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(Practical Applications)

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

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(Practical Applications)


William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Professor of Educational Leadership
The University of Texas of the Permian Basin

Distinguished Alumnus (2004)

Central Washington University
College of Education and Professional Studies
Ellensburg, Washington

Invited Guest Lecturer (2005)

Oxford Round Table
University of Oxford
Oxford, England

Doctor of Humane Letters (2008)

School of Graduate Studies
Southern Christian University

Hall of Honor (2008)

William H. Parker Leadership Academy
Prairie View A&M University
The Texas A&M University System

Think Tank on Global Education (2015)

Harvard Graduate School of Education


This book is dedicated to any person that has taken a class from me over
the years. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD


The purpose of this attempt is to provide content and knowledge in the

area of research with students at both the masters and doctoral levels.
A list of acknowledgements and credits is provided in the Partial Listing
of Selected References and Acknowledgements at the end of this book.
Any omissions are not intentional.



PART I: Practical Applications of Research and Basic Statistics ..........................6

Chapter 1: Development of Research .................................................................. 7

Chapter 2: Historical Research .......................................................................... 14

Chapter 3: Descriptive Research ....................................................................... 18

Chapter 4: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research ............................ 22

Chapter 5: Qualitative Research ........................................................................ 30

Chapter 6: Methods and Tools of Research ...................................................... 33

Chapter 7: Descriptive Statistics and Normal Distribution ............................... 39

Chapter 8: Inferential Data Analysis ................................................................. 55

Chapter 9: Parts of the Research Proposal ........................................................ 61

Chapter 10: Parts of a Field Study ..................................................................... 67

Chapter 11: General Statistics Information ....................................................... 73

Chapter 12: Types of Statistical Data ................................................................ 77

Chapter 13: Descriptive Statistics ..................................................................... 81

Chapter 14: Types of Distributions ................................................................... 88

Chapter 15: Formulas ........................................................................................ 90

Chapter 16: Understanding and Using Statistics. The Basics .......................... 92

Chapter 17: Getting Started With Research: Avoiding the Pitfalls ................... 96

Chapter 18: Ethics and Research ....................................................................... 99

Chapter 19: Ethics in Research on Human Subjects and the role of the
Institutional Review Board - Frequently Asked Questions ............................. 101

Chapter 20: Working with the IRB Suggested Frame

of Mind for Researchers .................................................................................. 104

Chapter 21: Research, Writing & Publication ................................................ 106

PART II: Fundamental Terms for Research and Basic Statistics ............. 110

Fundamental Terms in Educational Research and Basic Statistics ................. 111

PART III: Partial Listing of Selected References

and Acknowledgements ................................................................................. 144

Partial Listing of Selected References and Acknowledgements ..................... 145

PART IV: About the Author ........................................................................ 154


Practical Applications of
Research and Basic

Chapter 1 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Development of Research
1. Key Points
a. Observations
b. Experience
c. Intuition
d. Hand me down
e. Revelation
f. Definition or Decree
g. Philosophy or Logic
h. Instinct
2. Centuries ago, medicine men, religious authorities, and elders were
knowledge sources. (No one questioned them.)

3. With time, people began to observe orderliness and cause and effect
relationships in the universe. Events were recorded and analyzed.

4. Some things could be predicted. Events could be predicted in relation to

the time of year and the seasons.

5. This process produced conflicts between different groups.

a. Religious authority versus curious thinkers

b. Authority versus empirical evidence
c. Elders versus personal experience

6. People eventually began to think systematically. A few great thinkers led

the way to more diverse and analytical thinking.

7. Aristotle (Ancient Greece)

a. Developed the first approach to reasoning.
b. Deductive Method - moving from general assumptions to specific

1) Major Premise: All men are mortal.
2) Minor Premise: Socrates is a man.
3) Conclusion: Socrates is a mortal.
8. Centuries later, Francis Bacon expanded on similar concepts.

a. Direct observation of phenomena

b. Arriving at conclusions or generalizations through evidence of many
individual observations led to inductive reasoning.

9. Combining the deductive and inductive methods of reasoning, resulted in

the emerging of the scientific method or scientific approach.

10. In 1930, John Dewey articulated detailed steps of the scientific method
or scientific approach as follows:

a. Identify and define a problem

b. Formulate a hypothesis
c. Collect, organize, and analyze data
d. Formulate conclusions
e. Verify or reject hypothesis, modify hypothesis

There are many ways to specifically approach the scientific method and
there are numerous generalizations of scientific approaches.

The deductive approach involves hypothesizing and

anticipating the consequences of events.

11. Researchers vacillate back and forth--inductive-deductive-inductive-
deductive. An example would be to hypothesize-observe, collect data-
reject hypothesis, reformulate new hypothesis-observe, collect more data-
partially accept hypothesis, and then collect more data.

12. Science

1) Definition: An approach to the gathering of knowledge, rather than a

field of study.
2) Two Functions of Science
i. Develop theory
ii. Test hypotheses deduced from theory

13. The Way a Scientist Works

a. Empirical Approach - collect data

b. Rational Approach - logical deductive reasoning

14. Researcher attempts to develop theories and predict events in

hopes of possibly controlling events. Some examples are provided

a. Piagets Theories - Cognitive development

b. Behavior of gases - Air-conditioning, refrigeration
c. Atomic Theory - Nuclear power
d. Celestial Theory - Space travel, NASA, Satellites, and other technical

15. Two Types of Hypotheses

a. Research Hypothesis (Alternative Hypothesis) (Symbol=Ha)

1) Affirmative statement that predicts a single outcome

2) Examples:
i. Teaching Method A is better than Teaching Method B.
ii. Cigarette smoking causes heart disease.
iii. Extra curricular activities improve academic performance.
iv. Computer Assisted Instruction improves academic

v. Homework improves academic achievement.

b. Null Hypothesis (Symbol=Ho)

1) This hypothesis is stated negatively so that the logic of statistical

analysis can be applied.
2) The null hypothesis is saying the difference, if any, is due to
3) Rejecting the null hypothesis with a probability statement would
support the research hypothesis (Ha).
4) Examples:
i. There is no difference in heart disease between smokers and
ii. There is no difference in academic achievement between
Method A and Method B.
iii. There is no difference in grades between CAI students and
non-CAI students.
iv. There is no difference in academic achievement due to
participation in extra curricular activities.

16. Sampling Definitions

a. Population-----------------------parameter
b. Sample---------------------------statistic
c. Sample: a small proportion of a population selected for observation
and analysis
d. Statistic: a value from a sample used to infer the parameters of a

17. Types of Samples

a. Simple Random Sample: every subject has an equal chance to be

b. Systematic Sample: every nth number
c. Stratified Random Sample: subdivide population and select sample
proportionally-A random sample of each of the subgroups is done.
d. Cluster Sample: most complex of all samples, used for very large
groups; costly and take time.

50 states---------------------Randomly choose 20 states.
20 states---------------------Randomly choose 80 counties.
80 counties------------------Randomly choose 50 school districts.
50 districts------------------Randomly choose 10 teachers from
each of the 50 school districts.
The total sample would consist of 500 teachers.

e. Non-probability Sample: (Use subjects available)

f. Purposive Sample: participants are chosen not by chance, but
intentionally to yield data for evaluation purposes

18. Sample Size (Test for Beta, or use a table.)

a. The larger the sample, the less error.

b. The larger the sample, the better the sample represents the
c. In utilizing a survey, be certain to have a large sample.
d. In a sample, 32 is the magic number statistically, but try to obtain
more (with randomness).

19. Purposes of Educational Research

a. Fundamental or Basic: The purpose of this laboratory-type of

research is solely to gain new knowledge. This research is often
referred to as the search for knowledge for knowledges sake.
b. Applied: The purpose is to improve a product (software, textbook,
etc.) or process (teaching, learning, etc.) by testing a theoretical
concept in a real actual problem situation. Most educational research
is applied research. With the passing of time, basic research usually
spurns further applied research. New knowledge gained eventually
becomes useful and lends to advances in knowledge, which then
directs more applied research to take place.
c. Action: The purpose and focus are on immediate application-not on
development of theory. The focus is on the here and now in a local

20. Two ways to Classify Research
a. Quantitative Research: (Measuring)

1) Data are analyzed in terms of numbers.

2) Educational, medical, and agricultural professions use this type of

b. Qualitative Research: (Judging)

1) People and events are described with limited numerical data. This
research consists of a rich, literal description in a prose, narrative
2) Interviews of people, students, and other sources are used to collect
information. Research is written in prose form.
3) There are five major approaches to qualitative research: narrative
inquiry, ethnography, phenomenology, case study, and grounded
theory (Creswell, 2008).

21. Assessment: Fact-finding activity that describes existing conditions

22. Evaluation: Fact-finding with judgment added

23. Types of Educational Research

a. Historical
1) A description of what was.
2) Application of the scientific method to the use of historical data to
answer historical questions or to test historical hypotheses.

b. Descriptive
1) A description of what is.
2) Application of the scientific method to the acquisition and use of
current data to describe current conditions

c. Experimental: description of what will be where certain variables

are carefully manipulated.

d. Qualitative: uses non-quantitative methods to describe what is

1) Basically, data are interpreted without numerical analysis.
2) Interviews, videos, and other methods are used to gather

Suggested Activities

1. Divide into groups of 3-4. Discuss the following question: What is

your definition of research, the steps you feel are needed to be taken
to do research, and what types of research have you read or become
familiar with in your profession and your educational experience?
Share your group activity with the entire class.

2. Each group should answer the following: What two things would you
like to see changed in your profession or questions answered? How
could you use research to address that change? What types of
research could you use to answer your questions? How would you set
up the type of research needed to answer these questions? Share your
group activity with the entire class.

3. Develop a research and a null hypothesis for each of the research

ideas identified in the previous activity. Share your group activity
with the entire class.

San Jose State University

Chapter 2 - William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Historical Research
Key Points
1. Is an attempt to arrive at conclusions concerning causes, effects or trends
of past occurrences that may help explain past and present events and
predict future events.

2. Historical research describes what was.

3. Historical research involves investigating, recording, analyzing, and

interpreting events of the past.

4. Sources of Information

a. Primary Sources

1) Records and reports of legislative bodies, records and/or memoirs

of superintendents, school newspapers, curriculum guides, grade
books, along with other sources.

2) Interviews with superintendents, school board members,

principals, teachers, and students.

3) Relics and artifacts, such as buildings, furniture, textbooks and


b. Secondary Sources

1) Reports of a person who relates the testimony of an eyewitness.

2) Encyclopedia, textbooks and newspaper accounts

5. Characteristics of Historical Research
a. Guided by hypotheses or questions to be answered
b. Systematic collection of data
c. Objective evaluation of data
d. Limited to available data
e. Explanationnot just rehashing of the pastexplains why it
happened as it did
f. May investigate individuals, ideas, movements, institutions, cultural
circumstances, and movements
g. Employs the scientific method

6. Limitations/Problems with Historical Research

a. Generalizations may not be feasible.

1) Too many uncontrollable factors.
2) Key individuals wield too much influence.
3) Situations wont repeat themselves.

b. Historical require more in-depth analysis to assist with reliability.

1) Were not written as objects of research
2) May involve secondnot firsthand information
3) Information is sometimes incomplete if records are unavailable or
have been destroyed.

c. History is not always verifiable by observation or experimentation.

d. Significant variables cannot be manipulated.
e. A lack of direct observation and control of variables may limit the
scope of the research.
f. Uniqueness cannot be replicated.

7. Steps in Historical Research

a. Define the problem.

b. Formulate the hypothesis or questions to be answered.

c. Contact individuals or agencies that may have access to records or

provide referrals of possible participants and locations of artifacts.
d. Collect data.

1) Primary sources
2) Secondary sources

d. Analyze the data

1) External criticismauthenticity
i. Was this person really present?
ii. Is this a real document from that time period?
2) Internal criticismaccuracy
i. Did the person give an unbiased account of what happened?
ii. Is the document telling a true story or did the author have a
hidden agenda?
iii. Did anyone tamper with the document?

e. Synthesize data.
1) Conclusions
2) Generalizations
3) Explanation or hypothesis

f. Report findings and conclusions



1. In groups of 3-4, locate the answers to the following questions:

MAJOR QUESTION: How does your university compare today with the
institution which was 50 years ago?

A. What academic programs were offered sixty years ago that were
related to education?
B. What types of school facilities were available then?
C. What was the type of curriculum offered to students?
D. How large was the student body?
E. What was the ethnic make-up of the student body?
F. What role did the school play in the community, state and nation?
G. How many professors/instructors were employed?

Compare and contrast the data from 50 years ago with today.

Chapter 3 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Descriptive Research
Key Points
1. Characteristics of Descriptive Research
a. Is non-experimental: deals with natural, not contrived relationships

b. Has variables are not manipulated.

c. Is Ex post factoan action done afterward

d. Involves disciplined inquiry (scientific method)

e. Uses logical methods of inductive-deductive reasoning to arrive at


f. Employs valid statistical procedures in collecting and tabulating data

g. Employs valid statistical procedures in reporting results

h. Adds to the body of knowledge

2. Three Types of Descriptive Research

a. Descriptive Research

1) This type of research is purely descriptive.

2) There is no hypothesis.
3) Researcher is just collecting data.
4) Example: Sixty five percent of principals are male; 35% are
female. The average age of principals is 43; the average age of
teachers is 38.

b. Correlational Research

1) In this type of research, the researcher is measuring the

relationship between two or more variables.
2) The relationship between the variables may be strong, weak, or
there could be no relationship.
3) Correlational studies can be used to predict.

Example: ITBS scores and CAT scores have a correlation

Coefficient of .8.

c. Causal-Comparative Research

1) This type of research is interested in suggesting causation for the

findings. It is aimed at discovering potential causes for a pattern by
comparing a treatment group against a non-treatment group.
2) One should not say that a variable was the cause of an action,
unless all other variables were controlled. After analyzing the data,
the researcher should identify the limitations of the study.
3) There is no experimental manipulative.
4) Example: Collective bargaining apparently had some effect on
teacher job satisfaction since satisfaction levels were higher after
collective bargaining than they were prior to collective bargaining.

1. Divide into groups of four to five students. Develop a chart listing the
different types of descriptive research. Compare and contrast each
type of research. Provide at least three examples of each type.


1. Surveys Very similar to polls Use of a large a. restaurant
in that you collect number of cases to questionnaire
data according to a describe to a general b. general
set of questions. population. You satisfaction survey
can collect data on for products
attitudes as well as purchased
other practices, c. (add more to the
occurrences, etc. list)
Polls are usually
much smaller and
are the collection of







2. Describe how you can use both activity analysis and trend analysis to
determine the types of teachers that will be needed in the next five
years for both an urban and rural school district. Look at factors of the
individuals job as well as the growth trends/declines and population
changes (increase in retirees opposed to school age children) for the
area. Select either an elementary, middle school or high school you
are familiar with and use both types of descriptive research methods to
determine what types of staff patterns would be needed for your

Chapter 4 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Experimental and
Quasi-Experimental Research
Key Points
1. Definition: determining what will happen under certain circumstances
a method of hypothesis testingIf this is done, what will happen?

a. Immediate purpose: prediction in a local setting

b. Ultimate purpose: generalization to a larger population

2. Law of the Single Variable: If all variables are held constant except
one, any changes in the outcome are due to changes in that one variable.

3. Experimental Grouping
a. Experimental Group vs. Control Group

1) Experimental Group: group exposed to variable under

2) Treatment Group: same as experimental group
3) Control Group: group not exposed to variable under consideration

b. Different Levels of the Same Variable: Subjects may also be

grouped according to type of treatment, not just absent of treatment.

4. Variables

a. Definition: conditions or characteristics of the experiment that the

experimenter manipulates, controls, or observes
b. Independent Variable: variable manipulated by the researcher for

1) Treatment Variable: factor that can be controlled by the researcher

2) Organismic Variable: attribute of the subjects that cannot be
c. Dependent Variable: outcome; condition or characteristic that
appears, disappears, or changes according to manipulation of the
independent variable (Results).
d. Confounding Variable: aspect of a study that can influence the
dependent variable, which can be confused with the effects of the
independent variable.

1) Intervening Variable: aspect of a study that may modify the effect

of the independent variable upon the dependent variable.
2) Extraneous Variable: uncontrolled aspect of a study that is similar
in effect to the independent variable and may render subjects
grouping invalid.

5. Experimental Validity

a. Internal Validity: extent to which the independent variable, not

extraneous variables, has a genuine effect on the dependent variable.

b. External Validity: extent to which variable relationships established

by the study can be generalized to other settings.

6. Threats to Internal Validity

a. Maturation: change in subject(s) over time

b. History: events in the course of the study that may influence the
dependent variable

c. Testing: learning to take tests by taking tests

d. Unstable Instrumentation: use of unreliable data gathering devices

e. Statistical regression: regression to the mean: extremely low or high

scores tend not to repeat themselves.

f. Selection bias: nonequivalence of groups due to poor selection

g. Interaction of Selection and Maturation: When subjects can choose
the group to which they will belong, the variable that directed their
choices may have undue influence on the dependent variable.

h. Experimental Morality: loss of subject(s).

i. Experimenter Bias: If the researcher must evaluate a subject, prior

knowledge of the subject may have undue influence on the
researchers judgment.

7. Threats to External Validity

a. Interference of Prior Treatment: carryover of subjects knowledge
or skill from a previous situation that may be mistaken for an effect of
the independent variable.

b. Artificiality of the Experimental Setting: condition in which the

experimental setting is so controlled that it does not adequately imitate
the real-life situation for generalizations to be made.

c. Interaction Effect of Testing: condition in which a pre-test may

sensitize subjects to concealed purposes of the study and serve as a
stimulus to change.

d. Sampling Deficiencies: error or inability in random selection.

e. Lack of Treatment Verification: condition in which the treatment

was not applied in the manner prescribed by the study.

f. John Henry Effect: subjects work harder because they realize they
are competing with others.

g. Hawthorne Effect: subjects work harder because they are getting

attention. This effect is due to researchers giving them extra attention.

The experimental model comes from agricultural research.

8. Controlling Threats to Experimental Validity
a. Remove the Variable: variable is not considered in results.

b. Matching cases: selecting pairs with identical characteristics and

assigning them to different groups

c. Balancing Cases: assigning subjects to each group so that overall

group means and variances will be equal

d. Analysis of Covariance: statistical method that permits the

experimenter to eliminate initial differences in the experimental

e. Random Selection: assignment to experimental groups by pure

chance; best way to make study valid

f. It is difficult to eliminate all extraneous variables, therefore it is best

to neutralize them. Remember, neutralize not eliminate!

9. Experimental Design
a. Definition: procedures of the study that enable valid conclusions by
controlling the following:

1) Selection and assignment of subjects

2) Control of variables: independent and confounding
3) The gathering and treatment of data
4) Development of hypothesis
5) Statistical testing of hypotheses

b. Purpose: elimination or neutralizing of threats to experimental


10. Three Types of Experimental Designs

a. Pre-Experimental Design: provides no way for equating groups that
are used

b. True-Experimental Design: uses random selection for equating

groups that are used

c. Quasi-Experimental Design: used when random selection is not
11. In studying experimental design, the following Campbell and
Stanley symbols are used:

a. R random assignment of subjects

b. X exposure of a group to a treatment
c. C exposure of a group to a control or placebo condition
d. O observation or test administered (data gathered)

12. What makes a good study?

a. Having a control group and

b. Using random selection

13. Pre-experimental Designs

a. The One-Shot Case Study Design

1) X O
2) No random selection and no control group

b. The One-Group, Pretest, Posttest Design

1) O X O
2) No random selection, no control group, and interference of

c. The Static-Group Comparison Design

1) X O
2) No random selection

Pre-experimental design, the least adequate of designs, is

characterized by the lack of a control group or a lack to provide

for the equivalence of one.

14.True Experimental Design

a. The Posttest-Only, Equivalent-Groups Design

1) R X O
2) Has random selection; has control group

b. The Pretest-Posttest, Equivalent-Groups Design

1) R O X O gain (X) = O O (pretests)
R O C O gain (C) = O O (posttests)
2) Has random selection; has control group

c. The Solomon Four-Group Design

1) R O X O
2) Has random selection; has control group
3) Difficult to find enough subjects

15.Quasi-Experimental Designs
a. The Pretest-Posttest Nonequivalent-Groups Design

1) O X O
2) No random selection
3) Pretest is used as covariate.

b. The Time-Series Design

1) O O O O X O O O O
2) No random selection

c. The Equivalent Time-Samples Design

1) O X O X O X O X O
2) No random selection

d. The Equivalent Materials, pretest, Posttest Design

1) O X O O X O
2) No random selection
3) Can be conducted with just one group or two separate groups

16. Factorial Designs: used when more than one independent variable is


1. Develop a Study (What problem do you want to address or solve?)

2. Why would I do it?
3. What do I already know or what has already been studied concerning this
4. What are your hypotheses and research questions? (Research and null)
5. What would you do to conduct the research? (List steps, who to talk
with, who to obtain permission for conducting the research, and
instruments you will use to collect data?)
6. Who are your participants?
7. How will you collect the data?
8. How will you interpret the data?

Chapter 5 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Qualitative Research
Key Points
1. Qualitative research is sometimes called naturalistic inquiry.

2. The main reasons that we have qualitative research are to explain

phenomena, allow for advocacy of participants, and give voice to
participants perspectives.

3. Qualitative research can be conducted as the sole type of research in a

study or can serve as an additional methodology in a mixed methods

4. Three Data Collection Methods of Qualitative Research

a. Interview: Teachers, secretary, janitors, and other individuals in the


b. Observations: There are two types of observation approaches:

participant and non-participant. The researcher can observe what goes on
in gyms, cafeteria, library, classrooms, and hallways.

c. Analyze written documents and records: test scores, attendance

records, discipline reportssuspension and expulsion ratioWhen
you analyze these, you often employ quantitative steps, such as more
than half, 60% etc.

5. Triangulation is the use of multiple data collection techniques to form a

succinct conclusion or awareness of data in a study. For example, it could
include interviews, observations, and an analysis of documents or
records. It could be any two or all three. One could interview three
people from different backgrounds on the same topic.

6. The advantage of using multiple data collection techniques is that the
researcher gets a broader or more in-depth view of a school or a situation.
Reality will reveal itself this way.

7. Data are interpreted without using mathematical analysis.

8. The study is attempting to address four concerns.

a. The study is concerned with things that a number cannot answer about
a school, such as spirit, atmosphere, great extra-curricular activities,
and educational quality.

b. Real-world situations are studiedwithout manipulations.

c. Specific questions are asked.

d. It is a rich detailed description.

9. The disadvantage is that the researcher may get too close to the people
being interviewed. Depending on the level of analytical ability of the
research, the relationship might bias the study.

9. It is important to have empathic neutrality, complete objectivity is

impossible. Try to authentically represent the participants perspectives.

11. Five Key Things the Researcher Should Do

a. Pre-organize: Organize ahead of time the things that you need to do.
b. Collect the data.
c. Organize the data.
d. Interpret the data.
e. Organize the data around themes.
f. Conduct member checks.
g. Write a report.

12. In qualitative research, the researcher is bringing reality to a study.

A qualitative study can support
a quantitative study, which will present
a better picture of reality and truth.


1. Divide into groups of four to five students. As a group identify an area of

concern that you could develop a brief questionnaire to gather data.
(Examples could be: a) experiences encountered by students at
registration; b) benefit of research to the academic development of
children? c) views on a policy issue in your graduate program, etc.)
Each member should write down five things they feel are important/their
views on the topic. Compare and contrast the viewpoints among the
group members. Are there patterns of concern or do you find a variety of
views on the topic?

2. Identify the steps needed to collect data on the topic discussed in activity
#1. What can each group member do to ensure they do not let their own
biases effect the collection of data? How could triangulation be used to
collect data on your groups topic of interest?

Chapter 6 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Methods and Tools of Research

Key Points
1. Qualities of a Good Test

a. Validity: A test is valid if it measures what it purports to measure.

b. Reliability: A test is reliable if it measures consistently over time.

c. A test can be reliable but still not be valid.

d. If a test is valid, it should be reliable and usually is reliable.

2. Types of Validity

a. Content: Questions should deal with content covered and the objective

b. Face: On the surface, it looks like a valid test or questionnaire.

c. Criterion: Two Types

1) Predictive: It can predict success in a certain criteria.

2) Concurrent: It is closely related to other measures.

d. Construct: Some other common measure is compared with the


3. Correlation Coefficient: The procedure quantifies the relationship of
paired variables.
-1 0 .7.8.9 1

These numbers indicate a high correlation.

4. Buros Mental Measurement Yearbook can be helpful when you want to

compare Test A with Test B. It provides an extensive list of instruments a
researcher can use in a study as well as reviews of the instruments. The
Buros Center for Testing is located at the University of Nebraska-
Lincoln. For more information, go to

5. Helpful Suggestions for Constructing Your Own Test or


a. Secure a panel of experts to assist you in constructing your questions,

such as professors in the discipline and research field.

b. Pilot the test or questionnaire. Administer it to ten to fifteen people

who will not be a part of your actual study. Score it and calculate the
Cronbachs Alpha Coefficient for each of the test items to determine
reliability of the instrument if quantitative.

c. After a defined period of time, repeat the process of administering the

test/questionnaire to the same individuals, and again calculate the
Cronbachs Alpha Coefficient.

d. The scores should be nearly the same. The correlation coefficient

should be high (a Cronbachs Alpha of .62 or higher is considered
acceptable for social science research).

e. It would also be beneficial for you to ask teachers to provide

suggestions for improvement.

f. It is to your advantage to use a professionally prepared questionnaire.

Remember to get permission from the publisher.

6. Types of Reliability of Test or Questionnaire/Opinionnaire

a. Stability over time (test-retest): This is a very important aspect.

b. Stability over item samples: Equivalent or Parallel forms.

If there are 50 questions on a test or questionnaire, answer
only the odd numbered items. Score this part. Next, answer only the
even numbered items, and score this part. Your score should be very
close on each part. This premise is also true for different forms of a

c. Stability of items (internal validity): All test questions should have

commonality (similarly related).

Kuder-Richardson Test (KR 21): This test is the average of all

possible correlations (of split halves).

d. Stability over scorers (inter-scorer): Scorers must be consistent in

scoring criteria. They must not be biased.

e. Stability over testers: Testers must be consistent in test administration.

f. Standard error of measurement: To determine the standard error of

measurement the scores will be put into a formula and calculated.

g. No test is totally reliable or valid.

h. If you have a valid test, it is probably reliable.

7. Characteristics of a Good Questionnaire

a. Covers a significant topic.
b. Looks important to respondentState significance of topic.
c. Only seeks information that is not obtainable otherwise
d. Short as possible, clear and easy to complete
e. Attractive, neat, and easy to duplicate.

f. Clear directions with definitions of important terms
g. Avoid asking two questions in one item. Keep questions short and

h. Ask objective questions. Do not ask leading questions.

i. Questions should be presented from general to specific.
j. Avoid annoying, embarrassing questions.
k. If delicate questions are included, inform participants that all answers
will be kept anonymous. Code questionnaires to keep them
anonymous and to enable the researcher to identify which ones have
been submitted and which ones have not.

l. Easy to tabulate and analyze.

m. Computer tabulate, if possible.
8. Preparing the Questionnaire

a. Randomly mix subtest questions.

b. Give the questionnaire to friends to complete in order to obtain

c. Pilot it in order to establish reliability.

d. Obtain permission from principals and superintendents to conduct
research at school sites.
e. Include permission letter with the mailed questionnaire.

f. Include the following documents in the mail out:

1) Cover letter
2) Signed and Approved Permission letter
3) Questionnaire

g. Inform participants that all information will be kept anonymous and

keep it anonymous.
h. Enclose a stamped, self-addressed return envelope.

i. Code the questionnaire for follow-up.

j. Inform participants the questionnaire is coded.

k. Scale to use.

Note: If one must use a scale, the Likert scale is the most common and
the most practical.

9. General Information Regarding Questionnaires

a. If you modify a questionnaire 25% or less, it is still valid. If you

modify it more than 25%, it is not valid.

b. To validate a questionnaire, get a group of professionals to review it.

c. When an instrument is reliable, it gets the same results over a period
of time.
d. A questionnaire must be reliable and valid.

e. To determine the reliability of a commercial test, the researcher

should write to the publisher of the test and request verification of test
validity. The publisher will provide this information to you. The
Buros Mental Measurement Yearbook is available in university
libraries. This yearbook gives summaries of instruments.


1) Continue your activity from chapter 5. Develop a questionnaire (8 10

questions) on your groups topic of interest. Include only open-ended
questions on the questionnaire. (Other types of questions, other than
open-ended, might provide quantitative data instead of qualitative.)
Share this questionnaire with other groups in your class to determine if
questions are clear and easy to understand and answer. (Decide if data
will be collected through passing out a questionnaire or by a face-to-face

2) Pass out your questionnaire or conduct a face-to-face interview to ask

other individuals outside your class to respond to your questions. As a
group, review the data you have collected. Look at the data gathered on
each of your questions. Look for main themes and concerns or ideas.
Interpret what the findings mean and how the results could be used to
make changes, keep the status quo, etc. Report your findings back to
your class.

Chapter 7 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Descriptive Statistics and

Normal Distribution
Key Points

1. The reason for statistics is that there are numerical data in educational
research. You will have to interpret, understand, and treat data.

2. Two Ways to Classify Numerical Data:

a. Non-parametric Data: Data that are not normally distributed

1) Nominal
a. Names or classifies someone or something

b. Examples
i. Social security numbers
ii. License plate numbers
iii. Bank account numbers
iv. Student identification numbers

c. Not very useful in research

2) Ordinal
a. Names, classifies, and ranks someone or something

b. Examples
i. Class rank
ii. Sports rank

b. Parametric Data: Data that assume normality

1) Interval
a. Names, classifies, ranks, and has equal intervals between

b. Has no true zero point

2) Ratio
a. Names, classifies, ranks, has equal intervals, and has a true zero
b. Examples
i. Test scores
ii. Height of students

3. Descriptive Statistics: includes Measures of Central Tendencies and

Measures of Variability (also referred to as Spread, Dispersion, or

a. Measures of Central Tendency

1) The mean is the arithmetic average.

i. The symbol for the mean is X .

ii. b. X

iii. The mean indicates the arithmetic midpoint; it is the best

measure of centrality.

iv. Example:
4 4.8 = X
5 5 24.0
6 20
7 40
X = 24 40

N = 5

X = 4.8

b. The median is the midpoint when the numbers are placed in an

ascending or descending order.

c. The mode is the number that occurs most often in a data set.

d. One purpose of the mean and median is to represent the typical

d. When the distribution of scores is such that most scores are at one end
and there are relatively few at the other end (skewed distribution), it
is better to use the median because it is a better indicator of test

1) In a positively skewed distribution, the mean is pulled to the right

of the median.
2) In a negatively skewed distribution, the mean is pulled to the left
of the median.

4. Measures of Variability (may also be referred to as the Spread,

Dispersion, or Scatter)

a. Range: the highest number minus the lowest number

b. Sum of Squares: sum of squared units of deviation from the mean

1) Symbol: SS

2) Formula: X X 2
c. Variance: the average squared units of deviation from the mean

1) Symbol
i. Sample: S 2
ii. Population: 2

2) Formulas:

i. N


iii. The variance is a value that describes the distance that scores
are dispersed or spread from the mean.
iv. This value is very useful in describing the characteristics of a

d. Standard Deviation: average units of deviation from the mean

1) Symbol
i. Sample: S
ii. Population:

2) Formulas
i. 2


ii. N

5. Normal Distribution (also referred to as Z Distribution, Z Theory, Normal

Curve, and Bell-Shaped Curve).

a. Characteristics of a Normal Curve:

1) It is symmetrical.
2) The mean, median, and mode are all at the same point right down
the center.
3) The curve is the highest at the mean.
4) Most of the scores cluster or crowd around the mean and decrease
as they move away from the mean.
5) The curve theoretically never touches the baseline.

b. Some things in nature are close to being normally distributed, such as

the height of men and women, I.Q. test scores, and shoe sizes.

c. To get a normal distribution, sample size should be at least 32.

6. Normal curve

Percent of cases
under portions of
the normal curve

34.13% 34.13%

13.59% 13.59%

2.15% 2.15%
.12% .12%

(Standard Deviation)

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
68.26% Percentage of
frequencies in a
95.44% normal


Very few scores will extend above or fall below

three standard deviations from the mean.

7. Normal Distribution Percentiles

Percent of cases
under portions of
the normal curve

34.13% 34.13%

13.59% 13.59%

2.15% 2.15%
.12% .12%

(Standard Deviation)

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
.1% 2.3% 15.9% 50% 84.1% 97.7% 99.9% (Percentiles)

Very few scores will extend above or fall below

three standard deviations from the mean.

8. Two Ways of Computing Variance and Standard Deviation

a. Conceptual Way:

(raw SS


X X X X X 2 SS

2 6 -4 16 8
4 6 -2 4 5 40 Square of 8
= 2.8
6 6 0 0 40
8 6 +2 4
10 6 +4 16
X =30 0 40

X 6 SS 40 (Sum of Squares)

Md 6 2 8 (Variance)

N 5 2.8 (Standard deviation)

Measures of Measures of
Central Tendencies Variability
X 6 SS 40
Md 6 2 8

b. Computational Way



X X 2 N N

2 4 5 5
5 5
4 16
6 36
8 64
10 100
X 30 220

900 900
220 220
X 6 5 5
5 5

5 30

220 180 220 180

N 5
5 5
40 40
5 5
8 2.8

SS 40 Sum of Squares
2 8 Variance
2.8 Standard deviation

9. Correlation
a. Correlation is the linear relationship between two or more variables.

b. The degree of linear relationship is measured by correlation


1) The symbol is r for Pearsons r. (Karl Pearson)

2) Types of correlation

i. Positive correlation
a) A perfect positive correlation is +1, which is rarely if
ever encountered.
b) Correlations of .7, .8, and .9 indicate a high positive
c) Examples of positive correlation: As one increases, the
other has a tendency to increase.

high IQ and high GPA

height and shoe size

Example of a positive correlation As scores in X go

up, scores in Y go up

Time spent Studying Grades on Test


John 1 2
Bob 2 4
Mark 3 6
Bill 4 8
Jeff 5 10

b. Negative correlation
1) A perfect negative correlation is -1, which is rarely if ever
2) Examples of negative correlation: As one increases, the other has a
tendency to decrease.

Total oil production and price per barrel

More graduate courses taken in college and free time

Example of a negative correlation As scores in X go up,

scores in Y go down.

Time spent Studying Grades on Test

John 1 5
Bob 2 4
Mark 3 3
Bill 4 2
Jeff 5 1

3) iii. A negative correlation does not necessarily mean that a bad

situation exists. For example, a person who increases exercise
would likely lose weight.

c. No correlation
1) A perfect lack of correlation is zero; however, rarely would it fall
exactly on zero, such as in case of 1, .2, or .3

2) Examples of no correlation

Height and IQ

Total rice production and the price of gold

10. Three ways to Interpret Coefficient of Correlation (Pearsons r)
a. .90 .80 .70 Rule
(high) (strong) (moderate)

1) .90 indicates a very strong relationship.

2) .80 indicates a strong relationship.
3) .70 indicates a moderate relationship.
4) .60 indicates a fair relationship.
5) Below .5 indicates that it may be due to chance.
6) There is a stronger indication that no relationship exists as the
number gets closer to zero, such as .2 and .3.

b. r2 = Coefficient of Determination: When the percent of X is known,

one could determine a percent of what Y would be.

An estimate of common variance between variables can be determined by

squaring the correlation coefficient.

1) Formulas

r N

X 2 X Y 2 Y
2 2


Sum of Squares Sum of Squares
of X of Y


2) Example

X X2 Y Y2 XY

John 1 1 2 4 2
Bob 2 4 2 4 4
Bill 3 9 3 9 9
Joe 4 16 4 16 16
Sam 5 25 5 25 25

15 55 16 58 56

56 1516


SS X X 2

55 45 10
N 5 5


16 2
58 51.2 6.8
N 5 5

56 48

8 .2

Pearsons r .97 (very high correlation)

X and Y have a lot in common.

r 2 .94 (Given X, one could tell 94% of the time what Y would be.

3) Coefficient of Determination: Given X, one could determine

94% of the time what Y would be.

4) Since correlation is concerned with prediction, it is more

difficult to predict the correlation as the correlation goes down.

c. t test: The test of the significance of the difference between two


1) Think of a t-test as a correlation turned inside out.

2) A t-test indicates the difference between numbers, whereas a

correlation indicates the similarities between numbers.

11. Measures of relative position: standard scores

a. z score

1) When comparing scores in distributions where total points

may differ, a z score permits a realistic comparison of
scores and may allow equal weighting of the scores.

2) Formula


X raw score
X mean
standard deviation

12. Normal Distribution Problems

Directions: Treat each of the following as if distribution is normal. What

percent of scores lies between the two z scores for each of the following

(1) 3 and -3 ______ (5) 1 and -1 ______ (9) -.5 and 1.2 ______
(2) 0 and 1 ______ (6) 0 and .5 ______ (10) 1.3 and 2.4 ______
(3) 0 and 6 ______ (7) 1 and -2 ______ (11) 1.5 and -1.5 ______
(4) 2 and -2 ______ (8) 0 and -6 ______ (12) 0 and 2 ______

Directions: Treat each of the following as if distribution is normal.

Identify the z score for each of the following percentiles.

(13) 50th percentile ______ (19) 99th percentile ______

(14) 60th percentile ______ (20) 40th percentile ______
(15) 65th percentile ______ (21) 30th percentile ______
(16) 70th percentile ______ (22) 16th percentile ______
(17) 90th percentile ______ (23) 5th percentile ______
(18) 95th percentile ______ (24) 75th percentile ______

Directions: Treat each of the following as if distribution is normal.

Population mean is 32. Population standard deviation is 3.
Identify the z score for each of the following raw scores.

(25) 29 _____ (28) 35 ______

(26) 38 _____ (29) 26 ______
(27) 28 _____ (30) 33 ______

Directions: Treat each of the following as if distribution is normal. What
percent of scores lie between each of the following pairs of raw scores?
(population mean = 32 population standard deviation = 3)

(31) 32 and 35 ______ (36) 23 and 41 ______

(32) 29 and 26 ______ (37) 32 and 30 ______
(33) 38 and 41 ______ (38) 26 and 23 ______
(34) 32 and 33 ______ (39) 23 and 20 ______
(35) 35 and 38 ______ (40) 32 and 34 ______


Divide into groups of two to three students. USE YOUR CALCULATORS!

Use the following set of score to complete the following exercises:

63, 79, 88, 88, 87, 89, 89, 90, 90, 90, 93, 94, 95, 95, 98, 99

1. Compute the mean of the set of scores listed above.

2. Determine the median of this set of scores.

3. Does the mean differ from the median? Why or why not?

4. Find the range of this set of scores.

5. What is the mode of this set of scores?

6. Compute the variance of this set of scores.

7. Compute the standard deviation.

8. Using the mean and the standard deviation, plot these test scores to
see where they fall in a distribution around the mean.

9. Compare and contrast positive and negative correlation.

Chapter 8 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Inferential Data Analysis

Key Points

1. Central Limit Theorem

a. The characteristics of sample means are detailed by this theorem.

b. Characteristics of sample means

1) Sample means are normally distributed.

2) The mean of sample means will be the mean of the population.

3) The sample means will have a mean (population mean) and a

standard deviation.

2. Null Hypothesis

a. A null hypothesis states that if there is a difference, it is due to chance.

b. By rejecting a null hypothesis, the researcher is providing a stronger

test of logic.

c. Additionally, by rejecting the null hypothesis, the researcher is

concluding there is a significant difference between the two means,
and this difference is not due solely to chance.

d. The .05 alpha level is often used as a standard for rejecting the null
hypothesis, which means that 95 times out of 100 the results are not
due to chance.

e. The .01 alpha level is a more rigorous test. It means that 99 times out
of 100, the results are not due to chance.

3. z test: One-tailed Test

a. One-tailed Test at the .05 alpha level.

b. A researcher thinks the scores of the sample will be superior to
established scores.

Acceptance Area


Rejection Area


X +1.65 (z score)

95% Acceptance Area

4. z test: Two-tailed Test at .05 alpha level

a. Two-tailed test at the .05 alpha level.

b. A researcher thinks the scores of the sample will be different from the
established scores.

Acceptance Area Acceptance Area

47.5% 47.5%

Rejection Area Rejection Area

2.5% 2.5%

-1.96 X +1.96

95% Acceptance Area

5. Critical value for z (rejection of null)

Test .05 alpha level .01 alpha level

One-tailed test 1.65 2.33

Two-tailed test 1.96 2.58

6. Degrees of Freedom

a. Definition: Conceptually, always N-1.

b. As the number of degrees of freedom increases, the strength of the
prediction increases.

7. Four Main Types of Tests Used in Educational Research

a. Independent t Test (very useful test)

1) Characteristics
2) No population mean
3) No
4) Compares the means of two different independent groups
5) Example
6) Group X has been taught with Method A; compute the mean.
7) Group Y has been taught with Method B; compute the mean.
8) The researcher wants to determine if one method is better than the
other method.
9) Formula for Independent t Test

Independent t

2 X 2
2 Y 2


n n 1

SS X SSY DF N1 N 2 2
N N 1
DF (Degrees of Freedom)

4. Used in medical, agricultural, and educational research

b. Correlated t Test (paired) (very useful test)

1) Characteristics
i. Pre and post tests (pairs)
ii. Only involves one group
iii. c. D X Y

2) Formula

Correlated t

N 1

DF N 1

3. Example

a. Pretest each group then compute the mean.

b. Teach group using a special method. (The treatment)

c. Post test the group and then compute the mean.

d. The researcher wants to determine if there is a significant difference

between the pre- and post mean. If there is a significant difference,
then the special teaching method id helpful. (Null hypothesis is

c. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

1) The Independent t Test is a subset of ANOVA.

2) Characteristics
i. Involves three or more groups.
ii. All groups are treated differently.
3) Also referred to as the F Test, which was named after the man who
invented the test.
4) Formula

S 2 Bg variance between groups

S 2Wg variance within groups

d. Pearsons r (correlation)

1) Characteristics
i. Measures the degree of relation between two variables.
ii. Determines the degree of linear relationship between two

2) Formula


2 X 2
2 Y 2


Chapter 9 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Parts of the Research Proposal

Note: The research proposal is a framework for any research study. A
proposal should also clearly and succinctly reveal your intended plan. In
most instances, university policy and specifications for the length of research
proposals are adopted; however, it is quality not quantity that is important
when writing a prospectus for research.

1. Title Page
a. Title:
1. Use enough descriptive words to catalog the title by ERIC and
Resources in Education.

2. Example:
The Effects of Collective Negotiations on Teacher Job Satisfaction in
the Temecula School District in southern California.

b. Style You also want to include the name of the institution granting
the degree. The title page is not typically paginated.
2. Introduction to the Study

a. This part should be relatively short and capture the readers attention.

b. It describes what the study will cover and should be written in a

manner that will make the reader interested in the topic.

c. A brief background of where the study will be conducted may be


d. The operative word for this section is brief. Keep in mind, the
proposal is not the completed study.

3. Review of Literature

a. This component reviews pertinent literature and information relevant
to your topic.

b. Previous research should be included.

c. Include a sufficient number of citations to adequately and accurately

cite the contributors of the work you referenced. You want to ensure
you give credit to the author who originally conceived the idea,
theory, or concept. Remember, if you didnt write it, you should cite

d. Citations should be relevant, recent, and substantive.

e. If you take information verbatim from another source, remember to

indicate the information as a direct quote through use of quotation
marks or block indent format. Your entire literature review should not
consist only of quotes of other people. Most authors have copyright
provisions that limit the percentage of direct quotes of their work.
Also, quotes should be used to underscore critical points that
otherwise could not have been paraphrased and cited and/or
summarized and cited.

f. Include a framework of the study. For quantitative research, the

framework helps the researcher design the study. For qualitative
research, the framework helps the researcher design the study and will
serve as the lens for analyzing the data.

g. Ensure you cite the recognized work on a topic. Some topics have an
abundance of literature. You want to ensure that you have cited those
works that are central, critical, and significantly established on your
topic. As an example, if you included Critical Race Theory as a
framework in your study, you want to ensure you have cited those
authors who have contributed significantly to the articulation of this

4. Statement of the Problem

a. This part logically establishes the different underlying intellectual

motives for conducting the research on your specific topic.

b. Opposing conclusions are a good way to set up the statement of the
problem. Ensure you provide those details that help the reader
understand the problem from a broader perspective as well as localized to
your specific population of the study.

c. Example: There appears to be opposing conclusions in the research

concerning collective bargaining and its effect upon the plight of the
teacher. Smith (2005) found that the bargaining had not benefited
teachers. Jones (2005) noted that bargaining had greatly enhanced
teacher morale. In the district of this proposed study, approximately
25% of collective bargaining negotiations have resulted in law suits with
the teachers unions (Dedeaux, 2009).

5. Purpose of the Study

a. This section succinctly describes what the researcher intends to find.

In this section, you will include a phrase that states the purpose of this
study is to .

b. Example: The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to

which the collective bargaining process has influenced teacher job
satisfaction levels.

6. Research Questions

a. In this part, you will break down the Purpose of the Study into several
pertinent research questions.

b. It is important for the following parts to fall logically in line:

1) Statement of the Problem

2) Purpose of the Study
3) Research Questions

c. Examples: What was the level of teacher job satisfaction before

bargaining rights? What was the level of teacher job satisfaction after
bargaining rights?

7. Hypotheses

a. For quantitative studies, the research questions are put in statistical
terms in this section.

b. Example: There is no significant difference in teacher job satisfaction

following the acquisition of bargaining rights.

8. Definitions

a. In this part, define terms specific to your study that may not be
familiar to the outside reader.

b. Specifically define general terms the researcher assumes all

individuals would know but might be different in different school
districts in a state, region or nation.

c. Example: TAE-The school district affiliate of the National

Educational AssociationSixty-nine percent of all Temecula School
District teachers are members of this organization.

9. Assumptions

a. Any assumed aspect the researcher may take should be duly stated.

b. Example: The instrument used in this study will accurately measure

the job satisfaction levels of teachers.

10. Delimitations and Limitations

a. Delimitations are provided at the onset of your study. Limitations are

provided after you have conducted the research and recognize that the
study has been restricted in a certain manner. Any boundary or limitation
of the study must be stated.

b. Example: The study will measure levels of teacher job satisfaction in

only one school district. Teachers surveyed may vary in years of

11. Methodology

a. This section includes the following four parts:

1) Participants
i. Describe participants or sample (who and where).
ii. The population may be described in this part.

2) Instrument
i. Give details about the test or instrument and specific
ii. Validity and reliability may be discussed.

3) Procedures
i. Describe a step-by-step process of the researchers plan of
ii. The timeline and permission to conduct the study may be

4) Data Analysis
i. Describe how the data will be analyzed.
ii. The following information should be included:
iii. The type of statistical test that will be used, whether or not
means will be compared, and whether or not charts or graphs
will be included.

12. Significance of the Study

a. State why this study is worthy of the time and effort that will go into

b. Substantiate the reasoning behind conducting a study of this type in

this district, state or region.

c. Example: Data derived from this study will serve as a guide to school
districts in similar settings that are also considering the collective
bargaining process.

13. References

a. References should be relevant, recent, and cited in the American
Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association
(MLA), or any other required format.

b. A sufficient amount of references should be used. The number of

references will vary depending on the topic and resources available.


1. Divide into groups of four to five students. Every group member

should contribute at least one area of concern that they would like to
solve in their role as educators. Identify one area of concern that is
important to the entire group. This approach can help you conceive
the purpose of your study. Write three to five research questions
(what you want to know about the area of concern).

2. For quantitative studies, develop three to five hypotheses for your

groups study.

3. Define terms that may not be familiar to the outside reader that would
be related to your study.

4. Identify the methodology that would be used for your study.

(Subjects, instrument to be used to collect the data, procedures to be
used to collect the data, include a timeline of when this would be
done, and the type of statistical test you would use to analyze the data
you will collect.)

Chapter 10 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Parts of a Field Study

Note: Parts of the Field Study have been discussed in the section entitled
Parts of a Research Proposal, therefore only their titles will be listed
in this section. Additional parts and those parts that need to be
expanded will be listed and discussed in this section.

1. Title

2. Abstract

a. The abstract is a summary of the complete study.

b. It is usually around a page in length.

3. Table of Contents

a. List the chapters of the study.

b. List only the page number on which each chapter begins.

4. Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study

a. This chapter includes the following parts:

1) Introduction to the Study
2) Statement of the Problem
3) Purpose of the Study
4) Research Questions and/or Hypotheses
5) Definitions
6) Assumptions
7) Limitations
8) Significance of the Study

b. This chapter is basically the proposal minus the Review of the

Literature and the Methodology.

5. Chapter 2: Review of the Literature

a. Expand the review of the literature.

b. Ten to twenty citations are sufficient.
c. Remember to keep the citations recent and relevant.

6. Chapter 3: Methods and Procedures

a. This section is basically the part in the proposal that was labeled
b. Describe in detail what was done/will be done in the study.
c. Some information in this section may have to be changed because the
information here will state what was actually done, not what the
researcher planned to do as was stated in the proposal.

7. Chapter 4: Analysis of Data or Results of Study

a. Describe in prose and in chart or graph form the numerical results and
data analysis of the study.
b. Do not explain, summarize, or conclude in this chapter.
c. Tell and show only the results. Do not attempt to explain the results.

8. Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations

a. Summarize the results of the study.

b. An explanation may be given as to why the results turned out as they
c. Try to consider all factors and variables that could have influenced the
dependent variable.
d. Recommendations for further study in regard to this topic should be
e. Further study could likely be conducted on this issue at another school
or in a slightly different manner.

9. References Include references for all of your citations following the

appropriate style manual format.

10. Appendices

a. Make a list of the location of specific tables, charts, or graphs.

Include the list in the Table of Contents. Ensure you label each
document, graph, figure, and item in the appendices with the term
Appendix followed by an alphabetical letter.
b. Remember to include the chapter and page number.



The following is a checklist of items which are typically included in a graduate research project,
thesis, or dissertation. Not all of the suggested categories are necessary or appropriate for all
studies, and the order of items within chapters may vary somewhat. These items are intended to
serve as a guide:
________ Introduction
________ Background of the problem (e.g., educational trends related to the problem, unresolved
issues, social concerns)
________ Statement of the problem (basic difficulty - area of concern, felt need)
________ Research Questions to be answered or investigated
________ Hypothesis or Hypotheses statements if needed or specified by advisor.
________ Purpose of the study (goal oriented) -emphasizing practical outcomes or products
________ Importance of the study - may overlap with the statement of problem
________ Assumptions (postulates)
________ Delimitations of the study (narrowing of focus)
________ Limitations of the study (after the study has been conducted)
________ Definition of terms (largely conceptual here; operational definitions may follow in
Methodology Chapter)
________ Organization of the Study....Outline of the remainder of the thesis or proposal in
narrative form.


________ Organization of the present chapter - overview
________ Historical background (if necessary)
________ USE KEY WORDS in each Research Question and follow with the literary review that
addresses each question.
Purposes to be Served by Review of Research Literature
________ Acquaint reader with existing studies relative to what has been found, who has done work,
when and where latest research studies were completed, and what approaches involving
research methodology, instrumentation, and statistical analyses: were followed (literature
review of methodology sometimes saved for chapter on methodology)
________ Establish possible need for study and likelihood for obtaining meaningful, relevant, and
significant results
________ Furnish from delineation of various theoretical positions, a conceptual framework affording
bases for generation of hypotheses and statement of their rationale (when appropriate)
________ Organize this chapter in the same order as the research questions are stated in chapter I. Be
very careful to fully align the review of literature with the research questions.

Note : In some highly theoretical studies the chapter "Review of Literature" may need to
precede "The Problem" chapter so that the theoretical framework is established for a
succinct statement of the research problem and hypotheses. In such a case, an advance
organizer in the form of a brief general statement of the purpose of the entire
investigation should come right at the beginning of the "Review of Literature" chapter.

Sources for Literature Review

________ General integrative reviews cited that relate to the problem situation or research problem such
as those found in Review of Educational Research, Encyclopedia of Educational Research, or
Psychological Bulletin.
________ Specific books, monographs, bulletins, reports, and research articles --- preference shown in
most instances for literature of the last ten years.
________ Unpublished materials (e.g. dissertations. theses, papers presented at recent professional
meetings not yet in published form, but possibly available through another source.
________ Selection and arrangement of literature review often in terms of questions to be considered,
hypotheses set forth, or objectives or specific purposes delineated in problem chapter
________ Summary of literature reviewed (very brief)

CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY or the recipe/how to chapter

________ Overview or at least an introduction
________ Restate the research questions
________ Hypotheses stated in NULL FORM.
________ Description of research methodology or approach (e.g., experimental, quasi-experimental,
correlational, causal-comparative, or survey)
________ Research design - Spell out independent, dependent variables
________ Subjects of the Study (Clearly describe the sample and population.)
________ Instrumentation (tests, measures, observations, scales, and questionnaires)
________ Pilot studies (as they apply to the research design, development of instruments, data collection
techniques, and characteristics of the sample)
________ Validity--provide specifics on how you will establish validity or provide validity data specific
to your instrument from other studies with similar populations
________ Reliability--provide specifics on how you will establish reliability or provide data specific to
your instrument from other studies with similar populations
________ Procedures (Field, classroom or laboratory e.g., instructions to subjects and so forth)
________ Data collection and recording
________ Data analysis (statistical analysis or qualitative analysis explained in detail)
________ Summary


________ Findings are presented in tables or charts when appropriate
________ Findings are reported with respect to furnishing evidence for each question asked
hypothesis posed.
________ Appropriate headings are established to correspond to each main question or hypothesis
________ Other factual information kept separate from interpretation, inference, and evaluation (one
section for findings and one section for interpretation or discussion)
Note: In certain historical, case-study and other types of investigations, factual and
interpretive material may need to be interwoven to sustain interest level, although the
text should clearly reveal what is fact and what is interpretation.
________ Separate section often entitled "Discussion", "Interpretation", or "Evaluation" ties together
findings in relation to theory, review of literature, or rationale
________ Summary of chapter

________ Brief summary of the study and findings portion from Chapter IV
________ Conclusions (Often restatement of the research questions key topics or variables and final
conclusions analyzing the answers)
________ Recommendations (practical suggestions for implementation of findings)
________ Recommendation for further study
1. Copyright Page
2. Title Page
3. Signature Page
4. Abstract
5. Dedication Page
6. Acknowledgments
7. Table of Contents
8. List of Tables
9. List of Figures
10. Body text, divided into chapters designated by upper case Roman numerals
11. References in the specified style manual format
12. Appendices and supporting documents
13. Human Subjects Review Approval document
14. Authors Vita
1. Tables and/or figures should appear no more than one page from where they are first
2. Tables and/or figures may be placed in the appendices and referenced in the body text
3. Tables and/or figures are identified by chapter and number. ( Example: Table 4.1
would be first table to appear in chapter 4)
1. 1 Left margin and 1 inch top, bottom and right margin or other university set
1. Double spaced throughout the document
2. Indent each paragraph first line .05
1. 100 percent cotton, 20-pound bond
1. Arial, Bookman, Times New Roman or similar font recommended
2. Size: Standard 12 font
1. Every page should be assigned a number.
2. Preliminary pages, small Arabic numbers (i, ii, iii, iv etc) in the center at bottom of
each numbered page
3. Abstract receives the first numbering at the bottom and in the center
4. First page of each chapter should be in the center at the bottom of the page in the

5. All other pages should have numbers in the upper right hand side of the page

Dissertation Web Resources: This site provides numerous articles dealing with a wide

variety of topics. This site has a number of great tips, feature articles and a
monthly newsletter related to the dissertation process. This
site contains a valuable checklist for help with organizing and completing the document. This site contain a neat chart

with each component and a timeline to help guide you through the steps to completion. This site defines and explains

plagiarism in detail along with the consequences for the act. Duke university provides a great resource

for selecting the topic and researching library resources on this quality website. Dr. Marshalls writing site

contains a good set of links to assist with grammar, punctuation, style and other writing
issues. Dr. Marshalls APA site has a number

of good links to assist with APA in-text and reference list formatting. Citation machine is a good tool to utilize in the quest

for proper APA or MLA references. Dr. Marshalls template site should

save you some time in formatting table of contents and other essential pages of the
Academic ladder provides a free bi-weekly tips subscription to help conquer some of the
problems and issues that arise in writing the dissertation or thesis.

Chapter 11 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

General Statistics Information

Key Points

1. Definitions of Statistics

a. Statistics involves manipulations of numbers and conclusions based

on these numbers.

b. Statistics means to state numbers.

c. Statistics is the study of numerical variation.

d. Statistics is making decisions with incomplete data (without having

all the numbers).

e. Statistics is a numerical characteristic of a sample.

2. Examples

a. Agricultural statistics (acres, grain, water, and fertilizer)

b. Medical statistics (types of drugs, amounts, and patients)

3. Two Types of Statistics

a. Descriptive Statistics

1) Summarizing or describing test scores (data) with numbers

2) Includes the mean, median, mode (Measures of Central

b. Inferential Statistics

1) Definitions

i. A method of reaching conclusions about immeasurable
populations using sample evidence and probability

ii. A method of taking chance factors into account when using

samples to reach conclusions about populations

2) Most research is done with a sample.

3) When a sample is selected, there is a certain level of uncertainty.

(A probability table is needed.)

4) Example
5 million 5th grade students (population) Teach using Method A

100 students Teach using Method B

randomly selected
(sample of
above set)

Mean (average) for students taught using Method A = 48

Mean (average) for students taught using Method B = 52

(Students were taught differently.)

4. Population

a. Definition: Consists of all members (scores) of a specific group

b. The researcher selects his or her population. The following are


1) All fifth graders in the United States

2) All fifth graders in Texas
3) All fifth graders in Waller County

5. Sample

a. Definition: A subset of a population

b. Example
1) Of five million fifth grade students (population),
100 students were randomly selected (sample).

2) 60 male 40 female
students students

[Each is a sub sample of the above 1]

6. Parameter

a. Definitions
1) A numerical characteristic of a population
2) A statistic of a population
3) A measurement of a population
b. A constant

7. Statistic

a. Definitions
1) A numerical characteristic of a sample
2) A measurement of a sample
b. A variable

8. Experimental Design or Research Design

a. Definition: Concerned with all the things that influence the numbers

b. The way the researchers conducted their experiments may have

influenced the outcome.

c. Remember the definition of statistics the manipulation of numbers

and the conclusion based on these numbers.

9. Variable

a. Definition: Something that exists in more than one amount or form

b. Examples
1) Height
2) Gender
3) Weight
4) Test scores
i. I. Q.
ii. IOWA
iii. LEAP
iv. ACT

10. Types of Variables

a. Independent variable: The treatment (selected by the researcher)


b. Dependent variable: The observed results (in education, test scores)


c. Extraneous variable: A variable other than the treatment (IV) that

might affect the results (DV)

d. Remember: IV (treatment) may or may not affect DV (results).

e. Examples of treatment
1) Different book
2) Different teaching method
3) Male/female teachers
4) Experience of teachers
5) Time of day

Chapter 12 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Types of Statistical Data

Key Points

1. Nonparametric Data: Data not normally distributed (Non-normal)

Discrete data -

a. Nominal Data (Refers to things)

1) Just names something or someone
2) Examples
i. Social security numbers
ii. Phone numbers
iii. I. D. number
iv. Credit card number
v. Home address
vi. Bank account number

3. Nominal data are not very useful in research. Averages cant be

computed with this type of data.

b. Ordinal Data (Refers to frequency)

1) Names and ranks (ranked data)

2) Numbers tell you relative positions or orders
3) Examples
i. Class rank (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.)
ii. Rank by height
iii. Sports rank
iv. Rank in a contest

4) More useful than nominal but still not that useful
5) Not exact
6) Hides things
7) Intervals are not equal.
8) No math is involved
9) Ranking is not mathematical.
10) Cant get an average rank


Mrs. Smith thinks there is a correlation between how students rank in math
and science.

Mrs. Smiths classes


Students Rank in Math Class Rank in Science Class

Mary 5 4
Joey 3 5
Alice 4 2
Sam 1 3
Bob 2 1

What does this 1 ranking really mean? We do not know how the class as a
whole performed. It could mean this student scored 60/100. That is why it is
maintained that ordinal data (ranking) hides information.

Instead of ranking, Mrs. Smith should use the actual test scores of students
because they are more specific data.

It is best not to use stanines either when comparing students.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

4% 7% 12% 17% 20% 17% 12% 7% 4%

2. Parametric Data: Data which are normal. (Continuous)

1) Interval Data
2) Names, ranks, and has equal intervals between numbers

3) Example: Temperature (i.e. Fahrenheit)

4) Cant get good mathematical data

5) Cant get a mathematical average

6) Has equal units of measurement

7) Many educational and psychological studies have been done using

interval data.

b. Ratio Data
1) Names, ranks, has equal intervals, and has a true zero point

2) Examples
i. Height
ii. Time
iii. Distance
iv. Some test scores (i.e. a teachers test)
v. Speed
vi. Weight
vii. Income

3) Can compute mathematical operations

4) Can get an average

5) Can say something/someone is twice, three times, etc. as tall, fast,

heavy, etc.

Scales of Different Types of Data

Nonparametric Data (non-normal) (discrete data just there)

1. Nominal
2. Ordinal

Parametric Data (assumes normality) (continuous)

3. Interval Mathematical operations can be
4. Ratio computed with these types of data.

of the scores of the scores


As you move farther from the average, the percentage gets smaller.

Chapter 13 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Descriptive Statistics
1. Two Types of Descriptive Statistics (Summarize/describe test scores.)
a. Three Measures of Control Tendencies
1) Mean: arithmetic average

2) Median: midpoint in a distribution of scores arranged in ascending

or descending order

3) Mode: the number in a data set that occurs most often

4) Examples
i. X

X 30
X 6
N 5
4 N 5
6 middle score Median 6
8 Mode none
10 (no score occurs more
than any other)
X 30
bimodal 3 trimodal 2
3 2
Summation of 3 2
4 3
4 3
4 3

ii. Y

X 30
X 6
N 5
2 N 8
4 Median 5.5
5 To obtain the median, Mode 2
6 take the average of
8 the two middle Note: To obtain the median, find
10 numbers the average of the two middle
12 numbers, 5 and 6.

Y 49 5 5.5 = median
+6 2 11.0
11 10
Summation of 10

2. The mean is a mathematical entity because the operations involved in

computing it are addition, multiplication, and division.

3. Types of Distribution
a. Normal Distribution
b. Positively Skewed Distribution
c. Negatively Skewed Distribution

4. Characteristics of a Normal Distribution

a. The bell curve is symmetrical.
b. The highest point is the mean.
c. The mean, median, and mode are located at the same place on the Bell
d. The mean, median, and mode are located at the 50th percentile.

e. The scores cluster around the mean. As you move farther to the left or
right, there are fewer and fewer scores.
f. Half of the scores are above the mean, and half of the scores are
below it.
g. Most people score around the mean.
h. The curve never touches the baseline and goes forever in both
directions because it is a theoretical model.
i. Example
57 58 58 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 61 61 61 62 62 63

The same amount of
numbers are on either
side of 60; therefore,
the mean, median, and
mode are located at
the same place.

In a curve distribution, the slope represents the frequency of score

When thousands of people are involved, scores tend to fall into a
normal curve.

5. Characteristics of a Positively Skewed Distribution

a. The mean, median, and mode are not located at the same point.

b. Outliners cause distortion and cause the mean to be pulled to the right.
c. When the mean is pulled to the right, you have a positively skewed

d. The mean is higher than the median.

h. Example
57 58 58 59 59 60 60 60 61 61 62 69

The median is 60, however 69 is the outliner and causes the mean to be
greater than the median.

6. Characteristics of a Negatively Skewed Distribution

a. The mean is to the left of the median.

b. The mean is lower than the median.

6) Example
50 59 59 60 60 60 61 61 62

The median is 60, however 50 is the outliner and causes the mean to be
lower than the median.

7. Facts to Remember

a. In a skewed distribution, the best indicator is the median because it

does not move.

b. When the mean is more than the median, it is a positive distribution.

c. When the mean is less than the median, it is a negative distribution.

8. The median is always the center.

9. The mean can be pulled to the right or left.
10. In skewed distributions, use the median to report a class average.

Measures of Variability (also called Spread, Scatter, Dispersion, and


1) Range: the highest score minus the lowest score

a. If the range is small, the standard deviation will also be small.

b. If the range is large, the standard deviation will also be large.

2) Sum of Squares: The sum of the squared units of deviation from the
mean; the central mathematical point from which
everything in parametric statistics is based around

3) Variance: the average squared units of deviation from the mean

4) Standard Deviation: the average units of deviation from the mean

5) Symbols for
Population Sample
2 S2
for Mean
Population Sample
X or F or Y or Z or MSU
(anything with a bar over it)
Note: Always ask if you are computing the standard deviation for a
population or a sample. The formula is slightly different.

Conceptual Way (slow way)


Raw Deviation Sum of Variance Standard Deviation
Scores Mean from Mean Scores (for population) (for population)

X X X X X X 2 SS

Computational Way (fast way)

and s2
Raw Variance Standard Deviation
Scores (for population and sample) (for population)


X X 2 N N


Sum of Squares: N

X 2

Variance: N

(for a population) (for a sample)



Standard Deviation: N N
N N 1

Central Measures and Variability

Directions: Find all central measures (mean, median, and mode) of all
Find all measures of variability (sum of squares, variance, and
standard deviation) of distributions.

1) 2) 3) 4)

11 12 13 14
11 12 13 14
12 13 14 15
13 20 16 15
13 20 17 18
13 23 18 18

5) 6) 7) 8)

3 3 3 3
3 6 9 8
3 9 12 11
4 12 12 12
4 15 12 12
5 15 12 13

9) 10) 11)

2 4 1
4 4 1
6 4 10

Chapter 14 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Types of Distributions
Key Points

1. Mesokurtic Distribution

a. This is a normal distribution.

b. The curve is symmetrical.

c. Example:

34.13% 34.13%

13.59% 13.59%

2.15% 2.15%
.12% .12%

(Standard Deviation)

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
.1% 2.3% 15.9% 50% 84.1% 97.7% 99.9%

2. Platykurtic Distribution
a. This distribution is basically flat.

b. It has the most variability.

c. Example:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

3. Leptokurtic Distribution

a. Practically everybody scores in the middle.

b. This type of distribution has the least variability.

c. There is no trend. (The trend is there is no trend.)


2 3 4 5 6 7



Chapter 15 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD


Name of Test Characteristics Formula

one sample
based on
normal X M
z distribution z0

standard N
deviation) is
critical z is
always 1.65
at .05 alpha

one or two X M
tailed t0
t is
one sample DF N 1

two different
2 2
Independent independent X 2 X Y 2 Y
t groups N N

Test no
no population n n 1
mean DF n1 n2 2

Name of Test Characteristics Formula

pre and post X Y

Correlated tests (pairs) t
same group 2

t D
Test Dx y N
N 1

DF N 1

measures the
degree of X Y
Pearsons r relation XY N
(Correlation) between two
X 2 X Y 2 Y
2 2
determines N N

the degree of

Chapter 16 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

The Basics Understanding

and Using Statistics
1. The most common skill necessary for doing statistics is counting. For

a. the number of days a student is present or absent

b. the number of items correct or incorrect on a test
c. the number of discipline referrals
d. frequency of unacceptable or desirable behaviors
e. the number of attempts required to master a skill

2. The second most common skill used in statistics is measurement. For

example, things we measure in education include:

a. achievement of individuals or achievement gaps between groups

b. aptitude
c. interest
d. skill level
e. knowledge
f. attitudes of teachers, parents, students toward specific thing
g. opinions of various constituencies
h. beliefs of important players in the organization
i. level and type of motivation
j. degree of improvement
k. progress
l. behaviors

3. The most frequently applied mathematical operations in statistics include
addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

If you know how to count, measure, add, subtract, multiply, and divide,
then you ALREADY possess the skills necessary to do statistics.

4. Many statistical concepts have become a part of our daily vocabulary.

We use these concepts without thinking. For example:

a. I am going to calculate the average. (Statisticians call this the

arithmetic mean or mean.)

b. She is above average. (Statisticians say more precisely that her

performance on a measurement was one, two or three standard
deviations above the mean.)

c. I am 99.9% sure. (Statisticians call this p < .001 or confidence level;

that is to say, these results were not due to accident or chance.)

d. That information seems a bit skewed. (Statisticians say that the

mean and median are not equal and that the distribution is positively
or negatively skewed.)

e. There is a correlation between this and that. (Statisticians say that

there is a statistically significant relationship between this and that.
The correlation is usually stated in numeric form, for example r=.34,
p< .01)

5. Established research designs and procedures for calculating and thinking

about statistics already exist. All you have to do is learn the directions and
follow them. Making your easier are the facts that:

a. Research design tells you what data to gather.

b. Statistical procedures and formula already exist and can be used

for calculating your data.

c. Statistical software such as the Statistical Package for Social
Sciences (S.P.S.S.) and S.A.S. make the analysis of your data very
systematic and complete including tables, graphs and charts.

1) SPSS is a quality software application for students in the initial

stage of learning statistical analyses. In addition, SPSS is a low
cost resource to students and it provides professional statistical
analysis and tools in a user friendly software environment for
both MAC and PC users. A list of resources for learning SPSS is
provided at the end of the chapter.

2) SAS is a more complex package with high levels of statistical

analysis capabilities. SAS handles a wide variety of specialized
functions for data analysis and procedures. This software
package is utilized extensively in business, industry as well as
educational settings and include tools for both specialized and
enterprise-wide analytical needs. SAS is provided for PC,
UNIX, and mainframe computer platforms. A list of resources
for learning SAS is provided at the end of the chapter.

6. In a very short time you will realize that you can use your existing skills
but will use them MORE skillfully when you include statistics.

a. By counting, measuring, comparing, and examining relationships

of the RIGHT things you will be able to skillfully analyze data and
draw accurate and MEANINGFUL conclusions.

b. You will learn to use your findings and conclusions to make better
informed educational decisions.

Web Resources for SPSS

Web Resources for SAS

Chapter 17 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Getting Started With Research:

Avoiding the Pitfalls
Any of the following mistakes can prevent a study from getting off the
ground or being carried out to completion. Avoid these mistakes by listening
to the voice of experienced professors when they tell you to modify your
study. Consider the following mistakes and the proposed solutions.

1. Pitfalls can occur when research is conducted with conflicting purposes or

research questions that do not match your stated purpose. Research efforts
may halt due to the confusion.

Solution: Write the purpose and research questions with clarity and
simplicity. Allow expert writers to critique your work and take their
suggestions seriously.

2. Sometimes, the researcher fails to distinguish between the practical

problem and the research problem. She may try to save the whales with
her study when a better understanding of the problems that endanger the
whales is needed. The study may prove too unwieldy to complete. The
goal may be too grandiose to be unattainable.

Solution: Map out the entire research agenda necessary to address a

practical problem then carefully carve out for your own study the part
that is most significant and workable. Remember that your goal is to

3. In some instances, the researcher attempts to make the study overly

complex when a simpler design would yield equally useful information.
The study may become unwieldy and may obfuscate rather than
illuminate the subject.

Solution: Examine all research questions included in your study and rank
them in order of the significance and usefulness. If any data do not help

fulfill the purpose of your study, then these should be dropped so that the
other areas can stand out.

4. Occasionally, the researcher attempts to define the problem and purpose

of the study without first engaging in an extensive reading of all relevant
literature. This error results in a superficial or nave study that is not very

Solution: Read everything you can get your hands on systematically sort
the types of studies and conceptual areas. Your study will take on a well-
informed vision of what more needs to be known.

5. The accuracy and meaningfulness of a study can be questioned if the

researcher defines the problem and purpose of the study without first
seeking the counsel of experts who are knowledgeable about the subject.
Once completed, the study may lack credibility with practitioners.

Solution: Spend a great deal of time talking to practitioners about the

problems they face when dealing with the issues that you are interested in
writing about. Let them provide you with an expert perspective as you
seek to define the problem and purpose of your study.

6. Sometimes, the researcher uses methodologies that he or she does not

understand well. If the design is inappropriate to the purpose of the study or
the form of the data is wrong, he may be unable to interpret the data or
complete the study.

Solution: Consult statistics and research design experts regarding your

goals as a researcher. Take courses that you need to become proficient in
the specific methodologies that you wish to apply to your study.

7. The significance of a study can be diminished when the methodology or

the title of the study drives the study rather than the purpose. When a
study driven is primarily by methodology, the purpose and significance
can be diminished to make the study easier to complete. This error may
result in a less significant or useful study.

Solution: Do not title your work until you understand the research
problem well and the purpose that your study will reflect. Avoid selecting

a cool sounding methodology until you are certain that there it will help
you answer the specific things that you need to know.

8. A major pitfall includes the use of catchy phrases or terms are to define
the purpose and problem while little attention is paid to the significance of
a study. Study may be well done, or even interesting, but may not be very

Solution: The significance of a study can mean the difference in whether

the study is published or whether it actually is read. Understand who the
intended audience of a study may be and try to address their interests and
needs and particularly what they need to know.

9. If the study is not sufficiently delineated and structured, the time or effort
required to complete the study becomes overwhelming.

Solution: Listen to your professors when they tell you the study may take a
lot longer if it is not narrowed in scope or focus. Provide a
recommendations for further research section in your work so that
extraneous matters may be addressed in the future by you or other

Chapter 18 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Ethics and Research

1. Responsible conduct guiding researchers. Universities, federal and state
government as well as professional organizations have guidelines on
ethical behavior and research.

2. Informed consent - Participants must be informed and voluntarily give

their consent to participate in a study.

- Participants must be fully informed about all procedures and possible

- Participants informed of purpose of research and how data will be used.
- Include the benefits of study.
- Discuss alternative treatments and potential compensation.
- They must understand and arrive at a decision without coercion.
(Voluntary participation)
- Obtain informed consent before the data collection begins.
- Ensure privacy and confidentiality of research subjects and data.
- Include your contact information as well as the appropriate IRB
(Internal Review Board) contact information.

- Provide documentation of the approval of the IRB (Internal Review


3. Termination of research study must occur if harm is likely. Conduct risk

- benefit assessments.

4. Remember to follow guidelines and protocol for the special protection of

vulnerable populations of research participants.
5. Ensure equitable recruitment of participants.

6. Results should be for the good of society and unattainable by any other
means i.e. the preservation of appropriate and ethical standards should
never be comprised.

7. Beneficence - To promote understanding and shed light on the human
condition. Ensure protection of those participating in the study.

8. Honesty - Do not suppress data; it should be reported as collected.

9. Misconduct can occur when the following are employed:

- Fabrication
- Falsification
- Plagiarism


1. In small groups, discuss the relationship between academic freedom and

research ethics. Share your discussion with the entire class.

2. What steps should researchers take to ensure all areas of informed consent
are addressed in their research study? Share your discussion with the class.

3. What steps would you take to make sure you are not involved in unethical
conduct in research? Share your discussion with the class.

APA Research Ethics and Regulation

National Institutes of Health (NIH) Bioethics Resources

Research Ethics

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) "Human Participants Protections

Education for Research Teams

The Department of Health and Human Services' (DHHS) Office of Research


Chapter 19 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Ethics in Research on Human Subjects

and the Role of the Institutional
Review Board
Frequently Asked Questions
1. What is an IRB?

The IRB is a committee that is assigned the task of reviewing

proposed research by a university or other institution that receives
federal funds and is in the business of conducting research on human
subjects. The IRB is required by part 46 of Title 45 of the Code of
Federal Regulations also called 45 CFR 46. According to the
Department of Health and Human Services, it is the responsibility of
the IRB to recommend to university officials that proposed research
either be approved or disapproved based on a set of rules called the
Common Rule.

2. Why do we have IRBs?

Every institution that conducts research on human subjects that also

receives federal funds must provided a formal mechanism for
ensuring that research is conducted in a manner that reflects nationally
recognized standards. Failure to comply with policy can place the
researcher and his institution at risk for litigation. In some a few
instances the federal government has temporarily suspended all
research activities at key research universities for failure to comply
with the law.

3. What is the Common Rule?

The Common Rule was established in 1991 in federal law 45 CFR

46.112. It details all of the areas of compliance with accepted norms

for conducting research on human subjects established by the Helsinki
Agreement and a series of declarations referred to as the Belmont
Report. These principles are detailed in the Common Rule as follows:

a. informed consent
b. protection of confidentiality or anonymity of all human subjects
c. acknowledging the right of the subject not to participate in a study
d. ensuring that subject is aware of his or her right to discontinue the
study at any time without adverse consequence
e. ensuring that the study provides a benefit to the community
f. ensuring that the study has a direct benefit for the subject
participating in the study
g. ensuring that the subject is aware of the risks involved in the study
h. ensuring that the researcher has found less invasive or intrusive
ways to obtain the same information
i. that the individual subject has given permission to be deceived
during an experimental study
j. that parents have granted permission for children under the age of
18 to participate
k. that any psychological or physical harms will be remedied with
expenses paid by the researchers
l. that the researcher is protected from possible harms or is taking
informed risks
m. specific measures for achieving each of the above has been spelled
n. that these measures are meticulously followed

4. Are all studies subject to IRB approval?

No. However, all studies that will involve gathering data from the public
or that will be published in some form must be reviewed before
university officials will approve the protocol. To accommodate social
science research and historical research expedited review protocols are
submitted. Studies that must be reviewed meet the following criteria:

a. the results will be published beyond internal agency use

b. the study involves experimentation on human subjects
c. the study is invasive or intrusive in some way
d. the study involves deception
e. there are possible risks to the subject

f. there may be no community benefit or direct benefit for the
g. there is a possible conflict of interest by researchers in the study
h. medical or mental health research

5. When my study has been approved by the IRB, are there any additional
requirements that researchers must follow?

Yes. The Common Rule states that research approved by an IRB may be
subject to further review for approval or disapproval by officials of the
institution under the following circumstances:

a. A third party may complain of possible wrong-doing or harms

b. A senior administrator at the university may raise questions that
would result in a follow-up IRB review.

Chapter 20 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Working with the IRB:

Suggested Frame of Mind for
The following suggestions are based on the assumption that the researcher
and the Institutional Research Board (IRB) regulator find themselves on
common ground partners in learning to cooperative in improving research
and its ethical oversight.

1. Become an expert in the ethical issues surrounding your specific

research purpose, related questions, and methodology. Not all studies
require the same degree of IRB monitoring.

2. Become an expert in the ethical standards for research in your academic

discipline. Carefully worded research proposals may allow IRB
regulators to approve it without incident.

3. Become an expert in the IRB process of your institution. Examine how

each part of the IRB protocol or checklist relates to the ethical issue of
your particular study, methodology, and academic discipline.

4. Get to know your IRB members and their expectations for research.
Dont wait until you submit your proposal or go to the IRB meeting to
discover the requirements and preferences.

5. Assume that IRB members want to do a good job. Empathize with them
as you would someone who is in training for a new job.

6. Continue to conduct occasional conversations with IRB members after
your proposal has been approved. Over time IRB members will come
to view your research proposals with greater confidence.

7. Before IRB meetings listen carefully to IRB members talk to you about
research and ethics. Be prepared in non-public, non-confrontational
ways to share your concerns regarding their statements or written

These guidelines can help you get off to a good start without cynicism or
frustration. A positive working relationship with the IRB can promote good
professional health within your research community.

IRB RESOURCES ON THE WEB: This sited defines

the purpose and premises for ethics in research along with the basis for reviewing
and monitoring behavioral research involving human subjects. This site provides support and a forum for discussing

ethical, regulatory and policy issues related to human subjects research This site

provides a good IRB Map to assist in decision regarding submission of an IRB.

Chapter 21 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Research, Writing, and Publication

1. Brainstorm ideas for research and possible publication.

- Look at current journals to see what is current or a hot topic. Many

also have a Call for Papers listing the topics they plan to publish in
future editions.
- Ask professional educational organizations what topics are popular or
important issues in their field of education.
- Think about what interests you. You have to live with the topic until
you complete it. If you are not interested in the topic, it will become
boring or be difficult to keep on task and complete.
- Find out if a colleague or another person in the field of education has a
project, interest, etc. that you could work on with them.
- Find out if a textbook company is looking for someone to write a
chapter in a textbook. These might be on their website or they might
send an email to those on their list-serve.

2. Determine the type of manuscript you want to write. (NOTE: You are
working on a manuscript. Many people call or interchange the term
article for manuscript. A MANUSCRIPT is work that is submitted for
possible publication. An ARTICLE is a manuscript that has been

- Objective survey of the literature available on a topic

- Analysis of literature to support the authors viewpoint
- Interpretive paper on a specific theory, concept, etc.
- Theory paper that develops a new conceptual framework
- Research paper - describing the study, participants, results,
conclusions, etc.
- Chapter for a textbook (They are the easiest to be accepted since they
do not have to go through a blind peer-review process)
- Other types of papers as indicated in the professional journals you read

3. It is also important to know what types of manuscripts a journal typically

- The library should have current issues for your review. Many can be
found online.
- Review the types of article in several issues of the journal. Do they
accept a variety of topics for publication or do they have a theme for
each issue?
- Read the submission or author guidelines. Many can be found online.
- Examine the expertise of the members of the editorial board for ideas
on their research interests.

4. The acceptance rates of journals can range from 80% to 5%. Look at
publishing in journals where the turnaround time may be shorter.
Journals which have very high submission rates have high rejection rates.
Look at using your time wisely. Dont tie up an article for 18 months
if the journal has a low acceptance rate.

5. Ask colleagues which journals they have submitted manuscripts to. They
can give good advice on the where to and where not to for

6. Determine which journal you will submit your manuscript. It is

important to know where you are going to know how to begin the writing
process. It is like taking a trip. You can have a well organized vacation
by using a map or a fly by the seat of your pants experience without the
map. You save time, energy and have a greater chance for successful
publication by knowing where you are going. (Remember research
ethics; only submit your manuscript to one journal at a time. Resubmit it
to another journal only after notification that it is not being published.)

7. When possible, collaborate in writing! A group of two or more can share

ideas and the work.

- Decide on the topic.

- Decide the role and responsibility of each team member. (Use each
others talents. Some are better at writing, others at finding the
references, others at editing, etc.)
- Set timelines and meet on a regular basis to keep each other on task, and
make changes as needed.

8. Schedule a time to write every day. Make it automatic! Thirty to ninety
minutes per day, or at least three times a week. This will help you to stay
on target and not get overwhelmed at the last minute when your writing
project is due.

9. Develop an outline for your manuscript. You can read the published
articles in the journal where you plan to submit and determine what type
of outline to develop.

10. Write your introduction and summary first. Most problems are found in
these sections. They become a guide to your manuscript (a roadmap)! It
will keep you focused on the route you are taking.

11. As you write make sure the manuscript indicate you know what is current
on that topic. Make sure to have at least one to two references from the
same year you plan to submit your manuscript.

12. Make sure your manuscript has a solid conceptual basis.

13. Make sure that findings in your conclusion have been substantiated in
your paper.

14. When the paper is well organized and near completion, have a couple of
colleagues review and edit it.

- Does it make sense to someone else who has read it?

- Does it follow the publication style? (APA, Chicago, MLA, and so
15. See the following tips for submitting your manuscript:

-Ensure you have the exact number of copies required.

-Write a cover letter with the current editors name.
-The cover letter should be professionally written and presented and
include a brief description of your manuscript, why you are submitting it
and your contact information.
-If an online submission, are all submission guidelines followed?
-If mailing the manuscript, ensure you weigh the envelope for the
accurate postage amount.
-Dont submit the exact same manuscript to multiple journals. Journals

require original manuscripts. Note the policy guidelines of the
respective journal.

16. Most editors will document they have received your manuscript through
a letter or email. If you do not receive a letter within a couple of weeks
documenting that your manuscript was received, then call or email the
editor to check to see if the manuscript was received. Remember FedEx
trucks and mail trucks have crashed and hurricanes have damaged mail.
Sometimes forces of nature and accidents prevent a manuscript from
reaching its designated recipients.

17. If you get an acceptance letter, GREAT JOB!! If you receive a letter
indicating the manuscript was not accepted for publication, review the
editorial comments.
- Revise and resubmit if the editor indicates this action should be done.
- If you have questions about the comments made by reviews, contact the
editor and ask them for clarification.
- Ask the editor if they have a suggestion for another journal that might be
more appropriate.
- Revise and look at other potential journals for possible publication.
- Dont worry, your manuscript might not have been the right fit for that
journal or the right time to be submitted there.
- Sometimes a journal receives several manuscripts on the same topic. The
topic might be saturated. Look for another journal to submit the
- Take heart that everyone will get some rejection letters. One of your
authors had that experience four times on her first manuscript. Although I
kept writing other manuscripts and those were being accepted, the first
one was rejected four times. On the fifth submission, it was published.


Fundamental Terms for

Research and Basic

Fundamental Terms of Research and
Basic Statistics

A priori codes codes developed before examining the current data

A-B-A design a single-case experimental design in which the response

to the experimental treatment condition is compared to baseline
responses taken before and after administering the treatment condition

A-B-A-B design an A-B-A design that is extended to include the

reintroduction of the treatment condition

Accessible population the research participants available for

participation in the research

Achievement tests tests designed to measure the degree of learning

that has taken place after being exposed to a specific learning experience

Acquiescence response set tendency to either agree or to disagree

Action research applied research focused on solving practitioners


Alternative hypothesis statement that the population parameter is

some value other than the value stated by the null hypothesis

Amount technique manipulating the independent variable by giving

the various comparison groups different amounts of the independent

Analysis of covariance used to examine the relationship between one

categorical independent variable and one quantitative dependent variable
controlling for one or more extraneous variables; its a statistical method

that can be used to statistically equate groups that differ on a pretest or
some other variable

Analysis of variance see one-way analysis of variance

Anchor a written descriptor for a point on a rating scale

Anonymity keeping the identity of the participant from everyone,
including the researcher

Applied research research about practical questions

Aptitude tests tests that focus on information acquired through the

informal learning that goes on in life

Archived research data data originally used for research purposes and
then stored

Axial coding the second stage in grounded theory data analysis

Back stage behavior what people say and do only with their closest

Bar graph a graph that uses vertical bars to represent the data

Baseline the behavior of the participant prior to the administration of a

treatment condition

Basic research research about fundamental processes

Boolean operators words used to create logical combinations

Bracket to suspend your preconceptions or learned feelings about a


Carryover effect a sequencing effect that occurs when performance in

one treatment conditions is influenced by participation in a prior
treatment condition(s)

Case a bounded system

Case study research research that provides a detailed account and
analysis of one or more cases

Categorical variable a variable that varies in type or kind

Causal modeling a form of explanatory research where the researcher

hypothesizes a causal model and then empirically tests the model. Also
called structural equation modeling or theoretical modeling.

Causal-comparative research a form of non-experimental research

where the primary independent variable of interest is categorical

Cause and effect relationship when one variable affects another


Cell a combination of two or more independent variables in a factorial


Census a study of the whole population rather than a sample

Changing-criterion design a single-case experimental design in which

a participants behavior is gradually altered by changing the criterion for
success during successive treatment periods

Checklist a list of response categories that respondents check if


Chi square test for contingency tables statistical test used to

determine if a relationship observed in a contingency table is statistically

Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE) an annotated index

of articles from educational journals

Closed-ended question a question that forces participants to choose a


Cluster -- a collective type of unit that includes multiple elements

Cluster sampling type of sampling where clusters are randomly

Co-occurring codes sets of codes that partially or completely overlap

Coding marking segments of data with symbols, descriptive words, or

category names

Coefficient alpha a variant of the Kuder-Richardson formula that

provides an estimate of the reliability of a homogenous test

Cohort any group of people with a common classification or common


Cohort study longitudinal research focusing specifically on one or

more cohorts

Collective case study studying multiple cases in one research study

Complete participant researcher becomes member of group being

studied and does not tell members they are being studied

Complete observer researcher observes as an outsider and does not tell

the people they are being observed

Comprehensive sampling including all cases in the research study

Concurrent validity validity evidence obtained from assessing the

relationship between test scores and criterion scores obtained at the same

Confidence interval a range of numbers inferred from the sample that

has a certain probability of including the population parameter

Confidence limits the endpoints of a confidence interval

Confidentiality not revealing the identity of the participant to anyone

other than the researcher and the researchers staff

Confounding variable an extraneous variable that systematically
varies with the independent variable and also influences the dependent

Constant a single value or category of a variable

Constant comparative method data analysis in grounded theory


Construct validity evidence that a theoretical construct can be inferred

from the scores on a test

Construct an informed, scientific idea developed or constructed to

describe or explain behavior

Content validity a judgment of the degree to which the items, tasks, or

questions on a test adequately sample the domain of interest

Contextualization the identification of when and where an event took


Contingency table a table displaying information in cells formed by

the intersection of two or more categorical variables

Control group the group that does not receive the experimental
treatment condition

Convenience sampling people who are available or volunteer or can

be easily recruited are included in the sample

Convergent evidence evidence that the scores on prior tests and the
current test designed to measure the same construct are correlated

Correlation coefficient an index indicating the strength and direction

of relationship between two variables

Correlational research a form of non-experimental research where the

primary independent or predictor variable of interest is quantitative

Corroboration comparing documents to each other to determine
whether they provide the same information or reach the same conclusion

Counterbalancing administering the experimental treatment

conditions to all comparison groups, but in a different order

Criterion of falsifiability statements and theories should be


Criterion-related validity a judgment of the extent to which scores

from a test can be used to predict or infer performance in some activity

Critical case sampling selecting what are believed to be particularly

important cases

Cronbachs alpha see coefficient alpha

Cross-sectional research data are collected at a single point in time

Culture a system of shared beliefs, values, practices, perspectives, folk

knowledge, language, norms, rituals, and material objects and artifacts
that the members of a group use in understanding their world and in
relating to others

Data set a set of data

Data triangulation the use of multiple data sources

Debriefing a post study interview in which all aspects of the study are
revealed, any reasons for deception are explained, and any questions the
participant has about the study are answered

Deception misleading or withholding information from the research


Deductive reasoning drawing a specific conclusion from a set of


Deductive method a top down or confirmatory approach to science

Dehoaxing informing participants about any deception used and the
reasons for its use

Deontological approach an ethnical approach that says ethical issues

must be judged on the basis of some universal code

Dependent variable a variable that is presumed to be influenced by

one or more independent variables

Description attempting to describe the characteristics of a phenomenon

Descriptive validity the factual accuracy of an account as reported by

the researcher

Descriptive research research focused on providing an accurate

description or picture of the status or characteristics of a situation or

Descriptive statistics division of statistics focused on describing,

summarizing, or making sense of a particular set of data

Desensitizing reducing or eliminating any stress or other undesirable

feelings the participant may have as a result of participating in the study.

Determinism the assumption that all events have causes

Diagnostic tests tests designed to identify where a student is having

difficulty with an academic skill

Diagraming making a sketch, drawing, or outline to show how

something works or to clarify the relationship between the parts of a

Differential attrition when participants do not drop out randomly

Differential influence when the influence of an extraneous variable is

different for the various comparison groups

Direct effect the effect of the variable at the origin of an arrow on the
variable at the receiving end of the arrow

Directional alternative hypothesis an alternative hypothesis that
contains either a greater than sign or a less than sign

Discriminant evidence evidence that the scores on the newly

developed test are not correlated with the scores on tests designed to
measure theoretically different constructs

Disproportional stratified sampling type of stratified sampling where

the sample proportions are made to be different from the population
proportions on the stratification variable

Double negative a sentence construction that includes two negatives

Double-barreled question a question that combines two or more

issues or attitude objects

Duplicate publication publishing the same data and results in more

than one journal or in other publications

Ecological validity the ability to generalize the study results across


Effect size indicator a statistical measure of the strength of a


Element the basic unit that is selected from the population

Emic term a special word or term used by the people in a group

Emic perspective the insiders perspective

Empirical based on observation or experience

Empiricism idea that knowledge comes from experience

Enumeration the process of quantifying data

Equal probability selection method any sampling method where each

member of the population has an equal chance of being selected

Equivalent-forms reliability a measure of the consistency of a group
of individuals scores on two equivalent forms of a test measuring the
same construct

ERIC a database containing information from CIJE and RIE

Essence the invariant structure of the experience

Ethical skepticism an ethical approach that says concrete and inviolate

moral codes cannot be formulated

Ethnocentrism judging people from a different culture according to

the standards of your own culture

Ethnography the discovery and comprehensive description of the

culture of a group of people; its a form of qualitative research focused
on describing the culture of a group of people

Ethnohistory the study of the cultural past of a group of people

Ethnology the comparative study of cultural groups

Etic term outsiders words or special words that are used by social

Etic perspective an external, social scientific view of reality

Evaluation determining the worth, merit, or quality of an evaluation


Event sampling observing only after specific events have occurred

Exhaustive categories a set of categories that classify all of the

relevant cases in the data

Exhaustive property that response categories or intervals include all

possible responses

Expectancy data data illustrating the number or percentage of people
that fall into various categories on a criterion measure

Experiment an environment in which the researcher objectively

observes phenomena that are made to occur in a strictly controlled
situation in which one or more variables are varied and the others are
kept constant

Experimental group the group that receives the experimental

treatment condition

Experimental control eliminating any differential influence of

extraneous variables

Experimenter effect the unintentional effect that the researcher can

have on the outcome of a study

Explanation attempting to show how and why a phenomenon operates

as it does

Explanatory research testing hypotheses and theories that explain

how and why a phenomenon operates as it does

Exploration attempting to generate ideas about phenomena

Extended fieldwork collecting data in the field over an extended

period of time

External validity the extent to which the study results can be

generalized to and across populations of persons, settings and times

External criticism determining the validity, trustworthiness, or

authenticity of the source

Extraneous variable A variable that may compete with the

independent variable in explaining the outcome; any variable other than
the independent variable that may influence the dependent variable

Extreme case sampling identifying the extremes or poles of some
characteristic and then selecting cases representing these extremes for

Facesheet codes codes that apply to a complete document or case

Factor analysis a statistical procedure that identifies the minimum

number of factors, or dimensions, measured by a test

Factorial design based on a mixed model a factorial design in which

different participants are randomly assigned to the different levels of one
independent variable but all participants take all levels of another
independent variable; its a design in which two or more independent
variables are simultaneously studied to determine their independent and
interactive effects on the dependent variable

Field notes notes taken by the observer

Filter question an item that directs participants to different follow-up

questions depending on the response

Focus group a moderator leads a discussion with a small group of


Formative evaluation evaluation focused on improving the evaluation


Frequency distribution arrangement where the frequencies of each

unique data value is shown

Front stage behavior what people want or allow us to see

Fully anchored rating scale all points are anchored on the rating scale

General linear model a mathematical procedure that is the parent of

many statistical techniques

Generalize making statements about a population based on sample data

Going native identifying so completely with the group being studied
that you can no longer remain objective

Grounded theory a general methodology for developing theory that is

grounded in data systematically gathered and analyzed; a qualitative
research approach

Group moderator -- the person leading the focus group discussion

Group frequency distribution the data values are clustered or grouped

into separate intervals and the frequencies of each interval is given
Heterogeneous a set of numbers with a great of variability

Historical research the process of systematically examining past

events or combinations of events to arrive at an account of what
happened in the past History any event, other than a planned treatment
event that occurs between the pre- and post measurement of the
dependent variable and influences the post measurement of the dependent

Holistic description the description of how members of groups make

up a group

Homogeneity in test validity, refers to how well a test measures a

single construct

Homogeneous sample selection selecting a small and homogeneous

case or set of cases for intensive study

Homogeneous a set of numbers with little variability

Hypothesis a prediction or educated guess

Hypothesis a prediction or guess of the relation that exists among the

variables being investigated

Hypothesis testing the branch of inferential statistics concerned with

how well the sample data support a null hypothesis and when the null
hypothesis can be rejected In-person interview an interview conducted
face to face

Independent variable a variable that is presumed to cause a change in
another variable

Indirect effect an effect occurring through an intervening variable

Inductive reasoning reasoning from the particular to the general

Inductive codes codes generated by a researcher by directly examining

the data

Inductive method a bottom up or generative approach to science

Inferential statistics division of statistics focused on going beyond the

immediate data and inferring the characteristics of population based on

Inferential statistics use of the laws of probability to make inferences

and draw statistical conclusions about populations based on sample data

Influence attempting to apply research to change behavior

Informal conversational interview spontaneous, loosely structured


Instrumental case study interest is in understanding something more

general than the particular case

Instrumentation any change that occurs in the way the dependent

variable is measured
Intelligence the ability to think abstractly and to learn readily from

Inter-scorer reliability the degree of agreement between two or more

scorers, judges, or raters

Interaction with selection occurs when the different comparison

groups are affected differently by one of the threats to internal validity

Interaction effect when the effect of one independent variable depends
on the level of another independent variable

Inter-coder reliability consistency among different coders

Interim analysis the cyclical process of collecting and analyzing data

during a single research study

Internal consistency the consistency with which a test measures a

single construct

Internal validity the ability to infer that a causal relationship exists

Internal criticism the reliability or accuracy of the information

contained in the sources collected

Internet a network of millions of computers joined to promote


Interpretive validity accurately portraying the meaning given by the

participants to what is being studied

Interrupted time-series design a design in which a treatment

condition is assessed by comparing the pattern of posttest responses
obtained from a single group of participants

Interval scale a scale of measurement that has equal intervals of

distances between adjacent numbers

Intervening variable a variable occurring between two other variables

in a causal chain

Interview a data collection method where interviewer asks interviewee


Interview guide approach specific topics and/or open-ended questions

are asked in any order

Interview protocol data collection instrument used in an interview

Interviewee the person being asked questions

Interviewer the person asking the questions

Intracoder reliability consistency within a single individual

Intrinsic case study interest is in understanding a specific case

Investigator triangulation the use of multiple investigators in

collecting and interpreting the data

IRB the institutional review committee that assesses the ethical

acceptability of research proposals

Item stem the set of words forming a question or statement

Kuder-Richardson formula 20 a statistical formula used to compute an
estimate of the reliability of a homogeneous test

Laboratory observation observation done in a lab or other setting set

up by the researcher

Leading question a question that suggests a researcher is expecting a

certain answer

Level of confidence the probability that a confidence interval to be

constructed from a random sample will include the population parameter

Life-world an individuals inner world of immediate experience

Likert scale a summated rating scale

Line graph a graph that relies on the drawing of one or more lines

Loaded question a question containing loaded or emotionally charged


Logic of significance testing understanding and following the logical

Longitudinal research data are collected at multiple time points and

comparisons are made across time

Low-inference descriptors description phrased very close to the
participants accounts and the researchers field notes

Lower limit the smallest number on a confidence interval

Main effect the effect of one independent variable

Manipulation an intervention studied by an experimenter

Margin of error one half of the width of a confidence interval

Master list a list of all the codes used in a research study

Maturation any physical or mental change that occurs over time that
affects performance on the dependent variable

Maximum variation sampling purposively selecting a wide range of


Mean the arithmetic average

Measure of relative standing provides information about where a

score falls in relation to the other scores in the distribution of data

Measure of central tendency the single numerical value that is

considered the most typical of the values of a quantitative variable

Measure of variability a numerical index that provides information

about how spread out or how much variation is present

Measurement the act of measuring by assigning symbols or numbers

to something according to a specific set of rules

Median the 50th percentile

Median location the numerical place where you can find the median in
a set of order numbers

Mediating variable an intervening variable

Memoing recording reflective notes about what you are learning from
the data

Mental Measurements Yearbook one of the primary sources of

information about published tests

Meta-analysis a quantitative technique used to integrate and describe

the results of a large number of studies

Method of working hypotheses attempting to identify all rival


Method of data collection technique for physically obtaining data to

be analyzed in a research study

Methods triangulation the use of multiple research methods

Mixed purposeful sampling the mixture of more than one sampling


Mode the most frequently occurring number

Moderator variable a variable involved in an interaction effect; see

interaction effect

Mortality A differential loss of participants from the various

comparison groups

Multigroup research design a research design that includes more than

one group of participants

Multimethod research the use of more than one research method

Multiple operationalism the use of several measures of a construct

Multiple regression regression based on one dependent variable and

two or more independent variables

Multiple time-series design an interrupted time-series design that
includes a control group to rule out a history effect

Multiple-baseline design a single-case experimental design in which

the treatment condition is successively administered to different
participants, or to the same participant in several settings, after baseline
behaviors have been recorded for different periods of time

Multiple-treatment interference -- occurs when participation in one

treatment condition influences a persons performance in another
treatment condition

Mutually exclusive property that categories or intervals do not overlap

Mutually exclusive categories a set of categories that are separate or


n the recommended sample size

N the population size

Naturalistic observation observation done in real world settings

Naturalistic generalization generalizing based on similarity

Negative criticism Establishing the reliability or authenticity and

accuracy of the content of the documents and other sources used by the

Negative case sampling selecting cases that disconfirm the

researchers expectations and generalizations

Negative correlation two variables move in opposite directions

Negative-case sampling locating and examining cases that disconfirm

the researchers expectations

Negatively skewed skewed to the left

Network diagram a diagram showing the direct links between
variables or events over time

Nominal scale a scale of measurement that uses symbols or numbers to

label, classify, or identify people or objects

Non-directional alternative hypothesis an alternative hypothesis that

includes the not equal to sign

Normal distribution a unimodal, symmetric, bell-shaped distribution

that is the theoretical model of many variables

Norms the written and unwritten rules that specify appropriate group

Null hypothesis a statement about a population parameter

Numerical rating scale a rating scale with anchored endpoints

Observation unobtrusive watching of behavioral patterns

Observer-as-participant researcher spends limited amount of time

observing group members and tells members they are being studied

Official documents anything written or photographed by an


One-group pretest-posttest design a research design in which a

treatment condition is administered to one group of participants after
pretesting, but before post-testing on the dependent variable

One-group pretest-posttest design administering a posttest to a single

group of participants after they have been given an experimental
treatment condition

One-group posttest-only design administering a posttest to a single

group of participants after they have been given an experimental
treatment condition

One-stage cluster sampling a set of clusters is randomly selected and
all of the elements in the selected clusters are included in the sample

One-way analysis of variance statistical test used to compare two or

more group means

Open coding the first stage in grounded theory data analysis

Open-ended question a question that allows participants to respond in

their own words

Operationalism representing constructs by a specific set of steps or


Opportunistic sampling selecting cases where the opportunity occurs

Oral histories based on interviews with a person who has had directed
or indirect experience with or knowledge of the chosen topic

Order effect a sequencing effect that occurs from the order in which
the treatment conditions are administered

Ordinal scale a rank-order scale of measurement

Outlier a number that is very atypical of the other numbers in a


Panel study study where the same individuals are studied at successive
points over time

Parameter a numerical characteristic of a population

Partial correlation used to examine the relationship between two

quantitative variables controlling for one or more quantitative extraneous

Partial publication publishing several articles from the data collected

in one large study; is generally not unethical for large studies

Participant feedback discussion of the researchers conclusions with
the actual participants

Participant-as-observer researcher spends extended time with the

group as an insider and tells members they are being studied

Path coefficient a quantitative index providing information about a

direct effect

Pattern matching predicting a pattern of results and determining if the

actual results fit the predicted pattern

Peer review discussing ones interpretations and conclusions with

ones peers or colleagues

Percentile ranks scores that divide a distribution into 100 equal parts

Percentile rank the percentage of scores in a reference group that fall

below a particular raw score

Periodicity the presence of a cyclical pattern in the sampling frame

Personal documents anything written or photographed for private


Personality a multifaceted construct that does not have a generally

agreed on definition

Phenomenology the description of one or more individuals

consciousness and experience of a phenomenon

Pilot test a preliminary test of your questionnaire

Point estimate the estimated value of a population parameter

Point estimation the use of the value of a sample statistic as the

estimate of the value of a population parameter

Population the complete set of cases; its the large group to which a
researcher wants to generalize the sample results

Population validity the ability to generalize the study results to the
individuals not included in the study

Positive correlation two variables move in the same direction

Positive criticism ensuring that the statements made or the meaning

conveyed in the various sources is correct

Positively skewed skewed to the right

Post hoc fallacy making the argument that because A preceded B, A

must have caused B

Post hoc test a follow-up test to the analysis of variance

Posttest-only control-group design administering a posttest to two

randomly assigned groups of participants after one group has been
administered the experimental treatment condition

Practical significance a conclusion made when a relationship is strong

enough to be of practical importance

Prediction attempting to predict or forecast a phenomenon

Predictive research research focused on predicting the future status of

one or more dependent variables based on one or more independent

Predictive validity validity evidence obtained from assessing the

relationship between test scores collected at one point in time and
criterion scores obtained at a later time

Presence or absence technique manipulating the independent variable

by presenting one group the treatment condition and withholding it from
the other group

Presentism the assumption that the present-day connotations of terms

also existed in the past

Pretest-posttest control-group design a research design that
administers a posttest to two randomly assigned groups of participants
after both have been pretested and one of the groups has been
administered the experimental treatment condition

Primary source a source in which the creator was a direct witness or in

some other way directly involved or related to the event

Primary data original data collected as part of a research study

Probabilistic cause changes in variable A tend to produce changes

in variable B; its a cause that usually produces an outcome

Probability value the probability of the result of your research study,

or an even more extreme result, assuming that the null hypothesis is true

Probability proportional to size a type of two-stage cluster sampling

where each clusters chance of being selected in stage one depends on its
population size

Probe prompt to obtain response clarity or additional information

Problem of induction things that happened in the past may not happen
in the future

Problem an interrogative sentence that asks about the relation that

exists between two or more variables

Proportional stratified sampling type of stratified sampling where the

sample proportions are made to be the same as the population proportions
on the stratification variables

Prospective study another term applied to a panel study

Purposive sampling the researcher specifies the characteristics of the

population of interest and locates individuals with those characteristics

Qualitative observation observing all potentially relevant phenomena

Qualitative research research relying primarily on the collection of
qualitative data

Quantitative interview an interview providing qualitative data

Quantitative observation standardized observation

Quantitative variable a variable that varies in degree or amount

Quantitative research research relying primarily on the collection of

quantitative data

Quasi-experimental research design an experimental research design

that does not provide for full control of potential confounding variables
primarily by not randomly assigning participants to comparison groups

Questionnaire a self-report data collection instrument filled out by

research participant

Quota sampling the researcher determines the appropriate sample

sizes or quotas for the groups identified as important and takes
convenience samples from these groups

Random assignment randomly assigning a set of people to different

groups; its a statistical control procedure that maximizes the probability
that the comparison groups will be equated on all extraneous variables

Range the difference between the highest and lowest numbers

Ranking the ordering of responses into ranks

Rating scale a continuum of response choices

Ratio scale a scale of measurement that has a true zero point as well as
all the characteristics of the nominal, ordinal, and interval scales

Rationalism idea that reason is the primary source of knowledge

Reactivity an alteration in performance that occurs as a result of being
aware of participating in a study; it refers to changes occurring in people
because they know they are being observed

Reference group the norm group used to determine the percentile


Reflexivity self-reflection by the researcher on his or her biases and


Regression analysis a set of statistical procedures used to predict the

values of a dependent variable based on the values of one or more
independent variables

Regression coefficient the predicted change in Y given a one-unit

changes in X

Regression line the line that best fits a pattern of observations

Regression equation the equation that defines the regression line

Reliability consistency or stability

Repeated sampling drawing many or all-possible samples from a


Repeated-measures design a design in which all participants

participate in all experimental treatment conditions

Replication logic the idea that the more times a research finding is
shown to be true with different sets of people, the more confidence we
can place in the finding and in generalizing beyond the original

Replication research examining the same variables with different


Representative sample a sample that resembles the population

Research design the outline, plan, or strategy used to answer a
research question

Research ethics a set of principles to guide and assist researchers in

deciding which goals are most important and in reconciling conflicting

Research hypothesis the hypothesis of interest to the researcher and

the one he or she would like to see supported by the study results

Research method overall research design and strategy

Research plan the outline or plan that will be used in conducting the
research study

Research problem see problem

Researcher bias obtaining results consistent with what the researcher

wants to find

Researcher-as-detective metaphor applied to researcher when

searching for cause and effect

Response rate the percentage of people in a sample that participate in a

research study

Response set tendency to respond in a specific direction regardless of


Retrospective research the researcher starts with the dependent

variable and moves backward in time

Retrospective questions questions asking people to recall something

from an earlier time

Register in Education (RIE) an index of abstracts of research reports

Rule of parsimony selecting the most simple theory that works

Sample the set of elements taken from a larger population

Sampling error the difference between the value of a sample statistic
and a population parameter

Sampling frame a list of all the elements in a population

Sampling with replacement it is possible for elements to be selected

more than once

Sampling without replacement it is not possible for elements to be

selected more than once

Sampling interval the population size divided by the desired sample

size; it is symbolized by k

Sampling distribution the theoretical probability distribution of the

values of a statistic that results when all possible random samples of a
particular size are drawn from a population

Sampling error the difference between a sample statistic and the

corresponding population parameter

Sampling distribution of the mean the theoretical probability

distribution of the means of all possible random samples of a particular
size drawn from a population

Scatterplot a graph used to depict the relationship between two

quantitative variables

Science an approach for the generation of knowledge

Secondary data data originally collected at an earlier time by a

different person for a different purpose

Secondary source a source that was created from primary sources,

secondary sources, or some combination of the two

Segmenting dividing data into meaningful analytical units

Selection selecting participants for the various treatment groups that
have different characteristics

Selection by history interaction occurs when the different comparison

groups experience a different history event

Selection by maturation interaction occurs when the different

comparison groups experience a different rate of change on a maturation

Selection-maturation effect when participants in one of two

comparison groups grow or develop faster than participants in the other
comparison group

Selective coding the final stage in grounded theory data analysis

Semantic differential a scaling technique where participants rate a

series of objects or concepts

Sequencing effects biasing effects that can occur when each participant
must participate in each experimental treatment condition

Shared values the culturally defined standards about what is good or

bad or desirable or undesirable

Shared beliefs the specific cultural conventions or statements that

people who share a culture hold to be true or false

Significance level the cutoff the researcher uses to decide when to

reject the null hypothesis

Significance testing a commonly used synonym for hypothesis testing

Simple random sample a sample drawn by a procedure where every

member of the population has an equal chance of being selected

Simple case when there is only one independent variable and one
dependent variable

Simple random sampling the term usually used for sampling without

Simple case of correlational research when there is one quantitative

independent variable and one quantitative dependent variable

Simple regression regression based on one dependent variable and one

independent variable

Simple case of causal-comparative research when there is one

categorical independent variable and one quantitative dependent variable

Single-case experimental designs designs that use a single participant

to investigate the effect of an experimental treatment condition

Skewed not symmetrical

Snowball sampling each research participant is asked to identify other

potential research participants

Social desirability response set tendency to provide answers that are

socially desirable

Sourcing information that identifies the source or attribution of the


Spearman-Brown formula a statistical formula used for correcting the

split-half reliability coefficient for the shortened test length created by
splitting the full-length test into two equivalent halves

Split-half reliability a measure of the consistency of the scores

obtained from two equivalent halves of the same test

Spurious relationship when the relationship between two variables is

due to one or more third variables

Standard error the standard deviation of a sampling distribution

Standard deviation the square root of the variance

Standard scores scores that have been converted from one scale to
another to have a particular mean and standard deviation

Standardization presenting the same stimulus to all participants

Standardized open-ended interview a set of open-ended questions are

asked in a specific order and exactly as worded

Starting point a randomly selected number between one and k

States distinguishable, but less enduring ways in which people differ

Static-group comparison design comparing posttest performance of a

group of participants who have been given an experimental treatment
condition with a group that has not been given the experimental treatment

Statistic a numerical characteristic of a sample

Statistical regression the tendency of very high scores to become

lower and very low scores to become higher on post testing

Statistically significant a research finding is probably not attributable

to chance; its the claim made when the evidence suggests an observed
result was probably not due to chance

Stratification variable the variable on which the population is divided

Stratified sampling dividing the population into mutually exclusive

groups and then selecting a random sample from each group

Structural equation modeling see causal modeling

Summated rating scale a multi-item scale that has the responses for
each person summed into a single score

Summative evaluation evaluation focused on determining overall

effectiveness of the evaluation object

Survey research a term sometimes applied to non-experimental
research based on questionnaires or interviews

Synthesis the selection, organization and analysis of the materials


Systematic sample a sample obtained by determining the sampling

interval, selecting a random starting point between 1 and k, and then
selecting every kith element

t test for correlation coefficients statistical test used to determine if a

correlation coefficient is statistically significant

t test for independent samples statistical test used to determine if the

difference between the means of two groups is statistically significant

t test for regression coefficients statistical test used to determine if a

regression coefficient is statistically significant

Table of random numbers a list of numbers that fall in a random


Target population the larger population to whom the study results are
to be generalized

Telephone interview an interview conducted over the phone

Temporal validity The extent to which the study results can be

generalized across time

Test-retest reliability a measure of the consistency of scores over time

Testing any change in scores obtained on the second administration of

a test as a result of having previously taken the test

Tests in Print A primary source of information about published tests

Theoretical sensitivity when a researcher is effective at thinking about

what kinds of data need to be collected and what aspects of already
collected data are the most important for the grounded theory

Theoretical validity the degree to which a theoretical explanation fits
the data

Theoretical saturation occurs when no new information or concepts

are emerging from the data and the grounded theory has been validated

Theory an explanation or an explanatory system; a generalization or

set of generalizations used systematically to explain some phenomenon

Theory triangulation the use of multiple theories and perspectives to

help interpret and explain the data

Think-aloud technique has participants verbalize their thoughts and

perceptions while engaged in an activity

Third variable a confounding extraneous variable

Third variable problem an observed relationship between two

variables may be due to an extraneous variable

Three necessary conditions three things that must be present if you

are to contend that causation has occurred

Time interval sampling checking for events during specific time


Transcription transforming qualitative data into typed text

Trend study independent samples are taken from a population over

time and the same questions are asked

Two-stage cluster sampling first a set of clusters is randomly selected

and second a random sample of elements is drawn from each of the
clusters selected in stage one

Type I error rejecting a true null hypothesis

Type II error failing to reject a false null hypothesis

Type technique manipulating the independent variable by varying the
type of variable presented to the different comparison groups

Typical case sampling selecting what are believed to be average cases

Typology a classification system that breaks something down into

different types or kinds

Unrestricted sampling the technical term used for sampling with


Upper limit the largest number on a confidence interval

Utilitarianism an ethical approach that says judgments of the ethics of

a study depend on the consequences the study has for the research
participants and the benefits that may arise from the study

Vagueness uncertainty in the meaning of words or phrases

Validation the process of gathering evidence that supports and

inference based on a test score or scores

Validity coefficient a correlation coefficient computed between test

scores and criterion scores

Validity a judgment of the appropriateness of the interpretations,

inferences, and actions made on the basis of a test score or scores

Variable a condition or characteristic that can take on different values

or categories

Variance a measure of the average deviation from the mean in squared


Y-intercept the point where the regression line crosses the Y-axis

z-score a raw score that has been transformed into standard deviation

Note: These are common terms and are not attributed to any one source.


Partial Listing of
Selected References
And Acknowledgements

Partial Listing of Selected References and Acknowledgements

(Practical Applications)
William Allan Kritsonis, PhD (2011)


American Educators Encyclopedia, 1991

A Critical Dictionary of Educational Concepts, 2nd edition, 1990

The Educators Desk Reference: A Sourcebook of Educational Information

and Research, 1989

Pattersons American Education, 2000

Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

A Critical Dictionary of Educational Concepts: An Appraisal of Selected

Ideas and Issues in Educational theory and Practice, 1990

Encyclopedia of Educational Research 6th edition, 1992

Encyclopedia of Ethics, 1992

Encyclopedia of Learning and Memory, 1992

The Facts on File Dictionary of Education, 1988

The International Encyclopedia of Education Research and Studies, 1994

World Education Encyclopedia, 1988

The World of Learning, 2000

Yearbooks and Handbooks

Educators Handbooks: A Research Perspective, 1987

International Handbook of Education Systems, Vol. 1: Europe and Canada.

Vol. North Africa and the Middle East. Vol. 3: Asia, Australasian and Latin
America, 1988

Statistical Yearbook/Annuaire/Statistique/Annuario Estadistico, 1984

Comprehensive Dissertation Index 1861-1972; 1973+

Dissertation Abstracts Online 1861 Accessible only from Mugar Reference

Department Abstracts from 1980+

The Dissertation Handbook: A Guide to Successful Dissertations, 2nd

edition, 1993


Black Americans: A Statistical Sourcebook, Education Reference X E 185.5

B63 1990 Mugar Reference X E 185.5 B63 2000

The Condition of Teaching: A State-by-State Analysis Mugar Reference X

LB 2832.2 C66, 1988

Digest of Education Statistics Mugar Reference X L 112 F62

Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators Mugar Reference X LB 2846

B56, 2000

Index to International Statistics Mugar Reference X Z 7552 153

The National Education Goals Report: Building a Nation of Learners,

Education Reference X LA 210 N37

Public Schools USA: A Comparative Guide to School Districts, Education

Reference X LA 217.2 H37, 1991

Status of the American Public School Teacher, Education Reference X LB

283.2 S7 2005-2006

UNESCO Statistical Digest, Education Reference X L 11 S863

World Education Report, 2009


American Educational Research Journal

American Journal of Education

Basic Education

Comparative Education Review

The Education Digest

The Educational Forum

Educational Research

Educational Studies

Educational Theory

Estimates of School Statistics

Harvard Educational Review

International Journal of Scholarly Academic Intellectual Diversity

International Forum of Educational Renewal

International Review of Education

Journal of Education

Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics

The Journal of Educational Research

National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal

National FORUM of Applied Educational Research Journal

National FORUM of Teacher Education Journal

National FORUM of Special Education Journal

On-Line Scholarly Electronic Journal Division of National FORUM

Journals Numerous national refereed periodicals.

Peabody Journal of Education

Rankings of the States

Research in Education

Review of Educational Research

Review of Research in Education

Teaching and Teacher Education

Review of Research in Education

Teaching and Teacher Education

The Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education

Web Sites

American Demographics

Bureau of Economic Analysis

Bureau of Labor Statistics

Condition of Education /pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp? pubid=1999022

Digest of Education Statistics

Encyclopedia of Education statistics



Fed Stats

International Archives of Education Data

Inter-university Consortium of Political and Social Research

National Center for Education Statistics

National Center for Education Statistics Search Tools and Related


National Center for Education Statistics Survey and Program Areas

National Center for Health Statistics


Projections of Education Statistics to 2009

The Qualitative Report

Research and Statistics

Research Reports from The National Research and Development Centers


STAT-USA Internet

Statistical Abstracts of the United States

Statistical Resources on the Web

University of Michigan Documents Center: Statistics Section

University of Virginia Social Science Data Center

Testing and Assessment Tests

Educational Testing Service Index

Test Locator


Research Centers and Education Laboratories

American Education Research Association

Center for Applied Linguistics

Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence (CREDE)

Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Teaching


Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At-Risk


Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement (CIERA)


Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy (CTP)


Common Core of Data: Information on Public Schools and School Districts

in the United States\\

National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL)

National Center for Improving Student Learning and Achievement in

Mathematics and Science (NCISLA)

National Center for Postsecondary Improvement (NCPI)

National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL)

National Center on the Gifted and Talented (NRC/GT)

National Center on Increasing the Effectiveness of State and Local

Education Reform Efforts www.upenn.ed/gse/cpre

National Research and Development Center on English Learning &

Achievement (CELA)

Research Reports from The National Research and Development Centers, Ask ERIC

ED Pubs

Educational Research and Improvements Reports and Studies

Education Resource Organizations Directory

Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC)

ERIC Clearinghouses

ERIC Digests

ERIC Document Reproduction Service

ERIC/AE full Text Internet Library

How to get copies of ERIC Database Materials

Massachusetts Department of Education

National Library of Education

Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI)


Search the ERIC Database

State Departments of Education

Other Selected References

Aiken, L. R. (1988). Psychological Testing and Assessment. Boston, MA:

Allyn & Bacon.

Babbie, E.R. (1989). The Practice of Social Research (5th Edition).

Belmont, CA: Wadsworth

Best, J. & Kahn J. (1998). Research in Education (8th Edition). Boston, MA:
Allyn & Bacon

Borich, G. & Kubiszyn, T. (2000). Educational Testing and Measurement

(6th Edition). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Charles, C. M. & Mertler, C. A. (2002). Introduction to Educational

Research (4th Edition). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Dillamn, D. (1978). Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design Method.
New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Gall, J. P., Gall, M. D., and Borg, W. R. (2005). Applying Educational

Research: A Practical Guide. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Johnson, B., and Christensen, L. (2004). Educational Research: Quantitative,

Qualitative and Mixed Approaches. Pearson Education Inc., Boston, MA:
Allyn and Bacon

Kritsonis, W. A. (2002). William Kritsonis, PhD on SCHOOLING.

Mansfield, OH: BookMasters.

Kritsonis, W. A. (2003). Procedures in Educational Research and Design.

Mansfield, OH: BookMasters.

Mertler, C. (2003). Classroom Assessment. Los Angeles, CA: Pyrczak


Popham, W. & Sirotnik, K. (1973). Educational Statistics (2nd Edition).

New York, NY: Harper & Row

Spatz, C. & Johnson, J. (1989). Basic Statistics. Pacific Grove, CA:

Brooks/Cole Publishing.

Spcinthall, R. (2000). Basic Statistical Analysis (6th Edition). Boston, MA:

Allyn & Bacon.

Spcinthall, R., Schmutte, G. T., & Sirois, L. (1990). Understanding

Educational Research. Englewood cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Stigler, S. (1986). The History of Statistics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard

University Press.

Worthen, B. & Sanders, J. (1987). Educational Evaluations. New York,

NY: Longman


About the Author

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

About Dr. William Allan Kritsonis

WILLIAM ALLAN KRITSONIS was recognized as the Central Washington

University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and
Professional Studies. He was honored by the Texas National Association for
Multicultural Education as Professor, Scholar, and Pioneer Publisher for Distinguished
Service to Multicultural Research Publishing. The ceremony was held at Texas A&M
University-College Station. He was inducted into the prestigious William H. Parker
Leadership Academy Hall of Honor. He was an Invited Visiting Lecturer at the Oxford
Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, United Kingdom. Dr. Kritsonis
was a Visiting Scholar at Columbia Universitys Teacher College in New York, and
Visiting Scholar in the School of Education at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.
In May 2015, Dr. Kritsonis participated in the Think Tank on Global
Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The think tank focused on how to help students develop intercultural awareness,
knowledge of global issues, and multilingualism.
He served on a national think tank appointed by the Secretary of Education in
2012-15 for Providence Rhode Island Schools with sessions conducted at Brown
University in the Annenberg Institute for School Reform. In 2013, he was a nominee for
the Outstanding Texas Educator Award exemplifying the leadership of John Ben
Shepperd for public leadership education, ethics, and public service.
He is Founder of National FORUM Journals (Since 1982). Professor Kritsonis is
the author of numerous articles as well as author or coauthor of several books.
He has served as a teacher, principal, superintendent of schools, director of
student teaching and field experiences, professor, author, consultant, editor-in-chief, and
publisher. Dr. Kritsonis has considerable experience in chairing PhD dissertations and
teaching in doctoral and masters programs in educational leadership and supervision. He
has earned the rank as professor at three universities in two states, including successful
post-tenure reviews.
Dr. Kritsonis has traveled and lectured extensively throughout the United States
and world-wide. Some international travels include Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania,
Turkey, Italy, Greece, Monte Carlo, England, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland,
Russia, Estonia, Poland, Germany, Mexico, the Caribbean Islands, Mexico, Switzerland,
Grand Cayman, Haiti, St. Maarten, St. John, St. Thomas, St. Croix, St. Lucia, Puerto
Rico, Nassau, Freeport, Jamaica, Barbados, Martinique, Canada, Curacao, Costa Rico,
Aruba, Venezuela, Panama, Bora Bora, Tahiti, Latvia, Spain, Honduras, and many more.
He has been invited to lecture and serve as a guest professor at many universities
across the nation and abroad.
Dr. William Allan Kritsonis is presently Professor of Educational Leadership at
The University of Texas of the Permian Basin in the College of Education within The
University of Texas System. He teaches in the MA Principal and Superintendent
Certification and preparation programs along with assisting to develop a new doctoral

program. He earned his PhD from The University of Iowa, Iowa City, MEd from Seattle
Pacific University, and BA from Central Washington University.

David E. Herrington, PhD

Texas A&M University-San Antonio
Winter 2016