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Ashley Folden

EDUC 474, Spring 2017


Final TPA
TASK 1
This template is designed to help you organize and understand the many factors that affect teaching and
learning. The subcategories listed in each factor are just suggestions. Select subcategories (listed or not) that help
you determine the instructional strategies and approaches that will support your students learning. In this chart,
list the factors as they relate to your teaching.

Types of Factors Contextual Factors

Community Community

Urban school in Bluewell, West Virginia. Bluewell, West Virginia is considered an urban school
Located in Mercer County, West Virginia. because it is a low middle class, less educated city. The
census data for the community includes the population at a
Population is 2,185 (95.5 were born in total of 2,184. Of that 2,184 95.5% were born in the United
the United States and 4.5% born out of States and the remaining 4.5% were born outside of the
the county) country. The population of men and women in Bluewell
includes men at 48.5% and women making up 51.5%. The top
51.5% of residents are male and 48.5%
three races or ethnicities in Bluewell are Caucasian at 95.7%,
are female
African American at 2.2%, and two or more races or mixed at
48.7% are married and 51.3% are single 1.9%. The family structure in Bluewell is 48.7% is married and
51.3% are single. The socio-economic information within
Caucasian population 95.7%, African Bluewell includes a West Virginia unemployment rate of 9.6%,
American 2.2%, and mixed race is 1.9% the poverty rate is 31.3% higher than the national average,
workers typically work 38 hours per week, and the annual
Annual income is $22,485,
income in Bluewell is $22,485. Bluewell does demonstrate
unemployment 9.6%, and poverty rate is community support through fundraisers, family and
31.3% higher than the national average community events such as fall festivals and family nights,
Community support is through there are also programs intertwined within the school system
fundraisers to raise money to repair the which is a fostering grandparent program with elderly
school as well as local cooperations such volunteers to help the classroom teachers and interact and
as Walmart for Blessing in a Backpack. support the students. These factors effect this unit and my
teaching because of the mixed family involvement. Students
School
are typically in-between homes, and often have a lack of
Bluewell Elementary Schools mission support when it comes to being motivated for school and
statement is: Bluewell Elementary faculty having assistance completing their homework. Also, a factor
and staff will ensure that each student that could influence this unit is the poverty level and the
receives the opportunity to gain academic need of food and supply assistance. Students often come to
skills necessary to fill employment the classroom hungry ready to eat, and receive food through
objectives and become self-sufficient, Blessings in a Backpack to ensure they have food on the
contributing members of society. weekends. Students may also not have the supplies they
need in order to complete assignments at home, and the
Approximately 207 students supplies that are used in the classroom are supplied through
the county and teacher.
Pre-K through 5th school
School
100% of the students receive free lunch
Bluewell Elementary currently has 207 students enrolled
Blessings in a Backpacks are offered to the which is also fluctuating with students transferring out of the
students area and students moving into the area. All of the students at
Bluewell Elementary receive free breakfast and free lunch,
The teacher student ratio is 15:1 which is a part of Mercer Countys policy. The AYP data was
There are eleven classroom teachers, two of not attainable. The ethnicities within the school include the
them being special education, and there is majority being Caucasian at 91%, African American at 7%,
also 1 Title I teacher, a speech teacher, two and mixed race being 2%. The percent of students wo have
resource teachers, as well as three aides IEPs or are learning disabled is 16%, which is higher than the
and foster grandparents to assist in the national average of 13%. There are currently no ELL students
classrooms. at Bluewell Elementary. The teacher-student ratio at Bluewell
Elementary is 15:1, there is also two split classes currently at
A majority of the students are resourced out Bluewell Elementary. The schedule at Bluewell Elementary
for speech, special education, and a select begins with the first bell ringing at 7:25 and the last bell
few for gifted services. ringing at 2:20 for dismissal. The schedules with each
individual classroom and resource is varied. The factors
The schedule for Bluewell begins with the within the school are very vital to my unit because I will need
first bell at 7:25 and the last bell dismissing to know what staff to go to in order to get help with a student
the students at 2:20. Each classroom also or where the students will be going during the day so that
has its own schedule for instruction and they will be able to be in the classroom for instruction. These
resources. factors are also important because I will need to know the
schedule and the proper time to perform the instruction and
Family the activities for the unit.
College educated is 9.9% and 80.8% have a Family
high school or GED education.
The percent of families in Bluewell that is college educated
Annual income is $22,485 is 9.9%, 80.8% have a high school education or GED. The
annual income in Bluewell is $22,485. There is parental
27.2% of the homes are rentals and 64.1%
involvement in the classrooms of Bluewell Elementary with
are occupied by their owners. parents willing to be homeroom parents, parents who come
Many families need assistance with food and eat lunch with their children, parents who bring in
and other services due to the poverty level, materials for the students and items for fundraisers, parents
lending to many students receiving the are also involved in signing weekly homework letters and
Blessings in a Backpack. coming to parent/teacher conferences. However, the
involvement of parents varies within classrooms and grade
Bluewell is mixed with 48.7 of students levels. The family configuration within Bluewell is mixed with
coming from homes where parents are 48.7 of students coming from homes where parents are
married and 51.3% coming from single married and 51.3% coming from single family homes.
family homes. Families seem to be of the Families seem to be of the mixed variety with more
mixed variety with more grandparents and grandparents and extended family members being the active
extended family members being the active participants in students lives. The socio-economic profile
participants in students lives. includes the West Virginia unemployment rate of 9.6%, the
poverty rate is 31.3% higher than the national average,
workers typically work 38 hours per week, and the annual
income in Bluewell is $22,485. The socio-economic factors
affect the free lunches in Mercer County, and the blessings in
a backpack program for students in need of food on the
weekends. The family contextual factors are an important
factor to what is going on outside if the classroom and the
instruction of the unit. Knowing the family dynamics will give
me an insight to what the students are going home to and
what they may be going through such as if the parents are
capable and willing to help the students with the homework
that is sent home, if they are available to have conferences,
how far the students commute is to school, if the family has
money for supplies and physical needs. The students spend
the majority of their day at school, but what they are
experiencing at home and who they are living with, as well as
their familys finical status is being brought to the school with
them and may affect their concentration on the instruction
and assessments for the unit.

Classroom Factors Classroom Factors

The classroom is arranged by grades. The classroom is arranged by first grade level, and then
First grade is arranged into groups by into pods. The front side or right side of the classroom upon
gender and the second graders are entering includes two pods which would be the first grades.
arranged into two rows with five in each There is a pod for the first grade girls and pod for the first
row and one student separate and the grade girls. There is also an individual desk where a student
genders are mixed. who is resources out the majority of the day is seated when
included in the classroom. Towards the back of the classroom
Teachers desks well as a group table is or on the left upon entering is the second graders. Which are
on the side of the room, smart board is arranged into rows and the rows are intertwined with both
on one end of the room and the coat boys and girls. The teachers desk is placed against the
closet is on the opposite, in the center is windows and the middle of the room is open with a rug for
a large rug and a whiteboard. direct view of the smart board and a space for reading and
phonics instruction. The classroom rules are to be respectful,
The classroom rules are to be respectful,
listen to others when talking, raising hands, and following
listen to others when talking, raising
directions. The classroom routines include raising hands and
hands, and following directions.
asking for permission, lining up by grade level with also a
The classroom routines include raising leader and a caboose, there is a morning routine where the
hands and asking for permission, lining students put away their possessions in the coat room and
up by grade level with also a leader and place their folders on the side table before coming to their
a caboose, there is a morning routine seat to prepare for attendance, lunch count, and morning
where the students put away their announcements. There are also routines such as scheduled
possessions in the coat room and place bathroom breaks. There is quite a bit of parental involvement
their folders on the side table before in the classroom with parents signing weekly homework
coming to their seat to prepare for sheets, coming to eat lunch with the students, sending in
attendance, lunch count, and morning items for parties, fundraisers, and materials wanted or
announcements. There are also routines needed for the students, also coming to scheduled meetings
such as scheduled bathroom breaks, for resource services and parent/teacher conferences. The
walk to intervention, and computer lab. scheduling within the classroom changes from day to day.
The main subjects of math and reading are taught roughly
The parental involvement is the weekly around the same time of day, resources however change with
homework sheets parents sign each Tuesday and Thursday resources being the same, Monday
night, scheduled meetings, and parties and Friday resources being the same, and Friday resources
and fundraisers. being completely different. There is also scheduled time for
computer each day as well as a schedule for the walk to
Technology in the classroom includes ten
intervention program. There is an availability for technology
miniature laptops, two laptops for the
for both the teacher and the students. The teacher is
teachers use, and IPad for the teachers
provided with laptops, an IPad, a smart board, and an Elmo.
use, a Smartboard, an Elmo, speakers,
The classroom is also equipped with a set of mini laptops but
and the scheduled computer lab time.
there are only 10 which is not even enough for one group or
grade level within the classroom, there also contains a printer
for classroom use. Most of the technology is used in the
schools computer lab where there are just enough computers
for each student in the classroom. The computers in the
computer lab often have difficulties coming on, loading,
containing the programs needed and takes a while to get all
the students set up and ready to perform their given
computer tests or tasks. The classroom contextual factors are
very important especially for this unit because many of the
resources I will need for the instruction will need to be in the
unit, such as the new science kits Mercer County has
adopted. The classroom factors are also very important
because I will need to know how to keep the students
arranged in order to best suit the instruction and carry out
the unit. It is also very important for the family to be involved
so they can see and promote the students involvement in
learning, and help them to continue the joy of learning and
experimenting safely at home.

Content Specific Factors Content Specific Factors

Content materials include dray erase Within the content area(s) the materials would include a
boards, pocket charts, letter/sound dry erase boards, pocket charts, letter/sound/ vocabulary
cards, reading notebooks, handwriting cards, reading notebooks, handwriting books, the Smartboard
books, Smartboard, laptop with reading and laptop with matching reading series websites as well as
programs, whiteboard, paddle individual textbooks for reading instruction. Then for math the materials
whiteboards, math notebooks, a make include a whiteboard, individual whiteboards with markers
ten chart, handouts and symbols, and erasers, math notebooks, a making tens board chart as
crayons, pencils, and rulers. well as hand outs and symbols, and rulers for Math
instruction. Resources include websites to read the stories
Resources include websites sites such as and to project the grammar instruction as well as the Journey
Starfall, Odyssey, Zerarn, Accelerated reading series and the Eureka and Everyday Math series.
Reader and the Journey, Eureka, and Other resources would also include the STAR testing
Everyday Math series. Stat testing is also computer series. The technology specific for reading would
a resource used every week to track include the Thinkcentral website for the students to listen to
progress. their stories and resources read to them and to also access
and project their grammar lesson. The technology used for
Tools for the classroom would also
math would include writing the problems on the smartboard
include the Fossil science kits that is
for a visual aide and using an online timer for the drills used
provided by Mercer County where all the
to test the students knowledge and quickness. Technology is
supplies needed for science lessons are
also used in both content areas for weekly testing and
included.
individual practice for the students. There are also tools and
kits such as the Fossil science kits that provide instruction
and supplies for each classroom. Content factors I believe are
the most important contextual factor because the content
that is being used within the classroom will be the content
that my unit will be based on. Plus the within the materials
and tools in the classroom will be needed in order for the
students to participate and the unit to go smooth.

Student Factors (In terms of the whole class Student Factors (In terms of the whole class and
and individual students) individual students)

Classroom is a split classroom with first The classroom consists of the grade levels of first and
and second grade. second grade making it a split classroom. The ages of the
students range from six to eight, there are ten females and
Ages of students is from six to eight. thirteen males making a total of twenty-three students. There
are language needs within the classroom with four students
Ten females and thirteen males making
being resourced out for speech. There is one student who has
twenty-three in all.
special needs and spends the majority of the day not in the
There are four students receiving speech classroom, the student participates in breakfast, lunch, and
therapy. recess with the rest of the class. The race/ethnicity of the
classroom is predominately Caucasian, in addition to one
One student with special needs. student being African American and two other being mixed
race. There is a wide variety of achievement/developmental
One student is gifted.
levels which also varies by the grades in the classroom. The
The race/ethnicity of the classroom is first graders are a mixture of both high and very low levels.
predominately Caucasian, in addition to The second graders are all pretty high especially with three
one student being African American and being tested for the gifted program and one being place in
two other being mixed race. the gifted program already. There are many approaches to
learning especially with it being a split classroom. The
First graders have levels of both high and student gets a variety of learning through technology and
low students and second graders are through repetition. There are behavior differences especially
mainly high. where the second graders are a bit more mature then the first
graders. There is behavioral differences making being
Students learn through technology and proficient in the classroom sometimes difficult because both
repetition. groups or grades are wanting the attention and needing the
guidance and assistance. Within the students there is a lot of
Second graders are more mature than areas of interests the vast majority of them love reading and
the first graders. do a lot of reading during their spare time, also a lot of the
Interests of the students include loving students show an interest in art and creating new things and
to read and doing artsy things, as well as using a vast majority of color and material, sports, and
technology. There are also a lot of different learning styles.
sports or recreational activities, and
technology. There are students who are very visual and need to see the
boards and need to be shown how assignments and activities
Learning styles vary from visual to should be done. There are also students especially two who
auditory and kinesthetic. are auditory learners and do better by being told directions
and instruction multiple times. I also feel that the majority of
Skill levels are also dynamic by some students are kinesthetic and being at a young age they learn
students needing full on assistance a lot from doing hands on activities. The skill level(s) within
where other students work well the whole class also varies within grade levels and with
independently. individual students. Such as how the student who receives
special education services cannot recognize all of their letters
and numbers quite yet, where as another student who is
gifted has very high test scores and can complete the
majority of their work on their own with very little instruction.
The student factors are extremely important because how the
students learn best, what services they receive, and what
they are interested in will help me determine what activities I
can incorporate. They will also show how I can teach them to
fit their abilities and have them interested and excited to
learn.

Contextual Factors Narrative for Task:1


Community, School, and Family Factors
To begin, the community, school, and family play a role in how the students are treated, what they perceive and

what background they are bringing every day to the classroom. If the school is getting support from the community,

it will help the students in the classroom to feel encouraged and supported and also provides them with

opportunities that they may not be able to reach on their own and with their own families. The school factors are

also important to this unit because the school is the basis of the unit, it is how many students in the school are

classified with IEPs how many teachers that can be used as resources as well as what accommodation will be made

to the unit because of the IEPs, any ELL learners, and being respectful of races and cultural backgrounds. I feel that

the family aspect of the contextual factors is also a major aspect of the unit because when the students are leaving

for the day what they go home to affects their physical and psychological needs. The family contextual factor will

determine if the students in the classroom are receiving the parental involvement with their homework and if the

ideal of education is supported and praised. It also determines the students needs food and other humanly needs.
Classroom Factors
Next, classroom factors play a role in the planning and the delivery of the unit. The classroom factors play a role in

the unit, especially with the scheduling and the routines that are already in place within the classroom. There must

be time carefully planned for the unit to take place. Resources, content areas, the technology available within the

classroom as well as the schedule times for the computer lab usage is critical to the delivery of the unit. Also, the

classroom arrangement is critical and where the students need to be when the lessons of the unit is being delivered,

as well as parental involvement with the work and practice that is sent home from the unit.
Content Specific Factors
Furthermore, content specific factors play a role in the impact and delivery of the unit. Mainly because of what

materials such as technology is available for each specific content area. For instance, if the unit is based on Math

then the materials such dry erase boards, a smart board, as well as other needs for assessment such as documents,

will be needed. Then if the unit were to be based on science there would be a lot of materials needed for

experiments, or instruments to test theories, or even science journals and especially time allotted within other major

content areas for the science unit to take place.


Student Factors
Overall, I feel that the student factors as a whole classroom and as individual students will be the biggest factor in

the impact and the delivery of the unit. The classroom is set up as a split classroom with both first and second

graders. This means that the unit could be taught specifically as each individual grade or can be intertwined and be

taught and assessed in both grades. With each grade or as a whole group there would need to be a lot of factors to

consider. Such as differentiating the instruction for the student who receives special education services, while also

keeping in mind the gifted student so that their mind does not wonder and they have sufficient work to keep their

mind stimulated. The interest of the students should also be kept in mind. The students throughout the unit should

be engaged and enjoy the learning process of the unit. The unit can incorporate materials that they enjoy as well as

using technology for them to practice the use of their technological skills and for enjoyment. Also, the behavior of

the students should be kept in mind. Especially with certain content areas for the unit. Such as for science the

students need to be behave enough to follow directions and to perform the assigned tasks and make the best use of

the materials.
Overall, the contextual factors such as the percentages and the main details of the surrounding area of the school,

the community support, the parental involvement, the materials available, as well as the needs and history of each

individual student as well as the class a whole needs to be considered when planning the impact and the delivery of

the unit in order for the unit to be successful and for the students to show great growth and progress in their

learning and with their enjoyment of school.

References
Bluewell Elementary School . (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2017, from https://www.publicschoolreview.com/bluewell-

elementary-school-profile
Bluewell Elementary School in Bluefield, West Virginia. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2017, from http://public-

schools.startclass.com/l/98497/Bluewell-Elementary-School
Bluewell Elementary . (n.d.). Retrieved January 28, 2017, from http://mercer-k12.wvnet.edu/bluewell/mission-

statement/
Bluewell, WV. (n.d.). Retrieved January 22, 2017, from http://www.usacityfacts.com/wv/mercer/bluewell/
TASK 2: UNIT FRAMEWORK TEMPLATE (Expand table as necessary)

1 BIG IDEA: What are the causes of sound and light, and how can sound and light be transformed and used to solve problems?

2. STANDARDS 3A. LEARNING GOALS 3B. TYPE/LEVEL OF GOALS


1. 1. The students will be able to handle materials safely and properly. 1. This learning goal is associated with the
National Standards- 2. The students will be able to construct a cup fiddle, pluck a tongue psychomotor level. I feel that Daves
1-PS4-1. Plan and depressor, and create a book fiddle in order to feel and see materials psychomotor learning domain fits this learning
conduct vibrate, and hear how the vibrations make sound. goal the best. Daves psychomotor domain
investigations to 3. The students will be able to formally express the essential question about included five levels of motor skills they include:
provide evidence that what causes sound by completing their science journal entry. They will imitation, manipulate, precision, articulation, and
vibrating materials answer the question What causes sound? with their vocabulary word naturalization. Through this lesson the students
can make sound and vibration. will be using imitation and manipulation. The
that sound can make students will use imitation by observing the
materials vibrate. teachers patterns or conducting the
State Standards- investigation and the students will follow what
S.1.GS.1 Students the teacher does with the materials. The
will plan and conduct students will also manipulate by then performing
investigations to and practicing the parts of the investigation on
provide evidence that their own by listening to the verbal instructions
vibrating materials given by the teacher and doing the investigation
can make sound and at home by their memory. Then hopefully
that sound can make through practice on their own and through being
materials vibrate. formally assessed the level with transition into
the student being able to understand and
perform the investigation with precision,
articulation, and naturalization.

2. 1. The students will use the materials safely and properly in order to 2. The appropriate domain of learning for this
National Standards- complete the investigation, and base their understandings that their particular standard and learning goal will include
1-PS4-2. Make observations proved that objects can only be seen when illuminated. the cognitive domain of learning. The cognitive
observations to 2. The students will learn how objects can be seen only when illuminated, domain of learning implies the mental or
construct an and how we can redirect a light beam to show various angles of light and knowledge skills associated with learning. There
evidence-based objects that can be illuminated. are various levels associated with the cognitive
account that objects 3. The students will also be expected to formally explain in their science domain of learning through Blooms Taxonomy
can be seen only journals, and through one on one interactions and observations, how light is and they include: remembering, understanding,
when illuminated. required for vision or how our eyes need objects to be illuminated in order applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating.
State Standards- for us to see them. With these particular standards and the learning
S.1.GS.2 Students goals I feel that all these levels apply. The
will make students will need to have some kind of previous
observations to knowledge about light and what it is and what
construct evidence- we typically use it for. The students will also
based account that have to construct and understanding of what it
objects can be seen means to illuminate objects in order for them to
only when be seen. The students will need to apply their
illuminated. new understandings to carry out the
investigation so that they will have observations
about how items are illuminated to be seen. The
students will then need to analyze their
observations and construct the evidence of what
they saw when items were illuminated. The
students will be evaluating formally in their
journals what they saw to justify their
observations. Lastly, the students will be creating
because they will be assembling the objects to
be illuminated and they will hypothesize their
observations and findings about objects being
seen only when illuminated.

3. 1. The students will be able to use materials such as flashlights and The domain of learning for this learning goal is
National Standards- household objects safely, properly, and cooperatively in order to ensure the the psychomotor domain, because this learning
1-PS4-3. Plan and safety of the classroom and to prove evidence for the investigation. goal contains manual and physical skills in order
conduct an 2. The students will demonstrate various types of shadows by using a to transform the path of the beams of light with
investigation to diverse range of household materials, and will categorize them into groups various materials. The psychomotor domain
determine the effect in order for them to determine what happens to different objects when would come from Simpsons view with the levels
of placing objects placing them in front of a beam of light such as a flashlight. of perceptions, set, guided response,
made with different 3. The students will learn and demonstrate what the terms opaque, mechanism, complex overt response,
materials in the path translucent, and transparent. They will show how they correlate with the adaptation, and origination. Perception would be
of a beam of light. understanding that different effects happen to objects made of different the sensory of light during the guided
State Standards- materials when placing them in the path of a beam of light. investigation. The set would entail the mind set
S.1.GS.3 Students needed to physically change the paths of the
will plan and conduct beams of light, and to have the mind set to see
an investigation to and understand the effect the materials made to
determine the effect change the path of the light. The guided
of placing objects response would include the students being able
made with different to imitate the procedures in the investigation
materials in the path such as shining the beam of light on various
of a beam of light. materials, and then adjusting the light with trial
and error to get the desired effect. The
mechanism portion will come when the students
start practicing and working with the materials to
change the beam of light and they start to feel
more confident about what they are doing and
they start trying new things. Adaptation will
come when the students perform the
investigation on their own and they start
adapting by changing the materials and trying
different forms of light.

4. 1. The students will use materials safely, properly, and cooperatively in pairs 4. The domain of learning that is associated with
National Standards- in order to design devices that they can use to solve the problem of this learning goal will include the psychomotor
1-PS4-4. Use tools communicating over a distance. learning domain because of the manual and
and materials to 2. Students will learn the meaning of the word communicate and what it physical skills that are needed in order to build
design and build a means for sound to travel from a sound source, such as the material of a the devices to create and solve the
device that uses light metal spoon, to a sound receiver such as an ear. communicating devices that are needed to
or sound to solve the 3. The students will be able to construct spoon-gong systems and string-cup communicate over a distance. The psychomotor
problem of telephones out of common materials to demonstrate how to communicate domain this learning goal would fall under is the
communicating over over long distances using sound. They will then simply write or explain simplest form, which is the Daves psychomotor
a distance. * about how the materials were used to communicate over long distance with domain. The students will begin by imitating and
State Standards- a journal entry in their science notebooks. designing their own communication devices for
S.1.GS.4 Students light and sound. They will then manipulate their
will use tools and devices and use their devices through verbal
materials to design instruction. Once the students have manipulated
and build a device and worked with their devices they will be able to
that uses light or use precision to use their devices with as much
sound to solve the accuracy as possible. The students will then be
problem of able to use articulation to modify their devices
communicating over and to know why the devices are used to apply
a distance. * them to different communication situations and
distances. Lastly, the students will us
naturalization which means the students will be
capable to design and build these
communicating devices on their own and
demonstrate them to others such as performing
the investigation at home with family and friends,
while explaining their uses and the problems
behind them.

Task 2 Narrative

Justification for the Big Idea


The big idea or the essential question is What are the causes of sound and light, and how can sound and light be transformed and used

to solve problems? This essential question summarizes this whole unit because the students will be learning what causes sound, what causes

light, and how the sound and light can be changed using different materials and through various investigations to learn how they affect the world
around and how they are used to solve everyday problems. I chose this unit for various reasons. One would include the new FOSS science kits

that Mercer County has adopted and I am wanting to incorporate the new lessons and materials that the kit offers so that the students will be

engaged, learn, and have an enjoyable experience that also correlates with their other subjects and resources. The second would be to reinforce

part of their music instruction for a resource that they only receive once a week and how they are learning about sound how it is caused, can be

formed, and how the pitches can change. I also wanted to introduce light, especially with the light changes and holidays such as Groundhogs Day

and for them to learn how shadows are formed and changed. Overall, learning about sound and light as well as the causes and how they can be

used to solve problems is very important for the students to know because sound and light are essential elements that effect every living thing life

daily.
Domains of Learning
The domains of learning for the four learning goals I have listed vary some but all seem to be have some consistency with the

psychomotor learning domain. I feel that the psychomotor learning domain is dominant because of the subject of the unit. With the unit consisting

of science there is a lot of manual and physical skills that need to be done for the students to investigate, observe, and then formal be assessed of

what the saw and learned. Science is a hands-on learning subject with also a cognitive domain of learning because the students are needing to

use mental skills and knowledge to think about what they have known about these elements, what they are learning while they are performing the

investigations, and what they have learned after they have performed the investigation such as what their observation was and what terms they

may have learned. Also, the psychomotor and cognitive learning domain will show if the students have grasped the concepts enough in order to

manipulate them for their own uses at home and teaching others on what they have learned. These domains of learning deepen the students

understanding because it takes them through the beginning of learning to where they can master completing and understanding the tasks on their

own.
Anticipated Student Challenges
The four learning goals that are listed are very detailed and they all distinct in their own way. In general, an anticipated challenge for the

whole unit being based on Science will be that the students have yet to be exposed to science, especially with the wide range of materials and
investigations that their new FOSS curriculum offers. The students energy will need to be kept under control with positive classroom management

techniques so that the learning will not only be fun and engaging, but also so that the students are comprehending, understanding, and

demonstrate as much as possible. The students will need to learn the safety of the equipment which will take time and will be a challenge. Another

challenge will be the diversity in academic levels in the classroom. The student who receives special education accommodations will need to be

worked with one on one with each investigation and with each learning goal and will more than likely not be able to formally assess in a science

journal but will be able to participate, learn, and engage in the activities. Whereas the student who is gifted will be capable of performing tasks on

their own as well as writing full sentences even paragraphs when being formally assessed in the science journal. Other challenges that may arise

with each goal will be time constraints with only being able to teach science once a week with a certain amount of time. The students will need to

have refreshers as well as having reviews before each lesson and recaps after each lesson has been taught.

References
Learning Domains - Student Life Learning & Assessment | Emporia State University. (n.d.). Retrieved February 05, 2017, from

https://www.emporia.edu/studentlife/learning-and-assessment/guide/domains.html
Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives for Science in West Virginia State Schools. (n.d.). Retrieved February 5, 2017, from

https://apps.sos.wv.gov/adlaw/csr/readfile.aspx?DocId=26574&Format=PDF
Psychomotor Domain. (n.d.). Retrieved February 05, 2017, from http://thepeakperformancecenter.com/educational-

learning/learning/process/domains-of-learning/psychomotor-domain/
N. (n.d.). Waves: Light and Sound. Retrieved February 05, 2017, from http://ngss.nsta.org/DisplayStandard.aspx?view=topic&id=4
TASK 3: ASSESSMENT PLAN TEMPLATE (Expand template as needed)

LEARNING GOAL ASSESSMENTS LEVEL OF RATIONALE FOR


(from Task 2, 3A) (Methods matched to outcome types and content area. For each goal include MASTERY ASSESSMENTS (use
one or more assessment where appropriate. The same assessment can (e.g., 75%, 9 this column to assist
provide evidence of learning for multiple goals, provided that the parts of the out of 10) your narrative by writing
assessment are aligned with the appropriate goal.) short, bulleted notes of
rationale ONLY)

1. The students will be able to Pre-Assessment Pre-test questions one and two will assess this goal. Two out of five Questions were
handle materials safely and questions, designed to
properly. 40%. match the
2. The students will be able to scientific
construct a cup fiddle, pluck a terminology
tongue depressor, and create needed for the
a book fiddle in order to feel investigation
and see materials vibrate, and and line up with
hear how the vibrations make the West
sound. Virginia State
3. The students will be able to and National
formally express the essential Science
question about what causes Standards.
sound by completing their
science journal entry. They will Formative Observations will be the first formative assessment for Ten out of ten Observations
answer the question What this learning goal. Students will individually demonstrate questions, are used for the
causes sound? with their to the teacher how to construct and pluck a cup fiddle, 100% formative
vocabulary word vibration. how to flick a tongue depressor to make it vibrate, and assessment
construct and play a book fiddle to hear a variety of because the
pitches, as well as see and hear vibrations that the students are
instrument resonates. Also, a formative assessment will demonstrating
include the science journal entry in the students science how they can
journals. The students will glue the investigation slip and handle the
will answer the essential question What causes sound materials
using the learned vocabulary term vibration. properly as well
as show how
the terminology
they are
learning is
being used.
The science
journal is used
for students to
demonstrate
through writing
they can
answer the
essential
question about
the topic of the
investigation as
well as a review
to look back on.

Post-Assessment Post-test questions one, two, and six will assess the Three out of The questions
learning goals. the ten for the posttest
questions, 30% ae designed
assess what
knowledge
students have
gained from the
pre-test that
was given as
well as to
assess with
question six an
essential
vocabulary
word for the
entire unit and
necessary for
the standards.

1. The students will use the Pre-Assessment Pre-test question five will assess the three learning One out of five Question 5 on
materials safely and properly goals. questions, 20% the pre-test
in order to complete the demonstrates
investigation, and base their the main idea
understandings that their of the learning
observations proved that objective about
objects can only be seen when what objects
illuminated. radiate light,
2. The students will learn how and how we
objects can be seen only when need the
illuminated, and how we can objects that
redirect a light beam to show radiate light,
various angles of light and because in
objects that can be illuminated. order for
3. The students will also be objects to be
expected to formally explain in seem they
their science journals, and need to be
through one on one illuminated.
interactions and observations,
how light is required for vision Formative The first formative assessment will include observations Ten out of ten, Observations
or how our eyes need objects and whether or not the students are using the materials 100% are very
to be illuminated in order for us properly and safely, as well as collaborating with a important for
to see them. partner to complete the investigation to redirect light the formative
from a mirror to another surface. The second assessment
assessment will be a simple thumb up exercise where because the
the students will put a thumbs up if they were able to teacher will
create a reflection of light on the ceiling and were able to need to be able
see how the angles changed. Another formative to see if the
assessment will be a simple interview with each pair of students are
students where they will answer questions about how collaborating
they redirected light and how angles and the shape of together and
the light beam changed. The last formative assessment are able to see
for these three learning goals will be the completion of the beams of
their science journal entry. The students will draw a light being
picture of the materials and the process they used to redirected,
redirect a light beam, and will then write a sentence because the
describing their picture and how they redirected the light goal is for the
beam, such as what materials they used, what they did, students to use
or what they saw. their eyes to
see objects
being
illuminated.
The thumbs up
exercise is
necessary to
make sure all of
the students
are using the
materials in
order to reflect
the light and
are staying on
track so that
they will be
able to write
their journal
assessment.
The interviews
with each pair
of students will
help the
students
verbalize what
they are seeing
and what they
are
comprehending
, which will help
them when
writing in their
science
journals.
The science
journals are a
great visual
assessment
because the
teacher will be
able to see if
the students
can draw the
process they
used to redirect
the light which
demonstrate
the process of
cause and
effect, and then
if they are able
to put their
understanding
into words on
how they
redirected the
light.

Post-Assessment Post-test questions five and seven will assess the tree Two out of ten, Question five
learning goals. 20% on the post test
will
demonstrate
how much the
students have
learned since
the pre-test that
was taught, and
question seven
will
demonstrate if
the students
have an
understanding
of the tools that
were used to
help
understand the
objective of
how the tools
we use reflects
lights so that it
can be seen
with our eyes.

1. The students will be able to Pre-Assessment Pre-test question four assess the three learning goals. One out of five, The fourth
use materials such as 20% question on the
flashlights and household pre-test assess
objects safely, properly, and these learning
cooperatively in order to goals by asking
ensure the safety of the the students a
classroom and to prove major concept
evidence for the investigation. with one of their
2. The students will vocabulary
demonstrate various types of words which is
shadows by using a diverse transparent.
range of household materials, The students
and will categorize them into will need to
groups in order for them to know how
determine what happens to transparent
different objects when placing objects relates
them in front of a beam of light to creating
such as a flashlight. shadows.
3. The students will learn and
demonstrate what the terms Formative Observations will be the first form of formative Ten out of ten, The
opaque, translucent, and assessments. The teacher will be able to see if the 100% observations
transparent. They will show students are using their materials such as the flashlights are used
how they correlate with the and the household objects to make shadows. Another because the
understanding that different assessment will be the students placing their objects students will
effects happen to objects into groups of what makes shadows, what doesnt make need to create
made of different materials shadows, and different types of shadows. The last the shadows
when placing them in the path formative assessment will be the students entry in their and use the
of a beam of light. science journals where they will draw lines matching various
objects to their shadows, then writing a sentence materials in
explaining what makes a shadow. They will use a order to
sentence such as To make a shadow you shine a understand the
flashlight on an object that reflects the light. standards, and
the teacher
must see their
activity in order
for them to be
assessed.
The groupings
are used as a
formative
assessment to
see the
students
observations
and
understandings
of what makes
shadows and
as proof that
they have put in
effort to make
different types
of shadows and
understand
categorizing.
The science
journal is used
for students to
demonstrate
through
matching
whether they
can distinguish
between
objects and
what shadows
are created
when placing
light behind
them, and by
writing they can
answer the
essential
question about
the topic of the
investigation as
well as a review
to look back on

Post-Assessment Post-test questions four and eight will assess the three Two out of ten, The questions
learning goals. 20% from the post
tests are
designed to first
match the
question from
the pre-test to
see if the
students have
gained an
understanding
of the learning
goals, and to
also assess
more
vocabulary that
is essential to
understanding
how a beam of
light passes
through an
object.
1. The students will use Pre-Assessment Pre-test question three will assess the three learning One out of Question three
materials safely, properly, and goals. five, 20% on the pre-test
cooperatively in pairs in order will test the
to design devices that they can students
use to solve the problem of knowledge on
communicating over a one of the key
distance. vocabulary
2. Students will learn the words needed
meaning of the word to understand
communicate and what it how sound is
means for sound to travel from transmitted and
a sound source, such as the received.
material of a metal spoon, to a
sound receiver such as an ear.
3. The students will be able to
construct spoon-gong systems
and string-cup telephones out
of common materials to
demonstrate how to
communicate over long
distances using sound. They
will then simply write or explain
about how the materials were
used to communicate over
long distance with a journal
entry in their science
notebooks.

Formative The first assessment will be an observation and if the Ten out of ten, The
Assessment students are working with a partner correctly to use the 100% observation is
spoon-gongs and the paper cup telephones. Another really important
formative assessment will be a hands up assessment on for this lesson
whether or not the students can hear their partners because the
talking through the paper cup telephones. Lastly, a teacher will
formative assessment will be the students science need to know if
journal entry where they will write a sentence describing the students
how they can use sound to communicate over a long are using the
distance. instruments
correctly in
order for them
to have the full
benefit of
hearing sound
and
communicating
with one
another over a
distance.
The ands up
assessment will
be a quick
indicator for the
teacher if all of
the pairs are on
track with their
materials and
listening to the
distinct sounds
of the spoon-
gong and the
paper-cup
telephone.
The science
journal is a
formative
assessment
which puts wat
the students
have
comprehended
from the lesson
into writing, and
will also serve
as a way to
review before
the post test.

Post-Assessment Post-test questions three, nine, and ten will be used Three out of Question three
ten, 30% will be
assessing what
the students
have learned
since being
given the
pretest. Ten
questions nine
and ten will
demonstrate
more learning
about how we
receive sound
and make
sound stop
between what
the sound
source is and
where it is
being received.
Task 3- Assessment Plan, Teacher Assessment Performance Narrative
Pre-Test
To begin, for the instruction of the unit to go smoothly I will conduct a pre-test on the key terms and facts that coincide with the West

Virginia State Science Standards, the National Science Standards, and the learning goals designated for each lesson of the unit. The

pre-test will help me as the educator know what my students know about the ideals of sound and light thus far, and where to reinforce

and start the learning process of where light and sound come from, its uses, as well as how they can be transformed. The pre-test is the

ground work for what we will be learning, and then at the end of the unit will serve me as the basis of how far the students have come

along.
Learning Goals
o 1. The students will be able to handle materials safely and properly.
o 2. The students will be able to construct a cup fiddle, pluck a tongue depressor, and create a book fiddle in order to feel

and see materials vibrate, and hear how the vibrations make sound.
o 3. The students will be able to formally express the essential question about what causes sound by completing their

science journal entry. They will answer the question What causes sound? with their vocabulary word vibration.
Questions one and two on the five-question pre-test will assess these objectives which tests necessary

vocabulary terms.
o 1. The students will use the materials safely and properly in order to complete the investigation, and base their

understandings that their observations proved that objects can only be seen when illuminated.
o 2. The students will learn how objects can be seen only when illuminated, and how we can redirect a light beam to

show various angles of light and objects that can be illuminated.


o 3. The students will also be expected to formally explain in their science journals, and through one on one interactions

and observations, how light is required for vision or how our eyes need objects to be illuminated in order for us to see

them.
Questions five on the pre-test will assess these learning goals, which tests vocabulary and the idea of materials.
o 1. The students will be able to use materials such as flashlights and household objects safely, properly, and

cooperatively in order to ensure the safety of the classroom and to prove evidence for the investigation.
o 2. The students will demonstrate various types of shadows by using a diverse range of household materials, and will

categorize them into groups in order for them to determine what happens to different objects when placing them in

front of a beam of light such as a flashlight.


o 3. The students will learn and demonstrate what the terms opaque, translucent, and transparent. They will show how

they correlate with the understanding that different effects happen to objects made of different materials when placing

them in the path of a beam of light.


Question four assess the learning goals, which is a simple question to see if the student understands a key term.
o 1. The students will use materials safely, properly, and cooperatively in pairs in order to design devices that they can

use to solve the problem of communicating over a distance.


o 2. Students will learn the meaning of the word communicate and what it means for sound to travel from a sound source,

such as the material of a metal spoon, to a sound receiver such as an ear.


o 3. The students will be able to construct spoon-gong systems and string-cup telephones out of common materials to

demonstrate how to communicate over long distances using sound. They will then simply write or explain about how

the materials were used to communicate over long distance with a journal entry in their science notebooks.
Question three will assess these learning goals, which tests a main vocabulary word for the entire unit and will

help the students provide a written response.

Sound and Light Pre-Test


Name: __________________________
1. What causes sound?
_________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________
2. What is a pitch in science?
a) How high or low sound is.
b)An activity when playing baseball.
c) A container to fill with water.
d)To throw something away.
3. The loudness or softness of a sound is its ____________.
4. Is something is transparent can you see through it?
a) Yes
b)No
5. Name an object that radiates light.

______________________________________________________
Formative Assessment

The formative assessments for this unit will be varied, because each investigation or experiment will be varied. There will be

an observation form of formative assessment with each learning goal because with the subject of science the students will be working

hands on and I will need to observe if they are using the materials properly to get the right results. Other formative assessments

include quick results such as having students put a thumb up or a hand to make sure everyone is on the same track. Also, there will be

grouping strategies to see if students will be able to categorize. Students will also be formally assessed trough interviewing and

discussing what they have observed and what evidence they have found; some students will do better by explaining verbally rather

than formally writing. Then, the last formal assessment that will take place with each lesson and set of learning goals will be a science

journal entry. The science journal entries will have the students write an answer to the essential questions, and perform activities such

as drawing and matching. The science journal entries will help me as the teacher show the students ow to summarize what they have
learned, see if they understand the main concepts, and will also serve as a record and review to look back on as we go through all the

lessons and to review for the post test.

Formative Assessment Science Journal Documents

for each set of Learning Goals


o 1. The students will be able to handle materials safely

and properly.
o 2. The students will be able to construct a cup fiddle,

pluck a tongue depressor, and create a book

fiddle in order to feel and see materials vibrate, and

hear how the vibrations make sound.


o 3. The students will be able to formally express the

essential question about what causes sound by

completing their science journal entry. They

will answer the question What causes

sound? with their vocabulary word vibration.


o 1. The students will use the materials safely and properly in order to complete the investigation, and base their

understandings that their observations proved that objects can only be seen when illuminated.
o 2. The students will learn how objects can be seen only when illuminated, and how we can redirect a light beam to

show various angles of light and objects that can be illuminated.


o 3. The students will also be expected to formally explain in their science journals, and through one on one interactions

and observations, how light is required for vision or how our eyes need objects to be illuminated in order for us to see

them.

o 1. The students will be able to use materials such as flashlights and

household objects safely, properly, and cooperatively in order to

ensure the safety of the classroom and to prove evidence for the

investigation.
o 2. The students will demonstrate various types of shadows by

using a diverse range of household materials, and will categorize


them into groups in order for them to determine what happens to different objects when placing them in front of a beam

of light such as a flashlight.


o 3. The students will learn and demonstrate what the terms opaque, translucent, and transparent. They will show how

they correlate with the understanding that different effects happen to objects made of different materials when placing

them in the path of a beam of light.

o 1. The students will use materials safely, properly, and cooperatively

in pairs in order to design devices that they can use to solve the

problem of communicating over a distance.


o 2. Students will learn the meaning of the word communicate and what

it means for sound to travel from a sound source, such as the material of

a metal spoon, to a sound receiver such as an ear.


o 3. The students will be able to construct spoon-gong systems and string-cup

telephones out of common materials to demonstrate how to

communicate over long distances using sound. They will then simply
write or explain about how the materials were used to communicate over long distance with a journal entry in their

science notebooks.

Post Assessment

The post assessment will be a post test that the students will take after the unit

has been completed. The students will have performed four lessons with four different

sections of learning goals achieved. The post test will demonstrate what progress the

students have made with the first five questions, and then with the final five

questions the students will be assessed on more investigations and vocabulary terms

that needed to be learned in order for the learning goals to be achieved. The post test

will show how I should have revised my learning goals and will lead me into a
direction of what I should have done differently for the students to master the objectives and standards that were set at the beginning

of the unit.

Learning Goals
o 1. The students will be able to handle materials safely and properly.
o 2. The students will be able to construct a cup fiddle, pluck a tongue depressor, and create a book fiddle in order to feel

and see materials vibrate, and hear how the vibrations make sound.
o 3. The students will be able to formally express the essential question about what causes sound by completing their

science journal entry. They will answer the question What causes sound? with their vocabulary word vibration.
Questions one, two, and six on the ten-question pre-test will assess these learning goals.
o 1. The students will use the materials safely and properly in order to complete the investigation, and base their

understandings that their observations proved that objects can only be seen when illuminated.
o 2. The students will learn how objects can be seen only when illuminated, and how we can redirect a light beam to

show various angles of light and objects that can be illuminated.


o 3. The students will also be expected to formally explain in their science journals, and through one on one interactions

and observations, how light is required for vision or how our eyes need objects to be illuminated in order for us to see

them.
Questions five and seven on the ten-question post-test will assess these learning goals.
o 1. The students will be able to use materials such as flashlights and household objects safely, properly, and

cooperatively in order to ensure the safety of the classroom and to prove evidence for the investigation.
o 2. The students will demonstrate various types of shadows by using a diverse range of household materials, and will

categorize them into groups in order for them to determine what happens to different objects when placing them in

front of a beam of light such as a flashlight.


o 3. The students will learn and demonstrate what the terms opaque, translucent, and transparent. They will show how

they correlate with the understanding that different effects happen to objects made of different materials when placing

them in the path of a beam of light.


Question four and eight out of the ten questions will assess the learning goals
o 1. The students will use materials safely, properly, and cooperatively in pairs in order to design devices that they can

use to solve the problem of communicating over a distance.


o 2. Students will learn the meaning of the word communicate and what it means for sound to travel from a sound source,

such as the material of a metal spoon, to a sound receiver such as an ear.


o 3. The students will be able to construct spoon-gong systems and string-cup telephones out of common materials to

demonstrate how to communicate over long distances using sound. They will then simply write or explain about how

the materials were used to communicate over long distance with a journal entry in their science notebooks.
Question three, nine, and ten of the ten questions on the post-test will assess these learning goals.
Sound and Light Post-Test
Name: __________________________
1. What is the vocabulary word that shows what causes sound?
__________________________________________________________
2. What is a pitch in science?
a) To throw something away.
b)A container of water.
c) A move you make in baseball.
d)How loud or soft a sound is.
3. How loud or soft a sound is its ____________.

4. Can you see through something that is transparent?


a) Yes
b)No
5. Name an object that radiates light.

______________________________________________________
6. A rapid back and forth motion is?
a) Vibration
b)Pitch
c) Volume
d)Reflection
7. What is a tool we can use to reflect light?

8. If an object is opaque you CAN see light shining through it?


a) True
b)False
9. Name one sound receiver:

10. If you stop something vibrating the sound will stop?


a) True
b)False
Student Teacher Directions for Assessments

The student and teacher directions will vary with each assessment. With the pre-test the teacher will direct the students to

answer the five questions to the best of their abilities, to make educational guesses, and will tell the students that the pre-test is not for

a grade but as a way to see what they know. With each formative assessment the students will be directed to do something different

such as performing an experiment, raising their thumb or hand, then with each science journal entry the teacher will direct the students

to glue their pages in their journals, write the date, and answer the essential question in a complete sentence. The posttest directions

will be similar the pretest. The teacher will direct the students to answer all the questions to the best of their ability.

Criteria for Scoring Student Performance

Most the scoring for the students performance will be through observations as they will be conducting hands on activities to

observe and test theories. There will also be an answer key to assess the students performance for both the pre-test and the post-test.

With each science journal entry, the students performance will be varied and will require the teachers judgement on the sentence or

answer that they have created, and the student will be checked and corrected individually with each entry. There is also a suggested

answer for each journal entry page in the teachers textbook.


TPA Task 4

Bluefield State College


Daily Lesson Plan (Template)

Name: Ashley Folden Date:


01/27/16

Subject: Science Topic: What


causes sound?

Grade: 1st Length of


Lesson: Lesson 1 35 minutes

Introduction (Essential Question): What causes sound?


Standard: General Science Content
Cluster: Waves: Light and Sound
Objective:
1st S.1.GS.1 Students will plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that
vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate.

Specific Objective: Students will learn and demonstrate the concept of how sound is caused
by vibration. They will demonstrate this understanding by conducting experiments to show
vibration and will then log their observation through the formal use of a journal entry.

Method(s): The lesson will first take place in whole group instruction with both grades in
the split class participating. There will be a lot of direct instruction for safety and fun and
experimenting in guided practice. There will also be a pretest as well as a formal
assessment to see the students knowledge before the lesson and after the lesson.

Materials:
Pre-Test for Sound and Light Unit
Plastic cups (punch size)
Rubber bands
Tongue Depressors
Science notebook
Notebook Sheet 1 Making Sounds
Tuning fork
Direct Instruction: Direct instruction will begin with the teacher explaining the Pre-Test for
the unit to the students. The teacher will tell the students that it is not for a grade but just
for their prior knowledge. The direct instruction will then lead into the teacher explaining
the importance of using the supplies safely and responsibly. The teacher will then dispense
all the supplies to the students. The teacher will have an example set to show and
demonstrate to the students what they will be doing. The teacher will then ask the students
what causes sound which was also the first question to the Pre-Test. The teacher will then
talk about vibrations and explain different things that vibrate such as our vocal chords and
will have the students place their hands on their neck and talk so they can feel the
vibrations. The teacher will also discuss what receives sound such as our ear drums. The
teacher will then continue talking about sound sources and sound receivers. The teacher
will then write the words vibration and pitch and will go over their definitions with the
class before starting the demonstrations.
Guided Practice: The students will begin by taking all the materials out of the cup. The
teacher will then have the students take one rubber band and will demonstrate and assist
the students in placing one of the rubber bands overtop of the cup. The class will then
pluck the rubber bands gently while holding the cups to feel the vibrations and also hear
the sounds. The teacher will then have the students put the cup to the side after they have
had a few minutes to practice plucking the rubber bands and hearing the sounds and
feeling the vibrations. The teacher will then have the students pick up the tongue
depressors. The teacher will demonstrate how to hold the depressor with one hand on the
desk holding it firmly with one side hanging off. The teacher will then instruct the students
to use one finger and to flick the depressor with their finger to see and feel the vibrations.
After the students have practiced this task the teacher will have the students put the tongue
depressor in their cups and pluck their rubber bands again to see the stick vibrate within
the cup. The teacher will then have the students repeat what causes sound and what it
means for the sound to have a high or low pitch and the different types of pitches there can
be along with examples. The teacher will then instruct the students to get out their reading
books. The teacher will show an example and demonstrate how to make the book, the cup,
and two rubber bands to create a book fiddle. The teacher will assist the students in
making the book fiddle and will show them the different sounds that can be made with the
book fiddle. The teacher will also explain that the cup is facing up because of the sound
waves that project from the cup from the vibration to make sound. The teacher will give
the students a few minutes to practice playing their book fiddles, and will walk around and
help/observe as well as hear the different sounds. The teacher will help the students
deconstruct their fiddles to conclude the experiments.

Differentiation: The differentiation for this lesson will be the visual learners seeing how the
experiments are executed. There will also be differentiation in having the auditory leaners
hear the directions, definitions and the types of sounds coming from the cups and rubber
bands as well as the tuning fork. Also, there will be a ton of learning for the kinesthetic
learner through feeling all the material vibrate and assembling all the materials and
playing with them.
Lesson Closure: The lesson will close with the teacher reviewing the meaning of vibration
and how vibrations cause sounds. The teacher will also review the meaning and types of
pitch. The teacher will also recap the different experiments as well as their feeling and
sounds and will ask the students how they felt about the activities. The lesson will also close
by the students performing the independent practice and the teacher demonstrating the
tuning fork for each individual student before putting all the supplies away.
Independent Practice: The independent practice will consist of the students receiving a
handout for their science notebooks. The handout will consist of a picture of the book fiddle
that the students made and will answer the question What causes sound? Which was also
the first question on the Pre-Test that was given at the beginning of the lesson. The students
will glue the sheet in their notebook and will write the date of the experiment. The students
will then answer the question with writing the word vibration or with a sentence explaining
how vibration makes sound.

Assessment: The first assessment will be the Pre-Test that the students will take at the
beginning of the lesson to test their prior knowledge before they learn the material. A
second visual assessment will take place during the whole group activities. There will be a
lot of visual assessments because this is a hands on activity and safety is a major concern.
The teacher will have a visual if the students are understanding the feeling of vibrations
and if they can hear and feel different sounds coming from all the experiments. The third
assessment will be the journal entry that the students will complete on their own. This last
assessment will show if the student has an understanding of the overall topic and essential
question of the lesson, and will show if there is any improvement since the Pre-Test that was
given at the beginning of the lesson.

Reflection: This lesson is the best lesson I have taught this far! I absolutely loved the
science kits that Mercer County has adopted. The books are easy to use as well as pick and
choose. All the supplies as well as books and videos are included in the kits. The
experiments for this lesson were really simple and the supplies were very minimal. The Pre-
Test that I gave for this lesson which began the unit was pretty difficult for the students to
understand. A lot of them got flustered because it was a test and they did not know the
answers. I assured them that it wasnt for a grade and that I was just seeing what they
knew in order for us to learn and get a great grade on the next one. The students worries
went away when it was time for the experiments. The students handled the materials very
well and were all active participants. The students followed along with instructions and
repeated what I said as well as asked and answered questions as well as give more
information that I hadnt even thought about discussing. The students are really eager to
do another science lesson and to keep moving on with this unit and so am I. The only thing
that I would change about this lesson would be to incorporate more of the supplies such as
the sound cards and some of the other experiments that were included in this investigation.
After grading the pre-tests all the students did not do as well, which was expected because
the students have not been experienced to any lessons with science.

Bluefield State College


Daily Lesson Plan (Template)

Name: Ashley Folden Date: 02/3/17

Subject: Science Topic: What


makes a shadow?

Grade: 1st Length of


Lesson: Lesson 2 35 minutes

Introduction (Essential Question): What causes a shadow?


Standard: General Science Content
Cluster: Waves: Light and Sound
Objective:
1st S.1.GS.2 Students will make observations to construct an evidence-based
account that objects can be seen only when illuminated.
1st- S.1.GS.3 Students will plan and conduct an investigation to determine the effect
of placing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light.

Specific Objective: Students will learn and demonstrate the concept of how light is the
cause of shadows. They will demonstrate this understanding by conducting experiments to
show shadows using various types of objects and will then log their observation through the
formal use of a journal entry.

Method(s): The lesson will first take place in whole group instruction with both grades in
the split class participating. There will be a lot of direct instruction for safety and fun and
experimenting in guided practice. There will also be a formal assessment to see the
students knowledge after the lesson has taken place to see if they understand the essential
question and can demonstrate the specific objective.

Materials:
Flashlights with AA cells
Sets of shadow objects
o Aluminum-foil ball
o Cardboard piece
o Clothespin
o Paper cup
o Plastic spoon
o Plastic chip
o Craft stick
o Washer
o Jumbo paper clip
o Pencil
o Penny
o Rubber band
Notebook sheet 8, Making Shadows

Direct Instruction: Direct instruction will begin with the teacher reviewing what the
previous science lesson from last week was about (sound and vibration). The teacher will
then tell the students that the days science lesson will be about shadows. The teacher will
write the focus question What causes a shadow? on the board. The teacher will then ask
the students what they think of when they hear the word light. The teacher will then
explain to the students that light can come from natural sources, such as the Sun, Moon, or
fire. Even things such as lamps and lightbulbs. The teacher will then ask the students to
name sources of light. The teacher will then review the supplies for the experiment with the
students. The teacher will first go over the flashlight. The teacher will hold up the flashlight
and ask the students what it is called. The teacher will then review the different parts of the
flashlight (bulb, switch, where the batteries go). The teacher will explain how the batteries
give the flashlights energy. The teacher will then go over the appropriate use of a flashlight
in the classroom and will also go over the safety rules. The teacher will tell the students that
they should not point the flashlight in another student face. The teacher will then explain
how they will be sharing the flashlight and supplies with a partner and will have to take
turns using the materials. The teacher will also tell the students that while they are with
their partners and one is using the items the other partner should be observing what is
happening to the light beams and materials. The teacher will then begin the investigation
with the students. The teacher will ask the students what will happen if you shine a light on
a students hand. The teacher will then take a flashlight and point it at a hand and will
slowly move it away, so that a shadow is projected on the board. The teacher will then tell
the students that they will work with a partner to do the same thing. The teacher will then
have the students practice with a partner for a few minutes. The teacher will then discuss
the students observations by asking some questions. What did you notice about the beam
of light? When you pointed the light close to the table what did it look like? When you
moved the light higher from the table, what did it look like? What happened when your
hand was in front of the light? What was the hand doing to the light? The teacher will
then tell the students that the dark hand shape area was the shadow.

Guided Practice: The teacher will then ask the focus question of What makes a shadow?
again. The teacher will explain to the students that they made a shadow with their hands
and that now they will use other objects to use to try and make shadows. The teacher will
then hold up the kits of supplies. The teacher will remind the students to use the objects
safely and to work well with one another. The students with their partners will be working
on determining how to make shadows using the flashlights with each of the objects. The
teacher will also tell the students to sort the objects based on what shadow they observed.
The pairs will all then get a kit and will practice making shadows and sorting their
findings. The class will regroup and discuss, and pairs will show and explain their findings
and why they made the groups they did. The class will then clean up their materials. The
class will then discuss how to make a shadow with objects. The teacher will ask them what
objects made the shadows, how were the shadows different from one each other, what did
not make a shadow, and what is the general rule for making a shadow. The teacher will
then have the students predict what will happen if they were to use a pair of glasses, a
plastic baggie, or a woven basket. The teacher will use the words opaque, translucent, and
transparent when describing these materials. The teacher will then pass out the page for
their science journals and for their individual formal assessment.

Differentiation: The differentiation for this lesson will be the visual learners seeing how the
experiments are executed as well as seeing all the different shadows and what causes
shadows and the use of light. This is a very visual lesson. There will also be differentiation
in having the auditory leaners hear the directions. Also, there will be a ton of learning for
the kinesthetic learner through holding the various objects and working with them
especially the flashlights which is the source of the whole investigation.

Lesson Closure: The lesson will close with the teacher reviewing the meaning shadows and
how they are caused by light. The teacher will also review the meaning and types of
shadows as well as the words translucent, opaque, and transparent that were discussed
during the predictions. The teacher will also recap the different experiments as well as they
saw and will ask the students how they felt about the activities. The lesson will also close by
the students performing the independent practice and the teacher and the teacher walking
around and checking the papers for the formal assessment to see if the students understand
the specific objective.
Independent Practice: The independent practice will consist of the students receiving a
handout for their science notebooks. The handout will consist of a picture of the objects
that they used in order to create shadows. The students will glue the sheet in their notebook
and will write the date of the experiment. The students will then answer the question with
writing a statement to answer the question What makes a shadow? The students will also
draw a line matching the objects to their shadows.
Assessment: The first assessment will be an assessment of participation and listening skills.
A second visual assessment will take place during the whole group activities. There will be a
lot of visual assessments because this is a hands on activity and safety is a major concern.
The teacher will have a visual if the students are using the flashlights correctly to make
different kinds of shadows. The third assessment will be the journal entry that the students
will complete on their own, and will show if they have an understanding of the essential or
focus question, if they can identify the shadows from their experiments. If the student has
written a statement to show the cause of a shadow and has matched the objects and
shadows correctly, then this will show a mastery of the specific objective.
Reflection: The students really loved this lesson, and I feel that it had a lot to do with the
materials that were involved. The FOSS science kits are amazing! All of the materials that I
needed for this lesson were included. The flashlights were really nice, all the batteries were
included, and all of the objects the students used to make shadows were already
individually bagged and read for each set of partners. It made my prep time for the lesson
really short and easy. I feel that if the room would have been darker and there wasnt as
much light coming in from the outside it would have made the lesson a little bit better, but
that was something that I could not prevent. I tried The best I could with pulling the shades
down and keeping them close and having the lights off. The students cooperated nicely and
handled the materials in a safe manner. The students also did well on their journal entries.
They matched the shadows perfectly and a lot wrote in complete sentences to answer the
essential question. Overall, it was a very productive lesson and it was a ton of fun especially
where the lesson took place around Groundhogs day and the class had been learning about
shadows throughout the week.
Bluefield State College
Daily Lesson Plan (Template)

Name: Ashley Folden Date: 02/10/17 and 02/17/17

Subject: Science Topic: Volume, Pitch, and


Distance

Grade: 1st Length of Lesson: Lesson 3


and 4, 2 days with 35 minutes

Introduction (Essential Question): How can we change volume and pitch?


Standard: General Science Content
Cluster: Waves: Light and Sound, Structure and Properties of Matter
Objective:
1st - S.1.GS.1 Students will plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that
vibrating materials can make sounds and that sound can make materials vibrate.
1st S.1.GS.4 Students will use tools and materials to design and build a device that
uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance. *

Specific Objective: Students will conceptualize and demonstrate what volume an d pitch is
as well as how it can be changed to solve the problem of communicating over a long
distance.

Method(s): The lesson will first take place in whole group instruction. There will be a lot of
direct instruction for safety and fun and experimenting in guided practice. There will also
be a formal assessment to see the students knowledge after the lesson has taken place to see
if they understand the essential question and can demonstrate the specific objective.

Materials:
Tone Generator
Aluminum-foil ball
Washer
Jumbo paper clip
Pencil
Sting about 250 cm, 40 cm
Metal spoons
Paper cups
Masking tape
Scissors
Big Book on Sound and Light
Notebook sheet 7, String cup telephones

Direct Instruction: Direct instruction will begin with the teacher reviewing what the
previous science lesson from the previous weeks (sound/vibration, and light/shadows). The
teacher will then tell the students that the days science lesson will be about shadows. The
teacher will write the focus question How do we change volume and pitch, and how can
we use sold to communicate over long distances? on the board. The teacher will then ask
the students what they think of when they hear the words volume and pitch. The teacher
will then explain to the students that volume means how loud or soft a sound is. The
teacher will then ask the students where they have heard the term volume before such as
the TV remote or turning the classroom volume down. The teacher will then introduce
different instruments such as the xylophone and the one string guitar and will play them
for the students and the class will discuss the different volumes they create. The teacher will
discuss what the instruments were doing when they made the sounds, how the sounds were
made loud or soft, and will also review how the sound stops when the vibration stops
because we need vibration to create sounds. The teacher then asks the students again how
we can loud and soft sounds and what the name for having loud and soft sounds is
(volume). The teacher will then introduce the changes in pitch. The teacher will remind the
students of the book fiddles that were made and how there were different sounds. The
teacher will then compare the different pitches one came here from the tone generator. The
teacher will help the students distinguish what sound has a high pitch and what has a low
pitch. The teacher will also cover how there are medium pitches and will use the parts in
choir as an example. The teacher will then discuss with the students how they can make
high and low pitched sounds with things around them. Then teacher will then go over all
the supplies needed for when making the spoon-gong systems and the string-cup
telephones. The teacher will help with the majority of the assembly and will be super hands
on to make sure the students are putting the materials together so that the class will have
the same desired results. The teacher will also read a portion of the big book after the
investigation has been completed to recap the experiments and the lesson learned.

Guided Practice: The guided practice will consist of all the discussions the class will have
about what volume and pitch is as well as how it can be changed, and the types there are.
The guided practice will also consist of creating the spoon-gong systems and the cup-
telephone systems. The spoon-gong is created by poking a hole in the bottom of the cup
with a pencil, pulling a string through, using masking tape for the string to stay in place,
and then tying the metal spoon onto the end. The spoon-gong will demonstrate how sound
is created and how sound travels. The spoon-gongs will be transformed into the cup-
telephones by cutting the spoons off and attaching the two partners cups and strings
together with masking tape. The cup-telephones will demonstrate communication over
distances and how the sound is made and changed between the distances. The class will be
putting these instruments together and will be testing how they work and how they define
volume and pitch, how they can change the volume and pitch, and how they can be used to
communicate over long distances. The class will also be using the proper safety precautions
and will be assembling and dissembling and packing the supplies safely and in the proper
way.

Differentiation: The differentiation for this lesson will be the visual learners seeing how the
materials are constructed. There will also be differentiation in having the auditory leaners
hear the directions, hear the changes in volumes and pitches, be able to hear vibrations and
communications. This is an extremely important lesson for auditory learners. Also, there
will be a ton of learning for the kinesthetic learner through assembling the different
materials for the spoon-gong systems and the cup-telephone systems. The students will need
to use their psychomotor skills in order to complete the investigation.

Lesson Closure: The lesson will close with the teacher reviewing the definitions, causes, and
types of volume and pitch. The teacher will also review how sounds can be used to
communicate over long distances. The lesson will close also by the class reviewing what the
instruments they made did and why they did the things they did, as well as how they could
have been changed and how they can be applied through real life settings. The lesson will
also close by the students performing the independent practice and the teacher and the
teacher walking around and checking the papers for the formal assessment to see if the
students have an understanding of the specific objective.
Independent Practice: The independent practice will consist of the students receiving a
handout for their science notebooks (Notebook sheet 7). The handout will consist of a
picture of cup-telephones that the students made. The students will glue the sheet in their
notebook and will write the date of the experiment. The students will then answer the
question with writing a statement to answer the question How can you communicate over
long distances using sound?
Assessment: The first assessment will be an assessment of participation and listening skills.
A second visual assessment will take place during the whole group activities. There will be a
lot of visual assessments because this is a hands on activity and safety is a major concern.
This will also be an auditory assessment to see if the students are creating the sounds and
performing the communication tasks in order to comply with the specific objective. The
third assessment will be the journal entry that the students will complete on their own, and
will show if they have an understanding of the essential or focus question, if they can
identify how sound can change in volume and pitch and how it can be used to communicate
over long distances. If the student has written a statement to explain how volume and pitch
change, and how sound can be used to solve the problem of communicating over a long
distance then the student has mastered the specific objective.

Reflection: This lesson was originally planned to take place during one class period but
then needed to be taken into two class periods due to other school engagements. The first
setting the students observed the spoon-gong and the class reviewed and discussed the
vocabulary such as volume, sound source, and sound receiver. The students also
demonstrated the spoon-gong in pairs. The first lesson was mainly demonstration and
discussion. With the second lesson the class reviewed the spoon-gong as well as the
vocabulary words. The class then discussed how we can communicate over long distances.
My mentor teacher suggested that we pre-make the cup-telephones because of the time
constraints we had, so that is altered from the lesson but worked out because the cup-
telephones needed a lot of repairs that took a lot of time. The students used the cup-
telephones to communicate over a distance. The only problem with the cup-telephones were
that they were very fragile. The students were told to keep the string tight so that the sound
could be transferred from cup to cup. However, the students often pulled a little too tight
and the string would break free from one of the cups and hand to be re-taped. I think using
better tape and string and stronger cups would have helped, but I used the supplies that the
FOSS system supplied. The students really loved the second lesson and it took practice to
get them to hear the sound from one cup to their partners. I even made enough cup-
telephones for each student to take one home and practice with. The students also needed a
little more help with answering the essential question on their science journal entry so I did
provide them with a scaffolding sentence where they filled in portions such as what we did
and using vocabulary terms to answer the questions.
Bluefield State College
Daily Lesson Plan (Template)

Name: Ashley Folden Date: 02/24/17

Subject: Science Topic: Light and


Mirrors

Grade: 1st Length of Lesson:


Lesson 5, 35 minutes

Introduction (Essential Question): How can we redirect a light beam?


Standard: General Science Content
Cluster: Waves: Light and Sound, Structure and Properties of Matter
Objective:
1st - S.1.GS.2 Students make observations to conduct evident base account that
objects can be seen only when illuminated.
1st - S.1.GS.3 Students will plan and conduct investigation to determine the effect of
placing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light.

Specific Objective: Students will conceptualize and demonstrate what a light beam is and
how something can only be seen when illuminated. The students will also perform an
investigation to prove a mirrors properties and how a light beam can be redirected using
the mirror to change the path of the beam of light.

Method(s): The lesson will first take place in whole group. The class will perform a review
of the three lessons and investigations that have been completed. There will be a lot of
direct instruction for safety and fun and experimenting in guided practice. There will also
be a formal assessment to see the students knowledge after the lesson has taken place to see
if they understand the essential question and can demonstrate the specific objective.

Materials:
Flashlights
Batteries
Mirrors
Mirror Clips
Notebook sheet 11, Mirrors and Light Beams
Direct Instruction: Direct instruction will begin with the teacher reviewing what the
previous science lesson from the previous weeks (sound/vibration, and light/shadows,
changing volume/communicating over a distance). The review will consist of learned
vocabulary words and a discussion of the experiments that have taken place so far, which
will lead into how it relates to the days lesson. The teacher will then tell the students that
the days science lesson will be about reflecting light. The teacher will write the focus
question How can we redirect light beams? on the board. The teacher will then ask the
students what they think of when they hear the word light beam. The teacher will then
explain to the students that the light beam is the stream of light that comes out of an object
such as ow out flashlights produce a light beam, and the teacher will demonstrate what the
light beam looks like. The teacher will then ask the students if they remember talking about
opaque, translucent, and transparent objects. The teacher will demonstrate and go over the
three properties again using the flashlight and the piece of paper, sandwich bag, and wood
block. The teacher will then the mirror to the students and will ask them if the mirror us
an opaque object. The teacher. then explain to the students that the mirror is an opaque
object with a reflective surface. The teacher will then tell the students that we see things
because the surface of objects reflects light. The teacher will then demonstrate how the
light from the flashlight reflects the light off the mirror and will let the students that some
of the light bounces off of the mirror, and when it is reflected it reaches our eyes and we see
the beam of light. The teacher will also discuss the angle of the light that they see and how
the angle changes the shape of the light beam. The teacher will then pass out the mirrors
and the flashlights to the students and will go over the safety rules and consequences. The
teacher will then instruct the students to reflect the light off the mirror to a spot on the
ceiling. The teacher will then give the students a mirror clip and will have them challenged
to redirect the light from the mirror to a book on their desk. The class will then return to
whole group instruction and will discuss the exploration. The teacher will prompt the
students with questions such as how did we direct the light beam, what did the light beam
look like on the ceiling, what else did you observe when you worked with the mirror and
light beam, and what else could you do with light and mirrors. The teacher will then go
over the cause and effects and how the effect of shining the light on a mirror that is face
down on a desk bounces and travels light in another direction. The cause is the mirror. The
teacher will then discuss how the same idea can be made with a natural light source such as
the sun from outside and will use the sun from the classroom windows to redirect a light.
The teacher will then review the whole lesson by going over vocabulary words, and
answering the focus question together How can we redirect a light beam?

Guided Practice: The guided practice will consist of all the discussions the class will have
during the review of the previous lessons and discussing vocabulary and experiments we
have already performed and learned. Also, guided practice will be performing the first
light beam on the ceiling together so that everyone can have a start and an understanding
of how light is reflected. The last guided practice will be using the natural light to reflect
the light beam and discussing how we can use lights from many sources to redirect the
beam. Finally, the guided practice will be discussing the exploration and answering the
focus question and reviewing the vocabulary and what we have learned about light, the
properties of mirrors, and how light can be redirected and reflected.
Differentiation: The differentiation for this lesson will be the visual learners seeing how the
materials are constructed. This is a very visual lesson and students will need one on one
time understanding and seeing the light beams and how they change in order to understand
and perform the investigation. There will also be differentiation in having the auditory
leaners hear the directions. Also, there will be a ton of learning for the kinesthetic learner
through using the flashlights and the mirrors to create the right light beams and reflect and
redirect to surfaces in the right manner. If the student during the assessment has difficulty
answering the essential question for their science journals the teacher will give a scaffolding
prompt I used a _________ to __________ a light beam. The indoor light source was a
_________, and the outside source I saw was the ________. The students may also draw a
picture to show how they used a mirror to redirect light from a flashlight to the ceiling.

Lesson Closure: The lesson will close with the teacher reviewing the definitions,
experiments, and materials to review what it means for light to be redirected and reflected.
The teacher will also review how lights can be redirected to change directions and how it
can be reflected so that we can see it with our eyes. The lesson will close also by the class
reviewing what they saw and how their experiments on their own went. The lesson will also
close by the students performing the independent practice and the teacher and the teacher
walking around and checking the papers for the formal assessment to see if the students
have an understanding of the specific objective.
Independent Practice: The independent practice will consist of the students receiving a
handout for their science notebooks (Notebook sheet 11). The handout will consist of the
essential question How do we redirect a light beam? The students will answer the
question with a complete sentence and then will draw a picture to show how they redirected
a light beam showing the materials they used. If the students are struggling with creating a
sentence the teacher will use a scaffolding sentence prompt.
Assessment: The first assessment will be an assessment of participation and listening skills.
A second visual assessment will take place during the whole group activities. There will be a
lot of visual assessments because this is a hands on activity and safety is a major concern.
The students will have a formal assessment where they will give the teacher a thumbs up if
they saw how the light beam was redirected onto the ceiling. There will also be an interview
assessment where the teacher will walk around and will ask the students questions about
the experiment such as What do you have to do to redirect the light from your flashlight
to the ceiling? What is the shape of the light beam on the ceiling? Does it always have the
same shape? Can you make the shape different? The last assessment will be the students
science journal entry and the teacher will give the students a check if they have drawn a
picture to show how they redirected a light beam. The student will also get a check if they
wrote a complete sentence to answer the essential question How can we redirect a light
beam? In other words, answering what they used to redirect the light beam and what else
they saw that redirected the light beam. The student will only get a check if they have given
a complete sentence. The teacher will be looking for sentences such as I used a flashlight to
redirect a light beam. The indoor source I used was a flashlight and an outdoor source I
saw was the sun.
Reflection: This lesson went fairly well we did have some technical difficulties and there
were some behavior issues within the students. The technical difficulties would include the
fact it was a bright day and I had the shades closed as best as I could but there was still
some light coming in, which made it a little difficult to see the redirected light beams. The
behavior issues dealt with handling the supplies. The students had warnings and after
multiple warnings their supplies were taken away due to safety reasons. Also, the lesson
was rushed due to it being taught at the end of the day. Plus, it took a little longer to set up
the supplies such as getting all the mirrors in the clips and making sure that the clips and
mirrors were setting right and straight. If this lesson were to be taught again there are
some things I would change. Such as maybe taking the students outside to reflect light off
mirrors onto the walls. I also would have taken more time for the students to understand
the definitions of redirect and reflect, and would have taken more time for them to
understand the cause and effect of the light beam where it is reflected and what caused it. I
also would have allotted more time for the students to complete their science journal entry,
and probably would have given them all a scaffolded sentence because this lesson had some
pretty hard content.
Bluefield State College
Daily Lesson Plan (Template)

Name: Ashley Folden Date: 03/03/17

Subject: Science Topic: Post-Test

Grade: 1st Length of Lesson:


Lesson 6, 20 minutes

Introduction (Essential Question): What have we learned about Sound and Light?
Standard: General Science Content
Cluster: Waves: Light and Sound, Structure and Properties of Matter
Objective:
1st - S.1.GS.1 Students will plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that
vibrating materials can make sounds and that sound can make materials vibrate.
1st S.1.GS.2 Students will make observations to construct an evidence-based
account that objects can be seen only when illuminated.
1st- S.1.GS.3 Students will plan and conduct an investigation to determine the effect
of placing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light.
1st S.1.GS.4 Students will use tools and materials to design and build a device that
uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance. *

Specific Objective: Students will complete a post-test to determine the material obtained
from the science unit of Sound and Light. The students will need to score an 8/10 or 80% in
order to show mastery of the content.

Method(s): The lesson will first take place in whole group instruction. All of the students
will be given the post-test to complete which is the questions from the pre-test that have
been reworded, as well as five extra questions to test more vocabulary that should have
been obtained through the lessons.

Materials:
Post-test handout

Direct Instruction: Direct instruction will begin with the teacher reviewing all the lessons
that were taught throughout the unit. The class will review vocabulary terms as well as the
experiments. The teacher will then tell the students that they will take a test on the
knowledge that they have learned through all the science lessons. The teacher will instruct
the students to do the best they can, including spelling to the best of their ability. The
teacher will collect the students tests once they have finished.

Guided Practice: The guided practice will consist of all the students participating in the
review at the beginning of the lesson and the completing the post-test which will wrap up
the entire unit on sound and light.

Differentiation: The differentiation for this lesson will be the variety of questions within the
post-test. There are questions where the students will supply the answer such as fill in the
blank, there are multiple choice questions, as well as yes and no and true false. For the
students who struggle with reading answer choices the teacher will read the questions and
the answer choices aloud. For the students who are above level they may write in complete
sentences, and for the below level students they will be asked to write to the best of their
ability and spelling will not count against them.

Lesson Closure: The lesson will close with the teacher collecting all of the students post-
tests. After the post-test has been completed the teacher will go over the answers with the
students so that they will know to themselves what they have gotten correct and incorrect.
Independent Practice: The independent practice will consist of the students completing the
post-test on their own, which tests their understandings from all of the unit on sound and
light.
Assessment: The assessment will be the students post-tests. The students will receive a
score out of ten since there are ten questions. The scores on the post-test will be compared
to the scores on the pre-test to determine the students improvements from the beginning of
the lesson until the end. The students will need to score an 8/10 or 80% in order to show
mastery of the content.

Reflection: This lesson was simply just the post-test. I changed the pre-test into the post-
test by rewording the questions for 1-5 and then adding five more questions to test their
knowledge on what they have learned from all the lessons. Some of the students seemed to
take the post-test easily, others seemed to have difficulty reading the questions so I read the
questions for them one on one. I wish I would have just kept the original idea of five
questions because I feel having the ten was too much for the first graders to handle. I
probably should have simplified the wording on the questions also. The question I had went
along with the FOSS Science Kit but I still felt the whole test should have be simplified and
in a better format.
TASK 4: Focus Students Template

Identify two focus Rationale for Focus Student 1: The first focus student is a female who typically tests well in all of her content
students with diverse areas, especially in reading. I chose the student because she scored a one out of five on the pre-test and I know
learning needs. Provide with learning the science terminology for the lessons that she has not been exposed to as well as interacting with
your reasoning for the materials and providing the support with the science journals she will show improvement after taking the post-
choosing the 2 test.
students.

Rationale for Focus Student 2: The second focus student is a mail who in all of his other subjects is testing as an
emerging student, or a student who on the border of being on level. This student also scored a one out of five on
the pre-test. I feel that if this student would receive one on one attention and scaffolded sentence structures for
the assessments then the student should be able to show improvement when given the post-test.

Describe what you will Focus Student 1: For the first female focus student I will spend extra amount of time making sure the student
do to differentiate hears the terminology, and will call on her to answer review questions for each lesson. I will also provide her with a
instruction for each scaffolded sentence if needed wen performing the science journal entry. I will also make sure to pair this student
focus student. with a student who scored well on the pre-test so the student will receive extra peer-support during the science
investigations.

Focus Student 2: For the second male focus student I will spend a great deal of one on one time to ensure he
understands the terminology and gets the most benefit from the investigations. I will work one on one with the
student when the student is completing the assessments. Such as helping the student complete the science
journals and giving the student the scaffolded sentence that the teachers guide suggests. I will also pair the
student with a student who did well on the pre-test when doing partner activities to make sure the student is
getting as many benefits from the investigations as possible. I will also use other forms of assessment with this
student such as wen the student is performing the investigation I will observe if they are doing it correctly, and will
then interview or question the student to see if the student is understanding the concept and is getting the most
benefit, and if the student is not I will demonstrate and explain the investigation one on one with him again.
TPA Task 4 Narrative

Factors in Planning

The pre-assessment data influenced the design of my unit mostly due to the fact the students had not been

exposed to any science this year. This being said, the students main difficulties were in understanding the vocabulary that

went along with the pre-assessment questions. If the students did not understand the vocabulary then they would not be

able to understand the reasonings behind the investigations, and would also not be able to complete any other forms of

assessment. I also knew that with previous tasks such as the culture of the area and the culture within the area, I needed

to reinforce and review and do as much work as I possibly could within the classroom. This is due to lack of family

involvement in some of my students home. Most the students do not get assistance with homework, so reviewing and

having extra assessments within the classroom was vital because I needed to be the extra support for the students, plus

reviewing was very vital since I only had the opportunity to teach science once a week due to busy schedule. Also with the

tasks coning the learning goals and standards, a lot of the standards focused on the students understanding and learning

vocabulary as well as the materials that were needed to conduct the investigations. So, when it came time for planning I

needed to ensure vocabulary was introduced, reviewed, and reinforced as much as possible. I also used Ashlock to

reinforce the vocabulary because it is a learning strategy that the students are accustomed to during other content areas.

Another factor that I considered when planning was my materials that were provided. I wanted my students as well as
myself to have the opportunity to use a variety of materials, and thanks to Mercer Countys new FOSS Science

Curriculum I was able to make sure all the students had the supplies we needed in order to complete the investigations.
Consultation
I consulted with my mentor teacher as well as the other first grade teacher, and the Title I teacher to determine

what to teach. We all agreed that Science would be a very beneficial topic for the students because of the lack of them

having it this year due to cramped schedules, plus they also recommend the subject because of the new FOSS kits that

were adopted and all the supplies being included. I also consulted with these teachers about various forms of formative

assessments for my lessons, various ways to present instruction, and the best ways to differentiate instruction for my

focus students.
Instructional Strategies
With the learning goals I had with this unit a lot of the instructional strategies correlated with each other. My first

learning goal dealt with the students learning and demonstrating how vibration is the cause of sound. The instructional

strategies that were used with this first learning goal would include academic vocabulary and language, cooperative

learning, direct instruction, hands-on learning, and note taking because of the formal assessment of the science journal

entry. My second learning goal was for the students to understand how we can only see objects when illuminated, as well

as how the light can be redirected and reflected in various angles. The instructional strategies that correlate with the

second learning goal would include academic vocabulary and language, cooperative learning, flexible grouping, formal

assessments, hands-on learning, modeling, reciprocal teaching, and note taking, as well as interviewing. My third learning

goal demonstrated students understanding of how placing objects within the beams of lights will cause effects such as
being opaque, translucent, transparent, and creating shadows. The instructional strategies to go along with the third

learning goal would include academic vocabulary and language, cooperative learning, effective questioning, flexible

grouping, hands-on learning, generating and testing hypothesis, modeling, collaboration, and journaling. My fourth and

final learning goal was based on the students demonstrating and understanding how we can use sound to communicate

over long distances. The instructional strategies that correlate with the fourth learning goal includes academic vocabulary

and language, direct instruction, flexible grouping, generating and testing hypothesis, hands-on learning, modeling, realia,

and journaling.
Instructional Strategy/Rationale
With each learning goal that was set the instructional strategies that correlate with them are alike because of the subject of

science is a very hands-on learning content with lots of direction instruction, modeling, testing hypothesis, learning academic

language, as well as journaling was has been learned with each investigation. With evidence, all of the learning goals and

instructional strategies come from support of the psychomotor approach to learning. The psychomotor approach to learning is

physical learning where the students are learning by doing. With each learning goal the students are using a wide range of materials

to demonstrate sounds and to see various conditions of light. Also, with psychomotor the students are manipulating the materials to

suit their needs, and then articulating what they have learned through the instructional strategy of journaling or note taking.
Learning Resources
The learning resources that I used for this unit is all due to the FOSS Science Curriculum that Mercer Count Schools has

adopted. With the FOSS Science Curriculum, all the learning resources such as the books to read, the hand-outs and assessments

to give to students, as well as the supplies to perform the investigations are included and are separated for each unit. Anything and

everything I needed was included. For my lessons dealing with sound all the cups, rubber bands, strings, tongue depressors, metal
spoons, and tuning forks were provided. For the lessons, I had dealing with light the flashlights, batteries, individual packaged

household item kits to make shadows were already prepared, and mirrors. All I had to do was go to the drawer for the Sound and

Light unit and it was there ready to go. With each investigation in the teachers manual it broke down each material I would need for

each student and would give directions on ow to assemble all the materials. I chose this subject, unit, and the materials so that the

students would have the opportunity to have hands on learning and for the visual learners to see the different forms of light and for

the auditory learners to hear where sound comes from and ow they can use sound in different ways such as communication. Having

everything provided and set up made the lesson preparations as well as the lessons run smoothly.
Differentiated Instruction
To differentiate instruction for the two focus students as well as for other students who will benefit from differentiation I will

provide one on one support, scaffolding aides, and peer remediation. For my two focus students, I will be sure to work one on one

with them to make sure they are performing and using the materials for the investigations properly as well as questioning and

reviewing with them as they go to be sure they are understanding the concepts. I will also pair them with wit students who are above

level and wo performed well on the pre-assessments as extra support in performing and understanding the investigations. When it

comes time for the journaling portion of the lessons I will provide scaffolded sentence structures that the FOSS teaching guide

suggests with each journal entry essential question. I will also provide support by spelling and writing vocabulary words and any

other words the students may need in order to complete a full journal entry, and to demonstrate a full understanding of the concept

for the assessments. I feel a lot of the first-grade students would benefit from having scaffolded sentences to answer the essential

questions in the journal entries because they are still learning to write and form complete sentences, and I want to be sure that they
are understanding how to answer the question as well as the main concept of the lesson, and the important academic language such

as vocabulary that the will need to know for the final post-assessment.

Resources
Instructional Strategies List. (2015, July). Retrieved February 19, 2017, from

http://www.washoeschools.net/cms/lib08/NV01912265/Centricity/Domain/228/Instructional%20Strategies%20List%

20July%202015.pdf
Learning Domains - Student Life Learning & Assessment | Emporia State University. (n.d.). Retrieved February 19, 2017,

from https://www.emporia.edu/studentlife/learning-and-assessment/guide/domains.html
Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives for Science in West Virginia State Schools. (n.d.). Retrieved February

19, 2017, from https://apps.sos.wv.gov/adlaw/csr/readfile.aspx?DocId=26574&Format=PDF


Psychomotor Domain. (n.d.). Retrieved February 19, 2017, from http://thepeakperformancecenter.com/educational-

learning/learning/process/domains-of-learning/psychomotor-domain/
Williams, Ms. (n.d.). Mentor Teacher Interview with Ms. Williams [Interview by A. Folden].
TPA Task 5

Date: 01/27/17

Length of Lesson: Lesson 1 35 minutes


Reflection: This lesson is the best lesson I have taught this far! I absolutely loved the science

kits that Mercer County has adopted. The books are easy to use as well as pick and choose. All

the supplies as well as books and videos are included in the kits. The experiments for this

lesson were simple and the supplies were very minimal. The Pre-Test that I gave for this lesson

which began the unit was difficult for the students to understand. A lot of them got flustered

because it was a test and they did not know the answers. I assured them that it wasnt for a

grade and that I was just seeing what they knew in order for us to learn and get a great grade

on the next one. The students worries went away when it was time for the experiments. The

students handled the materials very well and were all active participants. The students

followed along with instructions and repeated what I said as well as asked and answered

questions as well as give more information that I hadnt even thought about discussing. The

students are really eager to do another science lesson and to keep moving on with this unit
and so am I. The only thing that I would change about this lesson would be to incorporate

more of the supplies such as the sound cards and some of the other experiments that were

included in this investigation. After grading the pre-tests all the students did not do as well,

which was expected because the students have not been experienced to any lessons with

science.

Date: 02/3/17

Length of Lesson: Lesson 2 35 minutes


Reflection: The students really loved this lesson, and I feel that it had a lot to do with the

materials that were involved. The FOSS science kits are amazing! All of the materials that I

needed for this lesson were included. The flashlights were really nice, all the batteries were

included, and all of the objects the students used to make shadows were already individually

bagged and read for each set of partners. It made my prep time for the lesson really short and

easy. I feel that if the room would have been darker and there wasnt as much light coming in

from the outside it would have made the lesson a little bit better, but that was something that

I could not prevent. I tried the best I could with pulling the shades down and keeping them

close and having the lights off. The students cooperated nicely and handled the materials in a

safe manner. The students also did well on their journal entries. They matched the shadows
perfectly and a lot wrote in complete sentences to answer the essential question. Overall, it

was a very productive lesson and it was a ton of fun especially where the lesson took place

around Groundhogs day and the class had been learning about shadows throughout the week.

Date: 02/10/17 and 02/17/17 Length of Lesson:

Lesson 3 and 4, 2 days with 35 minutes


Reflection: This lesson was originally planned to take place during one class period but then

needed to be taken into two class periods due to other school engagements. The first setting

the students observed the spoon-gong and the class reviewed and discussed the vocabulary

such as volume, sound source, and sound receiver. The students also demonstrated the spoon-

gong in pairs. The first lesson was mainly demonstration and discussion. With the second

lesson the class reviewed the spoon-gong as well as the vocabulary words. The class then

discussed how we can communicate over long distances. My mentor teacher suggested that

we pre-make the cup-telephones because of the time constraints we had, so that is altered

from the lesson but worked out because the cup-telephones needed a lot of repairs that took a

lot of time. The students used the cup-telephones to communicate over a distance. The only

problem with the cup-telephones were that they were very fragile. The students were told to

keep the string tight so that the sound could be transferred from cup to cup. However, the
students often pulled a little too tight and the string would break free from one of the cups

and hand to be re-taped. I think using better tape and string and stronger cups would have

helped, but I used the supplies that the FOSS system supplied. The students really loved the

second lesson and it took practice to get them to hear the sound from one cup to their

partners. I even made enough cup-telephones for each student to take one home and practice

with. The students also needed a little more help with answering the essential question on

their science journal entry so I did provide them with a scaffolding sentence where they filled

in portions such as what we did and using vocabulary terms to answer the questions.

Date: 02/24/17

Length of Lesson: Lesson 5, 35 minutes


Reflection: This lesson went fairly well we did have some technical difficulties and there were

some behavior issues within the students. The technical difficulties would include the fact it

was a really bright day and I had the shades closed as best as I could but there was still some

light coming in, which made it a little difficult to see the redirected light beams. The behavior

issues dealt with handling the supplies. The students had warnings and after multiple

warnings their supplies were taken away due to safety reasons. Also, the lesson was rushed
due to it being taught at the end of the day. Plus, it took a little longer to set up the supplies

such as getting all the mirrors in the clips and making sure that the clips and mirrors were

setting right and straight. If this lesson were to be taught again there are some things I would

change. Such as maybe taking the students outside to reflect light off mirrors onto the walls. I

also would have taken more time for the students to understand the definitions of redirect and

reflect, and would have taken more time for them to understand the cause and effect of the

light beam where it is reflected and what caused it. I also would have allotted more time for

the students to complete their science journal entry, and probably would have given them all a

scaffolded sentence because this lesson had some pretty hard content.

Date: 03/03/17

Subject: Science

Length of Lesson: Lesson 6, 20 minutes


Reflection: This lesson was simply just the post-test. I changed the pre-test into the post-test

by rewording the questions for 1-5 and then adding five more questions to test their

knowledge on what they have learned from all the lessons. Some of the students seemed to

take the post-test easily, others seemed to have difficulty reading the questions so I read the
questions for them one on one. I wish I would have just kept the original idea of five questions

because I feel having the ten was too much for the first graders to handle. I probably should

have simplified the wording on the questions also. The question I had went along with the

FOSS Science Kit but I still felt the whole test should have be simplified and in a better format.

Verification of permission to video and Video Link

For the Verification of permission to video the students I asked my mentor teacher if all

the students had permission to be photographed and filled. She informed me that they all

gave permission to be photographed and filmed, and that the forms are signed at the

beginning of the year and they are filed. I did not have access to those records.
The video was segmented into three sections, and are brought together using YouTube.

There are slides to demonstrate what each portion of the video represents. The link to the

video is as follows: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ac_tCPlZaWM

Narrative Describing and Analyzing the Video Clips


The video clips that were taken and combined into one video were recorded on different

days. The lessons that are within the video deal with the part of the unit involving sound. The

video process was a tad difficult and some problems arose such as sickness, recording being

started and stopped at unknown times due to the videographer, and office interruptions.

However, those difficulties are also a result of a realistic classroom setting. Within the fifteen-

minute video, there are three video clips with slides to distinguish and label their content. The

first video clip which is at the time of 0.04 to 10:14 demonstrates the introduction of the

lesson and the students engagement. I chose this video because of the review at the
beginning and the opportunities students had to get up and be involved in the demonstration.

At the beginning of each lesson, there was a review of the previously learned lesson, and I

would also stress the importance of vocabulary or the use of academic language. I chose for

the students to sit on the carpet near the board and me standing because that is where the

students are used to receiving instruction for reading and I was able to see all of the students

and have their attention. It also allowed for me to keep parts of the instruction separate such

as the delivery and the students performing the investigations. The second video clip is timed

at 10:16 through 12:23. The second video demonstrates the delivery of content and the use of

questioning strategies to reinforce the students understanding of the material. I used

questioning throughout the unit as a form of formative assessment, and for a review so when

the students are to take the post-test they will feel more prepared and the outcome of the

post-test will be greater than it was on the pretest. The third video clip demonstrates the

lesson close and is timed from 12:23-15:00. When closing the lesson, I always reviewed what

was learned through the investigation, and the closure led to the students assessment that

they performed with every lesson which is their science journal entries. When organizing

materials for the lesson I would have all the materials ready for the students and set aside,

ready to be passed out when the students returned to their seats. I would also allow for the
students to be participants in handing out the materials. As far the routines in the classroom

and with the lessons, they always began on the carpet where we would review and the new

lesson would be discussed, then when it came time for the students to perform the

investigation they would return to their seats and would be partnered up or by themselves,

then the lesson closure would include the students putting their materials in a pile to be

collected and then performing their science journals in their science notebooks. Behavior

management came through when needed during the lessons, such as when a student

interrupted or when students were not using materials properly, or when students needed to

be reminded to take turns. Questioning strategies and academic vocabulary were used

through the lessons and videos, I would have students repeat the vocabulary and then answer

questions to reinforce the material we were going over. I would also always review because

there was a great amount of time between the lessons. Overall, videoing the lessons was not

an easy task because one can never know what will happen in the realistic setting. The

students had a wonderful time as did I, and they are a great group of students whose behavior

makes doing fun lessons easy and makes learning the content more proficient. They strive to

do their best which makes the assessment checks easy and a great learning tool for them,

videoing them and going through this unit was a great learning experience for us all.
Resources
Next Generation Content Standards and Objectives for Science in West Virginia State Schools. (n.d.).

Retrieved February 19, 2017, from https://apps.sos.wv.gov/adlaw/csr/readfile.aspx?

DocId=26574&Format=PDF
Williams, Ms. (n.d.). Mentor Teacher Interview with Ms. Williams [Interview by A. Folden].

YouTube. (n.d.). Retrieved February 26, 2017


Task 6

Whole Class Performance


12

11

10

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Pre-Assessment Post-Assessment

The focus students are displayed in the chart as students 8 and 9. The pre-test
and the post-test were the same questions except the post-test questions were
reworded. The pre-test and the post-test represented all four learning goals.
The post-test did include five additional questions, however, the first five were
used to compare to the original pre-test questions to compare results from the
pre-assessment to the post-assessment.
Second Focus Student (Student 8 in Whole Group Performance and Male)

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Pre-Assessment Post-Assessment
TASK 6: Impact on Student Learning Template

Students Pre- Post-Assessment Gain GOALS MET? Comments


Assessment + or - (See #2)
#1 #2 #3 #4

Y N Y N Y N Y N

1. Student 1 40 100 +60 X X X X

2. Student 2 40 100 +60 X X X X

3. Student 3 40 100 +60 X X X X

4. Student 4 40 100 +60 X X X X

5. Student 5 40 100 +60 X X X X

6. Student 6 40 100 +60 X X X X

7. Student 7 20 100 +80 X X X X This student


typically tests
very well. I was
surprised by his
pre-test score.
However, this
student worked
hard to improve
and be involved
and I was very
pleased with their
post-test
assessment
8. Student 8 20 80 +60 X X X X This student is a
focus student,
and his post-test
assessment
score is due to
excessive illness.

9. Student 9 20 100 +80 X X X X

10. Student 10 40 100 +60 X X X X This student is


very high
achieving. Their
pre-test
responses were
very close to the
preferred
responses, and
their post-test
score reflected
their
improvement in
answering the
correct and
preferred
responses.

11. Student 11 40 100 +60 X X X X I was very


pleased with this
students post-
test score.
Especially since
the student had
excessive
absences due to
illness and a
death in the
family.

12. Student 12 0 0 0 X X X X This student was


not tested due to
being include in
special
education, and
was a participant
in another
classroom during
the times of the
lessons and
assessments.
Narrative

a. Analyze the performance of the whole class on the pre-assessment on each learning goal.
For the pre-assessment, one pre-test was given to test the students basic understandings about light and

sound. Within the pre-test each of the four learning goals were assessed. The first set of learning goals were

assessed with questions one and two, and dealt with the concept of the cause of sound and what a pitch is in

science relating to sound. Of the students who were test, excluding the special needs student who was not

test, the results of the students performance on the first two questions and the first learning goal were split.

All eleven students who were tested missed the first question on the pre-test, and on the second question

with the first learning goal only four of the students answered it correctly. So, the whole group of students

being tested did not master the first set of learning goals. However, I do feel the ones who answered correctly

for question two, used their previous knowledge from their music resource about what pitch is. The second set

of learning goals were assessed in the pre-test using question five, which referred to objects that radiate light.

The results of this question and learning goal on the pre-test for the second set of learning goals were a little

better than that of the first learning goals. Six of the students who were tested answered question five

correctly, and the remaining five students who were tested answered the question incorrectly. So, more about

half of the students understood an object that radiates light, and the other students responses were close.

Next, the third set of learning goals assessed in the pre-test were represented in question four. With question
four and this learning goal students were accessed on how light shines through objects, such as if something

is transparent one can see through it. The students were given a fifty-fifty chance for getting a correct answer

for this question because it was true/false. The results of this question and the pre-assessment of this

learning goal was eight students answering it correctly, and three students answering incorrectly. However, it

is questionable whether the student knew the correct answer or they guessed and chose the correct answer

where there were only two answer choices. Finally, the fourth set of learning goals were represented in the

pre-assessment using question three on the pre-test. Question three on the pre-test was a short answer

question which completed the definition for volume, which assessed the learning goal of sound. The results of

this question on the pre-test went as expected, with all the students answering the question incorrectly or

leaving the space blank. This was due to the fact the students hadnt been exposed to the vocabulary word

volume in that context. Overall, with all four learning goals being assessed using a five-question pre-test the

students performed as expected. Eight out of the twelve first graders answered two out of five questions

correctly, three of the students answered one out of five correctly, and then one student who receives special

education remediation and was not in the room of the time of the assessments or lessons was not assessed.
b. Analyze the performance of the whole class on the post-assessment on each learning goal.
The post-assessment was given in the same format as the pre-assessment, in the form of a post test. The

post-test however had the same five questions just reworded, and then five additional questions just for

review. The first five questions were used for the comparison between the pre-assessment and the post-

assessment, which also means all four of the learning goals were tested and analyzed. Since the same
questions were used the learning goals that matches with each question are the same as the ones listed for

the pre-assessment. The first set of learning goals were represented through questions one and two on the

post test. The results of these first two questions were improved from the pre-test that was given. All students

except for one answered the two questions correctly. The one student missed question two and their response

was the same as what they had chosen for the pre-test. These results show that most of the students

mastered the first learning goals. The second set of learning goals were represented in the post-test through

question five. All the students who were tested answered question five correctly. This demonstrates the

students understand what radiates light, and that they also remembered the materials that were used and

demonstrated in the lessons. Next, the third set of learning goals were represented trough question four on

the post test. All the students answered question four correctly which shows they understand how light is

shown through various objects. Finally, the fourth set of learning goals were represented on the post-test

through question three. This was a very difficult question for the students during the pre-test because the

answer was an unfamiliar vocabulary word that they had to supply the answer to the sentence. During the

pre-test all of the students answered this question incorrectly, and for the post-test all the students answered

the question correctly. This was a major improvement, and was probably due to vocabulary from each lesson

being reviewed before the new lesson was taught, and the word volume was used trough the days to give

meaning and examples to the word. Such as saying turn down the volume your volume is to loud, etc.

Overall, to analyze the performance of all the learning goals for the post-assessment the students received
mastery on all of them. Ten of the eleven students tested received a hundred on the five questions that were

compared to the pre-test questions, and they also answered the additional five questions correctly making the

total score for the full post-test a hundred. The eleventh student who was tested missed one out of the five

questions that was compared to the pre-test questions, which made for an eighty percent which is considered

mastery. However, the student also missed two of the additional five questions which made for a seventy

percent which is ten percent below mastery. The twelfth student was not tested due to being in special

education. In conclusion, the full analyze was very pleasing and the clear majority of the students received

full mastery on all four of the learning goals.


c. Report how many students met or did not meet the learning goals and analyze the progress

(changes in performance) of the whole class from the pre-assessment to the post-assessment?
Most the students met all the learning goals. One student, who was a focus student, met the learning goals

when comparing the same set of questions on the pre-assessment and the post-assessment. However, if the

additional five questions are added in the student would be lacking mastery of the learning objectives by an

additional ten percent or the first, second and third learning goals since a question was made for each

learning goal. All the students made a tremendous progress in their performance from the pre-assessment to

the post-assessment. During the pre-assessment, the students were missing most of the same questions,

some were varied, but pretty much all of them received a failing scored of two out of five or forty percent.

Three of the students did a little worse with one out of five or twenty percent. However, during the post-

assessment the students scores sky rocketed and all the students but one made a perfect score on their post-
test. Even the student who did not make a perfect score made major improvement since they came from a

one out of five to a four out of five, or a twenty percent to an eighty percent. Overall, Im extremely proud of

the progress they made from the pre-assessment to the post-assessment and I feel they have retained a lot of

the information from the lessons that were based on their learning goals, and they also had a blast doing it.
d. Describe and analyze the circumstances/conditions that you could control, that contributed to the

successful or unsuccessful achievement of the whole class.


When analyzing the circumstances/conditions that I could control that contributed to the successful

achievement of the whole class the answers vary. I feel that the circumstances/conditions that contributed to

the whole class having successful achievement would include having a class with mostly higher level

students, being in a split grade I feel also helped because I used the second-grade students to help the first-

grade students perform investigations and answer questions, and lastly I feel my mentor teacher was major

factor in the success of the whole group with her helping to give additional examples, feedback, and an extra

set of hands to work one on one with students to ensure they were performing the tasks and the formative

assessments correctly. I also feel have the control to create my own pre-assessment and post-assessment

helped in the overall success of the students because I gave the students the right amount of questions they

could handle, and worded the questions in a way and format they could understand.

Focus Student Narratives

a. Describe differentiation specific to each focus student on the pre- and post-assessments.
The two focus students that were chosen out of the twelve first graders are represent in the whole group

graph as students eight and nine. Student eight is the male student and student nine is the female student.

There was more differentiation given to the male focus student eight then there was to female student nine.

The female focus student nine was capable to read all the test for the pre-assessment and post-assessment

on their own, and typical tests very well in all her other subjects and progress monitoring. I did assist her

when asked for help such as spelling things and being able to understand what the questions were asking.

With the male focus student eight I did more differentiation for the pre- and post-assessments. I read each

question to the student at eye level and one on one. I also promoted the student with examples from

investigations and activities that were done in class. I also assisted tis student in spelling answers. I also

reviewed with the two focus students before taking the post-assessment, which was just a recap of the

vocabulary terms, there meanings, examples of the word in real-life setting, and then going through the

investigations that were performed in class from week to week.


b. Analyze and reflect on focus students performance from pre- to post-assessment.
I was pleased with the performance of the focus students from pre- to post-assessment. The two focus

students were challenged during the pre-assessment; they were frustrated and upset because they did not

know what the questions were asking and how to answer them. However, I feel they felt more confident

during the post-assessment which also reflected in their post-assessment grade. The male focus student eight

increased quite a bit from getting a one out of five on the pre-test, and then receiving a four out of five on the

post-test. The second female focus student nine did well and exactly as I expected. She went from having a
score of one out of five on the pre-test to a score of five out of five on the post-test. The female focus student

nine also was very engaged and cooperative in the investigations that took place in-between the time of the

pre- and post-assessment. Overall, I feel both focus students made a big difference from the pre-assessment

to the post-assessment considering their own circumstance. Both students worked hard to achieve their

scores and reaching mastery of the learning objectives, while also learning and retaining new-found

knowledge on sound and light.


c. Describe and analyze the circumstances/conditions that contributed to the successful or

unsuccessful achievement of the focus students.


Both focus students were successful, however, there were some circumstances/conditions that did effect

their overall achievement of the learning goals. The male focus student eight had the circumstance/conditions

of being sick and being absent a numerous amount of time which reflected in his post-assessment score not

being as high as what it could have if the student were present and engaged in all the investigations. I also

feel that focus student eight does not test very well which under the circumstances of being a tested

assessment may have affected his performance. The second female focus student was very successful and

the only circumstance/conditions that may could have or may affect her performance in the future would be

her behavior and learning to focus and to slow down and do her best. Despite the focus students

circumstances/conditions they both were successful in their own way and I am very pleased with how they

performed and how they interacted when being asked, while also enjoying the whole unit and process.
Task 7
1. Insights on Teaching and Learning
When deciding what unit to teach for the TPA it was a hard decision. I wanted to step outside of my comfort

zone and teach something the students had not been introduced to, and something that they would also be

engaged and enjoy. That is why I chose the subject of science. The students had not had any science lessons

in the school year before I came, and choosing this subject gave me the opportunity to give them a new

experience and to also cover standards that they will need to meet and understand by the end of the school

year. The topic I chose for the science unit was sound and light. After giving a pre-assessment, engaging the
students in investigations and formative assessment, and then finally a post assessment I feel that the overall

unit was successful. I feel the most successful part of teaching this unit would include planning, using the

teaching method of modeling or demonstration, and student engagement. Planning was a successful element

of this unit, because I planned lessons and broke them down into different segments to best fit the learning

goals. I also planned in accordance to holidays and other subjects. Such as teaching about shadows and light

during the week of Ground Hogs Day which was a sign of incorporation. I feel that using the teaching method

of modeling or demonstration was probably the most successful element with this unit, because the unit was

based on science and with science investigations and the use of materials need to be demonstrated. I was

sure to model or demonstrate before every investigation, which made the investigations run safely and

smoothly. Engaging the student was also a major successful element of this unit because with science and the

investigations we performed the students were hands on and interested in how the materials worked and how

various items were affected by sound light. I could engage the students to use a wide range of materials, and

to also keep them motivated wit hands on learning. Student engagement was also shown through using all

the various types of learners. Such as doing investigations with sound where the students could hear how

sound is stopped, where it comes from and how it is received. Also, kinesthetic learners were learning through

using different object and materials to make shadows and to create items to make sounds. Visual learners

were also incorporated into student engagement with the students being able to see the various forms of light

through different objects and to see how shadows are created and altered, and how light can be reflected and
redirected. I feel most the unit was successful, however, there was one part of the unit that I feel is the least

successful. The part of the unit that I feel was the least successful would be assessment. I feel that

assessment was the least successful part of the unit because my pre-test and my post-test were probably not

long enough and I needed more of a variety of questions to get better analyzed results. I also feel that with

assessment I did well with formative assessments such as hand up or interviews, but I should have assessed

better when it came to the journal entries. I also wish there were not as many time constraints for the

students to complete and take their time on the journal entries, which I should have stopped the

investigations sooner so that they would have enough time to complete the assessment. Overall, the insights

that I have from teaching and learning would be a mixture of both good and bad or successful and

unsuccessful. There are a lot of things I feel I did correctly, and there are a lot of things that I wish I could

change. Planning, teaching, and assessing the unit has been a great learning process and I now know what I

need to improve on and abilities I am strong in.


2. Professional Collaborative Practice
Thus, far in my student teaching experience I feel very fortunate to have had so many opportunities to

collaborate not only with my mentor teacher but also with the fellow teachers in the building, the Title I

specialist, as well as members from the Mercer County Board of Education, and other professionals such as

the representative for STAR testing. Every Monday I was present for the collaboration sessions that the

teachers have after school. There is also an agenda for these meetings, and a lot of the focus for these

meetings have been on how to improve on teaching and focusing on our standards and how to prepare
students for progress monitoring and testing. I also stayed on for a collaboration on a Wednesday when the

students were released early. This collaboration also included a training for accelerated reader and was given

by my mentor teacher Ms. Williams. I also set through meeting with members from Mercer County Board of

Education such as the Super Intendent and other supervisors. They came and discussed the new grading

policy that were distributed to the schools in the state and how we can improve our grade and what

interventions needed to take place to help the students meet benchmark, the standards, and be prepared and

better test takers. I also had a very rare and wonderful opportunity to sit through a collaboration with the

representative for STAR testing, where she went through all the progress monitoring charts and graphs that

are available to teachers and she also spoke about when to progress monitor and the correct benchmark that

teachers should be striving for, and things that teachers can do in their classroom to help the students test

better and when the best times to take tests are. Another major collaboration I had the opportunity to be a

part of was a collaboration with supervisors from the board office who came and graphed data with the

teachers to see what standards the students are excelling in and what standards need to be addressed as a

class and with individual students. The supervisors also helped dives and action plan on how to meet these

standards for the students to reach benchmark and help them with their progress monitoring skills. I also

collaborated with the Title I professional for lessons and assessments with my walk to intervention group, as

well as collaborating with Ms. Williams my mentor teacher with every lesson and assessment I gave daily. I

used all the collaborations and feedback from all the professionals I worked with to have a better
understanding on how to plan, assess, and engage the students. I also gave feedback to the professionals

about how I felt the students were doing and lesson ideas that I have seen and done in other observations

that they may implement in their own classrooms. I feel that my overall collaboration experience during my

student teaching experience thus far has been incredible. I feel more prepared then when I started and Im

continuing this process of feeling prepared and absorbing as much information as I can from the incredible

professionals I am working with, so that I can be as great as they are at teaching and collaborating.
3. Implications for Future Teaching
When reflecting on the personal and professional knowledge, skills, and dispositions that I have acquired the

professional knowledge I feel I need to improve would be the consideration of the depth of content knowledge

I need to effectively disseminate information to a diverse set of students. I was very fortunate to be in a split

classroom where most the students were at higher levels academically, there were not many behavior

problems, and not many accommodations. I feel I need improvement in my professional knowledge on how to

read an interpret IEPs and 504s, as well as any other behavior interventions, pull out services, as well as

terminology to help the diverse students I will encounter. I feel I have a basic understanding of these

concepts, however I want to gain more professional knowledge on how to manage them in a classroom, how

to interpret and recommend students for the services they may need, and how to manage having a diverse

group of these students all in one classroom. I feel this is a very critical skill I need to know, do, and believe

to become an effective teacher.

4. Professional Growth
I feel I have grown from teaching this unit and through my first student teaching placement. I feel that I

handled situations on my feet well and that I learned to concise my lesson plans so that I can understand and

follow them. I also feel I learned a wide range of new skills such as furthering my Ashlock trainings, and

learning new materials and strategies that will have the students more engaged and having different forms of

assessment. I feel the wide range of profession development opportunities I had such as the data analysis

collaboration and the STAR testing collaboration has helped me to have a better understanding on how to

focus on teaching the standards and how to help the students to strive towards benchmark and what to do if a

student needs remediation or to be referred for the evaluation process for special services. I feel that I have

learned and absorbed a great deal of new skills and knowledge but there are goals I have set to improve and

guide my teaching and professional growth for the years to come. These goals include becoming a better

planner and finding the right style of planning to ensure my standards are being met and the students are

being assessed properly. I also would like to improve my skills on setting up stations and working in small

groups. In addition, I hope to improve my knowledge on what to expect from students and how to evaluate

them. I also want to work on learning wat to grade and ow to keep up with grades. Another goal I have set is

ow to communicate with parents whether it be for positive reasons or for intervention. Furthermore, I also

need to improve on classroom management and how to handle students with disruptive behaviors, and how I

need to be stern, fair, yet be loving and encouraging. Overall, I feel my professional growth will need to take

time and I will need to learn from experience as I go. I know that I will be calling on other professional
teachers to collaborate and to seek advice. My professional journey is just beginning and I know there will be

times of frustration and confusion, but I am so looking forward to this incredible opportunity to touch lives and

make a difference in young minds so that they one day will make a difference in future generations to come.