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Process for manufacturing 3,4 - Cyanopyridines:

The manufacture of Cyanopyridine involves three steps as:
1. Reaction
2. Extraction
3. Distillation

1. Reaction:

Cyanopyridines are formed by catalytic ammoxidation of respective picolines at
high temperature. Picolines are vaporized and mixed with ammonia - air mixture
in a mixer. The mixture is passed through a fixed bed catalyst (precious metal on
Alumina and Silica) in a multi-tubular reactor at about 350° C where picolines
react with ammonia / air to form respective Cyanopyridines. The reaction product
in the vapor form along with unreacted ammonia is passed through heat recovery
system and are absorbed in water by use of ejector and scrubber system.
Unscrubbed ammonia and traces of product, if any, are scrubbed in a secondary
water ejector system, to ensure ammonia and product vapor do not go in the

2. Extraction:

The water containing absorbed reaction mass is mixed with benzene to extract
the organics dissolved in water. These immiscible two phases of organics and
water containing small quantities of organics and ammonia are separated. The
water phase is waste water and sent to ETP for treatment. The organic phase is
taken for distillation.

3. Distillation:

The organic phase is subjected to distillation to separate out benzene and
Cyanopyridines. The benzene is recycled for extraction. The Cyanopyridine are
further distilled to get product of desired quality. The bottom are sent to ETP for
treatment and disposal.