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CONTENT

 Introduction of Biologists
 Top Five Biologists:

1- Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

2- Charles Darwin

3- Gregor Mendel

4- Aristotle

5- Edward Jenner

 Research:

 Specialists:

 Working conditions:

 References:

Introduction of Biologists
The field of biology has seen many important discoveries throughout the
centuries. From vaccines to theories of the beginning and progression of
life on Earth, the many discoveries have improved not only our
understanding of history but also our quality of living. The following is a
list of the greatest biologists of all time, along with their most significant
contributions to the scientific world.

A biologist, is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field
of biology, the scientific study of life. Biologists involved in
fundamental research attempt to explore and further explain the
underlying mechanisms that govern the functioning of living matter.
Biologists involved in applied research attempt to develop or improve
more specific processes and understanding, in fields such
as medicine, industry and agriculture.

While "biologist" can apply to any scientist studying biology, most
biologists research and specialise in specific fields. In this way,
biologists investigate large-scale organism interactions (ecology),
whole multicellular organisms, organs, tissues, cells, and small-scale
cellular and molecular processes. Other biologists study less direct
aspects of life, such as phylogeny and evolution.

Biologists conduct research based on the scientific method, to test the
validity of a theory,
with hypothesis formation, experimentation and documentation of metho
ds and data.

There are many types of biologists. Some work on microorganisms,
while others study multicellular organisms. There is much overlap
between different fields of biology such
as botany, zoology, microbiology, genetics and evolutionary biology,
and it is often difficult to classify a biologist as only one of them. Many
jobs in biology as a field require an academic degree. A doctorate or its
equivalent is generally required to direct independent research, and
involves a specialization in a specific area of biology. Many biological
scientists work in research and development. Some conduct fundamental
research to advance our knowledge of living organisms,
including bacteria and other pathogens. This research enhances
understanding and adds to the scientific database of literature.
Furthermore, it often aids the development of solutions to problems in
areas such as human health and the natural environment. These
biological scientists mostly work in government, university, and private
industry laboratories. Many expand on specialized research that they
started in post-graduate qualifications, such as a doctorate.

in the city of Delft. Dutch Republic Nationality: Dutch Antonie van Leeuwenhoek was a scientist from the Netherlands. Dutch Republic Died: Aug 26. 1632 in Delft.Top Five Biologists: 6. At the age of 16. His father was a basket maker and his mother came from a successful brewer’s family. . in October of 1632. Early Years and Personal Life He was born in Holland. He is known as the first microbiologist and also “the Father of Microbiology” because he was the first to observe bacteria underneath a microscope. Little is known about his early life except that he went to school near Leyden before he went to live with his uncle in Benthuizen. he was an apprentice for a linen-draper’s shop. 1723 (at age 90) in Delft. He made many other significant discoveries in the field of biology and also made important changes to the microscope. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Born: Oct 24.

but only a daughter survived. He learned that he could place the middle part of a small rod of lime soda glass into a very hot flame and then pull the hot glass apart to make two long strands of glass. His wife died in 1666. Leeuwenhoek wed Barbara de Mey and they had five children. Leeuwenhoek opened and operated his own draper’s shop during the 1650s. After getting married. as well as his knowledge of glass processing. According to some reports. Invention of Microscopic Lenses Leeuwenhoek developed a fascination with lens-making while he was working at his shop. and Leeuwenhoek remarried five years later. but only a few of them . he returned to Delft and stayed there for the remainder of his life. he reinserted the end of one strand in the flame to make a small glass sphere that was of high quality.In July of 1654. Then. He was a very well-known figure in Delft and received a municipal title for the city’s sheriff’s assembly chamber. Leeuwenhoek is believed to have made over 200 microscopes that had various magnifications. a position that he held for nearly 40 years. His interest in microscopes. resulted in a very significant and technical discovery in the field of science. He found that the smallest lenses rendered the highest magnifications and these spheres soon became lenses for his microscopes.

spermatozoa in 1677 and the banded structure of muscular fibers in 1682. which are protists in today’s zoological classification. Over the years. he would not show any of his cutting-edge microscopes to any of his notable guests. Death and Legacy Antonie van Leeuwenhoek struggled with a rare disease that caused uncontrollable movements in his abdominal region. He also conducted research on the coffee bean and reported on it in 1687. He also made over 500 optical lenses. He passed away at the age of 90 in August of 1723 and is buried in Delft at the Oude Kerk. he was visited by many prominent individuals. Leeuwenhoek had a monopoly on microscopic research and discovery. a Russian Czar. This medical condition is now called Van Leeuwenhoek’s disease. . bacteria in 1674. However. including Peter the Great. only letting them see average-quality lenses. The lenses that have endured are able to magnify objects up to 275 times. Scientific Significance At the end of the 17th century.survived. He used copper or silver to make the frames for his microscopes. the cell’s vacuole in 1676. Leeuwenhoek’s main discoveries include the infusoria.

Charles Darwin Born: Feb 12. His theory regarding natural selection was supported by sufficient scientific evidences that are collected during his travels around the globe. 1882 (at age 73) in Down House. He was the fifth child of parents Robert Waring Darwin and Susannah . and common descent Awards: Royal Medal (1853). United Kingdom Nationality: British Famous For: The Voyage of the Beagle. United Kingdom Died: Apr 19. 7. On the Origin of Species. and Copley Medal (1864) Charles Darwin was a British scientist who known for his support of evolution and his publications that helped bring the idea into the scientific mainstream. 1809 in The Mount. Darwin’s Early Life Charles Darwin was born in a small town in England in 1809. evolution by natural selection. Wollaston Medal (1859). Shrewsbury.

and he was a slow learner. Travels on the Beagle Henslow eventually advised Darwin to travel with him in the Beagle. He passed his Bachelor of Arts degree in the year 1831. was one of the well-known intellectuals in England during the 18th century and his maternal grandfather. Darwin’s early life was quite ordinary. He attended the Shrewsbury school before leaving for Edinburg University to study medicine. which was a survey ship that was about to undertake a journey around the world for a period of five years. Darwin joined Christ’s College. They would help shape the rest of Darwin’s life as a naturalist and change our understanding of the natural world forever. Darwin Becomes a Naturalist In 1828. he had little interest in medicine so he decided to choose a different career following a suggestion by his father. Josiah Wedgwood. was a China manufacturer. Charles’ paternal grandfather. he was unqualified to join in any course other than an ordinary degree course. . to study to become a parson. There. He did not enjoy going to school. Cambridge. However. their life cycles and their anatomies. Erasmus Darwin. However. he assisted in the study of marine invertebrates. It was in Christ’s College where he met two influential people – Adam Sedgwick and John Stevens Henslow.Wedgwood.

. According to him. He collected various specimens and noted that those specimens that belong to the same geographical location were closely related.Henslow helped Darwin get aboard the HMS Beagle in 1831. This argument was reinforced in Darwin’s mind by the various geographical features and rich animal life he saw during his voyage. During the course of his trip. plants. written by Lyell. Darwin read Principles of Geology. He then proposed a theory of evolution by the process of natural selection after getting influenced by the ideas of Malthus. Darwin returned to England and started to solve the riddles of his observations and understand how species evolve. even though their feeding habits and structures were different. During this time. Darwin collected samples of various natural specimens including fossils. and birds. which suggested that fossils are animals that lived thousands of years ago. the species change over time. Gradually. They will then pass on the characteristics that helped them survive to their offspring. In 1835. Making the Theory In 1836. the Beagle reached the Galapagos Islands which had a large number of animal and bird species. the animals and plant species that are best suited to their surroundings will survive and reproduce easily.

Charles Darwin died in 1882 and was buried in Westminster Abbey. This is about the time when he developed the theory of evolution through natural selection more fully. Darwin joined with another scientist who had similar ideas on evolution.In 1838. In 1859. They moved to Down House in 1842 along with their children. It work was criticized widely so he tried to answer their questions in an additional five editions which were published during his lifetime. it took around 15 years to finalize his manuscript. . However. In 1858. Darwin published his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Darwin married Emma Wedgewood.

he was forced to terminate his studies in 1843 and go back to a monastery in Brunn. 1884 (at age 61) in Brno. Four years later. He was the son of a peasant and the grandson of a gardener who was initially taught be a local priest before being admitted into an institute of philosophy. and chemistry. he went back to the monastery to teach natural sciences. 8. Austria-Hungary (Now Czech Republic) Nationality: Empire of Austria-Hungary Famous For: Creating the science of genetics Born on July 22. He joined the priesthood in 1847. 1822. Mendel felt that the monastery was the ideal place to pursue his studies without being troubled by lack of finances. Johann Gregor Mendel was a Moravian scientist by occupation. Gregor Mendel Born: Jul 22. Austrian Empire (Now Czech Republic) Died: Jan 6. . After the completion of his studies. While at the monastery. 1822 in Heinzendorf bei Odrau. however. he enrolled at the University of Vienna where he studied physics. botany. he gave himself the name Gregor and was placed in charge of the garden. Due to financial shortcomings.

he inferred that there were two types of long plants – one that did not breed true plants and the other that bred true plants. He hoped to find more information regarding the offspring by crossbreeding different sized plants. he still proceeded with the experiments. By statistically analyzing the experiments of breeding.Mendel’s Experiments and Results Mendel used his free time to conduct his hereditary experiments. Mendel crossbred several seeds and then collected the results based on the seven most obvious variations and seeds. he had ventured into a unique area of study. Even after making these conclusions. but he would later discover that this was not the case. His studies coupled with his vast knowledge of natural sciences were what guided him through the experiments. He mostly opted to use pure variety pea plants that had been cultivated in a controlled atmosphere. He was under the assumption that crossing a short plant with a long one would result in a medium sized plant. He continued crossing different plants and calculating the results. After discovering that only a third of the long plants created long offspring. Mendel planted some pea plants that had a cross of short and long genes . Mendel came to the conclusion that tall plants created both long and short offspring while short plants only created short offspring.

It states that genes (units of heredity) are in pairs and the paired gene becomes divided when the cell is divided. Each paired gene is present in both halves of the egg or sperm. which is the law of segregation. These results were not dependent on whether the plant was female or male.000 pea plants in his investigation. he had Bright’s Disease. Death In January of 1884. According to sources. which was a name given to a variety of kidney problems.and some with only long genes. Mendel came to this conclusion after roughly eight years and he included over 30. He then pollinated some of the plants himself. . is entirely based on Mendel’s observations regarding the breeding of plants. Mendel died at the age of 61. The first heredity law. He deduced that the tallness of the plant was its dominant trait while that of shortness was a recessive trait. Mendel’s Conclusions All the naturally pollinated plants from the cross of long-short plants grew long while one of long plants that were unnaturally pollinated grew short.

Aristotle was exposed to the Macedonian court from a very early age. His father died when he was a young child and there is very little known about his mother. in a tiny town off the coast of Greece by the name of Stagira. The son of a physician to Macedonian royalty. . became the primary guardian until Aristotle reached the age of 17. His theories. Chalcidice Died: 322 BC (at age 61 or 62) at Euboea Nationality: Greek Aristotle was a Greek philosopher who lived over 2000 years ago. writings and journals are still highly regarded in the field of social science. Because of this. An avid student and teacher.Aristotle Born: 384 BC at Stagira. he is often credited with forming the foundation of many Western philosophical ideals. Phaestis. Early Life The Greek philosopher was born around 384 B. Aristotle’s uncle by marriage. Proxenus.C. 9.

Aristotle’s Teaching Aristotle had made a name for himself in the world of academia. and government. . Greece. While attending school at Plato’s Academy. Aristotle had many ideals of his own and wished to start his own school.At the age of 17. During this time. Aristotle moved on to pursue his own methodology. plus much more. In Athens. This helped him secure a job teaching the son of King Phillip II. Lyceum was established in Athens as Aristotle’s academy of learning. After many years of friendship and study. math. Aristotle returned to Athens in 335 B. Aristotle was then given the role of the head of the Royal Academy of Macedon.C. With the King’s blessing. The written works of these students are credited by many as the start of ancient Greek libraries. he spent the majority of his time teaching and writing. Aristotle’s guardian arranged for him to receive his higher education at the Academy of Plato in Athens. in Macedonia. by this time. The students at Lyceum conducted research on many topics related to science. Aristotle proved to be a worthy student and gained the respect of Plato. the philosophical ideals of Plato were still regarded as the leading school of thought. Over the next 12 years. However. After several years of successfully working with Alexander the Great and others. Alexander the Great. his pupils grew from one to a handful of future kings and noblemen.

His famous writings on logic include Categories. the new regime charged him with impiety.In 323 B. Aristotle was responsible for well over 200 pieces of work. His method for classifying animals was used for hundreds of years before mistakes were found in his theory largely due to his lack of quantitative data. Although not a scientist. . while providing procedures for inferring and deduction. He would live on this island for the remainder of his life. Aristotle quickly fled to Chalcis in order to prevent himself from being prosecuted. his research helped to pave the way for modern scientific study. Aristotle was quite intrigued with the subject of “natural philosophy” or what is commonly known as natural science.C.. He was particularly interested in the field of geology.” In addition. Alexander the Great died an unexpected death and the Macedonian government was overthrown. Aristotle’s Philosophy It was Aristotle’s mission throughout his life to develop a uniform concept of logic. This concept would serve as the process for man to comprehend and learn all things that pertained to reality. Because of the many works that Aristotle and his students wrote expressing sympathy for the Macedonian government. His treatises explored descriptions and actions. his scientific and political works were way ahead of his time. Posterior Analytics and On Interpretation.

Aristotle’s scientific studies did not stop with geology and marine biology. In 322 B. but his influence on the field of biology and other fields has remained a stronghold on Western sciences. His treatise Meteorology was an attempt to tackle many topics within the earth sciences. octopus. His ideas were not widely accepted at the time.C. the water cycle and natural disasters. . From weather patterns. His study of marine biology allowed the anatomy of many sea creatures to be studied in greater detail than they ever had before. Aristotle passed away. and cephalopods just to name a few. Aristotle gave his explanation for many common occurrences.Working with Marine Life Dissecting marine life also captured the attention of Aristotle while he was at his school in Athens. Aristotle’s writings gave descriptions of catfish. These dissections led to many field journals that were surprisingly accurate for the time. but were later deemed credible by many scientists during the Middle Ages. He observed much of the marine life on Lesbos and was able to conclude that sea mammals were different than fish.

he was a very keen observer of nature and after nine years working as a surgeon’s apprentice.” was an English scientist known for his discovery of smallpox vaccine. He was the eighth of nine children. . Gloucestershire Died: Jan 26. George’s Hospital in London to study surgery and anatomy. He attended a school in the Wotton-under-Edge and Cirencester. 10. Gloucestershire Nationality: English Famous For: Smallpox vaccine. Jenner studied under a prominent surgeon named John Hunter. His discovery was a great breakthrough that saved countless lives. 1749. Vaccination Edward Anthony Jenner. Jenner’s Early Life Edward was born on May 17. Edward Jenner Born: May 17. From a very early age. also popularly known as the “Father of Immunology. in Berkeley. he joined St. he went back to Berkeley where he then set up a medical practice. 1749 in Berkeley. After his studies. 1823 (at age 73) in Berkeley.

a smallpox epidemic hit Gloucestershire. During the outbreak. To Jenner’s relief.Discovery of Smallpox Vaccine Jenner worked in small rural community where most patients were farmers who owned cattle. He later used this liquid on a young healthy man. He needed a way to prove his theory really worked. . smallpox was a common illness and among the major causes of death. In 1788. the results were fatal in most cases. This illness was mainly treated by a method that brought success to Jan Ingenhaus. Jenner was able to identify that the young lady had caught cowpox due to the fact that she handled cows every day. However. a Dutch physiologist. In May of 1796. unlike other people. Edward Jenner observed that some patients who were working with the cattle and had also had contacted cowpox never got affected by the smallpox virus. The method involved inoculating a healthy person with some substances that came from pustules of people with a mild case of the disease. Jenner was finally given an opportunity when one young milkmaid came to see with some blister-like sores on both hands. the young man never caught smallpox. He extracted some liquid from sores of the patient with cowpox. During this time.

He never recovered from this state and . In 1805. Jenner continued to investigate the natural history and in 1823.000 to continue his work. The right side of his body was actually paralyzed. he was appointed to be the Physician Extraordinary to the King George IV. a large number of them were using it. which is a Latin word for cowpox.Jenner’s Rewards In 1798.” from vaccinia. Jenner joined the Medical and Chirurgical Society. other doctors finally found out that the vaccination really worked and by 1800. Jenner finally published his findings in a publication called An Inquiry into Causes plus the Effects of Variolae Vaccine. Death Jenner was found in an apoplexy state on January 25th. In 1806. he presented his own Observations on the Migration of Birds to the royal community. 1823. His continued works on vaccination prevented him from continuing the ordinary medical practice. after several other successful tests. Several years later in 1821. He called his idea “vaccination.000 for his great work. He was even granted $10. After so much ridicule. he was given another $20.

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They usually have less freedom than basic researchers to choose the emphasis of their research. increase crop yields. plants or microorganisms.Research: Biological scientists who work in applied research or product development often use knowledge gained by basic research to further knowledge in particular fields or applications. treatments. and develop biofuels. For example. while an ecologist might study how a forest area recovers after a fire. some biological research also occurs outside the laboratory and may involve natural observation rather than experimentation. Some biologists conduct laboratory experiments involving animals. However. this applied research may be used to develop new pharmaceutical drugs. and medical diagnostic tests. Biological scientists conducting applied research and product development in private industry may be required to describe their research plans or results to non-scientists who are in a position to veto or approve their ideas. . For example. and they spend more time working on marketable treatments to meet the business goals of their employers. These scientists must consider the business effects of their work. a botanist may investigate the plant species present in a particular environment.

. Biological scientists can now manipulate the genetic material of animals and plants. with commercial applications in areas such as medicine. transforming the industries in which biological scientists work. attempting to make organisms more productive or resistant to disease. including human insulin and growth hormone. Many other substances not previously available in large quantities are now produced by biotechnological means. This work continues to lead to the discovery of genes associated with specific diseases and inherited health risks. and environmental remediation. such as recombining DNA. has led to the production of important substances. Basic and applied research on biotechnological processes. Some of these substances are useful in treating diseases. Those working on various genome (chromosomes with their associated genes) projects isolate genes and determine their function. such as sickle cell anemia. agriculture. Advances in biotechnology have created research opportunities in almost all areas of biology.Swift advances in knowledge of genetics and organic molecules spurred growth in the field of biotechnology.

agricultural.  Molecular biologists study the biological activity between biomolecules.  Neuroscientists study the physiology of the nervous system. algae. the science of genes. although recent advances have blurred some traditional classifications. virology (the study of viruses). or industrial microbiology. Most microbiologists specialize in environmental. and variation of organisms. or fungi. heredity. immunology (the study of mechanisms that fight .[why?]  Geneticists study genetics.  Developmental biologists study the process of development and growth of organisms  Biochemists study the chemical composition of living things.  Microbiologists investigate the growth and characteristics of microscopic organisms such as bacteria. They analyze the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism. reproduction. and growth. food.Specialists: Most biological scientists specialize in the study of a certain type of organism or in a specific activity.

 Computational Biologists apply the techniques of computer science. Physiologists often specialize in functions such as growth. applied mathematics and statistics to address biological problems. respiration.  Physiologists study life functions of plants and animals. diseases. relates to living cells and organisms. or bioinformatics (the use of computers to handle or characterize biological information. and life processes. in the whole organism and at the cellular or molecular level. By these means it addresses scientific research topics with their theoretical and experimental questions without a laboratory.  Zoologists and wildlife biologists study animals and wildlife— their origin. such as electrical and mechanical energy and related phenomena. photosynthesis. or movement. under normal and abnormal conditions. or in the physiology of a certain area or system of the organism. reproduction. usually at the molecular level). infections). while others . Some experiment with live animals in controlled or natural surroundings. The main focus lies on developing mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques. Many microbiologists use biotechnology to advance knowledge of cell reproduction and human disease.  Biophysicists study how physics. behavior.

the causes and cures of plant diseases. h erpetologists study reptiles and amphibians. the geological record of plants and their evolution. and animals living in water. mold and mushrooms. ichthyologists study fish. ferns. and limnologists study fresh water organisms. Some study all aspects of plant life. Much of the work of marine biology centers on molecular biology. conifers. Marine biologists study salt water organisms. cnidariologists study jellyfishes and entomologists study insects. such as yeasts. mammalogists study mammals. plants. Zoologists and wildlife biologists also may collect and analyze biological data to determine the environmental effects of current and potential uses of land and water areas. the study of the . and flowering plants. For example. Zoologists usually are identified by the animal group they study. the interaction of plants with other organisms and the environment. Mycologists study fungi. dissect dead animals to study their structure.  Botanists study plants and their environments. the biochemistry of plant processes. others specialize in areas such as identification and classification of plants. mosses. ornithologists study birds.  Aquatic biologists study micro-organisms. lichens. including algae. which are a separate kingdom from plants. the structure and function of plant parts.

ecologists may collect. . food. pollutants.)  Ecologists investigate the relationships among organisms and between organisms and their environments. temperature. and physical characteristics of oceans and the ocean floor. examining the effects of population size. rainfall. which is the study of the biological. Using knowledge of various scientific disciplines. and report data on the quality of air. biochemical processes that take place inside living cells. (See the Handbook statements on environmental scientists and hydrologists and on geoscientists. geological. soil. Marine biology is a branch of oceanography. study. and water. chemical. and altitude.

and zoologists. Although some marine biologists obtain their specimens from the sea. Marine biologists encounter a variety of working conditions. others work on research ships. Many biological scientists depend on grant money to fund their research. such as botanists. While the 40-hour workweek is common. ecologists. and those who work underwater must practice safe diving while working around sharp coral reefs and hazardous marine life. running experiments. in all kinds of weather. conducting tests. Many biological scientists. Researchers may be . and compiling data. They may be under pressure to meet deadlines and to conform to rigid grant- writing specifications when preparing proposals to seek new or extended funding.Working conditions: Biological scientists are not usually exposed to unsafe or unhealthy conditions. longer hours are not uncommon. Biological scientists typically work regular hours. recording results. Those who work with dangerous organisms or toxic substances in the laboratory must follow strict safety procedures to avoid contamination. many still spend a good deal of their time in laboratories and offices. Biological scientists in the field may work in warm or cold climates. conduct field studies that involve strenuous physical activity and primitive living conditions. Some work in laboratories.

required to work odd hours in laboratories or other locations (especially while in the field). depending on the nature of their research. .

Dictionary. 4. "the definition of biology".google. Retrieved 2017- 01-27.com. p.References: 1.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biologist 3. https://en. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.com 2. www. ISBN 978-3-642-54359-3. Mehmet and Turgut (2014). Hydatidosis of the Central Nervous System: Diagnosis and Treatment. 334. .