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Switchgear Protection
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20.1. INTRODUCTION TO SWITCHGEAR
'SutitcLt,gean'' is a term which couers wid.e range of ecluipment as regan'd.s stritchirLg ottrl
interru,pting the cun'ents in power system d.uling normal and abnormo,l conditions. Coitrolling.
protecting, regulating and measuring instruments are also covered by switchgear. Switchgear in
general consists of su.titches, fuses, circuit breo.kers, isola.tors, r'elays, control po,nels, metering po.rt.els.
ligh.tning a.rrestors, cwrrent transfbrrrt,ers, potential h'ansformers etc.

20.2. TYPES OF FAULTS
In a power system, generally the following types of faults occur
1 . Over current 2. Under voltage
3. Unbalance 4. Reversed power
il 5. Surges
20.3. CIRCUITBREAKERS
'Cirr:uit brea,kers'a,re. mechanico,l d.euices designed to close or open contor.t mentbet's, tltrt-'
closing or opening an e.lectrical circuit ttnder norma,l or abnormal conditions.
A circuit breaker has fixed. and mouing corttorts. These contacts remain in contact wheuevet'
tlre circuit breaker is in normal operation. Whenever fauli occurs the contacts separate outrtz'sltltirtg
in, al'c behteen the e.lech'od.es. 'fhe prod.uction of arc not only d.elays the cun'ent interruptiotL l)t'ott?ss
bu.t it ct.lso genero,tes enortnou s he.n,t uthich tnoy ca.use damage to the system or the breaher llsr:fii Thus
th.e rrloin proble.m is to extingu,ish tlt e arc whenever it occurs is circuit breaker. The temperature of
arc may be as high as 6000"C.
Methods of arc extinction
Commonly used methods of o.rc extinction are :
l. High resistance inten'u.ption.
By increasing the effective resistance with time current can be reduced to a value insufficient
to maintain it. The arc resistance can be increased by
(i) Arc lengthening (ii) Aic cooling
(iii) Arc splitting (iu) Arc constraining.
2. Loul r e si s tanc e i nt ena,pti on.
Here, the arc resistance is kept low, in order to keep the arc enerry to a minimum. Thls'is
achieved by
(i) Cooling (ii) Gap lengthening
(iii) Blast effect.
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._---:----a 2. Primemover failure 2' Over speed 1 3" Over current 4. 5.. Field failure 6. under current and under power relay B 9.dden change in control quo. Over voltage I 5. ----"----------l= h -. the mdapurement is performed by a stationary circuit. Distance relay. Under-voltage.. 2 Sto. the cun'ent in a protected system in cose of ouer-cur.446 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (OBJECTT!'E TYPE) iWTTCIIGE Essential Elements of the Relays 3. Electrodynamic t. Overheating tran$ . 20.. Protection system used I The following protection systems are used : kV and 1. achiever Impedo. Ouer currentreloy respondsto increase in current.s to the change in the a. PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMERS this syt CommonFaults 1 The following faults usually occur in the transformers : overher 1.. Thermal relay 11... 8.. 1 Instantaneous relay is a quick operating relay . T T .1 l. Directional or reverse power t5rpe 6.. N tities. Induction type 6. Attracted armature type. Directional or reverse current type 5. . PROTECTION OF ALTERNATORS 5 Common Faults Following are some of the faults which can.. accomplishes a su. also called measuring element respond. 3. .]: According to operation time ..7.. A 1.ntity.definite-minimum time lag. Moving coil type 3.9. Inverse time lag r.o. PR Classification of Relays O' A.ncerela. t' eLalSgfu&g. According to operating characteristics classifrca 1..ntity such as closing of 3- the operative current circuit. Conh'ol element. 3 1 20... 3.8. as ouer-L Instantaneous 2. 7. Sauing element.10. Unbalancpd loading.pe 4. 20. Open circuits 2. Solenoid type 2. Balanced earth fault protection : 3. operating time less than 0. Definite time lag -t. Over voltage.8. Comparing element. current or over power relay 1-0.Inverse. 33 kv. serves to compare the antion of the actuating quantity on the rela"v Fo w ith a pr es elected. aPparal thatin 2O.y responds to vector difference between two or more similar electrical quan. Differential protection scheme 2.ctuati (ttil qu. 1- 3.. Differential relay 12.tic relay has no moving parts . The following points are worth noting about some relays : 3 Differential relo. occur in alternators : I 1.y operates when the impedance between relay pcint and fault point is below a A specified value. Sator inter-turn protection.2 sec. All the relays have the following three essential fundamental elements : (.atrl 4. the relayoperates'whenthe currentexceeds ! a preset level...

.. NET/TRAL EARTIIING These days.2ky and. this system ensures satisfactory relaying partial grading of the apparatus insulation. Methods of Neutral Earthing The following methods are employed to earth the neutral of the power system : l.. kV and 33 kV whel the power source capacit.". Insulation failure 4.een 2. usually confined to systems operating a tvoltagebeLou 2.. Buchholz's relay 3. as compared to isolated systems. 20. Resonance 6.. 3. due to rightning... External Causes These are mainly due to atmospheric conditions.2.aboue 33 kV. the majority of 3-phase systems operate with an earthred neutral.WITCHGEAR PROTECTION 447 3. Reo'ctance earthin&. Winding short circuits resulting from (a) inter-turn faults (ll) phase-to-phase faults (ili) earth faults. Earthing screen 3. 4. This system gives reliable service and greater safety to personnel and equipment. particularly under short-circuit conditions. Earth fault relay. . Sudden change in load 2. Surge absorbers. . PROTECTION AGAINST OVER VOLTAGI]S over voltages may be caused by conditions external or internal. earthing being ach ieved e ith er d i r e c t ly or thr ou gh :. i.rit" voltages due to which this system is not in corlrnon u. fhe devices used for protection ofelectrical equipment from surges or over voltages are known as ouer-uoltage prdection deuices. Aic suppression coil or Peterson coil earthing.' usually employed for the system operating Jt voltages beht. Maintenance and operating cost of such system.r.se. reduced interference to neighboiiog"o*-rrrrication as Jompared with. Its main drawbacl i"l""y higt transient over "i.. is less. Earth faults can be utilised to operate protective relays to isolate the fault. 5.. classification given below : A. B. Internal Causes l-.. Protection relays used For the protection of transformer following relays are used : l Over current relay 2. The voltage of healthy phases remains nearly constant. 2... Ground wire 2. Switching operation of an unloaded line 3.. usually confined to 'medium voltage overhead transmission lines which are connected to generating source through intervening po*"" transformers... '4.. to the system a convenient .. 20. Eliminatioo of p"1A|. Surge diverters or lightning arresters 4. 2.. Arcinggrounds 5.tu#*t* grounds (by the use of a suitable switch gear). Resistance earthin9. Sdlid earthiog..9. 10. exceeds 5000 kVA 3.e.n i mp-gfu ttgs" Aarl"ntfrF 1. Sudden opening of loaded line. these are enumerated below : 1. ". thatrin solidly earthed system..

Circuit breakers ft 5.. Choose the Correct Answen'. Fuses (r 7.11. from the 20. A for local disbi\ufion ind prouide aE far:iliti es for su. Current and potential transformers (( 9. Pmtective relays ( (. are made of T (b) open the circuit (o) copper tungsten alloy : (c) protect the appliance (b) porcelain ( (d) prevent excessive currents (c) electrolytic copper ofthe above (e) none (d) aluu:rinium alloy 20. 3. 1d) SFo l (d) A1l of the above 20. F c.0. (o Classifrcation: (c. Industrial substations (a 3. Outdoor substations (c (i) Pole mounted substations (ii) Foundation mounted substations.1e (d) his pungent small (c) Shunt trip (d) None of the above I (e) none ofthe above (e) All of the aborle I . Indoor t.12. SUBSTATIONS 20. red. 1 1.10. Power factor correction or sJmchronous substations (c 5. Indicati. T 2.esign 1.5.1.9.13.pe substations 20. The main function of a fuse is to 20. The arcing contacts in a circuit breaker 20. a circuit I 20. Power iransformers 8.1I. 1 (o) protect the line . With which of the following. Isolators 4.15.2. A. (c B. A 1.8. F: Functions (a (cl The main functions of substations an'e to receiue energy transrnitted at high uoltage gene. Conhol cables- 20.sating stations.CTRICAL ENGINEERING (OBJECTIVE S\\1rcHGEAR 20. Transformer substations 2. (I Equipment for Substations and Switehgear fnstallations (c The main equipment for substations and switchgear is given below: (r 1.14 I 2O.titching. According to d.uce the uoltoge to a ualue appropriote.3.: ( 2O.4.448 EII. Which of the following medium is are conducted ? employed for extinction of arc in air { (o) OiI circuii breakers gircuit breaker ? { (6) Air blast circuit breakers ia) Water (b) Oil I (c) Minimum oil circuit breakers (c) Air 20. According to serulce 20. On which of the following routine tests 20.7. SF6 gas breaker must be equipped for remote I (o) is yellow in colour operation ? I (6) is lighter than air (o) Inverse time trip I (c) is nontoxic (b) Time-delaytrip 20. Converting substations. Frequency changer substations 6. Switching substations (b 4. Load-intenupter switches 6. Main bus-bars 2.rg and meteringinstruments 10. ( ( oBJECTr\m TYPE QIrESTIONS ( A. Carrier-current equipment 12. Insulators 20.

18.TTCHGEAR PROTECTION 449 2O. An elficient and a well designed protec- (a) delayed (b) instantaneous tive relaying should have (c) both ofthe above (o) good selectivit5r and reliability (d) none of the above (b) economy and siurplicity 20. Burden of a protective relay is the Fower (c) many turns of thin wire (o) required .fi ..b (o) over currents (6) short duty (c) grounds (d) all of the above tr" ' (c) iniermittant duty 20.7. Thermal overload rylays are used to (d) deionizing the oil with forced air protect the motor against over eurrent {e) none ofthe above due to . \/ Air blast circuit breaker is used for (o) short-circuits (b) heavy loads .C.SV. the relay contacts should (alshort-circuit (L')temperature (a) have low contact resistance (c) overload (d) over voltage (t) be clean and smooth 20. reactance or impedance (d) transformers to isolate the two sys- (b) voltage and current tems (c) light intensity (e) any ofthe above (d) temperature 2O.2$.14.8.9...2L. The relay operating speed depen& upon (b) absorbed by the circuit of relay (a) the spring tension (c) developed by the relay circuit (6) thd rate of flux built up (d) none ofthe above . (b) sub-transient state of short-circuit age rise across the arc . D.. current 20. shunt relays are made of (c) high speed anJ selectivity (o) few turns of thin wire (d) all of the above (b) few turns of thick wire 20. trip (d) repeated duty action.. t5rpe. Circuitbreakers usually operate under (c) a resistance increasing with voltage (o) transient state ofshort-circuit cur- rise across the arc rent (d) a resistance decreasing with volt.. Overload relays are of . by (o) induction (b) solid state (a) lengthening of the gap (c) thermal (d) electromagnetic (6) cooling and blast effect (e) all above (c) both (o) and (b) 20. Thennal circuit breaker has (c) steady state of short-circuit current (a) delayed trip action (d) after D. component has ceased (t) instantaneous trip action 20... Athermal protecbion switch can protect causing excessive heating or voltage against drcp.4.11.a20. Relays can be designed to respond to (b) arc extinguishers changes i:e (c) circuits to break tfe system (a) resistance.19. 20..to operate the circuit (d) many turns of thick wire breaker 20. In order that current should flow without 20. in oil (e) all above and air blast circuitbreakers. Are i-n a circuit behaves as (c) be ofsuffrcient size and proper shape (a) a capacitive reactance (d\ have all above properties (b) an inductive r. is achieved 20.16. Circuit breakers are essentially (c) both ofthe above (a) current carrying contaets calleci elect- (d) none of the above rrodes 20.10.eactance 20.12. Magnbtil circuit breaker has .22.23.C.. Fault diverters are basically (c) armature core air gap (o) fuses (b) relays (d) all of the above (c) fast switches (d) circuit breakers 2A . The current zero interruption.15.13.

. .40..28. fuses provide best protection 1 by against "T'47' \7.i) none of the above 20.) irigh temperature (cr) overload (b) reverse current c'8' I {6) increase of mean free path (c)open-circuits (d)short-circuits . in modern normal conditions circuit breakers is (d) none ofthe above (a. Interruption oflarge currents by relay (a.L' .C.29" Protective rela. Shunt capacitance is neglected while I the wave that propagates on it is considering 20. In a eircuit breaker the basic problem 28. is to tor difference between (o) maintain the arc . (c) 0. 20. The time ofclosingthe cycle.'s sr.94.46.458 EI-ECTRICAL ENGINEERING (OBJECNVE.10 sec tacts afber opening ofthe circuit breaker (e) none ofthe above .35. 20. The voltage appearing across the corr. 29"24" Directinnal relays are based on flow of (c) increasing freld sbength 20. Wiren a transmission line is energized. I tL* {c.39.) merz price percentage differential requues protection (o) arc suppressing blow out coils 20.001 sec 20.ace (d) botli {6) and (c) (c) too low contact pressure (e) none of the atrove (d) all of the above 20"27.57. H.R. 20.43- (6) mho and ohm relays (b) wide separation of the opened con- (c) horn gaps and temperature relays tacts I (d) earth fault and positive sequence (c) high speed openingofcontacts I relays (d) all of the above I 20.C.)current during abnormal pondition t1' (b) lagging the arc current by 90" (b) voltage during abnormal condition (c) leading the arc cument by g0' 20. (cr.) recovely (6) surge circuit breakers is more than -t/. A transmission line is protected by tact born out is due to (o) inrush protection (o) slow making and breaking of load m"/aL (b) distance protection circuit contacts (c) time graded and current graded (b) foreign matter on the contait sur- over current protection f.36.38. The arc voltage produced in A.32.. iircuit abnorrnal conditions in electrical cir. Large internai faults are protected by 20. A differential relay measures the vec.33. (c) operating (d) arc (o) 1 mega ohms (b) 10 mega ohms (e) none ofthe above (c) tOO mega ohm* (d) 500 rrega ohms ?0. devices that detect 20.) 0.25. Ionization in circuit breaker is facilitated 9{}.45- (c) constantly the electrical quantities (d) none of the above which <iiffer during normal and ab. o breaker is always " cuits try measuring o4"' (o) in phase with the arc current (o.01 sec (d) 0.) power (L') current (d) all of the above (c) voltage wave (d) all of the atrove 20.o is cailed . TYPE) SWTTCI{GE.003 sec (b) 0. 20"30..31. (c) transmit large power : tities (d) ernit the ionizing electrons a (. (o) two cunents (6) two voltages (b) extinguish the arc \z. Overheating of relay contacts or con- 28"26.\ (c) two or rnore similar eiectrical quan.44 ' (rr) current wave only (o) short transmission line (6) voltage wave only (b) medium transmission line (c) both (cr) and (b) (c) long transmission line (d) power factor wave only (d) medium and long'transmission lines 20. Insulation resistance of high voltage 1L (a. voltage.?nAl..

44.. sion line and communication line is (o) SFe (b) bulk oil minimizedby (c) minimum oil (d) air break (o) transposing transmission as well as 20.. conduction and dis- 20. (c) extinguish the arc (o) less than (2.46.lue {' ig"i motors to over voltages ' 'bl power outlet circuits (b) insulation overstress may lead to rcl fluorescent lamps failure and subsequent phase to tC) light circuits phase faults 20-42. the fryes of (t') increasing the height of the trans- relays used are mission line tower (o) thermocouple (c) increasing the distance between the (b) electronic and bimetallic two lines (c) both (o) and (b) (d) all of the above (d) none ofthe above 20.3 kV and 11 kV (b) interception and conduction (d) none of the above (c) interception. In Railway applications . it suffers reflection several (o) power frequeneies times at ctk' (6) higher frequencies enteringgenera.45.47. The ground rvire should zol be srraller (c) eitherof the above than No. The main purpose of the oil is to tion and reflection (o) lubricate the contacts (e) nine ofthe above (b) insulate the contacts from switch 20. dissipa- oil.. the insula- body tion level of the station equipment... 20.48. The contacts of high voltage switches sipation used in power system are submerged in (d) interception.WAI. Ungrounded neutrai transmission sys- (c) 6 (d) 10 tern is not recommended because of sys.- (c) Oil circuit breaker (a\ zeto (b) infmiby (d) Air break circuit breaker (c) unity (e) None of the above (d) none of the above 20.43.... When a wave propagates on a trans- ....50.52..4O. communication lines ment handling low power. S\\:ITCHGEAR PROTECTION 451 2O. (c) being inadequately protected against pensive protection for overcurrent is ground fault low voltage system ? (d) all of the above (o) Rewireable fuse 24. \-2..w. The reflection co-eflicient at the open (b) Isolator circuited end of a transmission line . To protect most of the electrical equip.51. The interaction between a transrris- breaker is used.. conduction. copper.45.53.) same as (d) all of the above (c) more than (d) proportional to (e) none ofthe above (r) not directly related with 20. circuit 20. Resistance grounding is used for volt. -r/ Wave trap is used to trap waves of mission line. .\\'hich of the following is the least ex... (d) none of the above (a) 2 (b) 4 20. For the protection ofpower station build- age between inp against direct strokes the require- (o) 33 kV to 66 kV ments are (6) 11 kVto 33 kV (o) interception (c) 3. The delal'fuses are used for the protec. (o) tapping (b) load end tor or transforrrer units (c) sending end . .. tem rron ot (o) insulation being overstressed . The line insulation is .' .

) (d) None of tJre above times the A.C.. arrangeulent ly surge diverters (a) single bus (c) An impedance relay has maximum (b) double bus.C" network analyser is used to solve LiY' (o) Impedance (b) Reactance 20"73 problems oi (c) Either of the above (cl) load flow (d) None of the above (b) load flow and short-circuit 20. 2A.65.to 2 cycles tions are installed for voltages above so_7t 20. Short-circuit eurrents are due to (d) none of the above (c..68. (b) Shunt reactors are used as compen.. relays are used for phase faults on (c) impedance(d) all of the above V.. (o) reactors (6. For which of the following ratings of the (b) phase to phase faults transformer differential protection is (c) two phase to ground faults recommended ? 20-7 (d) three phase faults (o) above 30 kV4 (e) al^ry of these (b) equal to and above 5 MVA . To reduce short circuit fault currents all ofthe above (e) ...60. relay is preferred for phase fault on the switchgear short transmission line.8 x {f. Induction cup relay is operated due to (c) loose connection changes in (d) imputse voltage (o) current (b) voltage 20....54.55.64.. For which of the following protection (c) load flow and stability from negative-sequence currents is (d) load flow.) single phase to ground faults 20.6L.. Discrimination between rrain and back (o) 11kV (b) 33 kv up protection is provided by the use of {c) 60 kV (d 110 kv relays which are 20.6S. Which of the following statements is 20-69 (c) capacitors incorcect ? (d) none ofthe above (rz) Station batteries are used to operate reiay only 20. Whicle of the following statements is (c) Tlansmission line 20-i4 i ncorrect ? (d) Tlansformers io) Lightning arrestors are used bdfore 20. the outdoor substa of l.58. . (o) Induction type..nio long line.452 EIECTRICAL ENGINEERING (OBJECN\TE TYPE) S\\TTCH (d) sending and other end 20... are used. (b) The lightning arresters are basical. double breaker 20"?l! fault current when fault occurs near (c) main and transfer bus the reiay (d) all of the above (d) A higli speed relay has an operation 20.62" For cost and safety.. A.71 (d) The MVA at fault is equal to base (o) split-phase relays M'\rA divided try per unit equivalent (b) reactance relays fault reactance (c) impedauce relays 28.. component 20.n sation reactors (c) Impedance (c) The peak short current is (1..) resistors 2A.. .67..56. Distance relays are generally 20.66. The short circuit in rny winding of the (o) fact (t) sensitive transformer is the result of 20-72 (c) slow (o) mechanical vibration (d) none of the above (b) insulation failure 20.(b) Reactance 2{}. short-circuit and stability provided ? ofthe above (e) none (o) Generators (6) Motors 20..67. Bus coupler is very essential in .59.

The relay with inverse time charac..OTECTION 453 (c) equal to a-nd above 25 IIVA (t.82.75. What will be the reflection co-efficient iql generators (b) busbars ofthe wave ofload connected to trans- (c) transformers (d) motors mission line if surge impedance of the (e) all ofthe above line is equal to load ? 20.7i.t"c. -{ .72. The inverse definite mean time reia'ys (e) none ofthe above are used for over current and earth 20.8CI. Arc in a circuit breaker is interrupted.14.d to measure the stator (d) maximun-i voltage -rildine temperature of the generator.0. fhe under voltage relay can be used for 20.. Over voltage protection is recommended (d) three phase motors for 20.76..esistance thermometer (c) l.' r.) single phase motors only .ong j...ormer (c) low impedance (d) high impedance (&') generator transformer of the power 20. Series capacitors are used to (d) Oil circuit breakers (a) compensate for line inductive reac- 2A.81.71. Which of the following parameter can (n) l-00 micro-second be neglected for a short line ? (b) 50 milli-second (rz) Inductance (b) Capacitance (c) 0.. lhermometer (d) None of the above 20".S\\:ITCHGEAR PR. Series reactors should have for (o) low resistance (b) high resistance (o) distribution transf.. .73.69.sec (c) Resistance (d) Reactance 20"83.78.1.the above (c) minimum vcltage 20.5 sec (d) 0...75. Overfluxingprotection is recom:nended 20. 20. is :a=e. (a) Zera (b) Unity teristic will operate within (c) Infinity (o) 1. The single phasing relays are used for fault protection of transformer against the protection of (o) heaw loads (o. l r F-. Air blast circuit breakers for 400 kV (c) Step-down transformer power systern are designed to operate (d) Switchgear in 20. transmission line has re{lection co- tr i Lher-r0ocouple efficient as one. Which of the following circuit breakers plant has high reliabilif and minimum main. (b) internal short-circuits (6) two phase motors only (c) external short-circuits (c) two single phase motors running in (d) all of the above parallel 20. Which of the following devices will (o) hydro-electric generators (b) steam turbine generators receive voltage surge first travelling on (c) gas turbine generators the transmission line ? (d) all of the above (o) Lightning arresters (e) none ofthe above (b) Relays 20.-.meter (a) Open circuit (b) Short-circuit .84.) maximum current (dj none of. tance at (b) compensate for line capacitive reac- h) zero current tance .5 sec (L') 5 to 10 sec (d) None of the above (c) 5 to 20 sec (d) 20 ta 30 sec 20. (c) auto-transformer of the potver tenance ? piant (o) Air blast circuit breakers (d) station transformer of the power (b) Circuit breaker wiih SFe gas plant (c) Vacuum circuit breakers 20.

) transposition of the power line lcad (6) transposition of the communication (d) none of the above line 20. ascomparedto arewirable 20-lfr resistance fuse. On which of the following effects of (d) none of the above electric current a fuse operates ? 20. The power loss is an important factor 20. the VII ratio will be (c) VAR (d) kvA (a) constant for all distances 20.100. (c) generator (d) feeder (o) impedance (b) directional 2A.G (OBJECTTVE arpD SWTIC. If the fault occurs near the impedance (o) current (b) voltage relay.454 ELECTRICAL ENGINmRII.89. fuse.92. Admittance relay is . H. 20-1 (o.R. The steady state stability of the power (6) as a substitute for circuit breaker system can be increased by (c) always independent of the position 2{}.H (c) improve }ine voltage (o) transmission line (d) none of the above (t) motor 20..91.11 (o) connecting lines in parallel of circuit breaker (6) connecting lines in series (d) generally on both sides of a circuit (c) using machines of high impedance .pe (a) Photoelectric effect relay (shaded pole structure) is (b) Electrostatic effect (o) inversely prpportional to the curent (c) Heating effect (6) inversely proportional to the square (d) Magnetic effect ofthe current 20"97. short-circuit and over. The inductive interference between (o) overload power and communication line can be (b) short-circuit and overload minimized by (c) open circuit.98. has (c) high melting point and low specific (o) no -ageing effect (b) high speed ofoperation resistance (c) high rupturing capacit.88.. breaker (d) reducing the excitation of machines 20.10 20.99.87. The fuse blows offby (b) iower than that of if fault occurs (o) burning (b) arcing away frorn the relay (c) melting (c) higher than that of if fault occurs (d) none of the above away from the relay 20. The material used for fuse must have (c) either in series or in parallel with (o) low melting point and high specific circuit resistance (d) none ofthe above (6) low melting point and low specific 20.85. relay.93. An isolator is installed 20. Protection by fuses is generally not (c) both (o) and (6) used beyond (d) increasing the distance between the (o) 20 A (b) 50 A conductors (c) 100 A (d) 200 A 20. The torque produced in induction t..95.90.C. A fuse is never inserted in ztr-l for the design of (o) neutral wire .96.lfi 20..z (d) low melting point and any specific (d) all of the above resistance 20. The fuse rating is expressed in terms of 20. A fuse in a motor circuit provides m-1 (e) noneofthe above protection against 20...94.11 * (c) proportional to the current (o) to operate the 'relay of circuit (d) proportional to square ofthe current breaker 20.86. A fuse is connected 20-101 (c) non-directional (d) none of the above (o) in series with circuit (b) in parallel with circuit t 20.

R..C.) (d) Cartron tetrachloricie (b) switching an electrical circuit 20..117.1L4" The transieni voltage that appears (c) Conduction (d) AII of the above across the coniacts at the-instant ofarc 20. r all circuits (b) Sulphur hexafluoride 20.:.Lrrrents circuits (d) fault occurs with respect to earthing : l:m r-c.C.ltages circuits 20. are used.R. fuse is dissipated ? (d) Air-break circuit breaker (o) Radiation (L..) Therrnai relay (o) zero sequence currents only (c) Impedance relay (l-. Oil:-ritrhe: are employed for taneously -' . trVnich of the {'ollowing is used in liqrrid high loltages and large currents fuses ? :ircuits (o) Transformer oil .ST. fuses (d) reactors (o) tsuchleolz reiay 20"108. voltage. . (e) None of the above rents 20. under norrral condi- tions. circuits.C.C.11-1". only (d) alt of the above 20.105.109.aults occur sirnul- 20.C.107.:-"-r c. (cl) no current flow (a) supply (6) recovery (b) heawy current flow (c) voltage drop (d) voitage rise {c) restriking (d) peak 20.106.:.tr pha-_e lire (c) two or more f. is in- 'k* 28.C.1 16. circuit (o) fault occurs on the btls itself (. A su. The information io the circuit breaker 20. negative and positive sequence case of currents (o) overloads (6) open circuits 20. should be inspected (a) every day (6) ever.110. breaker portion of the heat generated in a (c) Tank type oii circuit hreaker H. circuit (b) fault occurs on neutral line r ..1L3.r week serted in (c) every month (a) negative circuit only (d) once in 6 months or 12 months (6) positive circuit only 20. A fuse urir:e possesses under fault conditions is provided by (cz)direct time characteristics (o) reiay (b) rewirable fuse (6) inverse tirne characteristics (c) either of the above (c) H. controlling and protect- (rJ) (c) SFe gas (d) any ofthe above ing the electrical circuit and equip- ment 20. in D.. In a coniactor.103.C. Abalanced 3-phase system consists of (8.) zero.101.R. Which of the follcwing circuit hreakers (c) both (o) and (b) has the lowest voitage range ? (d) either (cl) or (b) (o) SFe circuit breaker 20.:') posi'iwe of D.itchgear is device used for (c) Distilled water interrupting an electrical circuit i.104..) positive sequence currents only ' (d Electrourag:oetic attraction type (c) negative and zelo sequence cur. In a single bus-bar syste:n there will be (c) shqrt-circuits compiete shut down when (d) none of the at'ove . HGE-{R PROTECTION A<< (b) negative cf D. To limit short-circuit curent in a power (d) none ofthe above system . 20. By which of the following methods rnajor (6) Air'-biast circui'r. The fuse wire.. interrupting medirine (c) switching and controlling an electri.115.LL?. A sholt-circuit is identified by exiinction is called . fuses provide best protection in (d. Which of the following reiays is used for (rz) earth wires (6) isolators protection ofmotors againsi cverload ? (c) H.. A circuit breaker...f {J2. Fi.R. rnay be cal circuit (o) air (b) oil switching.) Convection 20.

In a circuit breaker the time duration electrical quantities from the instant of the fault to extinc.Lg2.122. In circuit breakers. Air used in air blast circuit breaker (c) connected in the pipe connecting (o) must be free from moisture main tank of transformer and con- (b) must have least CO2 servator (c) must be ionized (d) part of circuit breaker installed near (d) must have oil mist the transformer 2O. In the event of a fault on connected 20.197 (o) Operating mechanism (d) a resistance decreasing with volt- (t.120.. Minimum arcing voltage will be least 20. Which of the following circuit breakers cal quantities 20.124.rmmetrical fault ? (b) when the switch is put on (o) Phase-to-phase (c) when the line is to be checked 20.13S.1{} 2A.129. The pilot rela5r is provided to obtain ?CI.127..I1t...119. The total time for high speed breakers (c) manually through control switch in nearly (d) depends on the desrgn (o) five cycles (6) few cycles 20.l2L. 456 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (OBJECNVE TYPE) SWTII-T{ 20. (o) whenever fault in the line o"".135 (c) carbon (d) tungsten (b) oil has high dielectric strength I 20.128.118. a circuit breaker will operate l (d) none ofthe above (o) automatically (b) manually I 20.133.east arc enerry ? (6) algebraic difference between two (o) Air blast circuit breaker voltages (b) Minimum oil circuit breaker (c) algebraic difference between two (c) Plain oil circuit breaker cunents tr (d) None of the above (d) algebraic fifference between two 20. A differential rdlay responds to (d) Fixed and moving contacts (o) vector difference between two electri- 2A. Merz-Priee protection is irsed for (d) Three-phase short-circuit (o) alternators (e) None of the above (b) ghort trirnsmission lines . Which of the following is not a part of (b) a capacitive reactance the circuit breaker ? (c) infrnite resistance 20.13a will produce ttre l. (c) lag time (d) lead iime tank 24. A circuit breaker will normally operate 20. The rating of a circuit breaker is (o) high speed tripping generally determined on the basis of (o) line-toline fault current (b) delayed tripping (6) symmetrical fault current (c) preset tripping (c) single line to ground fault cument (d) none ofthe above (d) double line to ground fault current 20.131. .123.128.l:ffi (c) MVA (d) Mw circuit.."" 20. 20.) Conservator age rise across the arc (c) Explosion pot 20. An arc in a circuit behaves like (b) one cycle (d) half cycle (o) an inductive reactance 2A. Buchholz's relay is tion of arc is known as (o) installed inside the breaker (o) clearing time (b) operation time (b) located on the top of conservator 20. gives rise to s.125.L4tL (b) Single phase to ground (d) when the power is to be supplied (c) Double phase to ground 20. Breaking capacity of a circuit breaker (c) absorption ofarc enerry is usually expressed in terms of (d) all of the above l (o) volts (b) amperes 20. the advantage of in case of usingoil as quenchingmedium is (o) silver (6) graphite (o) oil acts as insulator 20..130.134..

.S\1'IrcHGEAR PRO]ECIION 457 (c) long traasmission lines ZO. during operation (d) None of.the above (d) a high resistance path between line 20. React:nce relays are used for phase (o) low cost fault in .. Thermal relays are often employed in (d) Reactance grounded neutral system (o) motor starters 20.. during operation ardous than lightning surges in case of 20. (b) higher softening terrperature (o) short (6) medium (c) low resistivit.151.140.137.LAS. Which system will need the lightning (o) unbala-nced systems arrester of least voltage rating ? (b) lowvoltages (o) Solid ground neutral system (c) 11 kV systems (b) Insulated neutral system (d) EHV and UHV systems (c) R.144.149. during operation 20. Least nuurber of faults are generally (d) Any of the above reported for 20. Which of the following protective devices (d) 1" 000 kV tr-:ansformers can be used against lightning surges ? 20.142.r (b) travelling waves 20. Basically a lightning amester is a (o) Lightning arrestors (a) surge diverter (b) surge alternator (b) Horn gap (c) surge reflector (d) surge absorber (c) Surge diverters 20. Switchrpg over voltages arc more haz- and ground.150.13-5.139. The material used for bus-bars should (d) air cooled h'ansformers have 20. Iine..148. The main factor in favour of the use of 20. The over-voltage surges in power sys- (o) transmission lines tems may be caused by (b) cables (o) resonance (b) switching (c) switchgears (d) transformers (c) lightning (d) any of thb above . Current limiting reactors may be (o) 5 kV (b) lL kv (o) air cooled air cored (c) 22kY (d) 33 kv (6) oil irrmersed magnetically shielded (e) normally no restriction of voltage (c) oil immersed non-magnetieally 20.. Surge modifiers are used to (c) electrostatically induced voltage due (o) modi& the shape of wave front to a charged cloud (b) reduce the steepness ofwave front (d) all of the above (c) reduce the current of wave front 20. The use of oil immersed reactors is (d) reduce the voltage of wave front generally restricted upto 20. A lightning arrester provides shielded (a) a low impedance path between line (d) any ofthe above and ground.L41.138.esistance grounded neutral sys. Buchholzrelay cannot be used on (b) transformer protection (cl) three phase transformers (c) generator protection (b) air cooled transformers (d) none of the above (c) 500 kV transformers 20.148. (e) none ofthe above tem 20.z (d) all of the above (c) Iong (d) all of the above 20.147" Which portion of transmission system (b) ahigh impedance pathbetween line is leasf prone to faults ? and groundo during operation (o) Alternators (b) Switchgear (c) a low resistance path between line (c) Overhead lines and ground. (o) low cost (b) low density tion against (c) low melting point (o) direct lightning stroke (d) high resistivit.136. An earth conductor provided on the top aluminium as bus-bar material is its of the transmission line provides protec.145.

53. SWITCIN 458 (c) deterioration of insulation 20.163..164' Reversed power (fault) occurs only in 20.. the fault by lilniting the cunent that can flow into it frosr 20. The reactors are employed to protect 20.. 20J72 contacts tibte to oxidation as compared to the (b) thermal emission from surface of remaining ? (o) Silver (b) Copper 20. 20.160.159.the above (a) material of contacts (b) increase of mean Path : 20.158.tTt current (c) simplified design earih fault protec- (b) equal to negative sequence current ticn (4 all of the above -{! (c) one-third ofnegative sequence clrr- rent 20..165.. The fault of '.168. The contact space in circuit breakers is (d) heaW current in neutral ionizedbY (o) field emission from the surface of 20.i. The positive sequence impedance of a gror:nds transrnission line is (t) over voltages due to lightning can (o) three ti:rres the negative sequence be discharged to earth 20.. The advantage ofneutralearthing is 20. current occurs mainly 20"169... Broadly speaking switchgear is of two 20.178 (e) none of. Fill in ttre blanks/Say Yes' or'No' : 20. A surge neay be considered as high voit- age of very high frequency' (Yes['{o) 20. The apparatus including its associated shori-circuits beeause of 20. Which fuse material is more suscep.157' Outdoor switchgear is generally used for voltage beYond 20.167..1..155. is a coii designed 20...1?0..162. In a power sy$em under voltage (fault) 20. The most seriorls result of a major un-..176 (o) freedom from persistent arcing 20. The breaking capacity of a 3-phase cir."'type and (ii) """typt' inductive its ohmic resistance...181 A . (c) increase of field strength cleared short-circuit fault could be (d) high teneperature of surrounding (o) blowing offof fuse medium 20.. (o) 11kV (b) 33 kv cuit breaker is given bY (c) 66 kV (d) 132 kv (o) y'5 x x rated service voltage sSzm- eunent 20.173 contacts (c) thermal ionization of gas (c) Tin lead alloY (d) anY ofthe above 20.166.54.."' rating' corona effect and sometimes due to 20.1?g (b) fire ts. SF6 gas is transPorted in sretrical (o) air cylinders (b) gas cylinders (b) 3 x service voltage x rated sSrm- (c) Iiquid form in cYlinders 2s:175 metrical curuent (d) solid form in boxes (c) 2 x service voltage x rated sSrm- (e) none ofthe above metrical current (d) none of the ahove 20. In a circuit breaker ionisation is not (d) alwaYs zero facilitated bY 20. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (OBJECTTVE TYPE) .. The reactors .171 20.156.... due to short-circuit or leakage due to the circuit breakers of .1& .I74 20. sYsterrs' other healthY Parts of the sYstem.. The use of open fipe reactors is limit'ed to 5 kV..161.. with reactance in comparison tlryes : (i) .152. (YesA{o) overload on the suPPlY sYstem' .1S occurs either auxiliaries employed for controlling' ori" voltage drop in lines and srachines regulating or switching on or off the more or on failure of alternator's field' electrical circuits in the elechical power (YesNo) sYstem is known as """ to have a large 20.

current relay butdash pot makes it.183....... above 10 kV. S\\ITCHGEAR PROTEC]TON 459 20... (Yes/No) a protective device to the flow of an 20....198.. oil immersed tlpe reactors are used for 20. The conductivif.199. (Yes/1. 20.. resistance method of extinguiehing over currgnt relay. ?O. does notclete- kV..173...200. .|i.186.174..tgg.. 181.I87.. operated switch..{o) ly.189. An . A relay which operates faster as cur- connected to the common bus-bar rent increases is said to have .17L...y of . Discharge resistor is placed across relay contacts to avoid .. arc is applicable only to AC.. In a tie-bar system the generators are 2O. be oiled because known as . making or current breaking capacit.r. 20......{o) after current reaches a particular value 20:175. current is defined as the minimum series with each generator the reactors value of current at which the fuse ele- are'L-orvn as . areas.. 20.. are fed frour the generator side of the 20.. 20.1?6. ... Tripping relays are slow and generally excessive current through the circuit...C. \\'hen the reactors are connected in 20.201...tgL.... closing or opening an electrical circuit under normal or abnormal conditions.'1..r and low and medium power industrial z0. gone out at a cunent zero.r'e 33 (Yes. Low voltage air circuit breakers are 20. (Yes/No) distribution schemes.184. A.197... 20... .... Distance relay is used where time lag and is inserted in an electric circuit as can be permitted. Frequency relays are used in generator -(YesN'o) 29.. cha- through the reactors but the feeders racteristics... is used in an electric circuit as a is called time delay over current relay..l7S. (YesA. the reactors are 20. of material having low melting point 20.. where circuit 20. \\'hen the reactors are inserted in 20.. Solenoid reiay is an instantaneous over type air circuit breakers. " Oil . reactors.... prevents one eet of contacts from which resistance is kept low and arc ie closing while other set of contacts is prevented from restriking after it has cloeed. circuits in 2O. Jhe damage caused by surge depends breakeqs are employed in outlying on . reactors. (YesA{o) 20.... resistance method of extinguishing thern causing their pitting and burn- . jumping across 20. voltages abo.... thus called .180.77.. An isolator is always operated normal- circuits. . During the arcing period the voltage preesed air. employed in D.....A{o) riorate with oxidation.. A relay which operates immediately on current reaching a particular value is close or open contact members. are mechanical devices designed to 20.....185..Lg2... (upto and including 600 V) 20. Air circuit breakers are used for voltage voltage. doee not have any current designed for ua€ on D... A relay which operates'with a time lag reactors.C.I7 8.. circuit and low .. this causes overheating. Non-linear resistors are used in lighh- "ircuit in unattended subetationg and nrral ing resistors. 20...188. series rvith the feeder. 20. (Yes/No) .t72.... 20.196... Air blast circuit breaker uses dr5r com- 2O..182. A relay is an ..lg4..190.. ment or fuse wire melts. attractingarrnaturetSrye. .. circuit breakers ^r"is itrg.195.. ... (Yes/No) across the contacts is known as . is a wire of short length or thin strip protection.. voltage AC. device for makingorbreaking an electric (YesA{o) circuit in a convenient way. are increasing$ employed 24. .. over current relay.. of the wave frout. Silver contacts .. (YesA{o) 20.

'. 20. Current breakers are generally over- (Yes/l'[o) 'the instant of arc initiation to the ins- hauledeverythreeyears.11..226...1.. relaY. protective gear.2:15.91.C. A Buchholz relay is a form of . 20.....96. corresponding to the r'm... capacity of a fuse is the rating 2fi. feeders.. 20.. 20...210.. ..44 20. In ..221.. By placing a fuse in Parallel witb an 20.219. gteater than .. disconnection for . time lag relay' 20. The hotrding ratio of a relay is usually 20...66. The time interrralbetween occurance of .203.51. A.204. 20...'.240. bushing or cable cotttection faults' 20.".. 20. A directional relaY senses "...216..'.. phase or magnitude difference between ferential protection.. cuitbreakers to prove the ratings ofthe circuit-breaker.219... The maximum value to which the fault current reaches before the fuse melts is 20. tion and abnormal coqdition. Almost auY tYPe of relaY.. because it provides 20. pective current and the system voltage' 20. Inductiou type reverae power relays are 2A.. is known as . : known as.2W...s.209. The value of fusing factor is always fault... relay is pr'actically universally 20.56- (Yes/l{o) iaults arrd does not respond to ex+ernal 20. 20. Selectivity is the property by virtue of aCI.Buchholz relay is used in connection 28..247..1L more than one.. ing torque is given bY '. 20.224.'..?Ji.. with solid grounding. (Yes/I{o) breakers. when con. component of the maximum pros. 16u-d wire the approximate value nected in aparticularway. po. Alarm relays initiate .. Arcing ground is also kriown as """ 20. t 20.. (Yes. relayg the operation depends kno*n as breaker time' (Yes/l{o) upon the ratio of the voltage to the of the alternators are provided current. (YesA{o) 20. Arcing contacts of circuit breakers are instantaneous or definite time lagrelay 20.C.. .. The time interval between closure of 20. factor' profeetion. canbe made " of fusing cturent is given by : f = """ to operate as '. SWITCHGE ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (OBJECNVE TYPD 460 20. Short-circuit tests are conducted on cir. distinguishes between normal coodi. (Yes/t'Io) 2A.215.. (YesA{o) 2t.214. relay' 20.s1.231. 2A.224...221. Trip ci:rcuit is normally a of current becomes zero.101. Loss of excitation mey cause a gene..217. Protection' A. (YesA{o} with some forms of electrically operated 20.2#- 20"225.208. rator to run as induction generator' lrotection only against . part circuit tant ofarc being extinguished or the arc 2s.8S.2r.7L which the protective relaying system very suitable for protection of """ 20.16. Core balance current trqnsformers are voltage assume specified phase dis- used for . 20... Choo placement and uo compensation is al- 20.31. 2$.222.. relay operates when some specified 20..'t'Io) . (YesA'{o) .'..78.218...23l. internal 20. Tlanslay relays )re employeil for feeder and the current rating of fuse element 20. In oil circuit breakers transformer oil is lowed for fall in voltage. l occurs.282. A . 20.230.. of r generally made coPPer tungsten (YesA'{o) it ean be made as .A. Arcing-ti:cne is the tiure accountedfrom 20.205. 2G. The ratio of minimurn fusing current 20. (Yes/No) havingratingmore than 750 kVA 2036.. (YesA{o) 20. t used.. 20. current.2s9. (Yes/f[o) 20.'. 20. Most with Buchholz relay in addition to dif.236.. Atl A...228. In electromagnetic relays the restrain. 2A. I the two or more electrical quantities 20.. power systerns of today operate used ou all oil irnrnersed transformers 20. 20.2L2. Isolators are mainly used for providing called the .229. Directional or reverse power relay operates when the applied current ntd 20"211. "ttoy.237" 2A.225. 20. .239... trip eircuit and final arc interruption is 20.81.202.6.. value of the i fault and closure of relay contacts is A. 20..

(c) 20.. (o) 20. (b) 20.1.e8. in operation than 24. (a\ 2A.94. protection operating on the principle of 28.25.75.25. . protection is now widely used on A. (c) 20. used 20. (a) 2o.7O.26... The grounding is generally at the ..85. less the air gap ... to) 20. (d) 2AJ7.53" (d) 2O.67. (a) 20.74. (c) 20.92.95.15.83.75.C.91. In a shunt relay. (d) 20.45.21. (d) 20. {a) 20.I.2O. A.55.. Reverse power protection system is circuitedphase' (YesA{o) employedin interconnected system for 20. (c) 20.60. Phase fault is line-to-line fault. (d) 20.20.(d) 20. S\\'iTCHGEAR PROTECTION 461 24. Power factor of an arc is.s3. (c) 20. Kiosik is an indoor grye switchgear. (c) 20. (e) 20. Choose the Correct Answer.84.90.1"8.58. (o) 20. (c) 20. \at 20.11" (e) 24.246.71.. tem causes a fall in current in the short- 20. Isolators operate under no-load condi- used for protection cf any equipment or tions. (b) 20.57. (a) 2o.To) ANSWER..247.. (d\ 24. (b) 20. (c) 20. (6r) 20. (c) 24. pose of protection against transfor'met 2O. (o) 20. (c) 20. A sudden short-circuit in an A..24. (c) 2A.86..5. (e) 20.68.38. (a) 20. Over-load protection system can be 20.. (a) 20. (o) 20.. used for stator winding faults is . (a) 20. (b\ 24.4!. relay is called .Z4g. 20. large rating transformers for the pur. (d) 2O.96. (bt 20. (c) 2A. sys- determined one. (c) zA. (c) 20.. (d) 20. relays are .65. (o) 20.S ( Switchgear Prcotection) 'J.80. 20.C.82. (b) 20"63.64. (d) 20. (YesA{o) line against the current . (d) 20..100. (c) 20.50.87.46.77. (b) 28.36. (d) 20. (b) 20. 20.10.32... (A 20.8.62.S'.2O.88. (e) 20"52.99..236" The most conunon form of protection 20.. (d) 20. (b) 20.39..1(X..13.73.81.66.47. (c) 20.tO2..{o) faults of lowvoltage winding.. to provide protection against earth (Yes/I.19.78.G1.42. (a) 24. generating units or stations.5C.248. (a) 20. 20. (c) 20.97.. (b) 20. (d) 20. willbevoltagetooperatetheconductor. (c) 30.tr03..30.6.16. Arcing ground is also known as earth. (cr) 20. (o) 20. (c) 20.5$.241. (b) . differential circulating current protec. (1.. 20. (YesA. (d) 2O. (b) 2O.C.12..245" Movable member of iron circuit of a internal faults.35.1O1. (b) 20.. (6) 20.9.s4.244. (a) 20. (d) 2A.. (b) 20. (d) 20.29" (c) 20.105..43.O{o) a ll tion' 20.40. (b) 20. (d) 20.31.18. (c) 20. (d) 20. (d) 20.3. than pre.243..89. (b) 20.93" (d) 20.7. (yes.. (a) 20... (d) 20... (a) I 20.2"!. (e) 20. Core-balance leakage protection i.2. (c) 24"4. D. (c) 2A..49. (a) 20. (o) 2o.. (c\ 20.Io) (YesA. ({t) 24.14. (a) 2O.72. (c) 2O.. (a) 2&"28. (a\ 20. (a) 24. (Yes/I'[o) end.64.22.44. relays. (b) 20.5L.237.240.242. (d) 20. (d\ 20.239.238.250.48. (c) 20..69.