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CHEMISTRY OF REACTION

Cyanopyridine is manufactured by vapor phase catalytic ammoxidation reaction
which is exothermic in nature. Three types of Cyanopyridine can be manufactured
depending upon the type of starting reactant selected viz. 2-Cyanopyridine, 3-
Cyanopyridie, 4-Cyanopyridine.

1. 2-Cyanopyridine: Reaction of 2-Picoline (Alpha Picoline), Ammonia and Air.
2. 3-Cyanopyridine: Reaction of 3-Picoline (Beta Picoline), Ammonia and Air.
3. 4-Cyanopyridine: Reaction of 4-Picoline (Gamma Picoline), Ammonia and Air.

Theoretical Reaction for 2, 3 and 4-Cyanopyridine is as follows:

1. Alpha Cyanopyridine OR 2-Cyanopyridine:

2 + 2NH3 + 3O2  + 6 H 2O

CH3 CN
N N
- PICOLINE AMMONIA AIR 2 - CYANOPYRIDINE WATER

2. Beta Cyanopyridine OR 3-Cyanopyridine:

CH3 CN

2 + 2NH3 + 3O2  + 6 H 2O

N N
β - PICOLINE AMMONIA AIR 3 - CYANOPYRIDINE WATER

3. Gamma Cyanopyridine OR 4-Cyanopyridine:

CH3 CN

2 + 2NH3 + 3O2  + 6 H 2O

N N
γ - PICOLINE AMMONIA AIR 4 - CYANOPYRIDINE WATER

The reaction is carried out at about 350° C.i. 2 C5H4NCH3 + 2 NH3 + 3 O2  2 C5H4NCN + 6 H 2O 186 34 96  208 108 The catalyst used in the reaction is V 2O5 based catalyst. .e.