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# EC 203: Signals & Systems

Course Instructor: Dr. Debashis Ghosh

Department of Electronics & Communication Engg.
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

Syllabus
 Fundamentals of signals and systems.
 System representation by differential / difference
equations; system responses, -- natural response, forced
response, etc.
 Fourier series and Fourier transform.
 Laplace transform; System transfer function, etc.
 DTFT, DFT, and z-transform.
 Time-frequency analysis; Filters, etc.

Haykin & B. Roberts. Wilskey & I.H. Pearson.  M.J.V. Oxford. Suggested Texts / References  S. A.S. Young.E.  A. Signals & Systems.  R. Fannin.T. Linear Systems and Signals. Tata- McGraw Hill. & D. Lathi. Oppenheim. Ziemer. Van Veen.P. Fundamentals of Signals & Systems. . Signals and Systems: Continuous and Discrete. Tranter. Wiley.R. PHI. W. Signals and Systems.  B.

Assessment  Tutorials / assignments (10%)  2 quizzes (15%)  Mid-term test (25%)  End-term examination (50%) .

image / video. . microphone + speaker system.  Any arbitrary signal can be decomposed into a set of sinusoids.Signals  What is signal?  Electrical communication – Electrical (voltage or current) waveform (EM wave).  Transducers used for generation of electrical signals from real world scenes / sound and vice versa – TV camera + TV monitor.  Optical communication – Light wave.  Signal representation – time domain and frequency domain.  Common signals – speech / audio.

 Amplitude variation by volume control or by contrast control (gain variation) – only change the audibility / visibility. TV signal displayed at a different frame rate. a tape recorder played at a different speed. Otherwise the nature of the waveform is preserved.Signals  Signal waveform may be changed by changing the amplitude (magnitude) or by changing the timing (frequency). . Examples. Signal is basically scaled.  Timing or frequency variation changes the nature of the waveform. Requires buffering. Not possible in on-line communication.

r. amplitude-discretization (quantization) and encoding.  Signal digitization – time-discretization (sampling). .t. HDTV and general TV systems.Signals  Real world is analog in nature.  Amplitude and frequency variation in digitally coded signal.  Down-sampling (decimation) or up-sampling (interpolation) if necessary – explain w.  Playback timing information in header.

.  Energy and power signals – periodic / random signals are generally power signals while non-periodic + deterministic are generally viewed as energy signals.Classification of Signals  Cont.  Conjugate symmetric signal.  Periodic and non-periodic (aperiodic) signals – fundamental frequency in cont.  Even (symmetric) and odd (antisymmetric) signals. and discrete cases.  Deterministic and random signals.-time (analog) and discrete-time (digital) signals.  Decomposition of a signal x(t) into even-odd components.

Elementary signals  Unit impulse  Unit step  Signum  Rectangular pulse  Ramp function  Sinusoids – natural frequency  Exponential (decaying or growing) and complex exponential – damping (neper) frequency  Exponentially damped sinusiodal .

 H is the system operator that defines the input-output relationship.System x(t ) y (t )  H x(t ) or H or x[n] y[n]  H x[n]  x(t) is continuous-time input signal and y(t) is the corresponding continuous-time output signal in case of analog system.  x[n] is discrete-time input signal (a sequence of samples) and y[n] is the corresponding output sample sequence in case of discrete system.  Example of a simple system – Moving Average System .

the output at any point of time depends only on the present input value.  Memory – In memoryless system. A non-causal system always has memory. . a causal system can be used in real time but not a non-causal system.  Time invariance – Any time-shift in input produces the same time-shift in the output. So.System properties  Stability – Bounded output for bounded input. That means the characteristics of the system do not change with time.  Causality – Output does not depend on any future input value. memoryless system does not require any buffering while a system with memory must buffer some past and/or future inputs. So.

This means the combined operation H .  Superposition – Output due to a composite input is equal to the combination of outputs due to each of the composing input signals. the output is also scaled by the same constant. that is G  H 1 . from the output by applying to a system whose operator G is defined as the inverse of H.  Homogeneity – If the input is scaled by a constant. except for a constant scale factor.System properties  Invertibility – The input can be obtained back uniquely.G  H .H 1 is an identity operator I.  Linearity – Superposition and homogeneity conditions are satisfied. .

Discrete LTI system  Unit impulse input sequence 1. n  0 0. n  k  [ n]     [n  k ]   0. n  k  Impulse response of LTI system h[ n]  H  [ n]  due to time-invariance h[n  k ]  H  [n  k ] . n  0 1.

 weight is the kth sample for shift by k samples  shift in time equals to k sample intervals  x[n]   x[k ]. [n  k ]  . [n  k ] k    Corresponding output:    y[n]  H  k    x[k ].Discrete LTI system  Any input sequence – Sum of weighted time-shifted impulse sequences.

. [n  k ]   x[k ].Discrete LTI system  By superposition     y[n]  H   k   x[k ]. [n  k ]    k   H x[k ].h[n  k ] k   k   k    Output sequence is the sum of weighted time-shifted impulse response sequences. weight is the kth sample for shift by k samples.H  [n  k ]   x[k ]. [n  k ]  By homogeneity    y[n]   H x[k ].

Discrete LTI system  Convolution – Convolution of two sequences p[n] and q[n] is defined as  p[n] * q[n]   p[k ]q[n  k ] k    Therefore. the output of a system is the convolution of the two sequences: input sequence and the impulse response sequence y[n]  x[n] * h[n] .

and sum up the sample values of the resultant sequence.  Step 3: Multiply the sequences h[n − k] and x[k]. This gives the complete output sequence y[n]. . shift sequence h[−k] by n samples to get h[−(k − n)] = h[n − k]. This gives the sample y[n]. Method for computing convolution  Step 1: Obtain h[−k] by reflecting sequence h[k] about k = 0.  Step 4: Perform above two steps for all values of n from −∞ to +∞.  Step 2: For a particular value of n.

Method for computing convolution  This method of computing convoltion is called reflect- and-shift convolution sum evaluation method.   y[n]  x[n] * h[n]   x[k ]h[n  k ]   h[k ]x[n  k ] k   k   . and then multiplied to h[k] to get the same result.  Convolution operation is commutative – sequence x[k] (instead of h[k]) may be reflected and shifted.

Continuous time LTI system  Impulse response: h(t )  H  (t )  and by time-invariance: h(t   )  H  (t   )    Input signal: x(t )   x( ) (  t )d   x( ) (t   )d    System output:     y (t )  H  x(t )  H   x ( ) (t   )d    H  x ( ) (t   )d         x( ) H  (t   )d   x( )h(t   )d  x(t )  h(t )   .

due to commutative property of convolution. the output can also be computed as  y (t )   h( ) x(t   )d  .  As in discrete case.Continuous time LTI system  Convolution of two continuous-time signals can be computed in a manner similar to the discrete case where summation is to be replaced by integration – reflect-and- shift convolution integral evaluation method.

a system (operation H) can be defined in terms of its impulse response only: y (t )  x (t ) * h(t ) x(t ) h(t ) or or or x[n] h[n] y[ n]  x[ n] * h[ n] .Impulse response of a system  Therefore.

System interconnections  Parallel –  for analog h(t )  h1 (t )  h2 (t )  for discrete h[n]  h1 [n]  h2 [n]  Cascade –  for analog h(t )  h1 (t )  h2 (t )  for discrete h[n]  h1[n] * h2 [n] .

 k 0 c h[k ]    h[n]  c. (t ) .  Therefore.Impulse response for LTI systems   Discrete LTI system output: y[n]   h[k ]x[n  k ] k     Cont. time LTI system output: y (t )    h( ) x(t   )d  Memoryless LTI system: y[n] should depend on x[n] only. in analog case h(t )  c. [n]  0 otherwise  Similarly.

in analog case h(t )  0 for t  0 . k zero and positive. ck .Impulse response for LTI systems  Causal LTI system: y[n] should depend on x[n − k]. k  0  h[k ]    0.  Therefore. only. k  0  Similarly.

x[n  k ]   h[k ] . that is   h[n]   k   Similarly for analogcase. we require absolutely integrable  impulse response h(t ) dt    .x[n  k ]   h[k ]. required condition is absolutely summable impulse response. x[n  k ] k  k  k   If bounded input then for all n.Impulse response for LTI systems  Stable LTI system    y[n]   h[k ].  x[n]  M x    y[n]  M x  h[k ] k   For bounded output.

h[n] * h inv [n]   [n] . x(t )  y (t )  hinv (t )  x(t )   h(t )  hinv (t )   x(t )  h(t )    x( )h(t   )d   h(t )  h(t )  hinv (t )   (t )  Similarly for discrete case.Impulse response for LTI systems  Invertible system  For analog case.

 Possible only in case of an invertible LTI system. .  The inverse system performs the deconvolution. whatever is the case.Deconvolution  The process of recovering x(t) or x[n] from x(t)*h(t) or from x[n]*h[n].

Step response of LTI system  n  Discrete case: s[n]   h[k ].u[n  k ]   h[k ] k  k  It follows:  h[n]  s[n]  s[n  1] t  Analog case: s (t )   h( )d   It follows: d h(t )  s (t ) dt .