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# Open Channel Hydraulics

Topic 6 | Hydraulic Machinery

Prepared by:
Tan Lai Wai et al.
laiwai@uthm.edu.my

Learning Outcomes

At the end of this topic, students should be able to:
i. Calculate the efficiency of pump and turbine;
ii. Determine the discharge and energy head of pumps
in parallel and series; and
iii. Carry out similitude analysis between model and
prototype of pump and turbine.

Open Channel Hydraulics
by Tan Lai Wai et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

6.1 Turbines
Turbine is a hydraulic machine that utilises the energy of fluids to
move other types of machineries.

A common use of turbine is in the
hydroelectric power generation plant.

Open Channel Hydraulics
by Tan Lai Wai et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

Classification of Turbines
Based on the hydraulic action at the inlet, turbines can be classified as:
a. Impulse turbine (Pelton wheel or turbine) - derives its energy from a jet of
water exiting out of a nozzle and shooting at the blades of turbine.
b. Reaction turbine (Francis turbine or Kaplan turbine) - derives its power
from the equal and
opposite reactive
power of fluid
passing between its

Pelton wheel
BFC21103 Hydraulics
Tan et al. (laiwai@uthm.edu.my)

my) . Radial flow turbine (Francis turbine. Axial flow turbine (Kaplan turbine) d. Tangential flow turbine (Pelton wheel) b.edu.Based on the direction of flow through the runner. Mixed flow turbine (modern Francis turbine) Radial flow turbine Mixed flow turbine Pelton wheel Francis turbine Kaplan turbine Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. turbines can be classified as: a. (laiwai@uthm. Thomsen and Girard turbines) c.

Based on the head of water H. Usually work in radial flow but also in mixed flow. 60 m H  250 m) c. (laiwai@uthm. H > 250 m) b. A Kaplan (propeller) turbine is an axial flow machine with its runner confined in a closed conduit. A propeller turbine is often set on a vertical axis. A propeller turbine is suitable for operation with low head and high discharge. turbines can be classified as: a. Francis turbines are effective on a very wide range of heads (medium head) and are very much used in spite of their relatively high cost. Low head turbine (Kaplan turbine. Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. H < 60 m) Pelton wheel is suitable for medium head and low discharge. High head turbine (Pelton wheel.edu. Medium head turbine (modern Francis turbine.my) . and can also be set on a horizontal axis or a slightly inclined axis.

Low specific speed turbine (Pelton wheel. Ns of 60 to 400) c. (laiwai@uthm. High specific speed turbine (Kaplan turbine. Medium specific speed turbine (Francis turbine. turbines can be classified as: a.my) .Based on the specific speed Ns.edu. Ns of 10 to 35) b. Ns of 300 to 1000) Kaplan turbine Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.

in water distribution system. pumps are classified as: a. Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. positive displacement pumps. e.g. (laiwai@uthm.my) .2 Pumps A pump is a hydraulic machine which supplies energy to fluid in certain operation.6. Based on the mode of action of conversion of mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. rotadynamic pumps (centrifugal pump) and b.edu.

Centrifugal pumps produce radial flow and mixed flow according to the fluid path.Rotadynamic pump Rotadynamic pumps consist of a rotating device known as an impeller. Discharge Centrifugal pump Impeller eye Propeller pump Casing Impeller Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. Propeller pumps which also consist of an impeller produces axial flow.edu.my) . The most common rotadynamic pump are centrifugal pump and propeller pump. Vanes attached to the spinning impeller increases the velocity of the pumped fluid and moves the fluid out through an outlet. (laiwai@uthm. Fluids to be pumped enters a casing near the shaft of the impeller.

edu.my) . The intake end (flow inlet) of a pump is commonly known as the suction end and the discharge (flow outlet) of a pump is the delivery end. Vd Suction zs. Vs  pd Vd2   ps Vs2  H  Hd  Hs    zd      z s    2g    2g  Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. (laiwai@uthm. The difference between the total head of energy between the intake and discharge flanges of the pump is denoted as net head H developed by the pump.2 Power and Efficiency of Pump In pump operation. D S pd ps Delivery P zd. the mechanical energy through the shaft and impeller is converted to fluid energy.6.

Bs. Vu = swirl velocity or the rate of shaft rotation in radians per sec Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. (laiwai@uthm.my) .Discharge through a pump is given as Q   DsBsVfs   Dd BdVfd where.edu. Bd = widths of the runner at the suction and delivery ends Vf = velocity of flow through the runner Power of pump at suction end Ps (or input power Pi) 2N Ps  Pi  T  T 60 Power delivered at the discharge end Pd (or output power Po) Pd  Po  QH where.

my) .  = volumetric efficiency m = mechanical efficiency H = hydraulic efficiency Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.   mH where. (laiwai@uthm.Efficiency of a pump is given as power delivered to the fluid  power into the shaft Po  Pi Also.edu.

Activity 6.edu.1 A centrifugal pump is needed to supply 23 m3/s of water for a city. (laiwai@uthm. This operation will utilise a net head H = 20 m and specific speed N = 450 rpm. calculate: (a) Output power Pd (b) Overall efficiency of the pump  Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. If the inflow power Ps is 5000 kW and density of water  is 1000 kg/m3 at 5C.my) .

N = 450 rpm. H = 20 m.Given Q = 23 m3/s.6 kW (b) Efficiency of the pump Po 4512.9025  90.  = 1000 kg/m3 (a) Output power Po  QH  9810  23  20  4512.edu.my) .25% Pi 5000 Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. Pi = 5000 kW. (laiwai@uthm.6    0.

edu.6.500 gpm when developing a normal head 20 100 of 60 ft at an opening speed of 1450 rpm.3 Characteristic Curves of Pump The characteristic curves of a pump is usually provided by the pump manufacturer through laboratory tests. 100 500 Head H (ft) and pump efficiency  (%) 80 400 Horsepower (kW) 60 300 This pump has a normal BEP capacity or rated capacity 40 200 of 10.my) . 0 0 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 Capacity Q ('000 gpm) Characteristic curves of a typical mixed-flow centrifugal pump Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. (laiwai@uthm.

my) . BEP). With addition of flow rate. water will flow through the pipe and the head of pump will decrease.Relationship between input power Pi. the pump efficiency will increase until it reach a maximum and then decrease to end of operation.edu. When the valve is open. Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. Intersection between head and power corresponds to the point of optimum efficiency is the best point to use pump (known as the best efficiency point. efficiency  and head H starts when intake valve is closed. and the impeller spins until pressure at output increase to the maximum head (shut-off head). (laiwai@uthm.

(laiwai@uthm.edu.my) . Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.

cavitation will occur. where velocities are highest. there is a change in pressure. As the fluid moves further into a region of higher pressure. If the absolute pressure of the liquid drops to the vapour pressure. It may also occur on the suction side of the impeller.edu. Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.6. Cavitation is most likely to occur near the point of discharge (periphery) of radial flow and mixed flow impellers. where the pressures are the lowest. As liquid passes through the impeller of a pump. The region of vaporization hinders the flow and places a limit on the capacity of the pump. (laiwai@uthm. both for good efficiency and for prevention of impeller damage.4 Cavitation An important factor in the satisfactory operation of a pump is the avoidance of cavitation.my) . the bubbles collapse and the implosion of the bubbles may cause pitting of the impeller.

my) . (laiwai@uthm. Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.edu.

(laiwai@uthm. The overall system power requirement is the sum of the power required for each pump at the same head. the combined discharge is the sum of individual discharges QA and QB.5 Pumps in Parallel If two similar pumps A and B are connected in parallel. Q A .116 for P in kW and Q in L/min) Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. the pressure head H remains the same as in single pump.edu. However.102 for P in kW and Q in m3/s) (= 6. HA A QT  QA  QB QB.my) . HB HT  HA  HB QA  QB HT T  B PT  PA  PB K PA  PB  K = unit constant (= 0.6.

Activity 6. power requirements and efficiency if the following pumps are operated in parallel against a head of 27.0473 m3/s QB = 0.052 m3/s EA = 83% EB = 73% PA = 15.1 kW Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.edu. Pump A Pump B QA = 0.my) .4 m.3 kW PB = 19. (laiwai@uthm.2 Determine the system discharge.

4 Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. (laiwai@uthm.54% K PA  PB  0.1  34.4 kW QA  QB HT 0.0473 m3/s QB = 0.4 m PT  PA  PB  15.1 kW QT  QA  QB  0.0993  27.my) .102  34.7754  77.3  19.3 kW PB = 19.052  0.4 T    0.0473  0.Given H = 27.0993 m3 /s HT  HA  HB  27.4 m Pump A Pump B QA = 0.edu.052 m3/s EA = 83% EB = 78% PA = 15.

(laiwai@uthm.6. the combined discharge is the same discharge as single discharge QT = QA = QB. The overall system power requirement is the sum of the power required for each pump at the same head.my) . HB PT  PA  PB QT HA  HB  Pumps connected in series T  K PA  PB  Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.6 Pumps in Series If two similar pumps A and B are connected in series. QT  QA  QB A B HT  HA  HB QA. HA QB. The pressure head H produced is the combined head produced by the two pumps.edu.

Activity 6.5 cm. Pump A Pump B HA = 26. The pumps are operated at 1750 rpm and the system design discharge is 0.8 m HB = 33.9 kW Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. (laiwai@uthm. total power required and overall pump system efficiency for two pumps linked in series.3 Calculate the discharge. pressure head.0473 m3/s.my) .4 cm and DB = 30. The impeller diameters are DA = 25.5 m EA = 83% EB = 78% PA = 15 kW PB = 19.edu.

9 Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. (laiwai@uthm.102  34.my) .9  34.5 m EA = 83% EB = 78% PA = 15 kW PB = 19.8  33.8 m HB = 33.0473 m3/s Pump A Pump B HA = 26.edu.9 kW QT H A  HB  0.5  60.Given Q = 0.3 T    0.0473  60.8012  80.0473 m3 /s HT  HA  HB  26.3 m PT  PA  PB  15  19.12% K PA  PB  0.9 kW QT  QA  QB  0.

(laiwai@uthm.edu. Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.my) .

Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.edu.my) . (laiwai@uthm.

: a. The relation between model and prototype is classified into 3. Dynamic similarity . Kinematic similarity . c.prototype and model have identical shapes but differ in size. (laiwai@uthm.e.two systems have dynamic similarity if.edu. corresponding forces are in the same ratio in both. Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. b.6.my) . i.ratio of velocities at all corresponding points in flow are the same and involve length and time. Geometric similarity . in addition to dynamic similarity.7 Similitude for Pumps and Turbines Similarity laws help to interpret the results of model studies.

Non-functional structure such as dam can also be measured.tested in actual condition.my) . 2.not always smaller than the prototype. Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. 3.edu. . ship etc. Economical and easier to build.actual object/structure . . Performances of object/structure can be predicted. Advantages of Similarity 1.tested in laboratory and similar in real phenomenon.Scale Ratio Model (m) . Prototype (p) . where design of model can be reproduced many times to achieve the desired design.similar with object/structure required in certain scale ratio. (laiwai@uthm.g. e. hydraulic structures.

my) . (laiwai@uthm.edu. Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.

the basic repeating variables are the rotational speed N and pump diameter D.my) .edu. the similitude laws for head H. (laiwai@uthm. Therefore.Similarity in Pump In similarity relations. discharge Q and power P can be expressed as H Q P CH  2 2 CQ  CP  ND ND 3  N 3D 5 Applying similitude laws between model and prototype: Hm Hp 2 2  2 2 NmDm Np Dp Qm Qp  NmDm NpDp3 3 Pm Pp  m NmDm p Np3Dp5 3 5 Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.

N Q Specific speed Ns  3 H 4 where. (laiwai@uthm. Q in m3/s and H in m. Two homologous pumps have the same specific speed Ns. Thus between a geometric model and its prototype. N in rpm.my) . Nsm  Nsp Nm Qm Np Qp 3/ 4  Hm Hp 3 / 4 Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.edu.

edu. Pump A has an impeller with diameter 50 cm and discharges 0.4 m3/s of water under a net head of 50 m. and the specific speed if it is to discharge 0.my) . Determine the size of pump B.3 m3/s. (laiwai@uthm.Activity 6. net head.4 Two homologous pumps A and B are operating at the speed of 600 rpm. Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.

4 m3/s.edu.53   0.45432 HB  HA 2 2  50  2  2  41.4543 m  45.43 cm 3 600 0.4  and HA HB 2 2  2 2 NA DA NB DB NB2 DB2 6002 0.28 m NA DA 600 0. QB = 0. QA = 0.my) .3 m3/s From the law of similarity QA QB  NA DA3 NBDB3 1 1 N Q  DB   A B DA3     0. (laiwai@uthm.3 3   NB QA   600 0. HA = 50 m. DA = 50 cm.Given N = 600 rpm.5 Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.

Specific speed is N Q Ns  3 H 4 NB QB 600 0.3 NsB  3  3  20.4 NsA  3  3  20.edu. (laiwai@uthm.18  NsB H 4 A 50 4 Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.28 4 It can be shown that NA QA 600 0.my) .18 H 4 B 41.

my) .edu.Similarity in Turbine The characteristic relations between a turbine model and its prototype can be expressed as ND Q P CH  CQ  CP  H ND 3 N 3D 5 Applying similitude laws between model and prototype of turbine: NmDm NpDp  Hm Hp Qm Qp  3 NmDm NpDp3 Pm Pp 3 5  3 5 NmDm Np Dp Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. (laiwai@uthm.

N P Specific speed Ns  5 H 4 where. and H in m. (laiwai@uthm.my) . Thus between a geometric model and its prototype. Two homologous turbines have the same specific speed Ns. Nsm  Nsp Nm Pm Np Pp 5/ 4  5/ 4 Hm Hp Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.edu. P in kW. N in rpm.

Activity 6. calculate the rotational speed. power and discharge of the prototype when run under a head of 20 m. Find its specific speed? Assuming the overall efficiency of 0.5 A 1:5 model of water turbine develops 2 kW of power at 400 rpm under a head of 3 m.85 for both the model and prototype.my) . (laiwai@uthm.edu. Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.

(laiwai@uthm.my) .85.6   5  5 Pp  3 5 Pm        2  861.Given 1:5 model turbine.3 H 4 m 3 4 For prototype.edu.2 kW Nm Dm  400   1  Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.  = 0. Hp = 20 m Nm Pm 400 2 Nsm  5  5  143. NmDm NpDp  Hm Hp Dm Hp 1 20 Np  Nm  400    206.6 rpm Dp Hm 5 3 Pm Pp 3 5  3 5 NmDm Np Dp Np3 Dp5  3 206. Nm = 400 rpm. Pm = 2 kW. Hm = 3 m.

 pQpHp  1013.2 Power supplied by water Pi    1013. Np Pp 206. Nsp  5  5  143.2 Specific speed for prototype.2 kW at efficiency  = 0.164 m3 /s  pHp 9810  20 Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.2  10 3 1013.6 861. Po 861.edu. (laiwai@uthm.2  103 1013.2 kW  0.3  Nsm H 4 p 20 4 Power developed by prototype Pop  861.85.2  103 Qp    5.my) .85 Thus.

and power for a particular turbine under a head of 1 m assuming the same efficiency.my) . (a) Unit discharge Qu .edu. Q Qu  H Q1 Q Between 2 similar turbines. speed. (laiwai@uthm.the discharge of a turbine working under a unit head.Performance of Turbines under Unit Quantities The unit quantities give the discharge.  2 H1 H2 Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.

edu.my) .the speed of a turbine working under a unit head.(b) Unit speed Nu .the power developed by a turbine working under a unit head.  2 H1 H2 (c) Unit power Pu . 3  3 H 2 1 H 2 2 Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. (laiwai@uthm. N Nu  H N1 N Between 2 similar turbines. P Pu  3 H 2 P1 P2 Between 2 similar turbines.

discharge and brake power of the same turbine under a net head of 60 m in homologous conditions.6 A Francis turbine produces 6750 kW of power at 300 rpm under a net head of 45 m with an overall efficiency of 85%.Activity 6. Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.my) . Determine the revolution per-minute (rpm). (laiwai@uthm.edu.

edu.my) .77 m3 /s H1 45 Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.4 rpm H1 45 Po Pi  QH   Po 6750  1000 Q1    17. N1 = 300 rpm. (laiwai@uthm. H2 = 60 m N1 N2  H1 H2 H2 60 N2  N1  300  346.85  9810  45 Q1 Q  2 H1 H2 H2 60 Q2  Q1  17.  = 85%.99 m3 /s H 0.Given P1 = 6750 kW.99  20. H1 = 45 m.

P1 P2 3  3 H2 1 H2 2 3 3 H  P2  P1  2   6750     10392. (laiwai@uthm.my) .edu.3 kW 2 60 2  H1   45  Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.

Calculate (a) specific speed (b) normal speed under a head of 25 m (c) output under a head of 25 m Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. What are the functions of hydraulic pumps and turbines? Q2. Q3. (laiwai@uthm.Assignment #6 Q1. A turbine develops 8500 kW under a head of 18 m at 150 rpm. 0.my) .edu.5 m3/s of water is to be pumped to a total head of 250 m. How many pumps connected in series should be required if each pump has a specific speed of 35 and speed of 1500 rpm.

my) . Q5.Q4. Calculate the speed and head of a geometrically similar pump with impeller diameter of 300 mm which is required to deliver 700 L/s. P) of the turbine under a head of 20 m. The discharge is 10 m3/s. (laiwai@uthm.End of Question - Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al. determine the performance (N. Q. A centrifugal pump has an impeller of 200 mm with capacity 400 L/s at speed 1200 rpm against a head of 12 m.edu. . A turbine is to operate under a head of 28 m at 185 rpm. If the efficiency is 87%.

(laiwai@uthm.my) .edu.THANK YOU Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.

edu. Hartini Kasmin (hartini@uthm. Zarina Md Ali (zarinaa@uthm. Mohd Ariff Ahmad Nazri (ariffn@uthm.my) • Dr.edu. Tan Lai Wai (laiwai@uthm.edu. Siti Nazahiyah Rahmat (nazahiya@uthm. Lecturers • Dr.my) .edu.my) • Dr.my) • Dr. Mohd Adib Mohammad Razi (adib@uthm.edu.edu. Mohd.my) • Dr.edu.my) • Mdm.my) • Dr.my) Open Channel Hydraulics by Tan Lai Wai et al.edu. Shalahuddin Adnan (shalahudin@uthm. Noor Aliza Ahmad (aliza@uthm. (laiwai@uthm.my) • Mdm.edu.