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A4:FRICTION

COEFFICIENT OF STATIC FRICTION

Apparatus R

Wooden block A with a hook attached, a plane C piece of wood B with a grooved wheel C at one end, scale-
pan S, light string, weights,
B boxes of weights, spring balance.
F
Method
S
Weigh the block A and the scale-pan S on the spring balance. Attach the scale-pan to the hook of A by light
string passing round the wheel C. Mark the position of A on the board B with pencil. Then gently add
increasing weights to S until A just begins to slide. Record the total weight in S. Now increase the reaction
of B by placing a known weight on A and by adding increasing weights to S until A just begins to slide.
Record the total weight in S. Now increase the reaction of B by placing a known weight on A and by adding
increasing weights to S again record the total weight in S when A begins to slip. Repeat for two more
increasing weights on A, returning the block A to its original place on B each time.

Measurements

Weight of scale-pan = …N
Weight of block A =… N
Normal reaction, R/N Weight in scale-pan on Limiting frictional force,
slipping /N F/N

Calculation

The limiting frictional force, F = weight in scale-pan when A slips + weight of scale-pan.
Normal reaction, R = weight of A + other weights on A.
Graph
Plot F v.R (Fig.8b)
The gradient a/b = μ = …
a
Conclusion
F
The coefficient of static friction between block and plane at the place concerned is …
b

Errors and order of accuracy
Draw the lines with the least and greatest slopes, which
R just agree with the plotted points. Find the error in μ
from the variation in slope.

1. COEFFICIENT OF DYNAMIC FRICTION

Apparatus
As before
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Method
With the apparatus shown in Fig.8a, place a weight on S and give A a slight push towards C. Add increasing
weights to S, giving A a slight push each time. At some stage, A will be found to continue moving with a
steady, small velocity. Record the corresponding weight in the scale-pan S. Now increase the reaction of B
by adding weights to A and repeat. Repeat for two more weights on A, returning the block to its original
place in B each time.

Measurements

Weight of scale-pan = … N
Weight of block A = … N

Normal reaction, R/N Weight in scale-pan on Frictional force, F’/N
moving A/N

Calculation

The frictional force, F’ = weight in scale-pan when A moves + weight of pan.
Normal reaction, R = weight of A + other weights on A

Graph

Plot F’ v.R (Fig. 8c)
The gradient, a/b = μ’= …

Fig. 8c F
Conclusion
The coefficient of dynamic friction is …

Errors and order of accuracy: a
As before. b

HARMONIC MOTION-A7 R

Introduction:
If an object is strained and released (or if an impulse is delivered), it will oscillate periodically about
its equilibrium or rest position. Examples of such objects are a saw blade clamped at one end, a mass
attached to a spring, a mass attached to a rod (torsional oscillations), musical string instrument; drum head,
spider’s web, eardrum, and a car body (oscillates vertically on its springs).
If during the oscillation, the elastic restoring force has a magnitude, which is proportional to the
displacement from the equilibrium position and a direction such as to restore the object to that equilibrium
position, then the motion is simple harmonic.
In this exercise you are going to perform a set of experiments to illustrate simple harmonic motion
using a spiral spring.

Apparatus
Spiral spring to which a light pointer is attached by plasticine at its lower end, rigid stand and clamp, meter
rule, scale pan and weights, stop watch.

a) To find the spring constant
If a spring is stretched a distance x which is not too large then the Hooke’s law states that the spring exerts a
force F which is proportional to x:
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F = -kx………(1)
Where k is the force constant of the spring.

Method
The spring, with scale pan attached, is firmly clamped and the meter scale placed vertically so that the
pointer moves slightly over it (Fig 1). Place weights on the scale pan and measure the stretch produced in
each case. The scale readings are also taken when unloading the spring and the mean stretch thus obtained.
Loads less than 1kg should be used as more may permanently deform the spring. Plot the magnitude of the
spring force (load) versus the stretch of the spring.

Fig.1
Question 1:
Is your graph describable by Hooke’s law? If so, determine the spring constant k.

Question 2:
Does your graph pass through the origin? If not, explain why.

Question 3:
From your graph what is the change in elastic potential energy of the spring when the load is increased from
0.5kg to 0.7kg?

b) To determine the acceleration of gravity (g) and the effective mass if the
spring
Theory:
If a mass m is attached to a spring and the spring is extended by a further distance x a restoring force
kx is called into play. The spring on being released executes vertical oscillations the motion of the mass
being

Md2x/dt2 = -kx
i.e. d2x/dt2 + kx/M =0…. (2)

The motion is thus simple harmonic with periodic time T given by

T = 2π√ M/k…(3)

The above analysis assumes the spring to be weightless. In practice the spring has a mass and therefore a
correction has to be made to equation (3) to include the ‘effective’ mass of the spring.

Method:
A load is added to the pan, which is set in vertical vibration by giving it a small additional displacement. The
periodic time T is obtained by timing 20 oscillations. Repeat the experiment with different loads. Plot a
graph of T2 versus load and then find the values of g and m from it. Note that the mass of the scale-pan
should be included in the load in this experiment. Experimental errors must also be included.

Question 4:
Weigh the spring using a balance. What would you expect the effective mass of the spring to be using this
measured value? Compare it with the one obtained from the graph.

Question 5:
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What is the percent discrepancy between your value of g and the expected value?

Damped Simple harmonic motion:
Theory:
For a real mechanical system the amplitude decreases with time and the motion is called damped simple
harmonic. The decrease in amplitude is due to friction and the energy of oscillations eventually dissipated as
thermal energy. The damping force is often proportional to the velocity of the mass but in the opposite
direction. Newton’s second law applied to the oscillator yields the equation of motion for the mass M:

F = -kx – bdx/dt = Md2x/dt2
So that, d2x/dt2 + b/M X dx/dt + kx/M = 0 …(5)
Where b is a positive constant, called the damping constant (Fig.2)
For a lightly damped harmonic oscillator the equation of motion is given by

X (t) = Ao e-bt/2M cos (ωt - Φ)…(6)
Where the periodic of oscillation is given by

T = 2π/W =2π ……(7)
√ (k/m – (b/2M) 2)
-bt/2M
Amplitude is A = Aoe …(8)

Method
Hang a medium size mass from the spring. Displace the mass from its equilibrium position by a
fairly large amount but do not exceed the linear portion of the spring. Release the mass and simultaneously
start the timer, then measure the amplitude and the time for after every 10 complete oscillations. Obtain 10
or more measurements and be sure to keep the timer running; hence you will measure amplitude as a
function of time.
Using equation (8) plot a suitable graph connecting amplitude and time such that a straight line
would be expected.
Calculate the damping constant b from your graph.
Note
Remember to include the effective mass of the spring. If the scale pan was used include its mass in the load.

Question 6:
From equation (7) calculate T’ and its error.

Question 7:
In exp 5.1 it was assumed that damping was absent or at worst negligible. Obtain from the results of that
experiment the value for the period corresponding to the mass that was used in exp 5.3. Call it Texp
(experimental period). Now, calculate the theoretical periods T and T’ from equations (3) and (7)
respectively.
Compare the values of Texp, T and T’. Which theoretical period, T or T’, yields the smaller percent
discrepancy?

Question 8:
K
What is the percent discrepancy between T and T’. Is damping important with regard to the period?

Fluid

Fs V
Fd
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H18: HEAT CAPACITY OF METAL BLOCK & SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF OIL BY
MIXTURES
i. HEAT CAPACITY OF A METAL BLOCK
ii. SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF OIL, BY MIXTURES

APPARATUS
Large mass of metal (about 0.2kg) A, beaker B, copper calorimeter C in insulating jacket D, copper stirrer E,
tripod, gauze, burner, chemical balance, weights, oil (e .g paraffin or castrolite), thread, stop-watch,
thermometer 0-100oC
E
E
i. HEAT CAPACITY OF METAL
C
METHOD D
A
Fill the beaker B with some water, place the metal A inside it, and boil the water, meanwhile, weigh the
calorimeter and stirrer, fill it a bout one-half with tap water, and re-weigh. Take the temperature of the water
in the calorimeter. Take the temperature of the boiling water, and then quickly transfer metal A to the water
in the calorimeter C. Observe the water temperature every 10s until it reaches a maximum and then drops
several heat
degrees below the maximum reached.

MEASUREMENTS
Mass of calorimeter + stirrer m1 (c1 =… Jkg-1K-1) =…kg
Mass of calorimeter + stirrer + water m1 + mass of A =…kg
Initial water temperature t1 =…0C
Final temperature observed =…0C
Final temperature, corrected for cooling t2 =…0C
Temperature of boiling water t =…0C

COOLING CORRECTION
This may be obtained by a graphical method, as explained 0n p. 49. An alternative method is as follows:
Suppose it took a time x for the water to reach its final temperature when the hot metal was dropped in; then,
approximately, the cooling correction is the temperature drop from the maximum temperature in a time x/2.
Since a metal is a good conductor, it gives up its heat quickly, and the cooling correction may therefore be
negligible.

CALCULATION
Heat lost by metal = Heat gained by water and calorimeter + stirrer. If C is the heat capacity of the metal and
m the mass of water of specific heat capacity
Cw(=4200Jkg-1K-1), then

CONCLUSION

The heat capacity of the metal was…JK-1

ERRORS
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1. Heat lost by the hot metal on transferring it to the calorimeter;
2. Some hot water is carried over with the metal;
3. Observations of the temperature (e. g. 16.4+ 0.20c) and mass (e. g 194+ 194.6+ 0.1 x 10-3kg )

ORDER OF ACCURACY

ii. SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF OIL

METHOD

Add some water to the beaker, place the metal A inside it, and heat the water until it boils. Meanwhile weigh
the calorimeter, fill it about one-half with the oil, and re-weigh. Observe the oil temperature. Take the
temperature of the boiling water, and then quickly transfer A to the oil. Observe the time taken for the oil to
reach its maximum temperature, and then find the temperature drop c, in half this time. This is the cooling
correction

MEASUREMENTS

Mass of calorimeter m1+ stirer (c1 =…Jkg-1K-1) =…kg
Mass of calorimeter + oil m1 + stirrer +Mass of A =…kg
Initial oil temperature t1 =…0C
Final temperature, corrected for cooling t2 =…0C
Temperature of boiling water t =…0C
Heat capacity of metal (C) ~ from previous experiment =…JK-1

CALCULATION

Heat loss by metal = Heat gained by oil and calorimeter. If c is the oil’s specific heat capacity and m is the
mass of the oil, then with m and m1 in kg, calculate c from

H x (t-t1) = (mc + m1c1) (t2 – t1)

CONCLUSION

T he specific heat capacity of the oil was…Jkg-1K-1

ERRORS AND ORDER OF ACCURACY

M2:MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE TENSION OF WATER BY CAPILLARY
TUBE

M
A
C

P B
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Apparatus

Capillary tube A, traveling microscope M, beaker B, cork C with pin P, clamps and stand, thermometer, file
for cutting capillary tube.

Method

Do the experiment in a well-lit place for example near a window. Clean the capillary tube A with some dilute
caustic soda and wash out repeatedly with distilled water. Fill the beaker B with water and measure its
temperature. Now push the capillary tube A into the water so that the inside is wet then raise the capillary
tube so that the water inside reaches a level higher than the outside level of water in B, check that the level
falls back to a constant position after being drawn up the tube and fix the tube in a clamp. Push the pin P
through the cork C, place the cork in a clamp as shown and arrange the tip of the pin to just touch the water
surface in B well away from the tube. This can be done accurately by means of the image of P in the water.
Now focus the traveling microscope M on the meniscus, which is seen inverted in M. If there is any
difficulty in focusing M, hold a piece of paper on the glass at A and focus M on the paper first as a guide.
Read the traveling microscope. Mark the position of the meniscus A on the capillary tube with a pen or
sellotape. Now carefully remove the capillary tube from B, then remove B, and focus the microscope on the
tip of P; read the microscope vernier.
With the aid of a file, cut through the capillary tube at the position of the meniscus A. Measure two
diameters at right angles at A by means of the travelling microscope.

Measurements

Temperature of water =…oC
Diameter of capillary tube at A =…mm
Height of water column h =…mm= …m
Average radius of capillary tube r =…mm= …m

For water,
γ = rhρg =…Nm-1
2
Where h and l are in m, ρ is 1000kgm-3 and g = 9.8ms-2

Conclusion

The surface tension of water at…oC was…Nm-1

Errors

The error in the capillary rise h is due to
i. Errors in the two vernier readings
ii. Error in setting the cross wires on the meniscus or pin
iii. Error in setting the pin at the water surface. Similar errors to (i) and (ii) occur in measuring the radius.

Order of accuracy

From the formula for γ in terms of measured quantities,

Max % error in γ = (δh /h + δr/r) +100%
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Note

The mean radius r of the capillary tube can be found by measuring the length l and mass m of a mercury
thread drawn into it. The radius r in the surface tension formula however is the radius of the tube at the
meniscus and not the mean radius.

PRECISION MEASUREMENTS- A1
Objectives:
To study some of the instruments and methods used in precision measurements , and to compute the volume and density of various items.

Apparatus:
Metre rule, vernier calipers ,micrometer screw gauge ,electronic balance and traveling microscope .Such items as copper cylinder , steel ball and glass capillary tube are

also supplied.
METHOD:

The experiment comprises e measurement of the various objects supplied with the appropriate instruments. Where feasible, at least two instruments should be used for
each measurement and the precision obtained in each case compared. In this way, the volume and density of atleast two metal objects weighings should be done on the

electronic balance.
In the second part of the experiment, some electrical circuits have been set up for you to measure the current. Measure the current using an ammeter, a milliammeter and a

microammeter, and estimate the reading errors in each case.
N.B. in all cases an estimate of the precision obtained should be, i.e. note the reading errors on all measurements. Where appropriate note the zero error.

Record the data in work sheet 1,working out any calculations asked for. Answer the questions posed on the sheet.

WORKSHEET 1

N.B. You must include in the table the units of any measurements you take.

MEASURING INSTRUMENTS
ITEMS

Meter Vernier Micrometer Balance Milli Travelling
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rule calipers Screw Gauge Ammeter Microscope

Ammeter Voltmeter

Zero error

Copper cylinder:

height

Diameter (external)

Diameter (internal)

Steel Ball: Diameter

Copper wire: length

Diameter

glass rod:
diameter

length

Current

external diameter using T. microscope

Analysis :

volume Density of the material

Copper cylinder:
Internal volume

External volume

Steel bar

Capillary tube
Internal volume

External volume

Calculation of voltage:

Instrument Value of Calculated RESISTANCE V= IR

Resistances

From Ammeter

From Milli-Ammeter

From micro Ammeter

ERRORS

Now work out the errors in volumes and densities and voltages calculated above using the reading errors of the appropriate instruments. Refer to the section on errors in this manual for
instructions on how to calculate errors.

volume Density of the material

Copper cylinder:
Internal volume

External volume

Steel bar

Capillary tube
Internal volume

External volume

Instrument Calculated RESISTANCE V= IR

From Ammeter

From Milliammeter

From micro Ammeter
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QUESTIONS:
1. Why is it appropriate to use the metre rule for measuring the length of the copper wire but the micrometer screw gauge for he diameter?
2. .What is the difference between accuracy and precision?
CONCLUSION:
The volume of the copper cylinder was found to be ------------------
-----------------------------------(units) ,and its density was found to be------------------------ ------------------- ------------ (units)
Write similar conclusions for the steel ball `and capillary tube , and give correct values for the densities of copper and steel . The values may be found in the
reference book Tables of physical and chemical constants,15th Edition , G.W.C. Kaye.and Labye (Longman 1986 ) .