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Course Instructor: Dr. Debashis Ghosh

**Department of Electronics & Communication Engg.
**

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Syllabus

Fundamentals of signals and systems.

System representation by differential / difference

equations; system responses, -- natural response, forced

response, etc.

Fourier series and Fourier transform.

Laplace transform; System transfer function, etc.

DTFT, DFT, and z-transform.

Time-frequency analysis; Filters, etc.

Haykin & B. Roberts. Wilskey & I.H. Pearson. M.J.V. Oxford. Suggested Texts / References S. A.S. Young.E. A. Signals & Systems. R. Fannin.T. Linear Systems and Signals. Tata- McGraw Hill. & D. Lathi. Oppenheim. Ziemer. Van Veen.P. Fundamentals of Signals & Systems. . Signals and Systems: Continuous and Discrete. Tranter. Wiley.R. PHI. W. Signals and Systems. B.

Assessment Tutorials / assignments (10%) 2 quizzes (15%) Mid-term test (25%) End-term examination (50%) .

image / video. . microphone + speaker system. Any arbitrary signal can be decomposed into a set of sinusoids.Signals What is signal? Electrical communication – Electrical (voltage or current) waveform (EM wave). Transducers used for generation of electrical signals from real world scenes / sound and vice versa – TV camera + TV monitor. Optical communication – Light wave. Signal representation – time domain and frequency domain. Common signals – speech / audio.

Amplitude variation by volume control or by contrast control (gain variation) – only change the audibility / visibility. TV signal displayed at a different frame rate. a tape recorder played at a different speed. Otherwise the nature of the waveform is preserved.Signals Signal waveform may be changed by changing the amplitude (magnitude) or by changing the timing (frequency). . Examples. Signal is basically scaled. Timing or frequency variation changes the nature of the waveform. Requires buffering. Not possible in on-line communication.

r. amplitude-discretization (quantization) and encoding. Signal digitization – time-discretization (sampling). .t. HDTV and general TV systems.Signals Real world is analog in nature. Amplitude and frequency variation in digitally coded signal. Down-sampling (decimation) or up-sampling (interpolation) if necessary – explain w. Playback timing information in header.

. Energy and power signals – periodic / random signals are generally power signals while non-periodic + deterministic are generally viewed as energy signals.Classification of Signals Cont. Conjugate symmetric signal. Periodic and non-periodic (aperiodic) signals – fundamental frequency in cont. Even (symmetric) and odd (antisymmetric) signals. and discrete cases. Deterministic and random signals.-time (analog) and discrete-time (digital) signals. Decomposition of a signal x(t) into even-odd components.

Elementary signals Unit impulse Unit step Signum Rectangular pulse Ramp function Sinusoids – natural frequency Exponential (decaying or growing) and complex exponential – damping (neper) frequency Exponentially damped sinusiodal .

H is the system operator that defines the input-output relationship.System x(t ) y (t ) H x(t ) or H or x[n] y[n] H x[n] x(t) is continuous-time input signal and y(t) is the corresponding continuous-time output signal in case of analog system. x[n] is discrete-time input signal (a sequence of samples) and y[n] is the corresponding output sample sequence in case of discrete system. Example of a simple system – Moving Average System .

the output at any point of time depends only on the present input value. Memory – In memoryless system. A non-causal system always has memory. . a causal system can be used in real time but not a non-causal system. Time invariance – Any time-shift in input produces the same time-shift in the output. So.System properties Stability – Bounded output for bounded input. That means the characteristics of the system do not change with time. Causality – Output does not depend on any future input value. memoryless system does not require any buffering while a system with memory must buffer some past and/or future inputs. So.

This means the combined operation H . Superposition – Output due to a composite input is equal to the combination of outputs due to each of the composing input signals. the output is also scaled by the same constant. that is G H 1 . from the output by applying to a system whose operator G is defined as the inverse of H. Homogeneity – If the input is scaled by a constant. except for a constant scale factor.System properties Invertibility – The input can be obtained back uniquely.G H .H 1 is an identity operator I. Linearity – Superposition and homogeneity conditions are satisfied. .

Discrete LTI system Unit impulse input sequence 1. n 0 0. n k [ n] [n k ] 0. n k Impulse response of LTI system h[ n] H [ n] due to time-invariance h[n k ] H [n k ] . n 0 1.

weight is the kth sample for shift by k samples shift in time equals to k sample intervals x[n] x[k ]. [n k ] . [n k ] k Corresponding output: y[n] H k x[k ].Discrete LTI system Any input sequence – Sum of weighted time-shifted impulse sequences.

. [n k ] x[k ].Discrete LTI system By superposition y[n] H k x[k ]. [n k ] k H x[k ].h[n k ] k k k Output sequence is the sum of weighted time-shifted impulse response sequences. weight is the kth sample for shift by k samples.H [n k ] x[k ]. [n k ] By homogeneity y[n] H x[k ].

Discrete LTI system Convolution – Convolution of two sequences p[n] and q[n] is defined as p[n] * q[n] p[k ]q[n k ] k Therefore. the output of a system is the convolution of the two sequences: input sequence and the impulse response sequence y[n] x[n] * h[n] .

and sum up the sample values of the resultant sequence. Step 3: Multiply the sequences h[n − k] and x[k]. This gives the complete output sequence y[n]. . shift sequence h[−k] by n samples to get h[−(k − n)] = h[n − k]. This gives the sample y[n]. Method for computing convolution Step 1: Obtain h[−k] by reflecting sequence h[k] about k = 0. Step 4: Perform above two steps for all values of n from −∞ to +∞. Step 2: For a particular value of n.

Method for computing convolution This method of computing convoltion is called reflect- and-shift convolution sum evaluation method. y[n] x[n] * h[n] x[k ]h[n k ] h[k ]x[n k ] k k . and then multiplied to h[k] to get the same result. Convolution operation is commutative – sequence x[k] (instead of h[k]) may be reflected and shifted.

Continuous time LTI system Impulse response: h(t ) H (t ) and by time-invariance: h(t ) H (t ) Input signal: x(t ) x( ) ( t )d x( ) (t )d System output: y (t ) H x(t ) H x ( ) (t )d H x ( ) (t )d x( ) H (t )d x( )h(t )d x(t ) h(t ) .

due to commutative property of convolution. the output can also be computed as y (t ) h( ) x(t )d . As in discrete case.Continuous time LTI system Convolution of two continuous-time signals can be computed in a manner similar to the discrete case where summation is to be replaced by integration – reflect-and- shift convolution integral evaluation method.

a system (operation H) can be defined in terms of its impulse response only: y (t ) x (t ) * h(t ) x(t ) h(t ) or or or x[n] h[n] y[ n] x[ n] * h[ n] .Impulse response of a system Therefore.

System interconnections Parallel – for analog h(t ) h1 (t ) h2 (t ) for discrete h[n] h1 [n] h2 [n] Cascade – for analog h(t ) h1 (t ) h2 (t ) for discrete h[n] h1[n] * h2 [n] .

k 0 c h[k ] h[n] c. (t ) . Therefore.Impulse response for LTI systems Discrete LTI system output: y[n] h[k ]x[n k ] k Cont. time LTI system output: y (t ) h( ) x(t )d Memoryless LTI system: y[n] should depend on x[n] only. in analog case h(t ) c. [n] 0 otherwise Similarly.

in analog case h(t ) 0 for t 0 . k zero and positive. ck .Impulse response for LTI systems Causal LTI system: y[n] should depend on x[n − k]. k 0 h[k ] 0. Therefore. only. k 0 Similarly.

x[n k ] h[k ] . that is h[n] k Similarly for analogcase. we require absolutely integrable impulse response h(t ) dt .x[n k ] h[k ]. required condition is absolutely summable impulse response. x[n k ] k k k If bounded input then for all n.Impulse response for LTI systems Stable LTI system y[n] h[k ]. x[n] M x y[n] M x h[k ] k For bounded output.

h[n] * h inv [n] [n] . x(t ) y (t ) hinv (t ) x(t ) h(t ) hinv (t ) x(t ) h(t ) x( )h(t )d h(t ) h(t ) hinv (t ) (t ) Similarly for discrete case.Impulse response for LTI systems Invertible system For analog case.

Possible only in case of an invertible LTI system. . The inverse system performs the deconvolution. whatever is the case.Deconvolution The process of recovering x(t) or x[n] from x(t)*h(t) or from x[n]*h[n].

Step response of LTI system n Discrete case: s[n] h[k ].u[n k ] h[k ] k k It follows: h[n] s[n] s[n 1] t Analog case: s (t ) h( )d It follows: d h(t ) s (t ) dt .

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