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A historiographical account of workplace and organizational ethnography

Simon Down

University of Newcastle

Abstract

The paper argues that the production of past workplace and organizational ethnographies
needs to be better understood in historical context. A programme of research work on the
history of workplace and organizational ethnography is proposed, and a historiographical
discussion outlines the purpose, scope and means by which such a project might be
realised. The article highlights why organizational ethnographers should understand the
history of their research practice. The article suggests that a serious attempt is made to
create a body of historical knowledge about workplace and organizational ethnography.
The value of this would be to deepen the contribution ethnographic research makes to
organization and management studies, and ensure that continuity and change in
ethnographic research practices are better understood.

1  
 

Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2478675

and changes in the nature of workplaces and organizations such that ‘being there’ can mean being everywhere and anywhere (Yanow and Geuijen 2009: 257). ritualised quality. suggest that it is the sensibility as much as research practices that are attracting researchers. The growing popularity of workplace and organizational ethnography has meant that past studies have begun to take on new significance. its use in workplace and organizational ethnography has particular salience.Introduction Since around the mid 1990s workplace and organizational ethnographies have become increasingly popular. countervailing pressures on the time (non-PhD) researchers have to undertake ethnographies.com/abstract=2478675 . based itself on the success and growth of the Liverpool/Keele Ethnography Symposium and the 2012 formation of the Organizational Ethnography Standing Working Group at EGOS all provide evidence for this claim. This paper argues that in order to assess the impact and implications of these changing practices the production of past ethnographies need to be better understood in historical context. High points in the canon are mobilised to legitimise the budding ethnographer’s own work. Whilst Bourdieu placed this going back to the original and authentic sources as a generic scholarly strategy (1988). For others it reflects changing organizational contexts (especially those driven by information technologies) in which the practice of ethnography operates. Even Frederick Engels’ The Condition of the Working Class in England (1845/1987) and Jacob Riis’ How the Other Half Lives (1890/1957) urtexts are sometimes invoked as examples (Zicker and Carter 2010). Michael Burawoy (1979) or Melville Dalton (1959) in contemporary organizational ethnographies has begun to take on an empty. The deployment of studies by Donald Roy (1954). The creation of the Journal of Organizational Ethnography. or to changes in intellectual styles. Those now writing or claiming to write ethnographies are expected to follow a well trodden path and are directed to a canon of classic studies stretching back to the early twentieth century. and not just to do with the general expansion of business studies research and teaching. However. For traditionalists this might be perceived as dilution and a cause for concern. The reasons for this success are complex. particularly those studies associated with the Chicago School of Sociology (Deegan 2001). suggesting 2     Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.

I explain the purposes such a programme might serve. shorn as it has become. in so proposing. First. I discuss the means – what should be avoided and what should be done . The time and place these studies were conducted are effectively compressed into a common territory – let’s call it ethno-land – where a spurious. The next section discusses the scope. of its underlying paradigmatic and epistemological force. begin that programme with a historiographical discussion of the purpose. And. I am not simply suggesting that contemporary ethnographers take the specific findings of past ethnographers seriously. My aim is more generative in proposing a programme of research work on the history of workplace and organizational ethnography. of course. Purpose: Why create a history of workplace and organizational ethnography? History can serve many purposes.that they lie outside history. For Stager Jacques (2006) the history of management and organizational knowledge should have as its key purpose the development of better knowledge and theory to help address contemporary problems. though they should. This paper asks you to consider whether this is a good way to treat the historical legacy of workplace and organizational ethnography.by which such a history might be produced. does your history ‘connect to present-day issues in a manner that may lead one to look at these issues differently?’ 3     . before concluding. ahistorical homogeneity rules. And. As Stager Jacques asks of the organizational historian. scope and means by which it might be realised. that they did the same as we do. help those in the past to solve theirs. he argues. finally. would be sadly paradoxical given that ethnography is intended to highlight particularities in time and space. This putative danger. 1996) suggests has befallen ‘qualitative research’. We can’t. and establishes necessary boundaries with which to frame such a programme. The danger is that with greater popularity studying organizations ethnographically might suffer the same ‘Procrustean’ fate that Stager Jacques (2006: 45. after all. From this perspective the key purpose of histories of workplace and organizational ethnography should be to better understand the particularities of workplaces and organizing and how they have changed over time – a contemporary purpose.

Thus. History in this sense serves contemporary needs by showing how others addressed similar organizational problems. Down 2001a. 4     . It is all too easy to assume we know the past and the tidy story it tells us. And. surely. it is worth noting that contemporary sub-disciplinary fragmentation and ‘gated’ intellectual horizons (Down 2001a) mean that most conversations tend to take place in relative isolation. In order to avoid becoming a hapless victim of Procrustes we need to be surer of how things were (but of course. Ahistoricism has been a perennial indictment: Michael Burawoy complained in 1979 that organization theory was too static and lacked a historical dynamic. This teleologically inclined narrative immiserates past problems. not how they really were). but calls for more historical sensitivity are still being made (Stager Jacques 2006). crises and controversies and falls into the trap of thinking that we are the only scholars with complex and difficult methodological and epistemological choices to make. The development and growth of management and organizational and business history might suggest greater sensitivity in this regard today. before being hit by the ‘postmodern’ turn and ‘crisis of confidence’ about what the ethnographic text represented. Jones and Wadhwani 2006). It is difficult to disagree. However. one contemporary purpose that a history of workplace and organizational ethnography serves is in building better understanding of the fluidity and heterogeneity of ethnographic practice and the variety of research problems addressed through time. Another way in which such a programme would be of use is in joining with others who feel that business and management needs greater historical memory (Booth and Rowlinson 2006. if only to be read. historicism can serve different masters. is to expose the parochialism of present interests. (2001: 3) suggest there is a tendency to see the ethnographic past travelling along stable modernist tracks in a landscape of orthodox disciplinary and intellectual harmony. one of the tasks of a good history.(2006: 43). Indeed. He seems to stress contemporary theoretical ends too rigidly. Histories inevitably serve contemporary purposes in that they are written and read in the present. As Atkinson et al. at which point it burst out into a proliferation of textual and fieldwork practices. A history should resonate with contemporary interests. and I am not sure that I agree entirely. but it needn’t be a slave to contemporary theorising. too stridently.

of course. Or. serves to propel workplace and organizational ethnography further into mainstream legitimacy. Histories can act as a reminder of what good ethnography 5     . Such histories can serve the purpose of persuading these more sceptical scholars of the ‘discomforting necessity’ (Watson 2011: 204) of ethnography as a way of writing and researching organizations. management and organizing. Often calls for new programmes of research lack a sense of genuine importance and engagement with social and organizational problems. one that favours a generalist outlook on theory development. transcending parochialism and sub-disciplinary isolation. All texts are products of their time. the most ‘natural and important work’ was the labour process debate typified by Braverman’s Labour and Monopoly Capitalism (1974). one that fixes attention on the quality of research practice. A programme fixed on excavating the history of workplace and organizational ethnography. In so doing another purpose is revealed. A historically oriented programme of research also draws attention to the practice of ethnography over time. each author/ethnographer is caged by commitments to prevailing conversations. would. These generalizing and aggregating initiatives aimed at highlighting the contribution of ethnography will serve to broaden its appeal. 2004) or deductively derived (Edwards and Bélanger 2008) generalizations. because it also forms part of the larger project aiming to use ethnographic findings to draw inductively (Hodson 2001. it is the tension between the relative timelessness of observational descriptions of work. 2002. Burawoy saw that ‘in the period Roy undertook his research. I would hope however that the very intellectual datedness apparent in many past studies is a strength in this regard. thought and wrote in the way they did. and the trapped-in-amber quality of the intellectual paraphernalia used to explain it that makes the history of workplace and organizational ethnography such an exciting opportunity.Perhaps this fate might befall the history of workplace and organizational ethnography. rather. For Burawoy. to try and understand why those ethnographers of the past observed. the most natural and important work to respond to was Roesthlisberger and Dickson’s Management and the Worker and the writings of Elton Mayo’ (1979: 34). Moribund theoretical allusions of past ethnographies forces their historians to pay due regard to how ideas about work and organizations have changed. even to those mostly inimical to the underlying philosophical arguments.

Historical studies will inevitably address issues of quality. Histories will also show the impact of academic institutional contexts in shaping what gets produced: as Dick Hobbs has written ‘Educational policy. cutting a slice through eras. Unlike much academic output ethnographies have the potential to break through into the open space of public debate (e. academic salaries. So. historical analyses can show us how what we now might be losing was won and enjoyed. written and debated they were part of broader currents of intellectual traffic. many purposes.that lends itself to progressive political aspiration. and career structures all affect the various cultural performances of the ethnographer’ (1993: 62. research funds. ensuring that potential proponents understand that their research and writing needs to be ‘rigorously conceived and practised’ (Watson 2011: 214). The variability of practice that histories will show is not simply a matter of shifting scholarly norms and fashions. see also Van Maanen 1988: 5 for a similar point). however rabidly or obliquely to leftist. countries and research projects? What really connects Augusta Clawson’s (1944) Shipyard Diary of a Woman Welder. It is here that histories of our craft have an opportunity to become popular social science (Down 2001b). emancipatory and utopian political sensibilities. Histories that show contemporary decline might precipitate a broadening of emancipatory reactions and initiatives.g. What is the justification for partitioning this research activity. There is something about describing the particularities of working lives . In this sense. Then there are some broader purposes attached to what we today call the critical study of business and management. Many workplace and organizational ethnographies attach themselves. This might be especially powerful if some of the histories emphasised popular appeal alongside analytical purpose. at a time when working conditions taken for granted in the mid to late twentieth century are eroding for many.should be. Karen Ho’s 2009 popular account of Wall Street). with Huw Beynon’s Working for Ford (1973) and Gideon Kunda’s Engineering Culture (1997)? Why workplace and organizational ethnography? Is this an appropriate boundary? 6     . but what is the rationale of studying ethnographies in relative isolation? When researched.that intimate connection to everyday tyrannies .

Scope: How distinct is the object of study? There will always be arguments about whether and where to delineate boundaries around objects of study. examiners and doctoral candidates over successive generationsi and what counts as workplace and organizational ethnography becomes clearer still. Both reflect subtlety different disciplinary priorities. One is limited to work. The difference between what is common and what isn’t in these two lists raises the issue of how we are to define workplace and organizational ethnography. Crudely put. it would be that it risks disconnecting the original research from the contemporary conversations the ethnographer was responding to. the other. This self-awareness makes the work of setting boundaries relatively easy. boundary setting highlights context by placing the specific object in relief.ohio- state. Aspiring historians of workplace and organizational ethnography must make boundary choices – about where relevant sources (conceptual and empirical) start and end .sociology. There is also a list of workplace ethnographies and a searchable textual resource at the Workplace Ethnography Project (http://www. Add to this the tangible personal and intellectual connections between scholars. the former is based in sociology and anthropology and the latter in management and organizational studies. supervisors. broader fields of organizing (Ybema et al. However. Budding historians can also find a list of published organizational ethnographies in Geuijen’s (2009) annotated bibliography. 2009: 4). If there were a nominal case against the historical study of workplace and organizational ethnography. and is a problem all social scientists need to address: the setting of boundaries for specific consideration for particular research problems needn’t obliterate context.html). compiled and managed by Randy Hodson. whilst Yanow and Geuijen (2009: 258) state of Hodson’s list that ‘most of the entries did not meet 7     . This is a matter of appropriate contextualisation. departments. The historical imperative in workplace and organizational ethnography is already an established and self-conscious element of the genre: Michael Burawoy serendipitously finding himself in exactly the same plant as Donald Roy 30 years later in the mid 1970s wasn’t the reason why he felt compelled to make historical connections.between object and context like everyone else.edu/rdh/Workplace-Ethnography-Project. Rather.

A simple limiting of investigations to studies at the intersection would inevitably somehow miss the point. Both wisely stress the unavoidable incompleteness of their lists. (2) a focus on a single organizational setting. also cited in Hodson. if their aim were comprehensiveness. Historical studies of workplace and organizational ethnography would need to address the particularities of continuity and discontinuity between the two disciplines depending on the topic being addressed. The latter suggest that to be counted as organizational ethnography studies need to (1) ‘rely on ethnographic methods’. or some other identifiable work group’ (2004: 12). It is nevertheless worth considering the criteria Hodson and Yanow and Geuijen’s use to distinguish these genres. This is clearly inadequate for the historian. would want 8     . Donald Roy’s influential work is not present since he did not write a book. Clearly there will be books and important studies in the broader genre of workplace and organizational ethnography that both these criteria exclude. The oldest in Geuijen’s bibliography (2009: 279) is William Foote Whyte’s Human Relations in the Restaurant Industry (1948). Hodson’s criteria included studies (both lists are limited to books) if there was: ‘(1) the use of direct ethnographic methods of observation over a period of at least six months. who. miss the vital connections and affinities between the two. (2) that ‘writing […] be in narrative form. and (3) a focus on at least one clearly identified group of workers—an assembly line. a task group. with data details more or less thickly described’.our criteria for organizational studies’ there is a broader overlap in spirit. How could a historical assessment of the immediate post-war research environment not discuss Donald Roy? When do the lists imply workplace and organizational ethnography began? The oldest study Hodson’s list is Augusta Clawson’s (1944) Shipyard Diary of a Woman Welder (not cited in Geuijen 2009). These exclusions would fundamentally stymie the historian. a typing pool. and (3) ‘the text needed to express the ethnographic sensibility that would convince the reader of the trustworthiness of the author as well as the findings s/he presented’ (Yanow and Geuijen 2009: 254). reflecting the intermingling and borrowing of past studies into respective canons. They also specify an organizational criterion such that studies focusing on the ‘characteristics of work absent in an organizational context’ (2009: 255) were excluded.

Atkinson et al. Means: How (not) to study the history of workplace and organizational ethnography? I have purposively avoided a tight definition of workplace and organizational ethnography. the impact of the 9     . which seeks to create patterns in intellectual and practical enquiry as it unfolds over time. the need for historical contextualization implies a requirement to look at broader historically relevant material. As I imply above. attempts to pin down such a changing and overlapping array of research works and genres. Similarly.to start further back. it would be inappropriate to prescribe how histories should be conducted and written. Any history would use material and sources selectively and build particularising and/or generalising historical narratives reflecting the purpose of the specific project. and by Edwards and Bélanger (2008) who point to Mathewson’s classic 1931 study. anthropology and sociology would also play an important role and are already considered in many an ethnographic handbook or textbook (see Van Maanen 1988: 13-21. This is reflected in a study by Zickar and Carter (2010) who extend the relevant work back into the early part of the Twentieth century. the ebbs and flows in popularity and fashion. management and organizations. will constrain historical analysis. Roy Jacques Manufacturing the Employee (1996) exemplifies what can be achieved by examining the historical development of scholarly thinking about work. 2001). Then there are of course many others that write histories about workplaces and organizing more generally. These then are the basic stepping off points which establish the object of study. the different disciplinary connections. and broader histories of the intersection of ethnography. The above characterisation gives a clear enough picture of the possible scope of enquiry. of particularly influential ethnographic studies such as the ‘Hawthorne experiments’ (Gillespie 1991). Deegan 2001). In addition to analyses of specific studies. How these narratives look would depend on choices made about how to render and portray the production of the ethnographies: the rich variety of method and methodology. We now need to discuss how we might go about studying it. Historical studies of the Chicago school itself (Bulmer 1984.

the trajectories of individual scholarly careers and their influence. projects. there is now. They tell of us and them. Debates from within history itself (Jenkins 1995.historiographically we need to be aware that we are likely creating a greater sense of coherence around past events than would have been apparent at the time. At its worse. W. as 10     . Whilst a boundary might reasonably be set around workplace and organizational ethnography . and latterly management and organizational scholars should also not be read as part of an ‘teleological’ evolving whole either (Stager Jacques 2006: 42). are just a few important themes. the debates and fallings-out. Equally however we should be wary of throwing our hands in the air at the impossibility of framing a period and an activity: postmodern doubts ‘in the possibility of objective knowledge or unified interpretation’ that have ‘convulsed and undermined’ scholars (Hobsbawm 1997: 195) in a variety of disciplines should not paralyse us. anthropologists. Then there are different means by which relevant recovery. Sebald recognised another truth of historical representation: reflecting on seeing a panoramic mural monumentalising the battle of Waterloo he wrote ‘This then. reading back and reconnecting might hold contemporary ethnographers and organizational theorists to account. Evans 1997) have percolated through to us and provide a clear guide to what is possible. The criss-crossings of the careers. 2009. Engels and Riis most emphatically did not wittingly practice ethnography. books and articles of all the amateurs. a growing understanding of the historiographical possibilities available to management and organizational scholars (see Down 2001a.books on organizational policies and management practices.the section above explained why . G. and the response by Toms and Wilson 2010 for instance). Here is not the place to rehash debates over what organizational history is or might become. Stager Jacques 2006). I thought. the theoretical and intellectual legacies (both legitimate and bowdlerised). sociologists. this can be called ‘antihistorical anachronism’ (Stager Jacques 2006: 41). thanks in particular to a succession of articles in the journal Management and Organizational History (see Taylor et al. Stager Jacques and I (Down 2001a) rightly castigate the likes of Moore and Lewis (1999) for suggesting that ancient Phoenicians practiced international management. All histories are of the present. There are however a couple of aspects that I do think are worth discussing. And.

but knowing how it was should not be the primary objective: knowing better how to act now is. We. see everything at once. The historian of workplace and organizational ethnography needs to reconstruct the research of the past as everyday projects. To take a look en masse at the history of workplace and organizational ethnography must falsify in this way. is the representation of history. It’s cool to be able to say you really experienced what it’s like to be a woman welder or Ford worker or student doctor. Along with false perspectivisation the historian of workplace and organizational ethnography also needs to avoid sentimentalising what they research. It requires a falsification of perspective. doing better ethnography and doing better organization. and still we do not know how it was’ (2002:125). Showing you were accepted by your respondents is a pass to having your work accepted as an authentic and respected account. in that he strives ‘to be as interpretively suggestive as possible without knowingly doing violence to historical 11     . This doesn’t stop what these ethnographers achieved from being impressive or influential. we might do worse in looking for positive guides than look to how others have created histories of analogous intellectual and disciplinary fields. Stocking’s historical analyses of Nineteenth and Twentieth century British anthropology can serve as a historiographical guide (1987.I looked round me. but it does place the knowledge produced in its context: we will understand the work. or cool even. John Van Maanen suggests that ethnography has a somewhat ‘glorified’ history (1988: 13). see everything from above. He stresses the need for ‘multiple contextualisation’ (1987: xiii) and plays down the linear or chronological unfolding of intellectual history. The ethnographer of work and organizations too gains professional respect and admiration for being a worker or getting close to workers and managers. I think he meant that the fame and glory that are now attached to the illustrious proponents of the past take us away from the mundane reality of the problems and compromises these researchers faced (Smith 2001). 1995). the survivors. its impact and its connections to our own worlds of work and research all the better. Having avoided these traps. It is not difficult to see how anthropologists gain a boys own explorer kudos from rubbing shoulders with exotic natives in faraway places. The tone he adopts is perhaps quite traditional. This inevitably sentimentalises our understanding of work and organizing.

However. It is worth citing him at length (he is citing from one of his own earlier essays): ‘Although the present structure of contextualisation reaffirms my commitment to an historical understanding that emphasises a contexts prior to or contemporary with the phenomenon being studied. but that past present and its antecedent past. It is not sufficient to limit the history to textual analyses of published ethnographies. it also reflects my greater appreciation of the manifold ways in which the historical understanding “presupposes a continuing tension between past and present – not only between an historian’s present and the past he [sic] studies.particulars’. This stance may lack the anxieties demonstrated by more postmodern historiographers (e. Stocking also highlights the need to investigate paradigmatic continuities and discontinuities in intellectual discourses and fashions. and feels that ‘historical generalizations must grow out of and directly relate to concrete historical materials’ (1987: xii). Why was the research commissioned or undertaken? What organizational problems prompted the research? What specific local events and ‘longer-run historical forces’ (Stocking 1987: xiii) connect and shape the ethnographies and their reception.. Jenkins 1995). the most important’ (1987: xv). using enumerative or discourse analytic logics in isolation. is something that I feel workplace and organizational ethnography history should also avoid. and between that same past present and all of its consequent futures” – among which our own present is. We need the context of their production too. What does and doesn’t connect Watson (1994) to Burawoy (1979)? And what does that tell us about problems of management and organizing and how we currently view and ethnographize them? How have workplace and organizational ethnographers behaved in the face of changing intellectual fashions? When have they been part of the advant garde vanguard? When part of the conservative rearguard? What were the reasons for these intellectual choices? 12     . his desire to contexualise and avoid narrow intellectual or disciplinary histories that simply seek to trace ‘ideas backwards in time in order to establish lineages […] for contemporary theoretical viewpoints’ (1987: xiii).g Taylor et al. but it reflects a subtle and sensitive regard for the need for contextualisation. and imply an unfashionable confidence about what the historical record might tell us. if only for the moment.

First. ignoring the feel of everyday life (ibid. There are of course many other more detailed questions and decisions about the conceptual and methodological means needed that will have to wait for another time. scope and means by which histories of workplace and organizational ethnography might be written. Like Stocking I would tend more towards the former than the latter. and anthropologists (Space and Little) study ‘small. between priorities given between ‘Space and Time’ and ‘Big and Little’ (Geertz 2000: 119). though continuous with. But historians might take a variety of approaches that would inevitably and profitably draw upon a range of contrasting historiographical principles. well-bounded communities’ (ibid. Historians (Time and Big) address the ‘broad sweep of thought or action’. The historian of workplace and organizational ethnography.).). and blend the advantages of both (thus. Historians accuse anthropologist of ‘nuancemanship’. it has been to set out the purpose. would be wise to conceptually and methodologically meander between these stances. Geertz advocates this blending. For instance. expression. Conclusion The aim of this paper has been twofold. being neither historian nor anthropologist. 123). organization and management. glorying in the detailing of the unimportant. Secondly I have suggested that this project is chiefly necessary in order to protect the 13     . but to do it using the detail and feel for how life and the research might have been. He points to the tension between the historical and anthropological sensibilities. These then are some of the traps to avoid and some preliminary guides to the writing of histories of workplace and organizational ethnography: a historiographical sketch. Clifford Geertz would also add much. and ‘seek to understand the context and modes of thought. were rather different from [our] own’ (1995: xvii). exhorting us to look back and to look sideways (2000: 121. seek to make the generalizations about work. and action of people who lived in worlds which. That is. and anthropologists accuse historians of ‘schematicism’. oral history and documentary archives).Stocking also makes us aware of the tensions to be made between reconstruction/refamiliarization and deconstruction/defamiliarization: choices to make about representation and critique.

research or otherwise. are enabled and constrained by such contexts. realities. placing pressure on the community being formed by the Journal of Organizational Ethnography to exercise its interests through constraints. The institutional higher education context – government priorities. and should continue to mean. and adapts research practices to suit novel. be wary of sacrificing our ‘rigorously conceived and practised’ (Watson 2011: 214) craft on the altar of expedience and a fixation on the most novel organizational and employment trends. Practices. And. The nature of work and organizing has changed greatly in recent years. For many people in factories and offices around the world traditional ethnography is still a practice worth pursuing. it is in this respect that greater historical understanding reminds us of what the practices and sensibilities have meant. shifting disciplinary spaces. and so forth – is also continually changing. As a response. everyday tyrannies. But such discontinuities are often overplayed.practice of ethnography from becoming the victim of its own success in organizational and management studies. in other words. university careers. funding regimes. It would be sadly ironic if the Journal of Organizational Ethnography marked the debasing of the currency. especially to expose those mundane. We should. philosophical and methodological fashions. workplace and organizational ethnography inevitably focuses on new problems. 14     . This is not the same as using history to catalogue and lament a passing chimerical era where researchers were blessed with more resources. In order to avoid such degradation a better sense of the field is needed. and key to this is a greater historical sensibility. often virtual.

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