) (dBA) (dBA)
March 2, 2016 6:41 PM – 7:52 PM 68 94 74.7
Table 7: Day 2 observation table

This day’s the observation is more or less same to the previous day’s observation and is found
that the minimum sound level occurred during the observation period is 68 dBA, maximum is
94 dBA and average is 74.7 dBA.

Day 3 (March 3, 2016):

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Figure 7: Day 3 observation of sound level

The above figure shows the sound level from 6:30 PM to 7:53 PM which is moderately busy
hour at Toll Plaza and is observed to have a maximum sound level of 106 dBA and minimum
of 63 dBA.

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MINIMUM MAXIMUM AVERAGE
SOUND SOUND SOUND
DATE TIME
LEVEL LEVEL LEVEL
(dBA) (dBA) (dBA)
March 3, 2016 6:30 PM – 7:53 PM 63 106 74.2
Table 8: Day 3 observation table

The data observed during observation is tabulated above and found out that the minimum
sound observed is 63 dBA, maximum sound observed is 106 dBA and average sound
observed is 74.2 dBA. This day the maximum sound occurred is just below the fatal level.

Day 4 (March 4, 2016):

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Figure 8: Day 4 observation of sound level

The above figure shows the sound level from 6:41 PM to 7:53 PM which is moderately busy
hour at Toll Plaza and is observed to have a maximum sound level of 94 dBA and minimum
of 64 dBA.

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MINIMUM MAXIMUM AVERAGE
SOUND SOUND SOUND
DATE TIME
LEVEL LEVEL LEVEL
(dBA) (dBA) (dBA)
March 4, 2016 6:41 PM – 7:53 PM 64 94 72.4
Table 9: Day 4 observation table

From the table it is clear that the minimum sound level observed is 64 dBA, maximum level
is 94 dBA and average sound observed is 72.4 dBA.

Day 5 (March 5, 2016):

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Figure 9: Day 5 observation of sound level

The above figure shows the sound level from 6:30 PM to 7:51 PM which is moderately busy
hour at Toll Plaza and is observed to have a maximum sound level of 96 dBA and minimum
of 62 dBA.

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MINIMUM MAXIMUM AVERAGE
SOUND SOUND SOUND
DATE TIME
LEVEL LEVEL LEVEL
(dBA) (dBA) (dBA)
March 5, 2016 6:30 PM – 7:41 PM 62 96 75.1
Table 10: Day 5 observation table

The above illustrates minimum, maximum and average sound level observed in that day and
the values are 62 dBA, 96 dBA and 75.1 dBA respectively.

Day 6 (March 6, 2016):

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Figure 10: Day 6 observation of sound level

The above figure shows the sound level from 6:30 PM to 7:43 PM which is moderately busy
hour at Toll Plaza and is observed to have a maximum sound level of 97 dBA and minimum
of 61 dBA.

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MINIMUM MAXIMUM AVERAGE
SOUND SOUND SOUND
DATE TIME
LEVEL LEVEL LEVEL
(dBA) (dBA) (dBA)
March 6, 2016 6:32 PM – 7:44 PM 61 97 71.1
Table 11: Day 6 observation table

The table above showcases the data like minimum sound level, maximum sound level and
average sound level which are 61 dBA, 97 dBA and 71.1 dBA.

Day 7 (March 7,2016):

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

Figure 11: Day 7 observation of sound level

The above figure shows the sound level from 6:34 PM to 7:45 PM which is moderately busy
hour at Toll Plaza and is observed to have a maximum sound level of 91 dBA and minimum
of 61 dBA.

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MINIMUM MAXIMUM AVERAGE
SOUND SOUND SOUND
DATE TIME
LEVEL LEVEL LEVEL
(dBA) (dBA) (dBA)
March 7, 2016 6:34 PM – 7:45 PM 61 91 75.8
Table 12: Day 7 observation table

The table illustrates the data observed on that day like minimum sound level, maximum
sound level and average sound level which observed as 61 dBA, 91 dBA and 75.8 dBA
respectively.

Final Observation Table:

The table of observation is given below;

MINIMUM SOUND MAXIMUM
DAY OF AVERAGE SOUND
LEVEL SOUND LEVEL
OBSERVATION LEVEL
(dBA) (dBA)

March 1, 2016 95 71 77.6

March 2, 2016 68 94 74.7

March 3, 2016 63 106 74.2

March 4, 2016 64 94 72.4

March 5, 2016 62 96 75.1

March 6, 2016 61 97 71.1

March 7, 2016 61 91 75.8
Table 13: Observation table comprising minimum sound level, maximum sound level and average sound
level observed in the course of a week

The table above showcases data like minimum sound level, maximum sound level and
average sound level which is observed over a course of one week. From the observation the
maximum sound level observed is 106 dBA, minimum is 61 and maximum average of 77.6
dBA.

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CE00134-3- Sound and Noise Control Individual Assignment Page 23 of 25

CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS
The observation was taken for one week. From this observation it is found that Toll Plaza is a
very noisy place. The maximum sound level observed is not fatal to people but continuous
exposure can induce several health issues. Throughout the period of observation it is found
out that despite of the day the average sound level is same and there are workers of toll plaza
and local vendors exposed to this noise level. By the study conducted by WHO continuous
exposure to sound level above 50 dBA would induce health related problems. If by the study
of WHO the employees of L and T and local vendors should experience performance
problem, headaches and decreasing hearing capacity. The observed place can be classified as
both residential area and commercial area. So the noise level in Toll Plaza can harm residents
of sector -18 the residential place near Toll Plaza. The intelligence of children is at danger if
exposed to this level of noise continuously even the health of unborn child can be made bad if
the mother is exposed to such noise.

There are several ways to control noise level and safeguard people from the continuous
exposure of noise and the controlling techniques are:

 Providing individual sound proof cabins to employees who are on the field.
 If providing sound proof cabins cannot be done provide ear plugs or ear muffs to the
people.
 Arrange feasible time shift for workers such that the exposure can be controlled.
 Conduct regular ear examinations so that the health condition of workers can be
monitored effectively.
 Provide strict instructions to follow safety measures.

The above precautions and measures can be arranged by the company to its employees but
the noise exposure is experienced not only by employees but it experienced by local vendors
too for safety measures should be arranged by the company or government and the
precautions can be;

 Firstly provide an awareness class to local vendors regarding noise induced health
problems.
 Arrange ear plugs or ear muffs for ear protection.
 Conduct periodical medical check-ups.
 Display the sound level in a big display which has to be hanged at Toll Plaza where
all the people can see so that when they find some health related difficulties they
could communicate effectively with the doctor.

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CE00134-3- Sound and Noise Control Individual Assignment Page 24 of 25

Find solution without finding the cause is of no use so the observer tried to find the cause of
high level noise. It was found that the vehicles passing through Toll Plaza was generation a
constant sound level of 70 dBA to 75 dBA. The causes for highest sound level are the sounds
from horns and from sound generated during braking of the vehicles. The possible solutions
to these problems can be sorted by the government and the solutions are;

 Enforce manufacturing of horns producing sounds lower than 70 dBA to 75 dBA
 Strictly enforce the prohibition the use of horns during the time of night
 Enforce speed control so that the braking of vehicles can be controlled.
 Enforce manufacturing of vehicle’s engine below 70 dBA so that average sound level
can be brought down.

By observation for one week these are the problems found by the observer and the solutions
are recommended for the company and for the government to safeguard the health of Indian
citizen.

CONCLUSION
The aim of the assignment is to observe a busy place for one week and recommend possible
solution to control the sound level exposed in the area. The theory related to sound, noise,
superposition principle, noise measurement, etc. are discussed above. The instrument used to
measure sound is sound level meter, its working and how the SLM can be used is described
in document and the observer got hand on experience with SLM. In the assignment laws
regarding sound and noise is discussed and is described in depth. The methods to control
noise are mentioned in the document. Engineering noise reduction method and management
noise reduction method is described in the document. In this assignment WHO’s norms on
sound pollution and health issues related to it is illustrated with the help of tables.

The observation was done at Toll Plaza for one week from 6:20 PM to 7:50 PM. From the
observations it is understood that the sound level of Toll Plaza is high and continuous
exposure to that sound level can cause many health related problems to people. Many
solutions are recommended for both the company and for the government to enforce so that
the people’s health can be safeguarded from noise pollution.

After the completion of assignment one could understand the difference between sound and
noise. People could understand various concepts related to sound and noise. Engineers should
be aware of instrument used to calculate sound level and laws regarding sound pollution in

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India. One could recommend ways to control sound pollution with regard to company as well
as the government.

Level 3 Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology 2016