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In May 2015, Dr. Kritsonis participated in the Think Tank on Global Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, Massachusetts. The think tank focused on how to help students develop intercultural awareness, knowledge of global issues, and multilingualism.
He served on a national think tank appointed by the Secretary of Education in 2012-15 for Providence Rhode Island Schools with sessions conducted at Brown University in the Annenberg Institute for School Reform. In 2013, he was a nominee for the Outstanding Texas Educator Award exemplifying the leadership of John Ben Shepperd for public leadership education, ethics, and public service.

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(Practical Applications)

42563 Musilek Place

Temecula, California 92592

Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act Of 1976, no part of this

professional publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means,

or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the proper written permission of Dr.

William A. Kritsonis. No unauthorized reproduction of the text is permitted.

ISBN: 0-9770012-5-2

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

$49.00 (United States)

$59.00 (Canada)

$79.00 (All others)

17603 Bending Post Drive

Houston, Texas 77095

www.nationalforum.com

1

Research

(Practical Applications)

By

Professor of Educational Leadership

The University of Texas of the Permian Basin

Central Washington University

College of Education and Professional Studies

Ellensburg, Washington

Oxford Round Table

University of Oxford

Oxford, England

School of Graduate Studies

Southern Christian University

William H. Parker Leadership Academy

Prairie View A&M University

The Texas A&M University System

Harvard Graduate School of Education

2

3

Dedication

This book is dedicated to any person that has taken a class from me over

the years. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

area of research with students at both the masters and doctoral levels.

A list of acknowledgements and credits is provided in the Partial Listing

of Selected References and Acknowledgements at the end of this book.

Any omissions are not intentional.

4

CONTENTS

Page

5

Page

Chapter 13: Descriptive Statistics ..................................................................... 81

Chapter 17: Getting Started With Research: Avoiding the Pitfalls ................... 96

Chapter 19: Ethics in Research on Human Subjects and the role of the

Institutional Review Board - Frequently Asked Questions ............................. 101

of Mind for Researchers .................................................................................. 104

PART II: Fundamental Terms for Research and Basic Statistics ............. 110

and Acknowledgements ................................................................................. 144

6

PART I:

Practical Applications of

Research and Basic

Statistics

7

Chapter 1 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Development of Research

1. Key Points

a. Observations

b. Experience

c. Intuition

d. Hand me down

e. Revelation

f. Definition or Decree

g. Philosophy or Logic

h. Instinct

2. Centuries ago, medicine men, religious authorities, and elders were

knowledge sources. (No one questioned them.)

3. With time, people began to observe orderliness and cause and effect

relationships in the universe. Events were recorded and analyzed.

the time of year and the seasons.

b. Authority versus empirical evidence

c. Elders versus personal experience

the way to more diverse and analytical thinking.

8

a. Developed the first approach to reasoning.

b. Deductive Method - moving from general assumptions to specific

Syllogism

1) Major Premise: All men are mortal.

2) Minor Premise: Socrates is a man.

3) Conclusion: Socrates is a mortal.

8. Centuries later, Francis Bacon expanded on similar concepts.

b. Arriving at conclusions or generalizations through evidence of many

individual observations led to inductive reasoning.

the emerging of the scientific method or scientific approach.

10. In 1930, John Dewey articulated detailed steps of the scientific method

or scientific approach as follows:

b. Formulate a hypothesis

c. Collect, organize, and analyze data

d. Formulate conclusions

e. Verify or reject hypothesis, modify hypothesis

There are many ways to specifically approach the scientific method and

there are numerous generalizations of scientific approaches.

anticipating the consequences of events.

9

11. Researchers vacillate back and forth--inductive-deductive-inductive-

deductive. An example would be to hypothesize-observe, collect data-

reject hypothesis, reformulate new hypothesis-observe, collect more data-

partially accept hypothesis, and then collect more data.

12. Science

field of study.

2) Two Functions of Science

i. Develop theory

ii. Test hypotheses deduced from theory

b. Rational Approach - logical deductive reasoning

hopes of possibly controlling events. Some examples are provided

below.

b. Behavior of gases - Air-conditioning, refrigeration

c. Atomic Theory - Nuclear power

d. Celestial Theory - Space travel, NASA, Satellites, and other technical

advances.

2) Examples:

i. Teaching Method A is better than Teaching Method B.

ii. Cigarette smoking causes heart disease.

iii. Extra curricular activities improve academic performance.

iv. Computer Assisted Instruction improves academic

achievement.

10

v. Homework improves academic achievement.

analysis can be applied.

2) The null hypothesis is saying the difference, if any, is due to

chance.

3) Rejecting the null hypothesis with a probability statement would

support the research hypothesis (Ha).

4) Examples:

i. There is no difference in heart disease between smokers and

nonsmokers.

ii. There is no difference in academic achievement between

Method A and Method B.

iii. There is no difference in grades between CAI students and

non-CAI students.

iv. There is no difference in academic achievement due to

participation in extra curricular activities.

a. Population-----------------------parameter

b. Sample---------------------------statistic

c. Sample: a small proportion of a population selected for observation

and analysis

d. Statistic: a value from a sample used to infer the parameters of a

population

selected

b. Systematic Sample: every nth number

c. Stratified Random Sample: subdivide population and select sample

proportionally-A random sample of each of the subgroups is done.

d. Cluster Sample: most complex of all samples, used for very large

groups; costly and take time.

11

50 states---------------------Randomly choose 20 states.

20 states---------------------Randomly choose 80 counties.

80 counties------------------Randomly choose 50 school districts.

50 districts------------------Randomly choose 10 teachers from

each of the 50 school districts.

The total sample would consist of 500 teachers.

f. Purposive Sample: participants are chosen not by chance, but

intentionally to yield data for evaluation purposes

b. The larger the sample, the better the sample represents the

population.

c. In utilizing a survey, be certain to have a large sample.

d. In a sample, 32 is the magic number statistically, but try to obtain

more (with randomness).

research is solely to gain new knowledge. This research is often

referred to as the search for knowledge for knowledges sake.

b. Applied: The purpose is to improve a product (software, textbook,

etc.) or process (teaching, learning, etc.) by testing a theoretical

concept in a real actual problem situation. Most educational research

is applied research. With the passing of time, basic research usually

spurns further applied research. New knowledge gained eventually

becomes useful and lends to advances in knowledge, which then

directs more applied research to take place.

c. Action: The purpose and focus are on immediate application-not on

development of theory. The focus is on the here and now in a local

setting.

12

20. Two ways to Classify Research

a. Quantitative Research: (Measuring)

2) Educational, medical, and agricultural professions use this type of

classification.

1) People and events are described with limited numerical data. This

research consists of a rich, literal description in a prose, narrative

form.

2) Interviews of people, students, and other sources are used to collect

information. Research is written in prose form.

3) There are five major approaches to qualitative research: narrative

inquiry, ethnography, phenomenology, case study, and grounded

theory (Creswell, 2008).

a. Historical

1) A description of what was.

2) Application of the scientific method to the use of historical data to

answer historical questions or to test historical hypotheses.

b. Descriptive

1) A description of what is.

2) Application of the scientific method to the acquisition and use of

current data to describe current conditions

are carefully manipulated.

1) Basically, data are interpreted without numerical analysis.

2) Interviews, videos, and other methods are used to gather

information.

13

Suggested Activities

your definition of research, the steps you feel are needed to be taken

to do research, and what types of research have you read or become

familiar with in your profession and your educational experience?

Share your group activity with the entire class.

2. Each group should answer the following: What two things would you

like to see changed in your profession or questions answered? How

could you use research to address that change? What types of

research could you use to answer your questions? How would you set

up the type of research needed to answer these questions? Share your

group activity with the entire class.

ideas identified in the previous activity. Share your group activity

with the entire class.

WEBSITES:

San Jose State University http://www2.sjsu.edu/depts/itl/graphics/induc/ind-

ded.html

14

Chapter 2 - William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Historical Research

Key Points

1. Is an attempt to arrive at conclusions concerning causes, effects or trends

of past occurrences that may help explain past and present events and

predict future events.

interpreting events of the past.

4. Sources of Information

a. Primary Sources

of superintendents, school newspapers, curriculum guides, grade

books, along with other sources.

principals, teachers, and students.

examinations.

b. Secondary Sources

15

5. Characteristics of Historical Research

a. Guided by hypotheses or questions to be answered

b. Systematic collection of data

c. Objective evaluation of data

d. Limited to available data

e. Explanationnot just rehashing of the pastexplains why it

happened as it did

f. May investigate individuals, ideas, movements, institutions, cultural

circumstances, and movements

g. Employs the scientific method

1) Too many uncontrollable factors.

2) Key individuals wield too much influence.

3) Situations wont repeat themselves.

1) Were not written as objects of research

2) May involve secondnot firsthand information

3) Information is sometimes incomplete if records are unavailable or

have been destroyed.

d. Significant variables cannot be manipulated.

e. A lack of direct observation and control of variables may limit the

scope of the research.

f. Uniqueness cannot be replicated.

b. Formulate the hypothesis or questions to be answered.

provide referrals of possible participants and locations of artifacts.

d. Collect data.

16

1) Primary sources

2) Secondary sources

1) External criticismauthenticity

i. Was this person really present?

ii. Is this a real document from that time period?

2) Internal criticismaccuracy

i. Did the person give an unbiased account of what happened?

ii. Is the document telling a true story or did the author have a

hidden agenda?

iii. Did anyone tamper with the document?

e. Synthesize data.

1) Conclusions

2) Generalizations

3) Explanation or hypothesis

.

17

SUGGESTED STUDENT ACTIVITIES:

MAJOR QUESTION: How does your university compare today with the

institution which was 50 years ago?

SUBQUESTIONS:

A. What academic programs were offered sixty years ago that were

related to education?

B. What types of school facilities were available then?

C. What was the type of curriculum offered to students?

D. How large was the student body?

E. What was the ethnic make-up of the student body?

F. What role did the school play in the community, state and nation?

G. How many professors/instructors were employed?

Compare and contrast the data from 50 years ago with today.

18

Chapter 3 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Descriptive Research

Key Points

1. Characteristics of Descriptive Research

a. Is non-experimental: deals with natural, not contrived relationships

generalizations

a. Descriptive Research

2) There is no hypothesis.

3) Researcher is just collecting data.

4) Example: Sixty five percent of principals are male; 35% are

female. The average age of principals is 43; the average age of

teachers is 38.

19

b. Correlational Research

relationship between two or more variables.

2) The relationship between the variables may be strong, weak, or

there could be no relationship.

3) Correlational studies can be used to predict.

Coefficient of .8.

c. Causal-Comparative Research

findings. It is aimed at discovering potential causes for a pattern by

comparing a treatment group against a non-treatment group.

2) One should not say that a variable was the cause of an action,

unless all other variables were controlled. After analyzing the data,

the researcher should identify the limitations of the study.

3) There is no experimental manipulative.

4) Example: Collective bargaining apparently had some effect on

teacher job satisfaction since satisfaction levels were higher after

collective bargaining than they were prior to collective bargaining.

20

SUGGESTED STUDENT ACTIVITIES:

1. Divide into groups of four to five students. Develop a chart listing the

different types of descriptive research. Compare and contrast each

type of research. Provide at least three examples of each type.

DESCRIPTIVE WITH OTHER WITH OTHER

RESEARCH TYPES OF TYPES OF

DESCRIPTIVE DESCRIPTIVE

RESEARCH RESEARCH

1. Surveys Very similar to polls Use of a large a. restaurant

in that you collect number of cases to questionnaire

data according to a describe to a general b. general

set of questions. population. You satisfaction survey

can collect data on for products

attitudes as well as purchased

other practices, c. (add more to the

occurrences, etc. list)

Polls are usually

much smaller and

are the collection of

attitudes.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

21

2. Describe how you can use both activity analysis and trend analysis to

determine the types of teachers that will be needed in the next five

years for both an urban and rural school district. Look at factors of the

individuals job as well as the growth trends/declines and population

changes (increase in retirees opposed to school age children) for the

area. Select either an elementary, middle school or high school you

are familiar with and use both types of descriptive research methods to

determine what types of staff patterns would be needed for your

school.

22

Chapter 4 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Experimental and

Quasi-Experimental Research

Key Points

1. Definition: determining what will happen under certain circumstances

a method of hypothesis testingIf this is done, what will happen?

b. Ultimate purpose: generalization to a larger population

2. Law of the Single Variable: If all variables are held constant except

one, any changes in the outcome are due to changes in that one variable.

3. Experimental Grouping

a. Experimental Group vs. Control Group

consideration

2) Treatment Group: same as experimental group

3) Control Group: group not exposed to variable under consideration

grouped according to type of treatment, not just absent of treatment.

4. Variables

experimenter manipulates, controls, or observes

b. Independent Variable: variable manipulated by the researcher for

grouping.

23

2) Organismic Variable: attribute of the subjects that cannot be

controlled.

c. Dependent Variable: outcome; condition or characteristic that

appears, disappears, or changes according to manipulation of the

independent variable (Results).

d. Confounding Variable: aspect of a study that can influence the

dependent variable, which can be confused with the effects of the

independent variable.

of the independent variable upon the dependent variable.

2) Extraneous Variable: uncontrolled aspect of a study that is similar

in effect to the independent variable and may render subjects

grouping invalid.

5. Experimental Validity

extraneous variables, has a genuine effect on the dependent variable.

by the study can be generalized to other settings.

b. History: events in the course of the study that may influence the

dependent variable

scores tend not to repeat themselves.

24

g. Interaction of Selection and Maturation: When subjects can choose

the group to which they will belong, the variable that directed their

choices may have undue influence on the dependent variable.

knowledge of the subject may have undue influence on the

researchers judgment.

a. Interference of Prior Treatment: carryover of subjects knowledge

or skill from a previous situation that may be mistaken for an effect of

the independent variable.

experimental setting is so controlled that it does not adequately imitate

the real-life situation for generalizations to be made.

sensitize subjects to concealed purposes of the study and serve as a

stimulus to change.

was not applied in the manner prescribed by the study.

f. John Henry Effect: subjects work harder because they realize they

are competing with others.

attention. This effect is due to researchers giving them extra attention.

25

8. Controlling Threats to Experimental Validity

a. Remove the Variable: variable is not considered in results.

assigning them to different groups

group means and variances will be equal

experimenter to eliminate initial differences in the experimental

groups

chance; best way to make study valid

to neutralize them. Remember, neutralize not eliminate!

9. Experimental Design

a. Definition: procedures of the study that enable valid conclusions by

controlling the following:

2) Control of variables: independent and confounding

3) The gathering and treatment of data

4) Development of hypothesis

5) Statistical testing of hypotheses

validity

a. Pre-Experimental Design: provides no way for equating groups that

are used

groups that are used

26

c. Quasi-Experimental Design: used when random selection is not

available

11. In studying experimental design, the following Campbell and

Stanley symbols are used:

b. X exposure of a group to a treatment

c. C exposure of a group to a control or placebo condition

d. O observation or test administered (data gathered)

b. Using random selection

1) X O

2) No random selection and no control group

1) O X O

2) No random selection, no control group, and interference of

variables

1) X O

C O

2) No random selection

27

Pre-experimental design, the least adequate of designs, is

1) R X O

R C O

2) Has random selection; has control group

1) R O X O gain (X) = O O (pretests)

R O C O gain (C) = O O (posttests)

2) Has random selection; has control group

1) R O X O

R O C O

R X O

R C O

2) Has random selection; has control group

3) Difficult to find enough subjects

28

15.Quasi-Experimental Designs

a. The Pretest-Posttest Nonequivalent-Groups Design

1) O X O

O C O

2) No random selection

3) Pretest is used as covariate.

1) O O O O X O O O O

2) No random selection

1) O X O X O X O X O

2) No random selection

1) O X O O X O

2) No random selection

3) Can be conducted with just one group or two separate groups

16. Factorial Designs: used when more than one independent variable is

involved

29

SUGGESTED STUDENT ACTIVITY:

2. Why would I do it?

3. What do I already know or what has already been studied concerning this

problem?

4. What are your hypotheses and research questions? (Research and null)

5. What would you do to conduct the research? (List steps, who to talk

with, who to obtain permission for conducting the research, and

instruments you will use to collect data?)

6. Who are your participants?

7. How will you collect the data?

8. How will you interpret the data?

30

Chapter 5 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Qualitative Research

Key Points

1. Qualitative research is sometimes called naturalistic inquiry.

phenomena, allow for advocacy of participants, and give voice to

participants perspectives.

study or can serve as an additional methodology in a mixed methods

study.

school.

participant and non-participant. The researcher can observe what goes on

in gyms, cafeteria, library, classrooms, and hallways.

records, discipline reportssuspension and expulsion ratioWhen

you analyze these, you often employ quantitative steps, such as more

than half, 60% etc.

succinct conclusion or awareness of data in a study. For example, it could

include interviews, observations, and an analysis of documents or

records. It could be any two or all three. One could interview three

people from different backgrounds on the same topic.

31

6. The advantage of using multiple data collection techniques is that the

researcher gets a broader or more in-depth view of a school or a situation.

Reality will reveal itself this way.

a. The study is concerned with things that a number cannot answer about

a school, such as spirit, atmosphere, great extra-curricular activities,

and educational quality.

9. The disadvantage is that the researcher may get too close to the people

being interviewed. Depending on the level of analytical ability of the

research, the relationship might bias the study.

impossible. Try to authentically represent the participants perspectives.

a. Pre-organize: Organize ahead of time the things that you need to do.

b. Collect the data.

c. Organize the data.

d. Interpret the data.

e. Organize the data around themes.

f. Conduct member checks.

g. Write a report.

32

A qualitative study can support

a quantitative study, which will present

a better picture of reality and truth.

concern that you could develop a brief questionnaire to gather data.

(Examples could be: a) experiences encountered by students at

registration; b) benefit of research to the academic development of

children? c) views on a policy issue in your graduate program, etc.)

Each member should write down five things they feel are important/their

views on the topic. Compare and contrast the viewpoints among the

group members. Are there patterns of concern or do you find a variety of

views on the topic?

2. Identify the steps needed to collect data on the topic discussed in activity

#1. What can each group member do to ensure they do not let their own

biases effect the collection of data? How could triangulation be used to

collect data on your groups topic of interest?

33

Chapter 6 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Key Points

1. Qualities of a Good Test

2. Types of Validity

a. Content: Questions should deal with content covered and the objective

taught.

2) Concurrent: It is closely related to other measures.

construct.

34

3. Correlation Coefficient: The procedure quantifies the relationship of

paired variables.

Example:

-1 0 .7.8.9 1

compare Test A with Test B. It provides an extensive list of instruments a

researcher can use in a study as well as reviews of the instruments. The

Buros Center for Testing is located at the University of Nebraska-

Lincoln. For more information, go to http://www.unl.edu/buros/.

Questionnaire

such as professors in the discipline and research field.

who will not be a part of your actual study. Score it and calculate the

Cronbachs Alpha Coefficient for each of the test items to determine

reliability of the instrument if quantitative.

test/questionnaire to the same individuals, and again calculate the

Cronbachs Alpha Coefficient.

should be high (a Cronbachs Alpha of .62 or higher is considered

acceptable for social science research).

suggestions for improvement.

Remember to get permission from the publisher.

35

6. Types of Reliability of Test or Questionnaire/Opinionnaire

Example:

If there are 50 questions on a test or questionnaire, answer

only the odd numbered items. Score this part. Next, answer only the

even numbered items, and score this part. Your score should be very

close on each part. This premise is also true for different forms of a

test.

commonality (similarly related).

possible correlations (of split halves).

scoring criteria. They must not be biased.

measurement the scores will be put into a formula and calculated.

a. Covers a significant topic.

b. Looks important to respondentState significance of topic.

c. Only seeks information that is not obtainable otherwise

d. Short as possible, clear and easy to complete

e. Attractive, neat, and easy to duplicate.

36

f. Clear directions with definitions of important terms

g. Avoid asking two questions in one item. Keep questions short and

concise.

i. Questions should be presented from general to specific.

j. Avoid annoying, embarrassing questions.

k. If delicate questions are included, inform participants that all answers

will be kept anonymous. Code questionnaires to keep them

anonymous and to enable the researcher to identify which ones have

been submitted and which ones have not.

m. Computer tabulate, if possible.

8. Preparing the Questionnaire

b. Give the questionnaire to friends to complete in order to obtain

feedback.

d. Obtain permission from principals and superintendents to conduct

research at school sites.

e. Include permission letter with the mailed questionnaire.

1) Cover letter

2) Signed and Approved Permission letter

3) Questionnaire

keep it anonymous.

h. Enclose a stamped, self-addressed return envelope.

37

i. Code the questionnaire for follow-up.

k. Scale to use.

Note: If one must use a scale, the Likert scale is the most common and

the most practical.

modify it more than 25%, it is not valid.

c. When an instrument is reliable, it gets the same results over a period

of time.

d. A questionnaire must be reliable and valid.

should write to the publisher of the test and request verification of test

validity. The publisher will provide this information to you. The

Buros Mental Measurement Yearbook is available in university

libraries. This yearbook gives summaries of instruments.

38

SUGGESTED STUDENT ACTIVITIES:

questions) on your groups topic of interest. Include only open-ended

questions on the questionnaire. (Other types of questions, other than

open-ended, might provide quantitative data instead of qualitative.)

Share this questionnaire with other groups in your class to determine if

questions are clear and easy to understand and answer. (Decide if data

will be collected through passing out a questionnaire or by a face-to-face

interview. REMEMBER, FOR THE RESULTS TO BE RELIABLE,

EACH QUESTIONNAIRE MUST BE ADMINISTERED WITH THE

SAME METHOD!)

other individuals outside your class to respond to your questions. As a

group, review the data you have collected. Look at the data gathered on

each of your questions. Look for main themes and concerns or ideas.

Interpret what the findings mean and how the results could be used to

make changes, keep the status quo, etc. Report your findings back to

your class.

39

Chapter 7 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Normal Distribution

Key Points

1. The reason for statistics is that there are numerical data in educational

research. You will have to interpret, understand, and treat data.

1) Nominal

a. Names or classifies someone or something

b. Examples

i. Social security numbers

ii. License plate numbers

iii. Bank account numbers

iv. Student identification numbers

2) Ordinal

a. Names, classifies, and ranks someone or something

b. Examples

i. Class rank

ii. Sports rank

1) Interval

a. Names, classifies, ranks, and has equal intervals between

numbers

40

b. Has no true zero point

2) Ratio

a. Names, classifies, ranks, has equal intervals, and has a true zero

b. Examples

i. Test scores

ii. Height of students

Measures of Variability (also referred to as Spread, Dispersion, or

Scatter)

1) The mean is the arithmetic average.

X

ii. b. X

N

measure of centrality.

iv. Example:

2

4 4.8 = X

5 5 24.0

6 20

7 40

X = 24 40

N = 5

X = 4.8

ascending or descending order.

c. The mode is the number that occurs most often in a data set.

41

d. One purpose of the mean and median is to represent the typical

score.

d. When the distribution of scores is such that most scores are at one end

and there are relatively few at the other end (skewed distribution), it

is better to use the median because it is a better indicator of test

scores.

of the median.

2) In a negatively skewed distribution, the mean is pulled to the left

of the median.

Dispersion, or Scatter)

1) Symbol: SS

2) Formula: X X 2

c. Variance: the average squared units of deviation from the mean

1) Symbol

i. Sample: S 2

ii. Population: 2

2) Formulas:

2

X

2

X

i. N

N

SS

ii.

N

42

iii. The variance is a value that describes the distance that scores

are dispersed or spread from the mean.

iv. This value is very useful in describing the characteristics of a

distribution.

1) Symbol

i. Sample: S

ii. Population:

2) Formulas

i. 2

2

X

2

X

ii. N

N

Curve, and Bell-Shaped Curve).

1) It is symmetrical.

2) The mean, median, and mode are all at the same point right down

the center.

3) The curve is the highest at the mean.

4) Most of the scores cluster or crowd around the mean and decrease

as they move away from the mean.

5) The curve theoretically never touches the baseline.

the height of men and women, I.Q. test scores, and shoe sizes.

43

6. Normal curve

Percent of cases

under portions of

the normal curve

34.13% 34.13%

13.59% 13.59%

2.15% 2.15%

.12% .12%

(Standard Deviation)

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

68.26% Percentage of

frequencies in a

95.44% normal

distribution

99.74%

99.98%

44

Very few scores will extend above or fall below

Percent of cases

under portions of

the normal curve

34.13% 34.13%

13.59% 13.59%

2.15% 2.15%

.12% .12%

(Standard Deviation)

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

.1% 2.3% 15.9% 50% 84.1% 97.7% 99.9% (Percentiles)

45

Very few scores will extend above or fall below

a. Conceptual Way:

(raw SS

2

score)

X X X X X 2 SS

N

2

2 6 -4 16 8

4 6 -2 4 5 40 Square of 8

= 2.8

6 6 0 0 40

8 6 +2 4

10 6 +4 16

X =30 0 40

X 6 SS 40 (Sum of Squares)

Md 6 2 8 (Variance)

46

Measures of Measures of

Central Tendencies Variability

X 6 SS 40

Md 6 2 8

2.8

b. Computational Way

2

X

2

2

X

2

X X

X X 2 N N

N N

220

302

220

302

2 4 5 5

5 5

4 16

6 36

8 64

10 100

X 30 220

900 900

220 220

X 6 5 5

5 5

6

5 30

N 5

5 5

40 40

8

5 5

8 2.8

47

SS 40 Sum of Squares

2 8 Variance

2.8 Standard deviation

9. Correlation

a. Correlation is the linear relationship between two or more variables.

coefficient.

2) Types of correlation

i. Positive correlation

a) A perfect positive correlation is +1, which is rarely if

ever encountered.

b) Correlations of .7, .8, and .9 indicate a high positive

correlation.

c) Examples of positive correlation: As one increases, the

other has a tendency to increase.

up, scores in Y go up

X Y

48

John 1 2

Bob 2 4

Mark 3 6

Bill 4 8

Jeff 5 10

49

b. Negative correlation

1) A perfect negative correlation is -1, which is rarely if ever

encountered.

2) Examples of negative correlation: As one increases, the other has a

tendency to decrease.

scores in Y go down.

X Y

John 1 5

Bob 2 4

Mark 3 3

Bill 4 2

Jeff 5 1

situation exists. For example, a person who increases exercise

would likely lose weight.

c. No correlation

1) A perfect lack of correlation is zero; however, rarely would it fall

exactly on zero, such as in case of 1, .2, or .3

2) Examples of no correlation

Height and IQ

50

10. Three ways to Interpret Coefficient of Correlation (Pearsons r)

a. .90 .80 .70 Rule

(high) (strong) (moderate)

2) .80 indicates a strong relationship.

3) .70 indicates a moderate relationship.

4) .60 indicates a fair relationship.

5) Below .5 indicates that it may be due to chance.

6) There is a stronger indication that no relationship exists as the

number gets closer to zero, such as .2 and .3.

one could determine a percent of what Y would be.

squaring the correlation coefficient.

1) Formulas

X Y

XY

r N

X 2 X Y 2 Y

2 2

N N

Sum of Squares Sum of Squares

of X of Y

X Y

XY N

r

SS X SSY

51

2) Example

X X2 Y Y2 XY

John 1 1 2 4 2

Bob 2 4 2 4 4

Bill 3 9 3 9 9

Joe 4 16 4 16 16

Sam 5 25 5 25 25

15 55 16 58 56

56 1516

r

5

106.8

SS X X 2

X

2

55

152

55

225

55 45 10

N 5 5

SSY Y

Y

2

2

58

16 2

58

256

58 51.2 6.8

N 5 5

56 48

68

8

8 .2

52

X and Y have a lot in common.

r 2 .94 (Given X, one could tell 94% of the time what Y would be.

94% of the time what Y would be.

difficult to predict the correlation as the correlation goes down.

means:

correlation indicates the similarities between numbers.

a. z score

may differ, a z score permits a realistic comparison of

scores and may allow equal weighting of the scores.

2) Formula

XX

z

X raw score

X mean

standard deviation

53

12. Normal Distribution Problems

percent of scores lies between the two z scores for each of the following

pairs?

(1) 3 and -3 ______ (5) 1 and -1 ______ (9) -.5 and 1.2 ______

(2) 0 and 1 ______ (6) 0 and .5 ______ (10) 1.3 and 2.4 ______

(3) 0 and 6 ______ (7) 1 and -2 ______ (11) 1.5 and -1.5 ______

(4) 2 and -2 ______ (8) 0 and -6 ______ (12) 0 and 2 ______

Identify the z score for each of the following percentiles.

(14) 60th percentile ______ (20) 40th percentile ______

(15) 65th percentile ______ (21) 30th percentile ______

(16) 70th percentile ______ (22) 16th percentile ______

(17) 90th percentile ______ (23) 5th percentile ______

(18) 95th percentile ______ (24) 75th percentile ______

Population mean is 32. Population standard deviation is 3.

Identify the z score for each of the following raw scores.

(26) 38 _____ (29) 26 ______

(27) 28 _____ (30) 33 ______

54

Directions: Treat each of the following as if distribution is normal. What

percent of scores lie between each of the following pairs of raw scores?

(population mean = 32 population standard deviation = 3)

(32) 29 and 26 ______ (37) 32 and 30 ______

(33) 38 and 41 ______ (38) 26 and 23 ______

(34) 32 and 33 ______ (39) 23 and 20 ______

(35) 35 and 38 ______ (40) 32 and 34 ______

63, 79, 88, 88, 87, 89, 89, 90, 90, 90, 93, 94, 95, 95, 98, 99

3. Does the mean differ from the median? Why or why not?

8. Using the mean and the standard deviation, plot these test scores to

see where they fall in a distribution around the mean.

55

Chapter 8 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Key Points

standard deviation.

2. Null Hypothesis

test of logic.

concluding there is a significant difference between the two means,

and this difference is not due solely to chance.

d. The .05 alpha level is often used as a standard for rejecting the null

hypothesis, which means that 95 times out of 100 the results are not

due to chance.

e. The .01 alpha level is a more rigorous test. It means that 99 times out

of 100, the results are not due to chance.

56

3. z test: One-tailed Test

b. A researcher thinks the scores of the sample will be superior to

established scores.

Acceptance Area

95%

Rejection Area

5%

X +1.65 (z score)

57

4. z test: Two-tailed Test at .05 alpha level

b. A researcher thinks the scores of the sample will be different from the

established scores.

47.5% 47.5%

2.5% 2.5%

-1.96 X +1.96

Two-tailed test 1.96 2.58

58

6. Degrees of Freedom

b. As the number of degrees of freedom increases, the strength of the

prediction increases.

1) Characteristics

2) No population mean

3) No

4) Compares the means of two different independent groups

5) Example

6) Group X has been taught with Method A; compute the mean.

7) Group Y has been taught with Method B; compute the mean.

8) The researcher wants to determine if one method is better than the

other method.

9) Formula for Independent t Test

X Y

Independent t

X

2 X 2

Y

2 Y 2

N N

n n 1

X Y

SS X SSY DF N1 N 2 2

N N 1

DF (Degrees of Freedom)

59

4. Used in medical, agricultural, and educational research

1) Characteristics

i. Pre and post tests (pairs)

ii. Only involves one group

iii. c. D X Y

2) Formula

X Y

Correlated t

2

D

2

D

N

N 1

N

DF N 1

3. Example

between the pre- and post mean. If there is a significant difference,

then the special teaching method id helpful. (Null hypothesis is

rejected.)

60

c. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

2) Characteristics

i. Involves three or more groups.

ii. All groups are treated differently.

3) Also referred to as the F Test, which was named after the man who

invented the test.

4) Formula

F

S 2Wg variance within groups

d. Pearsons r (correlation)

1) Characteristics

i. Measures the degree of relation between two variables.

ii. Determines the degree of linear relationship between two

variables.

2) Formula

X Y

XY

N

X

2 X 2

Y

2 Y 2

N N

61

Chapter 9 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Note: The research proposal is a framework for any research study. A

proposal should also clearly and succinctly reveal your intended plan. In

most instances, university policy and specifications for the length of research

proposals are adopted; however, it is quality not quantity that is important

when writing a prospectus for research.

1. Title Page

a. Title:

1. Use enough descriptive words to catalog the title by ERIC and

Resources in Education.

2. Example:

The Effects of Collective Negotiations on Teacher Job Satisfaction in

the Temecula School District in southern California.

b. Style You also want to include the name of the institution granting

the degree. The title page is not typically paginated.

2. Introduction to the Study

a. This part should be relatively short and capture the readers attention.

manner that will make the reader interested in the topic.

included.

d. The operative word for this section is brief. Keep in mind, the

proposal is not the completed study.

3. Review of Literature

62

a. This component reviews pertinent literature and information relevant

to your topic.

cite the contributors of the work you referenced. You want to ensure

you give credit to the author who originally conceived the idea,

theory, or concept. Remember, if you didnt write it, you should cite

it.

indicate the information as a direct quote through use of quotation

marks or block indent format. Your entire literature review should not

consist only of quotes of other people. Most authors have copyright

provisions that limit the percentage of direct quotes of their work.

Also, quotes should be used to underscore critical points that

otherwise could not have been paraphrased and cited and/or

summarized and cited.

framework helps the researcher design the study. For qualitative

research, the framework helps the researcher design the study and will

serve as the lens for analyzing the data.

g. Ensure you cite the recognized work on a topic. Some topics have an

abundance of literature. You want to ensure that you have cited those

works that are central, critical, and significantly established on your

topic. As an example, if you included Critical Race Theory as a

framework in your study, you want to ensure you have cited those

authors who have contributed significantly to the articulation of this

theory.

motives for conducting the research on your specific topic.

63

b. Opposing conclusions are a good way to set up the statement of the

problem. Ensure you provide those details that help the reader

understand the problem from a broader perspective as well as localized to

your specific population of the study.

concerning collective bargaining and its effect upon the plight of the

teacher. Smith (2005) found that the bargaining had not benefited

teachers. Jones (2005) noted that bargaining had greatly enhanced

teacher morale. In the district of this proposed study, approximately

25% of collective bargaining negotiations have resulted in law suits with

the teachers unions (Dedeaux, 2009).

In this section, you will include a phrase that states the purpose of this

study is to .

which the collective bargaining process has influenced teacher job

satisfaction levels.

6. Research Questions

a. In this part, you will break down the Purpose of the Study into several

pertinent research questions.

2) Purpose of the Study

3) Research Questions

bargaining rights? What was the level of teacher job satisfaction after

bargaining rights?

7. Hypotheses

64

a. For quantitative studies, the research questions are put in statistical

terms in this section.

following the acquisition of bargaining rights.

8. Definitions

a. In this part, define terms specific to your study that may not be

familiar to the outside reader.

individuals would know but might be different in different school

districts in a state, region or nation.

Educational AssociationSixty-nine percent of all Temecula School

District teachers are members of this organization.

9. Assumptions

a. Any assumed aspect the researcher may take should be duly stated.

the job satisfaction levels of teachers.

provided after you have conducted the research and recognize that the

study has been restricted in a certain manner. Any boundary or limitation

of the study must be stated.

only one school district. Teachers surveyed may vary in years of

experience.

11. Methodology

65

a. This section includes the following four parts:

1) Participants

i. Describe participants or sample (who and where).

ii. The population may be described in this part.

2) Instrument

i. Give details about the test or instrument and specific

materials.

ii. Validity and reliability may be discussed.

3) Procedures

i. Describe a step-by-step process of the researchers plan of

action.

ii. The timeline and permission to conduct the study may be

included.

4) Data Analysis

i. Describe how the data will be analyzed.

ii. The following information should be included:

iii. The type of statistical test that will be used, whether or not

means will be compared, and whether or not charts or graphs

will be included.

a. State why this study is worthy of the time and effort that will go into

it.

this district, state or region.

c. Example: Data derived from this study will serve as a guide to school

districts in similar settings that are also considering the collective

bargaining process.

13. References

66

a. References should be relevant, recent, and cited in the American

Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association

(MLA), or any other required format.

references will vary depending on the topic and resources available.

should contribute at least one area of concern that they would like to

solve in their role as educators. Identify one area of concern that is

important to the entire group. This approach can help you conceive

the purpose of your study. Write three to five research questions

(what you want to know about the area of concern).

groups study.

3. Define terms that may not be familiar to the outside reader that would

be related to your study.

(Subjects, instrument to be used to collect the data, procedures to be

used to collect the data, include a timeline of when this would be

done, and the type of statistical test you would use to analyze the data

you will collect.)

67

Chapter 10 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Note: Parts of the Field Study have been discussed in the section entitled

Parts of a Research Proposal, therefore only their titles will be listed

in this section. Additional parts and those parts that need to be

expanded will be listed and discussed in this section.

1. Title

2. Abstract

3. Table of Contents

1) Introduction to the Study

2) Statement of the Problem

3) Purpose of the Study

4) Research Questions and/or Hypotheses

5) Definitions

6) Assumptions

7) Limitations

8) Significance of the Study

Literature and the Methodology.

68

5. Chapter 2: Review of the Literature

b. Ten to twenty citations are sufficient.

c. Remember to keep the citations recent and relevant.

a. This section is basically the part in the proposal that was labeled

Methodology.

b. Describe in detail what was done/will be done in the study.

c. Some information in this section may have to be changed because the

information here will state what was actually done, not what the

researcher planned to do as was stated in the proposal.

a. Describe in prose and in chart or graph form the numerical results and

data analysis of the study.

b. Do not explain, summarize, or conclude in this chapter.

c. Tell and show only the results. Do not attempt to explain the results.

b. An explanation may be given as to why the results turned out as they

did.

c. Try to consider all factors and variables that could have influenced the

dependent variable.

d. Recommendations for further study in regard to this topic should be

included.

e. Further study could likely be conducted on this issue at another school

or in a slightly different manner.

appropriate style manual format.

69

10. Appendices

Include the list in the Table of Contents. Ensure you label each

document, graph, figure, and item in the appendices with the term

Appendix followed by an alphabetical letter.

b. Remember to include the chapter and page number.

DISSERTATIONS & THESES

The following is a checklist of items which are typically included in a graduate research project,

thesis, or dissertation. Not all of the suggested categories are necessary or appropriate for all

studies, and the order of items within chapters may vary somewhat. These items are intended to

serve as a guide:

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

________ Introduction

________ Background of the problem (e.g., educational trends related to the problem, unresolved

issues, social concerns)

________ Statement of the problem (basic difficulty - area of concern, felt need)

________ Research Questions to be answered or investigated

________ Hypothesis or Hypotheses statements if needed or specified by advisor.

________ Purpose of the study (goal oriented) -emphasizing practical outcomes or products

________ Importance of the study - may overlap with the statement of problem

________ Assumptions (postulates)

________ Delimitations of the study (narrowing of focus)

________ Limitations of the study (after the study has been conducted)

________ Definition of terms (largely conceptual here; operational definitions may follow in

Methodology Chapter)

________ Organization of the Study....Outline of the remainder of the thesis or proposal in

narrative form.

________ Organization of the present chapter - overview

________ Historical background (if necessary)

________ USE KEY WORDS in each Research Question and follow with the literary review that

addresses each question.

Purposes to be Served by Review of Research Literature

________ Acquaint reader with existing studies relative to what has been found, who has done work,

when and where latest research studies were completed, and what approaches involving

research methodology, instrumentation, and statistical analyses: were followed (literature

review of methodology sometimes saved for chapter on methodology)

________ Establish possible need for study and likelihood for obtaining meaningful, relevant, and

significant results

________ Furnish from delineation of various theoretical positions, a conceptual framework affording

bases for generation of hypotheses and statement of their rationale (when appropriate)

________ Organize this chapter in the same order as the research questions are stated in chapter I. Be

very careful to fully align the review of literature with the research questions.

70

Note : In some highly theoretical studies the chapter "Review of Literature" may need to

precede "The Problem" chapter so that the theoretical framework is established for a

succinct statement of the research problem and hypotheses. In such a case, an advance

organizer in the form of a brief general statement of the purpose of the entire

investigation should come right at the beginning of the "Review of Literature" chapter.

________ General integrative reviews cited that relate to the problem situation or research problem such

as those found in Review of Educational Research, Encyclopedia of Educational Research, or

Psychological Bulletin.

________ Specific books, monographs, bulletins, reports, and research articles --- preference shown in

most instances for literature of the last ten years.

________ Unpublished materials (e.g. dissertations. theses, papers presented at recent professional

meetings not yet in published form, but possibly available through another source.

________ Selection and arrangement of literature review often in terms of questions to be considered,

hypotheses set forth, or objectives or specific purposes delineated in problem chapter

________ Summary of literature reviewed (very brief)

________ Overview or at least an introduction

________ Restate the research questions

________ Hypotheses stated in NULL FORM.

________ Description of research methodology or approach (e.g., experimental, quasi-experimental,

correlational, causal-comparative, or survey)

________ Research design - Spell out independent, dependent variables

________ Subjects of the Study (Clearly describe the sample and population.)

________ Instrumentation (tests, measures, observations, scales, and questionnaires)

________ Pilot studies (as they apply to the research design, development of instruments, data collection

techniques, and characteristics of the sample)

________ Validity--provide specifics on how you will establish validity or provide validity data specific

to your instrument from other studies with similar populations

________ Reliability--provide specifics on how you will establish reliability or provide data specific to

your instrument from other studies with similar populations

________ Procedures (Field, classroom or laboratory e.g., instructions to subjects and so forth)

________ Data collection and recording

________ Data analysis (statistical analysis or qualitative analysis explained in detail)

________ Summary

________ Findings are presented in tables or charts when appropriate

________ Findings are reported with respect to furnishing evidence for each question asked

(ORGANIZED IN THE SAME ORDER AS HEADINGS IN CHAPTER I & III) or each

hypothesis posed.

________ Appropriate headings are established to correspond to each main question or hypothesis

considered

________ Other factual information kept separate from interpretation, inference, and evaluation (one

section for findings and one section for interpretation or discussion)

Note: In certain historical, case-study and other types of investigations, factual and

interpretive material may need to be interwoven to sustain interest level, although the

text should clearly reveal what is fact and what is interpretation.

________ Separate section often entitled "Discussion", "Interpretation", or "Evaluation" ties together

findings in relation to theory, review of literature, or rationale

________ Summary of chapter

71

CHAPTER V : SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS

________ Brief summary of the study and findings portion from Chapter IV

________ Conclusions (Often restatement of the research questions key topics or variables and final

conclusions analyzing the answers)

________ Recommendations (practical suggestions for implementation of findings)

________ Recommendation for further study

ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE OF THE DOCUMENT

1. Copyright Page

2. Title Page

3. Signature Page

4. Abstract

5. Dedication Page

6. Acknowledgments

7. Table of Contents

8. List of Tables

9. List of Figures

10. Body text, divided into chapters designated by upper case Roman numerals

11. References in the specified style manual format

12. Appendices and supporting documents

13. Human Subjects Review Approval document

14. Authors Vita

TABLES/FIGURES

1. Tables and/or figures should appear no more than one page from where they are first

referenced

2. Tables and/or figures may be placed in the appendices and referenced in the body text

3. Tables and/or figures are identified by chapter and number. ( Example: Table 4.1

would be first table to appear in chapter 4)

MARGIN SETTINGS:

1. 1 Left margin and 1 inch top, bottom and right margin or other university set

specifications

SPACING

1. Double spaced throughout the document

2. Indent each paragraph first line .05

PAPER

1. 100 percent cotton, 20-pound bond

FONT AND SIZE

1. Arial, Bookman, Times New Roman or similar font recommended

2. Size: Standard 12 font

PAGINATION

1. Every page should be assigned a number.

2. Preliminary pages, small Arabic numbers (i, ii, iii, iv etc) in the center at bottom of

each numbered page

3. Abstract receives the first numbering at the bottom and in the center

4. First page of each chapter should be in the center at the bottom of the page in the

footer

72

5. All other pages should have numbers in the upper right hand side of the page

variety of topics.

http://www.dissertation.com This site has a number of great tips, feature articles and a

monthly newsletter related to the dissertation process.

http://www.jsmusic.org.uk/students/dissertations/dissertations_checklist.html This

site contains a valuable checklist for help with organizing and completing the document.

with each component and a timeline to help guide you through the steps to completion.

plagiarism in detail along with the consequences for the act.

for selecting the topic and researching library resources on this quality website.

contains a good set of links to assist with grammar, punctuation, style and other writing

issues.

of good links to assist with APA in-text and reference list formatting.

for proper APA or MLA references.

save you some time in formatting table of contents and other essential pages of the

document.

http://www.academicladder.com/dissertation/dissertation-coaching-help.htm

Academic ladder provides a free bi-weekly tips subscription to help conquer some of the

problems and issues that arise in writing the dissertation or thesis.

73

Chapter 11 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Key Points

1. Definitions of Statistics

on these numbers.

all the numbers).

2. Examples

a. Descriptive Statistics

2) Includes the mean, median, mode (Measures of Central

Tendencies)

b. Inferential Statistics

1) Definitions

74

i. A method of reaching conclusions about immeasurable

populations using sample evidence and probability

samples to reach conclusions about populations

(A probability table is needed.)

4) Example

5 million 5th grade students (population) Teach using Method A

randomly selected

(sample of

above set)

(Students were taught differently.)

4. Population

examples:

2) All fifth graders in Texas

3) All fifth graders in Waller County

75

5. Sample

b. Example

1) Of five million fifth grade students (population),

100 students were randomly selected (sample).

2) 60 male 40 female

students students

6. Parameter

a. Definitions

1) A numerical characteristic of a population

2) A statistic of a population

3) A measurement of a population

b. A constant

7. Statistic

a. Definitions

1) A numerical characteristic of a sample

2) A measurement of a sample

b. A variable

a. Definition: Concerned with all the things that influence the numbers

influenced the outcome.

and the conclusion based on these numbers.

76

9. Variable

b. Examples

1) Height

2) Gender

3) Weight

4) Test scores

i. I. Q.

ii. IOWA

iii. LEAP

iv. ACT

(IV)

(DV)

might affect the results (DV)

e. Examples of treatment

1) Different book

2) Different teaching method

3) Male/female teachers

4) Experience of teachers

5) Time of day

77

Chapter 12 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Key Points

Discrete data -

1) Just names something or someone

2) Examples

i. Social security numbers

ii. Phone numbers

iii. I. D. number

iv. Credit card number

v. Home address

vi. Bank account number

computed with this type of data.

2) Numbers tell you relative positions or orders

3) Examples

i. Class rank (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.)

ii. Rank by height

iii. Sports rank

iv. Rank in a contest

78

4) More useful than nominal but still not that useful

5) Not exact

6) Hides things

7) Intervals are not equal.

8) No math is involved

9) Ranking is not mathematical.

10) Cant get an average rank

Example

Mrs. Smith thinks there is a correlation between how students rank in math

and science.

_______________________________________________

Mary 5 4

Joey 3 5

Alice 4 2

Sam 1 3

Bob 2 1

What does this 1 ranking really mean? We do not know how the class as a

whole performed. It could mean this student scored 60/100. That is why it is

maintained that ordinal data (ranking) hides information.

Instead of ranking, Mrs. Smith should use the actual test scores of students

because they are more specific data.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Bottom

top

79

2. Parametric Data: Data which are normal. (Continuous)

1) Interval Data

2) Names, ranks, and has equal intervals between numbers

interval data.

b. Ratio Data

1) Names, ranks, has equal intervals, and has a true zero point

2) Examples

i. Height

ii. Time

iii. Distance

iv. Some test scores (i.e. a teachers test)

v. Speed

vi. Weight

vii. Income

heavy, etc.

80

Scales of Different Types of Data

1. Nominal

2. Ordinal

3. Interval Mathematical operations can be

4. Ratio computed with these types of data.

average

As you move farther from the average, the percentage gets smaller.

81

Chapter 13 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Descriptive Statistics

1. Two Types of Descriptive Statistics (Summarize/describe test scores.)

a. Three Measures of Control Tendencies

1) Mean: arithmetic average

or descending order

4) Examples

i. X

X 30

X 6

N 5

2

4 N 5

6 middle score Median 6

8 Mode none

10 (no score occurs more

than any other)

X 30

bimodal 3 trimodal 2

3 2

Summation of 3 2

4 3

4 3

4 3

4

4

4

ii. Y

82

X 30

X 6

N 5

2

2 N 8

4 Median 5.5

5 To obtain the median, Mode 2

6 take the average of

8 the two middle Note: To obtain the median, find

10 numbers the average of the two middle

12 numbers, 5 and 6.

Y 49 5 5.5 = median

+6 2 11.0

11 10

Summation of 10

10

computing it are addition, multiplication, and division.

3. Types of Distribution

a. Normal Distribution

b. Positively Skewed Distribution

c. Negatively Skewed Distribution

a. The bell curve is symmetrical.

b. The highest point is the mean.

c. The mean, median, and mode are located at the same place on the Bell

curve.

d. The mean, median, and mode are located at the 50th percentile.

83

e. The scores cluster around the mean. As you move farther to the left or

right, there are fewer and fewer scores.

f. Half of the scores are above the mean, and half of the scores are

below it.

g. Most people score around the mean.

h. The curve never touches the baseline and goes forever in both

directions because it is a theoretical model.

i. Example

57 58 58 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 61 61 61 62 62 63

Normal

Distribution

The same amount of

numbers are on either

side of 60; therefore,

the mean, median, and

mode are located at

the same place.

When thousands of people are involved, scores tend to fall into a

normal curve.

a. The mean, median, and mode are not located at the same point.

84

b. Outliners cause distortion and cause the mean to be pulled to the right.

c. When the mean is pulled to the right, you have a positively skewed

distribution.

h. Example

57 58 58 59 59 60 60 60 61 61 62 69

The median is 60, however 69 is the outliner and causes the mean to be

greater than the median.

6) Example

50 59 59 60 60 60 61 61 62

The median is 60, however 50 is the outliner and causes the mean to be

lower than the median.

7. Facts to Remember

does not move.

85

9. The mean can be pulled to the right or left.

10. In skewed distributions, use the median to report a class average.

Deviation)

a. If the range is small, the standard deviation will also be small.

2) Sum of Squares: The sum of the squared units of deviation from the

mean; the central mathematical point from which

everything in parametric statistics is based around

5) Symbols for

Population Sample

SS SS

2 S2

S

for Mean

Population Sample

X or F or Y or Z or MSU

(anything with a bar over it)

Note: Always ask if you are computing the standard deviation for a

population or a sample. The formula is slightly different.

86

Conceptual Way (slow way)

2

Raw Deviation Sum of Variance Standard Deviation

Scores Mean from Mean Scores (for population) (for population)

X X X X X X 2 SS

N

2

2

and s2

Raw Variance Standard Deviation

Scores (for population and sample) (for population)

X

2

2

X

2

X

2

X

X X 2 N N

N N

2

X

2

X

Sum of Squares: N

N

X 2

X

2

Variance: N

N

X

2

X

2

X

2

X

2

Standard Deviation: N N

N N 1

87

Central Measures and Variability

Directions: Find all central measures (mean, median, and mode) of all

distributions.

Find all measures of variability (sum of squares, variance, and

standard deviation) of distributions.

1) 2) 3) 4)

11 12 13 14

11 12 13 14

12 13 14 15

13 20 16 15

13 20 17 18

13 23 18 18

14

5) 6) 7) 8)

3 3 3 3

3 6 9 8

3 9 12 11

4 12 12 12

4 15 12 12

5 15 12 13

9) 10) 11)

2 4 1

4 4 1

6 4 10

88

Chapter 14 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Types of Distributions

Key Points

1. Mesokurtic Distribution

c. Example:

34.13% 34.13%

13.59% 13.59%

2.15% 2.15%

.12% .12%

(Standard Deviation)

-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

.1% 2.3% 15.9% 50% 84.1% 97.7% 99.9%

89

2. Platykurtic Distribution

a. This distribution is basically flat.

c. Example:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

3. Leptokurtic Distribution

5

5

5

5

5

2 3 4 5 6 7

VARIABILITY (SPREAD) OF A DISTRIBUTION.

90

Chapter 15 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Formulas

one sample

based on

normal X M

z distribution z0

(population

standard N

deviation) is

known

critical z is

always 1.65

at .05 alpha

level

one or two X M

tailed t0

S

t is

N

unknown

one sample DF N 1

X Y

two different

2 2

Independent independent X 2 X Y 2 Y

t groups N N

Test no

no population n n 1

mean DF n1 n2 2

91

Name of Test Characteristics Formula

Correlated tests (pairs) t

same group 2

D

2

t D

Test Dx y N

N 1

N

DF N 1

measures the

degree of X Y

Pearsons r relation XY N

(Correlation) between two

X 2 X Y 2 Y

2 2

variables

determines N N

the degree of

linear

relations

92

Chapter 16 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

and Using Statistics

1. The most common skill necessary for doing statistics is counting. For

example:

b. the number of items correct or incorrect on a test

c. the number of discipline referrals

d. frequency of unacceptable or desirable behaviors

e. the number of attempts required to master a skill

example, things we measure in education include:

b. aptitude

c. interest

d. skill level

e. knowledge

f. attitudes of teachers, parents, students toward specific thing

g. opinions of various constituencies

h. beliefs of important players in the organization

i. level and type of motivation

j. degree of improvement

k. progress

l. behaviors

93

3. The most frequently applied mathematical operations in statistics include

addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

If you know how to count, measure, add, subtract, multiply, and divide,

then you ALREADY possess the skills necessary to do statistics.

We use these concepts without thinking. For example:

arithmetic mean or mean.)

performance on a measurement was one, two or three standard

deviations above the mean.)

that is to say, these results were not due to accident or chance.)

mean and median are not equal and that the distribution is positively

or negatively skewed.)

there is a statistically significant relationship between this and that.

The correlation is usually stated in numeric form, for example r=.34,

p< .01)

about statistics already exist. All you have to do is learn the directions and

follow them. Making your easier are the facts that:

for calculating your data.

94

c. Statistical software such as the Statistical Package for Social

Sciences (S.P.S.S.) and S.A.S. make the analysis of your data very

systematic and complete including tables, graphs and charts.

stage of learning statistical analyses. In addition, SPSS is a low

cost resource to students and it provides professional statistical

analysis and tools in a user friendly software environment for

both MAC and PC users. A list of resources for learning SPSS is

provided at the end of the chapter.

analysis capabilities. SAS handles a wide variety of specialized

functions for data analysis and procedures. This software

package is utilized extensively in business, industry as well as

educational settings and include tools for both specialized and

enterprise-wide analytical needs. SAS is provided for PC,

UNIX, and mainframe computer platforms. A list of resources

for learning SAS is provided at the end of the chapter.

6. In a very short time you will realize that you can use your existing skills

but will use them MORE skillfully when you include statistics.

of the RIGHT things you will be able to skillfully analyze data and

draw accurate and MEANINGFUL conclusions.

b. You will learn to use your findings and conclusions to make better

informed educational decisions.

95

Web Resources for SPSS

http://www.utexas.edu/its/rc/tutorials/stat/spss/spss1/index.html

http://www.ats.ucla.edu/STAT/mult_pkg/whatstat/default.htm

http://www.stat.tamu.edu/spss.php

http://www.spsstools.net/spss.htm

http://cs.furman.edu/rushing/mellonj/spss1.htm

http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/examples/default.htm

http://www.psych.utoronto.ca/courses/c1/spss/toc.htm

http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/modules/default.htm

http://data.fas.harvard.edu/projects/SPSS_Tutorial/spsstut.shtml

http://www.cas.lancs.ac.uk/short_courses/intro_spss.html

http://www.cas.lancs.ac.uk/short_courses/notes/intro_spss/session1.pdf

http://www.bris.ac.uk/is/learning/documentation/spss-t2/spss-t2.pdf

http://calcnet.mth.cmich.edu/org/spss/toc.htm

http://www.indiana.edu/~statmath/stat/spss/

http://dl.lib.brown.edu/gateway/ssds/SPSS%202%20Hypothesis%20Testing

%20and%20Inferential%20Statistics.pdf

http://dl.lib.brown.edu/gateway/ssds/SPSS1%20Finding%20and%20Managi

ng%20Data%20for%20the%20Social%20Sciences.pdf

http://www.shef.ac.uk/scharr/spss/index2.htm

http://www.itc.virginia.edu/research/sas/training/v8/

http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/sas/sk/

http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/sscc/pubs/stat.htm

http://web.fccj.org/~jtrifile/SAS2.html

http://www.utexas.edu/cc/stat/tutorials/sas8/sas8.html

http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/sas/modules/

http://www.psych.yorku.ca/lab/sas/

http://instruct.uwo.ca/sociology/300a/SASintro.htm

http://web.utk.edu/~leon/jmp/

http://www.stat.unc.edu/students/owzar/stat101.html

96

Chapter 17 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Avoiding the Pitfalls

Any of the following mistakes can prevent a study from getting off the

ground or being carried out to completion. Avoid these mistakes by listening

to the voice of experienced professors when they tell you to modify your

study. Consider the following mistakes and the proposed solutions.

research questions that do not match your stated purpose. Research efforts

may halt due to the confusion.

Solution: Write the purpose and research questions with clarity and

simplicity. Allow expert writers to critique your work and take their

suggestions seriously.

problem and the research problem. She may try to save the whales with

her study when a better understanding of the problems that endanger the

whales is needed. The study may prove too unwieldy to complete. The

goal may be too grandiose to be unattainable.

practical problem then carefully carve out for your own study the part

that is most significant and workable. Remember that your goal is to

finish.

complex when a simpler design would yield equally useful information.

The study may become unwieldy and may obfuscate rather than

illuminate the subject.

Solution: Examine all research questions included in your study and rank

them in order of the significance and usefulness. If any data do not help

97

fulfill the purpose of your study, then these should be dropped so that the

other areas can stand out.

of the study without first engaging in an extensive reading of all relevant

literature. This error results in a superficial or nave study that is not very

useful.

Solution: Read everything you can get your hands on systematically sort

the types of studies and conceptual areas. Your study will take on a well-

informed vision of what more needs to be known.

researcher defines the problem and purpose of the study without first

seeking the counsel of experts who are knowledgeable about the subject.

Once completed, the study may lack credibility with practitioners.

problems they face when dealing with the issues that you are interested in

writing about. Let them provide you with an expert perspective as you

seek to define the problem and purpose of your study.

understand well. If the design is inappropriate to the purpose of the study or

the form of the data is wrong, he may be unable to interpret the data or

complete the study.

goals as a researcher. Take courses that you need to become proficient in

the specific methodologies that you wish to apply to your study.

the title of the study drives the study rather than the purpose. When a

study driven is primarily by methodology, the purpose and significance

can be diminished to make the study easier to complete. This error may

result in a less significant or useful study.

Solution: Do not title your work until you understand the research

problem well and the purpose that your study will reflect. Avoid selecting

98

a cool sounding methodology until you are certain that there it will help

you answer the specific things that you need to know.

8. A major pitfall includes the use of catchy phrases or terms are to define

the purpose and problem while little attention is paid to the significance of

a study. Study may be well done, or even interesting, but may not be very

useful.

the study is published or whether it actually is read. Understand who the

intended audience of a study may be and try to address their interests and

needs and particularly what they need to know.

9. If the study is not sufficiently delineated and structured, the time or effort

required to complete the study becomes overwhelming.

Solution: Listen to your professors when they tell you the study may take a

lot longer if it is not narrowed in scope or focus. Provide a

recommendations for further research section in your work so that

extraneous matters may be addressed in the future by you or other

researchers.

99

Chapter 18 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

1. Responsible conduct guiding researchers. Universities, federal and state

government as well as professional organizations have guidelines on

ethical behavior and research.

their consent to participate in a study.

risks.

- Participants informed of purpose of research and how data will be used.

- Include the benefits of study.

- Discuss alternative treatments and potential compensation.

- They must understand and arrive at a decision without coercion.

(Voluntary participation)

- Obtain informed consent before the data collection begins.

- Ensure privacy and confidentiality of research subjects and data.

- Include your contact information as well as the appropriate IRB

(Internal Review Board) contact information.

Board).

- benefit assessments.

vulnerable populations of research participants.

5. Ensure equitable recruitment of participants.

6. Results should be for the good of society and unattainable by any other

means i.e. the preservation of appropriate and ethical standards should

never be comprised.

100

7. Beneficence - To promote understanding and shed light on the human

condition. Ensure protection of those participating in the study.

- Fabrication

- Falsification

- Plagiarism

research ethics. Share your discussion with the entire class.

2. What steps should researchers take to ensure all areas of informed consent

are addressed in their research study? Share your discussion with the class.

3. What steps would you take to make sure you are not involved in unethical

conduct in research? Share your discussion with the class.

WEBSITES

APA Research Ethics and Regulation

http://www.apa.org/science/research.htm

http://www.nih.gov/sigs/bioethics/index.html

Research Ethics

http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/308/308lect10.htm

Education for Research Teams

http://ethics.od.nih.gov/

Integrity http://www.ori.hhs.gov/

101

Chapter 19 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

and the Role of the Institutional

Review Board

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is an IRB?

proposed research by a university or other institution that receives

federal funds and is in the business of conducting research on human

subjects. The IRB is required by part 46 of Title 45 of the Code of

Federal Regulations also called 45 CFR 46. According to the

Department of Health and Human Services, it is the responsibility of

the IRB to recommend to university officials that proposed research

either be approved or disapproved based on a set of rules called the

Common Rule.

receives federal funds must provided a formal mechanism for

ensuring that research is conducted in a manner that reflects nationally

recognized standards. Failure to comply with policy can place the

researcher and his institution at risk for litigation. In some a few

instances the federal government has temporarily suspended all

research activities at key research universities for failure to comply

with the law.

46.112. It details all of the areas of compliance with accepted norms

102

for conducting research on human subjects established by the Helsinki

Agreement and a series of declarations referred to as the Belmont

Report. These principles are detailed in the Common Rule as follows:

a. informed consent

b. protection of confidentiality or anonymity of all human subjects

c. acknowledging the right of the subject not to participate in a study

d. ensuring that subject is aware of his or her right to discontinue the

study at any time without adverse consequence

e. ensuring that the study provides a benefit to the community

f. ensuring that the study has a direct benefit for the subject

participating in the study

g. ensuring that the subject is aware of the risks involved in the study

h. ensuring that the researcher has found less invasive or intrusive

ways to obtain the same information

i. that the individual subject has given permission to be deceived

during an experimental study

j. that parents have granted permission for children under the age of

18 to participate

k. that any psychological or physical harms will be remedied with

expenses paid by the researchers

l. that the researcher is protected from possible harms or is taking

informed risks

m. specific measures for achieving each of the above has been spelled

out

n. that these measures are meticulously followed

No. However, all studies that will involve gathering data from the public

or that will be published in some form must be reviewed before

university officials will approve the protocol. To accommodate social

science research and historical research expedited review protocols are

submitted. Studies that must be reviewed meet the following criteria:

b. the study involves experimentation on human subjects

c. the study is invasive or intrusive in some way

d. the study involves deception

e. there are possible risks to the subject

103

f. there may be no community benefit or direct benefit for the

subject

g. there is a possible conflict of interest by researchers in the study

h. medical or mental health research

5. When my study has been approved by the IRB, are there any additional

requirements that researchers must follow?

Yes. The Common Rule states that research approved by an IRB may be

subject to further review for approval or disapproval by officials of the

institution under the following circumstances:

realized.

b. A senior administrator at the university may raise questions that

would result in a follow-up IRB review.

104

Chapter 20 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Suggested Frame of Mind for

Researchers

The following suggestions are based on the assumption that the researcher

and the Institutional Research Board (IRB) regulator find themselves on

common ground partners in learning to cooperative in improving research

and its ethical oversight.

research purpose, related questions, and methodology. Not all studies

require the same degree of IRB monitoring.

discipline. Carefully worded research proposals may allow IRB

regulators to approve it without incident.

each part of the IRB protocol or checklist relates to the ethical issue of

your particular study, methodology, and academic discipline.

4. Get to know your IRB members and their expectations for research.

Dont wait until you submit your proposal or go to the IRB meeting to

discover the requirements and preferences.

5. Assume that IRB members want to do a good job. Empathize with them

as you would someone who is in training for a new job.

105

6. Continue to conduct occasional conversations with IRB members after

your proposal has been approved. Over time IRB members will come

to view your research proposals with greater confidence.

7. Before IRB meetings listen carefully to IRB members talk to you about

research and ethics. Be prepared in non-public, non-confrontational

ways to share your concerns regarding their statements or written

comments.

These guidelines can help you get off to a good start without cynicism or

frustration. A positive working relationship with the IRB can promote good

professional health within your research community.

the purpose and premises for ethics in research along with the basis for reviewing

and monitoring behavioral research involving human subjects.

ethical, regulatory and policy issues related to human subjects research

provides a good IRB Map to assist in decision regarding submission of an IRB.

106

Chapter 21 William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

1. Brainstorm ideas for research and possible publication.

also have a Call for Papers listing the topics they plan to publish in

future editions.

- Ask professional educational organizations what topics are popular or

important issues in their field of education.

- Think about what interests you. You have to live with the topic until

you complete it. If you are not interested in the topic, it will become

boring or be difficult to keep on task and complete.

- Find out if a colleague or another person in the field of education has a

project, interest, etc. that you could work on with them.

- Find out if a textbook company is looking for someone to write a

chapter in a textbook. These might be on their website or they might

send an email to those on their list-serve.

2. Determine the type of manuscript you want to write. (NOTE: You are

working on a manuscript. Many people call or interchange the term

article for manuscript. A MANUSCRIPT is work that is submitted for

possible publication. An ARTICLE is a manuscript that has been

published.)

- Analysis of literature to support the authors viewpoint

- Interpretive paper on a specific theory, concept, etc.

- Theory paper that develops a new conceptual framework

- Research paper - describing the study, participants, results,

conclusions, etc.

- Chapter for a textbook (They are the easiest to be accepted since they

do not have to go through a blind peer-review process)

- Other types of papers as indicated in the professional journals you read

107

3. It is also important to know what types of manuscripts a journal typically

publishes.

- The library should have current issues for your review. Many can be

found online.

- Review the types of article in several issues of the journal. Do they

accept a variety of topics for publication or do they have a theme for

each issue?

- Read the submission or author guidelines. Many can be found online.

- Examine the expertise of the members of the editorial board for ideas

on their research interests.

4. The acceptance rates of journals can range from 80% to 5%. Look at

publishing in journals where the turnaround time may be shorter.

Journals which have very high submission rates have high rejection rates.

Look at using your time wisely. Dont tie up an article for 18 months

if the journal has a low acceptance rate.

5. Ask colleagues which journals they have submitted manuscripts to. They

can give good advice on the where to and where not to for

submissions.

important to know where you are going to know how to begin the writing

process. It is like taking a trip. You can have a well organized vacation

by using a map or a fly by the seat of your pants experience without the

map. You save time, energy and have a greater chance for successful

publication by knowing where you are going. (Remember research

ethics; only submit your manuscript to one journal at a time. Resubmit it

to another journal only after notification that it is not being published.)

ideas and the work.

- Decide the role and responsibility of each team member. (Use each

others talents. Some are better at writing, others at finding the

references, others at editing, etc.)

- Set timelines and meet on a regular basis to keep each other on task, and

make changes as needed.

108

8. Schedule a time to write every day. Make it automatic! Thirty to ninety

minutes per day, or at least three times a week. This will help you to stay

on target and not get overwhelmed at the last minute when your writing

project is due.

9. Develop an outline for your manuscript. You can read the published

articles in the journal where you plan to submit and determine what type

of outline to develop.

10. Write your introduction and summary first. Most problems are found in

these sections. They become a guide to your manuscript (a roadmap)! It

will keep you focused on the route you are taking.

11. As you write make sure the manuscript indicate you know what is current

on that topic. Make sure to have at least one to two references from the

same year you plan to submit your manuscript.

13. Make sure that findings in your conclusion have been substantiated in

your paper.

14. When the paper is well organized and near completion, have a couple of

colleagues review and edit it.

- Does it follow the publication style? (APA, Chicago, MLA, and so

forth)

15. See the following tips for submitting your manuscript:

-Write a cover letter with the current editors name.

-The cover letter should be professionally written and presented and

include a brief description of your manuscript, why you are submitting it

and your contact information.

-If an online submission, are all submission guidelines followed?

-If mailing the manuscript, ensure you weigh the envelope for the

accurate postage amount.

-Dont submit the exact same manuscript to multiple journals. Journals

109

require original manuscripts. Note the policy guidelines of the

respective journal.

16. Most editors will document they have received your manuscript through

a letter or email. If you do not receive a letter within a couple of weeks

documenting that your manuscript was received, then call or email the

editor to check to see if the manuscript was received. Remember FedEx

trucks and mail trucks have crashed and hurricanes have damaged mail.

Sometimes forces of nature and accidents prevent a manuscript from

reaching its designated recipients.

17. If you get an acceptance letter, GREAT JOB!! If you receive a letter

indicating the manuscript was not accepted for publication, review the

editorial comments.

- Revise and resubmit if the editor indicates this action should be done.

- If you have questions about the comments made by reviews, contact the

editor and ask them for clarification.

- Ask the editor if they have a suggestion for another journal that might be

more appropriate.

- Revise and look at other potential journals for possible publication.

- Dont worry, your manuscript might not have been the right fit for that

journal or the right time to be submitted there.

- Sometimes a journal receives several manuscripts on the same topic. The

topic might be saturated. Look for another journal to submit the

manuscript.

- Take heart that everyone will get some rejection letters. One of your

authors had that experience four times on her first manuscript. Although I

kept writing other manuscripts and those were being accepted, the first

one was rejected four times. On the fifth submission, it was published.

NEVER GIVE UP, JUST KEEP SEARCHING FOR THE RIGHT

JOURNAL.

110

PART II:

Research and Basic

Statistics

111

Fundamental Terms of Research and

Basic Statistics

to the experimental treatment condition is compared to baseline

responses taken before and after administering the treatment condition

reintroduction of the treatment condition

participation in the research

that has taken place after being exposed to a specific learning experience

problems

some value other than the value stated by the null hypothesis

the various comparison groups different amounts of the independent

variable.

categorical independent variable and one quantitative dependent variable

controlling for one or more extraneous variables; its a statistical method

112

that can be used to statistically equate groups that differ on a pretest or

some other variable

Anonymity keeping the identity of the participant from everyone,

including the researcher

informal learning that goes on in life

Archived research data data originally used for research purposes and

then stored

Back stage behavior what people say and do only with their closest

friends

Bar graph a graph that uses vertical bars to represent the data

treatment condition

phenomenon

one treatment conditions is influenced by participation in a prior

treatment condition(s)

113

Case study research research that provides a detailed account and

analysis of one or more cases

hypothesizes a causal model and then empirically tests the model. Also

called structural equation modeling or theoretical modeling.

where the primary independent variable of interest is categorical

variable

design

a participants behavior is gradually altered by changing the criterion for

success during successive treatment periods

appropriate

determine if a relationship observed in a contingency table is statistically

significant

of articles from educational journals

response

114

Cluster sampling type of sampling where clusters are randomly

selected

category names

provides an estimate of the reliability of a homogenous test

characteristic

more cohorts

studied and does not tell members they are being studied

the people they are being observed

relationship between test scores and criterion scores obtained at the same

time

has a certain probability of including the population parameter

other than the researcher and the researchers staff

115

Confounding variable an extraneous variable that systematically

varies with the independent variable and also influences the dependent

variable

research

from the scores on a test

describe or explain behavior

questions on a test adequately sample the domain of interest

place

the intersection of two or more categorical variables

Control group the group that does not receive the experimental

treatment condition

be easily recruited are included in the sample

Convergent evidence evidence that the scores on prior tests and the

current test designed to measure the same construct are correlated

of relationship between two variables

primary independent or predictor variable of interest is quantitative

116

Corroboration comparing documents to each other to determine

whether they provide the same information or reach the same conclusion

conditions to all comparison groups, but in a different order

refutable

from a test can be used to predict or infer performance in some activity

important cases

knowledge, language, norms, rituals, and material objects and artifacts

that the members of a group use in understanding their world and in

relating to others

Debriefing a post study interview in which all aspects of the study are

revealed, any reasons for deception are explained, and any questions the

participant has about the study are answered

participant

premises

117

Dehoaxing informing participants about any deception used and the

reasons for its use

must be judged on the basis of some universal code

one or more independent variables

the researcher

description or picture of the status or characteristics of a situation or

phenomenon

summarizing, or making sense of a particular set of data

feelings the participant may have as a result of participating in the study.

difficulty with an academic skill

something works or to clarify the relationship between the parts of a

whole

different for the various comparison groups

Direct effect the effect of the variable at the origin of an arrow on the

variable at the receiving end of the arrow

118

Directional alternative hypothesis an alternative hypothesis that

contains either a greater than sign or a less than sign

developed test are not correlated with the scores on tests designed to

measure theoretically different constructs

the sample proportions are made to be different from the population

proportions on the stratification variable

issues or attitude objects

than one journal or in other publications

settings

relationship

member of the population has an equal chance of being selected

119

Equivalent-forms reliability a measure of the consistency of a group

of individuals scores on two equivalent forms of a test measuring the

same construct

moral codes cannot be formulated

the standards of your own culture

culture of a group of people; its a form of qualitative research focused

on describing the culture of a group of people

Etic term outsiders words or special words that are used by social

scientists

object

relevant cases in the data

possible responses

120

Expectancy data data illustrating the number or percentage of people

that fall into various categories on a criterion measure

observes phenomena that are made to occur in a strictly controlled

situation in which one or more variables are varied and the others are

kept constant

treatment condition

extraneous variables

have on the outcome of a study

as it does

how and why a phenomenon operates as it does

period of time

generalized to and across populations of persons, settings and times

authenticity of the source

independent variable in explaining the outcome; any variable other than

the independent variable that may influence the dependent variable

121

Extreme case sampling identifying the extremes or poles of some

characteristic and then selecting cases representing these extremes for

examination

number of factors, or dimensions, measured by a test

different participants are randomly assigned to the different levels of one

independent variable but all participants take all levels of another

independent variable; its a design in which two or more independent

variables are simultaneously studied to determine their independent and

interactive effects on the dependent variable

questions depending on the response

people

object

unique data value is shown

Fully anchored rating scale all points are anchored on the rating scale

many statistical techniques

122

Going native identifying so completely with the group being studied

that you can no longer remain objective

grounded in data systematically gathered and analyzed; a qualitative

research approach

into separate intervals and the frequencies of each interval is given

Heterogeneous a set of numbers with a great of variability

events or combinations of events to arrive at an account of what

happened in the past History any event, other than a planned treatment

event that occurs between the pre- and post measurement of the

dependent variable and influences the post measurement of the dependent

variable

up a group

single construct

case or set of cases for intensive study

variables being investigated

how well the sample data support a null hypothesis and when the null

hypothesis can be rejected In-person interview an interview conducted

face to face

123

Independent variable a variable that is presumed to cause a change in

another variable

the data

immediate data and inferring the characteristics of population based on

samples

and draw statistical conclusions about populations based on sample data

interview

general than the particular case

variable is measured

Intelligence the ability to think abstractly and to learn readily from

experience

scorers, judges, or raters

groups are affected differently by one of the threats to internal validity

124

Interaction effect when the effect of one independent variable depends

on the level of another independent variable

during a single research study

single construct

contained in the sources collected

communication

participants to what is being studied

condition is assessed by comparing the pattern of posttest responses

obtained from a single group of participants

distances between adjacent numbers

in a causal chain

questions

are asked in any order

125

Interviewee the person being asked questions

collecting and interpreting the data

acceptability of research proposals

Kuder-Richardson formula 20 a statistical formula used to compute an

estimate of the reliability of a homogeneous test

up by the researcher

certain answer

constructed from a random sample will include the population parameter

Line graph a graph that relies on the drawing of one or more lines

words

comparisons are made across time

126

Low-inference descriptors description phrased very close to the

participants accounts and the researchers field notes

Maturation any physical or mental change that occurs over time that

affects performance on the dependent variable

cases

score falls in relation to the other scores in the distribution of data

considered the most typical of the values of a quantitative variable

about how spread out or how much variation is present

to something according to a specific set of rules

Median location the numerical place where you can find the median in

a set of order numbers

127

Memoing recording reflective notes about what you are learning from

the data

information about published tests

the results of a large number of studies

explanations

be analyzed in a research study

strategy

interaction effect

comparison groups

one group of participants

two or more independent variables

128

Multiple time-series design an interrupted time-series design that

includes a control group to rule out a history effect

the treatment condition is successively administered to different

participants, or to the same participant in several settings, after baseline

behaviors have been recorded for different periods of time

treatment condition influences a persons performance in another

treatment condition

distinct

accuracy of the content of the documents and other sources used by the

researcher

researchers expectations and generalizations

the researchers expectations

129

Network diagram a diagram showing the direct links between

variables or events over time

label, classify, or identify people or objects

includes the not equal to sign

that is the theoretical model of many variables

Norms the written and unwritten rules that specify appropriate group

behavior

observing group members and tells members they are being studied

organization

treatment condition is administered to one group of participants after

pretesting, but before post-testing on the dependent variable

group of participants after they have been given an experimental

treatment condition

group of participants after they have been given an experimental

treatment condition

130

One-stage cluster sampling a set of clusters is randomly selected and

all of the elements in the selected clusters are included in the sample

more group means

their own words

operations

Oral histories based on interviews with a person who has had directed

or indirect experience with or knowledge of the chosen topic

Order effect a sequencing effect that occurs from the order in which

the treatment conditions are administered

distribution

Panel study study where the same individuals are studied at successive

points over time

quantitative variables controlling for one or more quantitative extraneous

variables

in one large study; is generally not unethical for large studies

131

Participant feedback discussion of the researchers conclusions with

the actual participants

group as an insider and tells members they are being studied

direct effect

actual results fit the predicted pattern

ones peers or colleagues

Percentile ranks scores that divide a distribution into 100 equal parts

below a particular raw score

purposes

agreed on definition

consciousness and experience of a phenomenon

estimate of the value of a population parameter

Population the complete set of cases; its the large group to which a

researcher wants to generalize the sample results

132

Population validity the ability to generalize the study results to the

individuals not included in the study

conveyed in the various sources is correct

must have caused B

randomly assigned groups of participants after one group has been

administered the experimental treatment condition

enough to be of practical importance

one or more dependent variables based on one or more independent

variables

relationship between test scores collected at one point in time and

criterion scores obtained at a later time

by presenting one group the treatment condition and withholding it from

the other group

also existed in the past

133

Pretest-posttest control-group design a research design that

administers a posttest to two randomly assigned groups of participants

after both have been pretested and one of the groups has been

administered the experimental treatment condition

some other way directly involved or related to the event

in variable B; its a cause that usually produces an outcome

or an even more extreme result, assuming that the null hypothesis is true

where each clusters chance of being selected in stage one depends on its

population size

Problem of induction things that happened in the past may not happen

in the future

exists between two or more variables

sample proportions are made to be the same as the population proportions

on the stratification variables

population of interest and locates individuals with those characteristics

134

Qualitative research research relying primarily on the collection of

qualitative data

quantitative data

that does not provide for full control of potential confounding variables

primarily by not randomly assigning participants to comparison groups

research participant

sizes or quotas for the groups identified as important and takes

convenience samples from these groups

groups; its a statistical control procedure that maximizes the probability

that the comparison groups will be equated on all extraneous variables

Ratio scale a scale of measurement that has a true zero point as well as

all the characteristics of the nominal, ordinal, and interval scales

135

Reactivity an alteration in performance that occurs as a result of being

aware of participating in a study; it refers to changes occurring in people

because they know they are being observed

ranks

predispositions

values of a dependent variable based on the values of one or more

independent variables

changes in X

population

participate in all experimental treatment conditions

Replication logic the idea that the more times a research finding is

shown to be true with different sets of people, the more confidence we

can place in the finding and in generalizing beyond the original

participants

people

136

Research design the outline, plan, or strategy used to answer a

research question

deciding which goals are most important and in reconciling conflicting

values

the one he or she would like to see supported by the study results

Research plan the outline or plan that will be used in conducting the

research study

wants to find

searching for cause and effect

research study

content

variable and moves backward in time

from an earlier time

137

Sampling error the difference between the value of a sample statistic

and a population parameter

more than once

selected more than once

size; it is symbolized by k

values of a statistic that results when all possible random samples of a

particular size are drawn from a population

corresponding population parameter

distribution of the means of all possible random samples of a particular

size drawn from a population

quantitative variables

different person for a different purpose

secondary sources, or some combination of the two

138

Selection selecting participants for the various treatment groups that

have different characteristics

groups experience a different history event

comparison groups experience a different rate of change on a maturation

variable

comparison groups grow or develop faster than participants in the other

comparison group

series of objects or concepts

Sequencing effects biasing effects that can occur when each participant

must participate in each experimental treatment condition

bad or desirable or undesirable

people who share a culture hold to be true or false

reject the null hypothesis

member of the population has an equal chance of being selected

Simple case when there is only one independent variable and one

dependent variable

139

Simple random sampling the term usually used for sampling without

replacement

independent variable and one quantitative dependent variable

independent variable

categorical independent variable and one quantitative dependent variable

to investigate the effect of an experimental treatment condition

potential research participants

socially desirable

document

split-half reliability coefficient for the shortened test length created by

splitting the full-length test into two equivalent halves

obtained from two equivalent halves of the same test

due to one or more third variables

140

Standard scores scores that have been converted from one scale to

another to have a particular mean and standard deviation

asked in a specific order and exactly as worded

group of participants who have been given an experimental treatment

condition with a group that has not been given the experimental treatment

condition

lower and very low scores to become higher on post testing

to chance; its the claim made when the evidence suggests an observed

result was probably not due to chance

groups and then selecting a random sample from each group

Summated rating scale a multi-item scale that has the responses for

each person summed into a single score

effectiveness of the evaluation object

141

Survey research a term sometimes applied to non-experimental

research based on questionnaires or interviews

collected

interval, selecting a random starting point between 1 and k, and then

selecting every kith element

correlation coefficient is statistically significant

difference between the means of two groups is statistically significant

regression coefficient is statistically significant

order

Target population the larger population to whom the study results are

to be generalized

generalized across time

a test as a result of having previously taken the test

what kinds of data need to be collected and what aspects of already

collected data are the most important for the grounded theory

142

Theoretical validity the degree to which a theoretical explanation fits

the data

are emerging from the data and the grounded theory has been validated

set of generalizations used systematically to explain some phenomenon

help interpret and explain the data

perceptions while engaged in an activity

variables may be due to an extraneous variable

are to contend that causation has occurred

intervals

time and the same questions are asked

and second a random sample of elements is drawn from each of the

clusters selected in stage one

143

Type technique manipulating the independent variable by varying the

type of variable presented to the different comparison groups

different types or kinds

replacement

a study depend on the consequences the study has for the research

participants and the benefits that may arise from the study

inference based on a test score or scores

scores and criterion scores

inferences, and actions made on the basis of a test score or scores

or categories

units

Y-intercept the point where the regression line crosses the Y-axis

z-score a raw score that has been transformed into standard deviation

units

Note: These are common terms and are not attributed to any one source.

144

PART III:

Partial Listing of

Selected References

And Acknowledgements

145

Partial Listing of Selected References and Acknowledgements

Research

(Practical Applications)

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD (2011)

Directories

A Critical Dictionary of Educational Concepts, 2nd edition, 1990

and Research, 1989

Ideas and Issues in Educational theory and Practice, 1990

146

Yearbooks and Handbooks

Vol. North Africa and the Middle East. Vol. 3: Asia, Australasian and Latin

America, 1988

Comprehensive Dissertation Index 1861-1972; 1973+

Department Abstracts from 1980+

edition, 1993

Statistics

B63 1990 Mugar Reference X E 185.5 B63 2000

LB 2832.2 C66, 1988

B56, 2000

Education Reference X LA 210 N37

Reference X LA 217.2 H37, 1991

283.2 S7 2005-2006

147

UNESCO Statistical Digest, Education Reference X L 11 S863

Periodicals

Basic Education

Educational Research

Educational Studies

Educational Theory

Journal of Education

148

National FORUM of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal

http://www.nationalforum.com/

http://www.nationalforum.com/

http://www.nationalforum.com/

http://www.nationalforum.com/

Journals Numerous national refereed periodicals.

http://www.nationalforum.com/

Research in Education

Web Sites

149

Bureau of Labor Statistics www.stats.bis.gov

Condition of Education

Nces.ed.gov. /pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp? pubid=1999022

Eurostate europa.eu.int/comm../eurostat

Ferret www.edc.gov/nchs/datawh/ferret/htm

www.lib.lsu.edu/gov/fedgov.html

Information nces.ed.gov/pubsearch

nces.ed.gov/surveys

nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=1999038

150

http://research.cse.ucla.edu

Statistical Abstracts of the United States www.census.gov/state_abstract

www.lib.umich.edu/libhome/Documents.Center/Stats.html

www.lib.umich.edu/libhome/Documents.center

www.lib.virginia.edu/social/interactives.html

Boston.com-MCAS Tests

UNESCO www.unesco.org

http://coe.hawaii.edu/departments/projects/crede

(CRESST) cress96.cse.ucla.edu

(CRESPAR) www.csos.jhu.edu/crespar/CreSPaR.html

151

www.ciera.org

Depts., Washington.edu/ctpmail

in the United States nces.ed.gov/ccd/ccddata.html\\

www.fpg.unc.edu/~ncedl

Mathematics and Science (NCISLA) www.wcer.wise.edu/NCISLA

National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL)

Gseweb.Harvard.edu/-ncsall

www.gifted.uconn.edu/nrcgt.html

Education Reform Efforts www.upenn.ed/gse/cpre

Achievement (CELA) eela.Albany.edu

research.cse.ucla.edu Ask ERIC www.askeric.org

ED Pubs www.ed.gov/pubs/edpubs.html

www.ed.gov/pubs/studies.html

152

ERIC Clearinghouses www.accesseric.org/sites/barak.html

www.accesseric.org/resources/pocket/materials.html

www.bu.ed/library/research-guides/eduresearch.html

Allyn & Bacon.

Belmont, CA: Wadsworth

Best, J. & Kahn J. (1998). Research in Education (8th Edition). Boston, MA:

Allyn & Bacon

(6th Edition). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Research (4th Edition). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

153

Dillamn, D. (1978). Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design Method.

New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Research: A Practical Guide. Boston, MA: Pearson.

Qualitative and Mixed Approaches. Pearson Education Inc., Boston, MA:

Allyn and Bacon

Mansfield, OH: BookMasters.

Mansfield, OH: BookMasters.

Publishing

New York, NY: Harper & Row

Brooks/Cole Publishing.

Allyn & Bacon.

Educational Research. Englewood cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

University Press.

NY: Longman

154

PART IV:

155

William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

University Alumni Association Distinguished Alumnus for the College of Education and

Professional Studies. He was honored by the Texas National Association for

Multicultural Education as Professor, Scholar, and Pioneer Publisher for Distinguished

Service to Multicultural Research Publishing. The ceremony was held at Texas A&M

University-College Station. He was inducted into the prestigious William H. Parker

Leadership Academy Hall of Honor. He was an Invited Visiting Lecturer at the Oxford

Round Table at Oriel College in the University of Oxford, United Kingdom. Dr. Kritsonis

was a Visiting Scholar at Columbia Universitys Teacher College in New York, and

Visiting Scholar in the School of Education at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

In May 2015, Dr. Kritsonis participated in the Think Tank on Global

Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

The think tank focused on how to help students develop intercultural awareness,

knowledge of global issues, and multilingualism.

He served on a national think tank appointed by the Secretary of Education in

2012-15 for Providence Rhode Island Schools with sessions conducted at Brown

University in the Annenberg Institute for School Reform. In 2013, he was a nominee for

the Outstanding Texas Educator Award exemplifying the leadership of John Ben

Shepperd for public leadership education, ethics, and public service.

He is Founder of National FORUM Journals (Since 1982). Professor Kritsonis is

the author of numerous articles as well as author or coauthor of several books.

He has served as a teacher, principal, superintendent of schools, director of

student teaching and field experiences, professor, author, consultant, editor-in-chief, and

publisher. Dr. Kritsonis has considerable experience in chairing PhD dissertations and

teaching in doctoral and masters programs in educational leadership and supervision. He

has earned the rank as professor at three universities in two states, including successful

post-tenure reviews.

Dr. Kritsonis has traveled and lectured extensively throughout the United States

and world-wide. Some international travels include Australia, New Zealand, Tasmania,

Turkey, Italy, Greece, Monte Carlo, England, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, Finland,

Russia, Estonia, Poland, Germany, Mexico, the Caribbean Islands, Mexico, Switzerland,

Grand Cayman, Haiti, St. Maarten, St. John, St. Thomas, St. Croix, St. Lucia, Puerto

Rico, Nassau, Freeport, Jamaica, Barbados, Martinique, Canada, Curacao, Costa Rico,

Aruba, Venezuela, Panama, Bora Bora, Tahiti, Latvia, Spain, Honduras, and many more.

He has been invited to lecture and serve as a guest professor at many universities

across the nation and abroad.

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis is presently Professor of Educational Leadership at

The University of Texas of the Permian Basin in the College of Education within The

University of Texas System. He teaches in the MA Principal and Superintendent

Certification and preparation programs along with assisting to develop a new doctoral

156

program. He earned his PhD from The University of Iowa, Iowa City, MEd from Seattle

Pacific University, and BA from Central Washington University.

Professor

Texas A&M University-San Antonio

Winter 2016

157

158

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