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The third and final section slows the C. Church of St.

harmonic progression while increasing the
1. The private chapel of the doge
liveliness of the figuration, leading to a
dramatic climax. 2. The location of great civic and religious ceremonies (see HWM
Figure 12.8)
5. Ricercare
3. The position of choirmaster was the most coveted musical post
a. Evolved into a motetlike succession of imitative
in Italy.
a. Willaert, Rore, and Zarlino held the post in the
b. Successive themes, each developed imitatively and
sixteenth century.
b. Monteverdi held the post in the seventeenth century.
c. The earliest are for lute, possibly the origin of the
name (to "seek out" the tuning of the instrument). 4. A permanent ensemble was instituted in 1568.
d. By 1540, the genre could be composed for keyboard a. Cornetts and sackbuts were the core.
or ensemble as well.
b. Violin and bassoon were also included.
6. Canzona
c. For major feast days as many as twenty-four
a. The earliest were intabulations of imitative French instrumentalists might be added.
chansons (canzona in Italian).
5. Giovanni Gabrieli (ca. 1555-1612)
b. By the midcentury the songs were reworked, much as
the sources for imitation masses were. a. Worked for St. Mark's from 1585 until his death (see
HWM biography, page 283 and HWM Figure 12.9)
c. By 1580 original compositions in this style appeared.
b. Composed for multiple choirs
d. They were light, fast-moving, strongly rhythmic
pieces. c. Composed the earliest substantial collections for large
instrumental ensemble
e. The typical opening rhythmic figure was a half-note
followed by two quarter notes. d. Works include about one hundred motets, over thirty
madrigals, and almost eighty instrumental works.
IV. Music in Venice
6. Polychoral motets
A. The city of Venice
a. Works for two or more choirs (up to five in Gabrieli's
1. An independent state run by several important families, with music)
an elected leader called the doge ("duke")
b. Divided choirs, cori spezzati, had been common
2. One of the chief ports of Europe
c. Forces could be placed in the two organ lofts of St.
3. Controlled territories in surrounding areas Marks, one on each side of the altar, and another on
the floor.
B. Patronage of the arts
7. Ensemble canzonas (NAWM 62)
1. The government spent lavishly on public music and art.
a. Instrumental version of divided choirs
2. Through the arts, the city could maintain the illusion of
greatness despite wars and misfortunes that diminished its
position in the sixteenth century.